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EB - EC - ÉCHANTILLON - ÉCHELLE - ED - EFFET - EG - EJ - ÉMOTION - EM - EN - ENS - ENT - EP - EQ - ER - ES - ET - EU - EX - EYSENK
Eagly Alice H. (1938-) : Psychosociologue et féministe américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude du genre, des rôles sociaux, des attitudes et des différences sexuelles. Elle s'intéresse également au leadership. Collaboratrice de Albarracin, Baron, Chaiken, Rose, Stroebe, Stroebe et Wood.
EAGLY, A.H. (1983). Gender and social influence : A social psychological analysis. American Psychologist, 38 (9), 971-981. [PDF]
EAGLY, A.H. & STEFFEN, V.J. (1986). Gender and aggressive behavior : A meta-analytic review of the social psychological literature. Psychologica Bulletin, 100 (3), 309-330. [PDF]
EAGLY, A.H. & WOOD, W. (1999). The origins of sex differences in human behavior : Evolved dispositions versus social roles. American Psychologist, 54, 408-423. [PDF]
EAGLY, A.H. & CARLI, L.L. (2003). The female leadership advantage : An evaluation of the evidence. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 807-834. [PDF]
EAGLY, A.H., EATON, A., ROSE, S.M., RIGER S. & McUGH, M. (2012), Feminism and Psychology : Analysis of a half-century of research on women and gender. American Psychologist, 67, 211-230. [PDF]
Ear & Hearing : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de l'ouïe et de la compréhension des sons. Éditeur : Wolters Kluwer.
LUCE, P.A. & PISONI, D.B. (1998). Recognizing spoken words : The neighborhood activation model. Ear & Hearing, 19, 1-36. [PDF]

Earls Christopher M. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste québécois et professeur à l'Université de Montréal. Ses travaux portent sur l'agression sexuelle et la prostitution. Collaborateur de Marshall et Quinsey.

EARLS, C.M. & PROULX, J. (1986). The differentiation of francophone rapists and non-rapists using penile circumference measures. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 13 (4), 419-429.
EARLS, C.M., QUINSEY, V.L. & CASTONGUAY, L.-G. (1987). A comparison of three methods of scoring penile circumference changes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 493-500.
EARLS, C.M. & DAVID, H. (1989). Male and female prostitution : A review. Annals of Sex Research, 2, 5-28.
CASTONGUAY, L.G. et EARLS, C. (2005). La délinquance sexuelle : techniques d'intervention béhavioriste. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 10 (2), 41-58.
EARLS, C.M. & LALUMIÈRE, M.L. (2009). A case study of preferential bestiality. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38 (4), 605-609. [PDF]
Early Child Development & Care : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude du développement des enfants. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
SHARPLEY, C.F. & RODD, J. (1985). The effects of real versus hypothetical stimuli upon preschool children's helping behavior. Early Child Development & Care, 22, 303-313.

Early Childhood Education Journal : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des enfants. Éditeur : Springer.
NIFFENEGGER, J.P. & WILLER, D.R. (1998). Friendship behaviors during early childhood and beyond. Early Childhood Education Journal, 26 (2), 95-99.

Early Childhood Research Quarterly : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des enfants. Éditeur : Springer.
SUGGATE, S.P., SCHAUGNENCY, E.A. & REESE, E. (2013). Children learning to read later catch up to children reading earlier. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 28, 33-48. [PDF]

Eating & Weight Disorders : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des troubles alimentaires. Éditeur : Elsevier.
GIDDINNG, T.C. & MILTENBERGER, R.G. (2010). Evaluation of a functional treatment for binge eating associated with bulimia nervosa. Eating & Weight Disorders, 15, 100-107.

Eating Behaviors : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des troubles alimentaires. Éditeur : Elsevier.
LIEBERMAN, M., GAUVIN, L., BUKOWSI, W.M. & WHITE, D.R. (2001). Interpersonal influence and disordered eating behaviors in adolescent girls : The role of peer modeling, social reinforcement, and body-related teasing. Eating Behaviors, 2 (3), 215-236.

Eating Disorders : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des troubles alimentaires. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
VITOUSEK, K.M. & STUMPF, R.E. (2005). Difficulties in the assessment of personality traits and disorders in eating-disordered individuals. Eating disorders, 13 (1), 37-60.

Eaton William W. ( ) : Psychiatre et épidémiologiste américain.
EATON, W.W. (1987). The epidemiology of schizophrenia. Epidemiologic Reviews, 7, 105-126.
EATON, W.W. & KEYL, P. (1990). Risk factors for the onset of Diagnostic Interview Schedule/DSM-III agoraphobia in a prospective, population-based study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 819-824.
EATON, W.W., ANTHONY, J.C., MANDELL, W.M. & GARRISON, R.A. (1990). Occupations and the prevalence of major depressive disorder. Journal of Occupational Medicine, 32, 1079-1087.
EATON, W.W. MORTENSEN, P.B. & FRYDENBERG, M. (2000). Obstetric factors, urbanization, and psychosis. Schizophrenia Research, 43, 117-123.
EATON, W.W. & HARRISON, R.A (2001). Life chances, life planning, and schizophrenia : a review and interpretation of research on social deprivation. International Journal of Mental Health, 30, 58-81.
Eau : En psychologie, on se sert de l'eau, sous forme de jet appliqué sur la tempe, pour punir positivement les comportemements d'automutilation chez les enfants. Avec les animaux, on utilse l'eau pour renforcer positivement certains comportements. Eau, boire et privation. Water.

  MAGOUN, H.W., FISHER, C. & RANSON, S.W. (1939). The neurohypophysis and water exchange in the monkey. Endocrinology, 25, 161-174.  
STELLAR, E. & HILL, J.H. (1952). The rats rate of drinking as a function of water deprivation. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 45 (1), 96-102. OSBORNE, J.G., BAGGS A.W., DARVISH, R., BLAKELOCK H., PEINE, H. & JENSON, W.R. (1992). Cyclical self-injurious behavior, contingent water mist treatment, and the possibility of rapid-cycling bipolar disorder. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 23 (4), 325-334.
JENKINS, H.M. & MOORE, B.R. (1973). The form of the auto-shaped response with food or water reinforcers. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (2), 163-181. [PDF]  
DOMJAN, M. (1976). Determinants of the enhancement of flavored-water intake by prior exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 2, 17-27.  
DORSEY, M.F., IWATA, B.A., ONG, P. & McSWEEN, T.E. (1980). Treatment of self-injurious behavior using a water mist : initial response suppression and generalization. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13 (2), 343-353. [PDF] CASE, D.A., NICHOLS, P. & FANTINO, E. (1995). Pigeons' preference for variable-interval water reinforcement under widely varied water budgets. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64 (3), 299-311. [PDF]
GELLER, E.S., ERICKSON, J.B. & BUTTRAM, B.A. (1983). Attempts to promote residential water conservation with educational, behavioral, and engineering strategies. Population & Environment : Behavior & Social Issues, 6, 96-112.  
BAILEY, S.L., POKRZYWINSKI, J. & BRYANT, L.E. (1983). Using water mist to reduce self-injurious and stereotypic behavior. Applied Research in Mental Retardation, 4 (3), 229-241. ARNTZEN, E. & WERNER, S.B. (1999). Water mist punishment for two classes of problem behaviour. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 28 (2), 88-93.
SINGH, N.N., WATSON, J.E. & WINTON, A.S. (1986). Treating self-injury : water mist spray versus facial screening or forced arm exercise. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19 (4), 403-410. [PDF] GREEN, L. & ESTLE, S.J. (2003). Preference reversals with food and water reinforcers in rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 79 (2), 233-242. [PDF]
ROJAHN, J. & McGONIGLE, J.J. (1987). Suppression of pica by water mist and aromatic ammonia : A comparative analysis. Behavior Modification, 11 (1), 65-74.  
Voir aussi Nourriture
Eaves Lindon J. ( ) : Psychiatre et généticien américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des déterminants biogénétiques des croyances et de la ferveur religieuses. Professeur de Hatemi. Collaborateur de Eysenk, Heath, Kendler et Kessler.
EAVES, L.J. (1972). The multivariate analysis of certain genotype-environment interactions. Behavior Genetics, 2, 241-244
EAVES, L.J. & EYSENK, H.J. (1974). Genetics and the development of social attitudes. Nature, 249, 288-289.
EAVES, L.J. (1977). Inferring the causes of human variation. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 140 (3), 324-55.
EAVES, L.J., MARTIN, N.G. & HEATH, A.G. (1990). Religious affiliation in twins and their parents : Testing a model of cultural inheritance. Behavior Genetics, 20 (1), 1-22.
EAVES. L.J. & HATEMI, P.K. (2008). Transmission of attitudes toward abortion and gay rights : Parental socialization or parental mate selection ? Behavior Genetics, 38, 247-256. [PDF]
Ebbinghaus Hermann (Barmen aujourd'hui Wuppertal/Bonn 1850-1909 Halle) : Psychologue structuraliste allemand. Co-fondateur avec Stumpf de l'Institut de psychologie de l'Université de Berlin en 1886. Il fut le premier psychologue à utiliser la méthode expérimentale et les syllabes non-sens pour étudier la rétention et la mémoire. Professeur de Stern.
EBBINGHAUS, H. (1885/1913/1965/2011). Memory : A contribution to experimental psychology. New York : Dover. / New York : Columbia University. La mémoire. Recherches de psychologie expérimentale, Edition L'Harmattan. [LIRE]
EBBINGHAUS, H.(1902). Grundzüge der Psychologic. Leipzig, Germany : von Veit.
EBBINGHAUS, H. (1908/1973). Psychology : An elementary textbook. New York : Arno Press.
 
WOODWORTH, R.S. (1909). Hermann Ebbinghaus. The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology & Scientific Methods, 6, 253-256
POSTMAN, L. (1965). Hermann Ebbinghaus. American Psychologist, 23, 149-157.
TULVING, E. (1985). Ebbinghaus's memory : What did he learn and remember ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 11 (3), 480-484. [PDF]
ROEDIGER, H.L. (1985). Remembering Ebbinghaus. Contemporary Psychology, 30, 519- 523. [PDF]
WERTHEIMER, M. (1986). The annals of the house that Ebbinghaus built. In F. Klix & H. Hagendorf (Eds.), Human memory and cognitive capacities : mechanisms and performance. (pp. 35-43). Amsterdam : Elsevier Science.
FUCHS, A.H. (1997). Ebbinghaus's contributions to psychology after 1885. American Journal of Psychology, 110, 621-633.
WOZNIAK, R.H. (1999). Memory/Hermann Ebbinghaus (1885/1913). In Classics in Psychology, 1855-1914 : Historical Essays. Bristol, UK : Thoemmes Press. [LIRE]
ECCLES - ÉCHANTILLON - ÉCHANTILLONNAGE - ÉCHAPPEMENT - ÉCHEC - ÉCHELLE - ÉCOLE - ÉCOLOGIE - ÉCONOMIE - ÉCRIRE - ED
Écart : Distance ou différence entre deux choses. = inégalité, asymétrie. /Identité.

Type d'écart
Écart entre les sexes Écart entre les cultures Écart entre les tailles
Écart entre les individus  
 
Écart-type (S) : En statistique, mesure de dispersion développée par Pearsons, et qui consiste en la racine carré de la variance. Cette mesure évalue l'écart-moyen entre chaque résultat d'une distribution et la moyenne de cette distribution. Standard deviation.
 
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Eccles
John Carew Eccles Jacquelynne S. Eccles
 
Eccles John Carew (Melbourne 1903-1997 Locarno Suisse) : Neurophysiologiste, neurocognitiviste et épistémologue australien et ardent défenseur du dualisme interactioniste (ou structuraliste). Il s'est notamment intéressé au fonctionnement de la synapse. Il a également proposé une solution mentaliste au problème de la relation entre le corps et l'esprit (mind body problem). Lauréat du prix Nobel de médecine en 1963 pour ses travaux sur les mécanismes ioniques impliqués dans l'excitation et l'inhibition des portions périphérique et centrale de la membrane cellulaire des nerfs (avec Hodgkin). Finalement, on lui doit la formulation de la loi du tout ou rien. Étudiant de Sherrington. Collaborateur de Popper.
ECCLES, J.C. (1959). Excitatory and inhibitory synaptic action. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 81, 247-264.
ECCLES, J.C. (1964). The physiology of synapses. Berlin : Springer.
POPPER, K.R. & ECCLES, J. (1977). The self and its brain : Argument for interactionism. Berlin : Springer-Verlag.
ECCLES, J.C. (1990). A unitary hypothesis of mind-brain interaction in the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences, 240 (1299), 433-451.
ECCLES, J.C. (1994). How the self controls its brain. New York : Springer-Verlag.
 
WATSON, D.E. & WILLIAMS, B.O. (2003). Eccles' model of the self controlling its brain : The irrelevance of dualist-interactionism. NeuroQuantology, 1, 119-128. [PDF] + [PDF]
Eccles Jacquelynne S. (1944-) : Psychosociologue américaine, spécialisée en éducation, et plus particulièrement dans l'étude de la motivation scolaire. Elle s'intéresse également aux différences sexuelles. Collaboratrice de Larson, Madon et Wigfield.
ECCLES, J.S., WIGFIELD, A., MIDGLEY, C. & ADLER, T.F. (1984). Grade-related changes in the school environment : Effects on achievement motivation. In J.G. Nicholls (Ed.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 3, pp. 283-331). Greenwich, CT : JAI Press.
ECCLES, J.S., JACOBS, J.E. & HAROLD, R.D. (1990). Gender role stereotypes, expectancy effects, and parents' socialization of gender differences. Journal of Social Issues, 46, 183-201. [PDF]
ECCLES, J.S. & HAROLD, R.D. (1991). Gender differences in sport involvement : Applying the Eccles' expectancy-value model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3, 7-35. [PDF]
ECCLES, J.S (1999). The development of children ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children, 9 (2), 30-44. [PDF]
ECCLES, J.S. & WIGFIELD, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, and goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-32. [PDF]
Échantillon : Fraction de la population à l'étude, choisie ou non de manière aléatoire afin de participer à une recherche. Le procédé ou la technique qui permet de constituer un échantillon se nomme échantillonnage. On peut diviser l'échantillon en groupe, qui seront soumis aux différents niveau de la variable indépendante manipulée. = fraction. /recensement. Sample.

Type d'échantillon
Échantillons appariés Échantillon représentatif Petit échantillon
Échantillons indépendants  
 

  WALD, A. & WOLFOWITZ, J. (1940). On a test whether two samples are from the same population. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 11 (2), 147-162. SIMONTON, D.K. (1999). Significant samples : The psychological study of eminent individuals. Psychological Methods, 4 (4), 425-451.
SCHEFFÉ, H. & TUKEY, J.W. (1944). A formula for sample sizes for population tolerance limits. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 15, 217. LEHMANN, E.L. (1999). Elements of large-sample theory. New York : Springer.
FESTINGER, L. (1959). Sampling and related problems in research methodology. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 64, 358-366.  MacCALLUM, R.C., WIDAMAN, K.F., ZHANG, S. & HONG, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 2 (3), 84-99.
YATES, F. (1960). Sampling methods for censuses and surveys. London : Griffin. LEE, C.W., TAYLOR, G. & DUNN, J. (1999). Factor structure of the schema questionnaire in a large clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 23, 441-451.
KRAEMER, H.C. & THIEMANN, S. (1987). How many subjects ? Statistical power analysis in research. Newbury Park, CA : Sage Publications. MAXWELL, S.E. (2000). Sample size and multiple regression analysis. Psychological Methods, 5 (4), 434-458.
DESU, M.M. & RAGHAVARAO, D. (1990). Sample size methodology. Boston : Academic Press. LENTH, R.V. (2001). Some practical guidelines for effective sample size determination. The American Statistician, 55, 187-193.
PIRES, A. (1997). Échantillonnage et recherche qualitative : essai théorique et méthodologique. Dans J. Poupart, J.P. Deslauriers, L.H. Groulx, A, Laperrière, R. Mayer et A. Pires, A. (Dirs.), La recherche qualitative. Enjeux épistémologiques et méthodologiques (p. 113-167). Montréal : Gaëtan Morin. VAUGHN, B.E., VOLLENWEIDER, M., BOST, K.K., AZRIA-EVANS, M.R. & SNIDER, J.B. (2003). Negative interactions and social competence for preschool children in two samples : Reconsidering the interpretation of aggressive behavior for young children. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly : Journal of Developmental Psychology, 49 (3), 245-278.
  HENRICH, J., HEINE, S.J. & NORENZAYAN, A. (2010). The weirdest people in the world ? Behavioral & Brain Science, 33, 61-135. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Population et Échantillonnage
Échantillon (Petit) : Petit échantillon, validité externe et puissance d'un test. Small sample.

  FISHER, R.A. (1921). On the probable error of a coefficient of correlation deduced from a small sample. Metron, 1, 3-32.
TUKEY, J.W. (1958). Bias and confidence in not-quite large samples. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 29 (2), 614.
KRAEMER, H.C. & THIEMANN, S. (1987). How many subjects ? Statistical power analysis in research. Newbury Park, CA : Sage Publications.
DOCHTERMANN, N.A. & JENKINS, S.H. (2011). Multivariate methods and small sample sizes. Ethology, 117 (2), 95-101. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillon (Sous...) : Fraction d'un échantillon qui sera traitée comme un regroupement lors de l'analyse statistique, après la recherche. = groupe de sujets formé après la recherche.

  SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillon (Taille d'un...) : Sample sizes.

  SCHEFFÉ, H. & TUKEY, J.W. (1944). A formula for sample sizes for population tolerance limits. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 15, 217. MORSE, D.T. (1998). Minsize: A computer program forobtaining minimum sample size as an indicator of effect size. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 58, 142-153.
KREJCIE, R.V. & MORGAN, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 30 (3), 607-610.  MacCALLUM, R.C., WIDAMAN, K.F., ZHANG, S. & HONG, S. (1999). Sample size in factor analysis. Psychological Methods, 2 (3), 84-99.
 OLEJNIK, S.F. (1984). Planning educational research : Determining the necessary sample size. Journal of Experimental Education 53, 40-48. MAXWELL, S.E. (2000). Sample size and multiple regression analysis. Psychological Methods, 5 (4), 434-458.
KRAEMER, H.C. & THIEMANN, S. (1987). How many subjects ? Statistical power analysis in research. Newbury Park, CA : Sage Publications. LENTH, R.V. (2001). Some practical guidelines for effective sample size determination. The American Statistician, 55 (3), 187-193.
DESU, M.M. & RAGHAVARAO, D. (1990). Sample size methodology. Boston : Academic Press. IACOBUCCI, D. (2010). Structural equations modeling: Fit indices, sample size, and advanced topics. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20 (1), 90-98. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillons appariés : Opération qui consiste à former des paires de sujets/participants qui se ressemblent le plus possible, afin de réduire les fluctuations naturelles de l'échantillonnage. Ces paires de sujets sont ensuite mesurées et comparées entre elles; si une différence est observée, elle pourra être attribuée à la variable indépendante. Le cas idéal, qui permet de réduire au minimum les différences entre les paires, consiste à mesurer deux fois le même sujet et à comparer ensuite ce sujet à lui-même, chaque mesure constituant ainsi un échantillon. Échantillons appariés et groupe à mesures répétées.

  SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillon auto-sélectionné : Self-selecting sample.

   STELLMACK, M.A. (2013). Attenders versus slackers : A classroom demonstration of quasi-experimentation and self-selecting samples. Teaching of Psychology, 40, 238-241.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillon clinique : Échantillon et population clinique. Clinical sample.

  LEE, C.W., TAYLOR, G. & DUNN, J. (1999). Factor structure of the schema questionnaire in a large clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 23, 441-451. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillons indépendants : Voir Groupes indépendants.
Échantillon représentatif : Dans une recherche scientifique, se dit d'un échantillon qui conserve les caractéristiques ou les propriétés de la population, tant sur le plan de sa composition (proportion des caractéristiques) que de sa complexité (nombre des caractéristiques). En principe, seule la sélection au hasard des sujets garantit un haut degré de représentativité de l'échantillon. Cependant, le hasard fait mieux les choses lorsque le nombre de sujets de l'échantillon est grand. Faut-il le rappeler la représentativité n'a rien à voir avec le nombre de sujets/participants d'une recherche. Ce nombre a par contre un effet important sur la puissance des tests statistiques choisis pour analyser les données. La représentativité est un élément important de l'inférence statistique qui permet au chercheur de généraliser les résultats de sa recherche à l'ensemble de la population à l'étude. = échantillon aléatoire, fraction représentative. Representative sampling, representativeness, representative community sample, representativeness of survey response.

EXEMPLE D'UN ÉCHANTILLON REPRÉSENTATIF
 
Population à l'étude   Échantillon de la recherche
Caractéristique 1 Caractéristique 3  
   
Caractéristique 2 Caractéristique 4    
 
 
 
EXEMPLE D'UN ÉCHANTILLON NON-REPRÉSENTATIF
 
Population à l'étude   Échantillon de la recherche
Caractéristique 1 Caractéristique 3  
   
Caractéristique 2 Caractéristique 4    
 


  KRUSKAL, W. & MOSTELLER, F. (1979). Representative sampling I. Non-scientific literature. International Statistical Review, 47, 13-24. LAURENCELLE, L. (2005). La représentativité d'un échantillon et son test par le Khi-deux. Lettres Statistiques, 12, 131-146.
KRUSKAL, W. & MOSTELLER, F. (1979). Representative sampling II. Scientific literature, excluding statistics. International Statistical Review, 47, 111-122. JULIEN, D. et CHARTRAND, E. (2005). Recension des études utilisant un échantillon représentatif de population sur la santé des personnes gaies, lesbiennes et bisexuelles. Psychologie Canadienne/Canadian Psychology, 46, 235-250.
KRUSKAL, W. & MOSTELLER, F. (1979). Representative sampling III. The current statistical literature. International Statistical Review, 47, 245-265. SAVOIE-ZAJC, L. (2007). Comment peut-on construire un échantillonnage scientifiquement valide ? Recherches Qualitives, 5 (S), 99-111. [PDF]
  BETHELEMEN, J., COBBEN, F. & SCHOUTEN, B. (2008). Indicators for the representativeness of survey response. Proceedings of Statistics Canada Symposium. [PDF]
  STROUD, L.R., PASTER, R.L., GOODWIN, M.S., SHENASSA, E., BUKA, S., NIAURA, R., ROSENBLITH, J.F. & LIPSITT, L.P. (2009). Maternal smoking during pregnancy and neonatal behavior : A representative community sample. Pediatrics, 123, 842-848. [PDF]
KRUSKAL, W. & MOSTELLER, F. (1988). Representative sampling. In S. Kotz & N.L. Johnson (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Statistical Sciences (Vol. 8, pp. 77-81). New York : Wiley. BLASIUS, J. & BRANDT, M. (2010). Representativeness in online surveys through stratified samples. Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 107, 5-21. [PDF]
Voir aussi Représentativité, Échantillon, Inférence et Biais d'échantillonnage
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Échantillonnage/Échantillonner : En méthodologie, opération qui consiste à choisir. Il peut s'agir de sujet ou de participants, de comportements ou d'éléments d'un contenu écrit ou visuel. Sampling.

Échantillonnage
De sujets/participants De comportement De contenu
 
Échantillonnage/Échantillonner (des sujets/participants) : En méthodologie, opération qui consiste à choisir un nombre x d'individus au sein d'une population afin de les étudier. À moins d'observer ou de questionner tous les individus d'une population (= recensement), cette étape est nécessaire à toute recherche. Les éléments de la population à l'étude sont d'abord choisis selon un ensemble de critères. S'il s'agit d'humains, les individus retenus sont ensuite sollicités pour participer à la recherche. S'ils acceptent, ils feront alors partis de l'échantillon. = sélection des sujets, technique d'échantillonnage, procédure d'échantillonnage. /recensement. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Sampling, sampling technique, sampling method, sampling survey..
Étapes de l'échantillonnage des participants
1 Fixer les critères de sélection
2 Choisir des individus au hasard ou non
3 Solliciter ces individus
4 Obtenir leur consentement
5 Constituer l'échantillon et former les groupes, au hasard ou non
6 Conserver les échantillons/groupes formés jusqu'à la fin de la recherche


Types d'échantillonnage
Échantillonnages probabilistes = hasard Échantillonnages non-probabilistes
Échantillonnage aléatoire simple Échantillonnage accidentel
Échantillonnage systématique Échantillonnage systématique
Échantillonnage par strates Échantillonnage par quotas
Échantillonnage par grappes Échantillonnage par grappes
Échantillonage multi-niveaux Échantillonage multi-niveaux
Échantillonnage par volontaires Échantillonnage par choix raisonné
  Échantillonnage par la bande
 

  COX, D.R. (1952). Estimation by double sampling. Biometrika, 39, 217-227. DESU, M.M. & RAGHAVARAO, D. (1990). Sample size methodology. Boston : Academic Press.
COCHRAN, W.G. (1953/77). Sampling techniques. Wiley. [LIRE] BEAUD, J.P. (1993). L'échantillonnage. Dans B. Gauthier (Dir.), Recherche sociale (p. 195-226). St-Foy : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
STEPHAN, F.F., et McCARTHY, P.J. (1958). Sampling opinions. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  
YATES, F. (1960). Sampling methods for censuses and surveys. London : Griffin. PIRÈS, A.P. (1997). Échantillonnage et recherche qualitative: essai théorique et méthodologique. Dans J. Poupart, J.-P. Deslauriers, L.- H. Groulx, A. Laperrière, P. Mayer & A.P. PirèS (Dirs.), La recherche qualitative : Enjeux épistémologiques et méthodologiques (p.113- 172). Boucherville : G. Morin.
KISH, L. (1965). Survey sampling. New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. AUSTER, C.J. (2000). Probability sampling and inferential statistics : an interactive exercise using M & M'S. Teaching Sociology, 28, 379-385.
ROYALL, R.M. (1968). An old approach to finite population sampling. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 63, 1269-1279.  
SUDMAN, S. (1973). The uses of telephone directories for survey sampling. Journal of Marketing Research, 10, 204-207.  
WAKSBERG, J. (1978). Sampling methods for random digit dialing. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 73, 40-46.  
TREMBLAY, V. (1981). La sélection dans le bottins téléphoniques: ampleur et conséquences de la non-inscription. Montréal, Centre de sondage, Université de Montréal. BART, J. & EARNST, S. (2002). Double sampling to estimate density and population trends in birds. The Auk, 119 (1), 36-45. [PDF]
LEGENDRE, P., LEGENDRE, L. & FRONTIER, S. (1984). Stratégie d'échantillonnage en écologie. Masson-PUQ. SAVOIE-ZAJC, L. (2007). Comment peut-on construire un échantillonnage scientifiquement valide ? Recherches Qualitives, 5 (S), 99-111. [PDF]
KRAEMER, H.C. & THIEMANN, S. (1987). How many subjects ? Statistical power analysis in research. Newbury Park, CA : Sage Publications. BEAUD, J.P. (2009). L'échantillonnage. Dans B. Gauthier (Dir.), Recherche sociale; de la problématique à la collecte des données (p. 251-284). Sillery, Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
  RAO, J.N.K. & FULLER, W.A. (2017). Sample survey theory and methods: Past, present, and future directions. Survey Methodology, 43 (2), 145-160. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage, Échantillon et Validité externe
Échantillonnage (Observation des comportements par...) : Observation des comportements (ou d'autres unités d'observation) au moment chosis par le chercheur. Sampling method.

Échantillonnages des comportements
Selon le moment Selon la situation Selon le moment et la situation
 

  BINDRA, D. & BLOND, J. (1958). A time-sample method for measuring general activity and its components. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 12, 74-76. LEHNER, P.N. (1979). Handbook of ethological methods. Cambrige : Cambrige University Press.
ALTMANN, J. (1974). Observational study of behaviour : Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-267. [PDF] ARY, D. & SUEN, H.K. (1983). The use of momentary time sampling to assess both frequency and duration of behavior. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 5, 143-150.
THOMSON, C., HOLMBERG, M. & BAER, D.M. (1974). A brief report on a comparison of time-sampling procedures. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 7 (4), 623-626. [PDF] BRITTLE, R.A. & REPP, A.C. (1984). An investigation of the accuracy of momentary time sampling procedures with time series data. British Journal of Psychology, 75, 481-488.
POWELL, J., MARTINDALE, A. & KULP, S. (1975). An evaluation of time-sample measures of behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8 (4), 463-469. [PDF]  
SIMPSON, M.J.A. & SIMPSON, A.E. (1977). One-zero and scan methods for sampling behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 25, 726-731. WIRTH, O., SLAVEN, J. & TAYLOR, M. (2014). Interval sampling methods and measurement error : A computer simulation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47 (1), 83-10.
BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Observation directe du comportement. M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la démarche scientifique (p. 277-310). Saint-Hyacinthe : Edisem. Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillonnage accidentel : Procédure d'échantillonnage qui consiste à choisir les sujets à l'aveuglette, sans critère précis. = échantillonnage de commodité, échantillonnage à l'aveuglette, échantillonnage du premier venu. Opportunity sampling, convenience sample.
  Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillonnage aléatoire simple (EAS) : Ensemble de procédures l'échantillonnage qui se fonde sur le hasard. Dans ce type d'échantillonnage, tous les individus de la population ont une probabilité connues, généralement égale, et non-nulle de faire partie de l'échantillon. Simple random sampling.
  COCHRAN, W.G. (1977). Sampling techniques. Wiley.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échantillonnage, Échantillon et Hasard
Échantillonnage de volontaires : Procédure d'échantillonnage qui consiste à choisir des individus qui acceptent de participerà une recherche à la suite d'une demande en ce sens, formulée privément (téléphone, poste, etc.) ou publiquement (petites annonces, message à la radio ou sur Internet, etc.). Volunteer sampling, volunteer panel
  ROSEN, E. (1951). Differences between volunteers and non-volunteers for psychological studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 185-193. PIEDMONT, R.L., McCRAE, R.R., RIEMANN R. & ANGLEITNER, A. (2000). On the invalidity of validity scales : Evidence from self-reports and observer ratings in volunteer samples. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78, 582-593. [PDF]
CARR, J.E. & WHITTENBAUGH, J.A. (1968). Volunteer and nonvolunteer characteristics 1 in an outpatient population Journal of Abnormal Psychology 73 (1), 16-17. [PDF]  
ROSNOW, R.L. & ROSENTHAL, R. (1969). volunteer subject. In R. Rosenthal & R.L. Rosnow (Eds), Artifact in behavioral research (pp. 59-118). New York : Academic Press.  
ROSNOW, R.L., ROSENTHAL, R., MCCONOCHIE, R.W. & ARMS, R.L. (1969). Volunteer effects on experimental outcomes. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 29, 825-846.  
ROSNOW, R.L. & ROSENTHAL, R. (1970). Volunteer effects in behavioral research. In K.H. Craik (Ed.), New directions in psychology 4 (pp. 211- 277). New York : Holt, Rinehart & Winston. LEE, S. & VALLIANT, R. (2009). Estimation for volunteer panel Web surveys using propensity score adjustment and calibration adjustment. Sociological Methods & Research, 37 (3), 319-343. [PDF]
ROSNOW, R.L. & ROSENTHAL, R. (1976). The volunteer subject revisited. Australian Journal of Psychology, 28, 97-108.  
LYKKEN, D.T., TELLEGEN, A. & DERUBEIS, R. (1978). Volunteer bias in twin research : The rule of two-thirds. Social Biology, 25, 1-9.  
Voir aussi Biais du volontaire et Échantillon
Échantillonnage multi-niveaux : Échantillonage par étapes, qui fait parfois appel à diverses procédures, et dont l'objectif est de sélectionner des ensembles, puis des sous-ensembles, et finalement les éléments qui feront l'objet de la recherche. EX: Choisir, au hasard de préférence, quelques provinces (1er niveau), puis un certain nombre de villes parmi ces quelques provinces (2e niveau) et, enfin, plusieurs habitants de ces villes (3e niveau). = procédure d'échantillonnage à plusieurs phases, échantillonnage multi-phases, échantillonnage par étapes. Multistage sample, multilevel sample..
  SHAO, J. & RAO, J.N.K. (1993). Standard errors for low income proportions estimated from stratified multistage samples. Sankhya, Ser. B, 55, 393-414.
NIGAM, A.K. & RAO, J.N.K. (1996). On balanced bootstrap for stratified multistage samples. Statistica Sinica, 6, 199-214.
RABE-ESKETH, S. & SKRONDAL, A. (2006). Multilevel modeling of complex survey data. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society-Series A, 169, 805-827.
ASPAROUHOV, T. (2006). General multi-level modeling with sampling weights. Communications in statistics. Theory & methods, 35(3), 439-460.
CARLE, A.C. (2009). Fitting multilevel models in complex survey data with design weights : Recommendations. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 9 [49], 1-13.
Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillonnage non-probabiliste : Ensemble de procédures l'échantillonnage qui ne se fonde pas sur le hasard. Dans ce type d'échantillonnage, tous les individus de la population n'ont pas une probabilité connue, égale ou non-nulle de faire partie de l'échantillon. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Non-random sampling, non-probability samples.
Échantillonnages non-probabilistes
Échantillonnage accidentel Échantillonnage par grappes Échantillonnage par choix raisonné
Échantillonnage systématique Échantillonage multi-niveaux Échantillonnage par la bande
Échantillonnage par quotas Échantillonnage non probabiliste par Internet  
 

  EDGINGTON, E.S.N. (1966). Statistical inference and nonrandom samples. Psychological Bulletin, 66, 485-487.
SMITH, T. M. F. (1983). On the validity of inferences from non-random samples. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society – Series A (General), 146 (4), 394-403.
YEAGER, D.S., KROSNICK, J.A., CHANG, L., JAVITZ, H.S., LEVENDUSKY, M.S., SIMPSER, A. & WANG, R. (2011). Comparing the accuracy of RDD telephone surveys and Internet surveys conducted with probability and non-probability samples. Public Opinion Quarterly, 75 (4), 709-747. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillonnage non probabiliste par Internet : Voir Sondage par internet.
Échantillonnage par choix raisonnés : Procédure d'échantillonage qui consiste à choisir des sujets parce que l'on croit qu'ils feront de bons sujets ou qu'ils sont susceptibles de confirmer nos hypothèses. = échantillonnage au jugé, échantillonnage à choix raisonnés, échantillonnage opportuniste, échantillonnage raisonné. Purposive selection.
  NEYMAN, J. (1934). On the two different aspects of the representative method : the method of stratified sampling and the method of purposive selection. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 97 (4), 558-606. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillonnage par grappes : Cluster sampling.
  Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillonnage par la bande : Procédure d'échantillonage non-probabiliste utilisée lorsque les participants d'une recherche sont difficiles à recruter (prostitué-e-s, criminels, toxicomanes, président-e- d'entreprise, vedettes, etc.). La procédure, en deux temps, consiste d'abord à approcher des gens qui connaissent les sujets potentiels de manière à obtenir leur collaboration pour convaincre ces sujets difficiles à recruter de participer à la recherche. = échantillonnage par référence. Snowball sampling, referral samples.

  Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Échantillon
Échantillonnage par quotas : Échantillonage non-probabiliste qui consiste à former des sous-groupes de sujets/participants égaux ou quasi-égaux (= les quotas) afin d'obtenir des groupes équivalents et ainsi neutraliser l'effet de certains variables parasites. Quota sampling.
  SUDMAN, S. (1966). Probability sampling with quotas. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 61, 749-771.
STEPHENSON, C.B. (1979). Probability sampling with quotas : An experiment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 43 (4), 477-496.
MARCH, C. & SCARBOROUGH, E. (1990). Testing nine hypotheses about quota sampling. Journal of the Market Research Society, 32 (4), 485-506.
DEVILLE, J.C. (1991). A theory of quota surveys. Survey Methodology, 17, 163-181.
Voir aussi Échantillon
Échantillonnage probabiliste : Ensemble de procédures l'échantillonnage qui se fonde sur le hasard. = échantillonnage aléatoire, échantillonnage au hasard. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Random sampling, probability sampling
Échantillonnages probabilistes
Échantillonnage aléatoire simple Échantillonnage par grappes Échantillonage multi-niveaux
Échantillonnage systématique Échantillonnage par strates Échantillonnage par volontaires
 

  SUDMAN, S. (1973). The uses of telephone directories for survey sampling. Journal of Marketing Research, 10, 204-207.
TULL, D.S. & ALBAUM, G.S. (1977). Bias in random digit dialed surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly, 41, 389-395.
WAKSBERG, J. (1978). Sampling methods for random digit dialing. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 73, 40-46.
STEPHENSON, C.B. (1979). Probability sampling with quotas : An experiment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 43 (4), 477-496.
AUSTER, C.J. (2000). Probability sampling and inferential statistics : an interactive exercise using M & M'S. Teaching Sociology, 28, 379-385.
YEAGER, D.S., KROSNICK, J.A., CHANG, L., JAVITZ, H.S., LEVENDUSKY, M.S., SIMPSER, A. & WANG, R. (2011). Comparing the accuracy of RDD telephone surveys and Internet surveys conducted with probability and non-probability samples. Public Opinion Quarterly, 75 (4), 709-747. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échantillon
Échantillonnage par strates : = échantillonnage stratifié. Stratified simple.
  NEYMAN, J. (1934). On the two different aspects of the representative method: the method of stratified sampling and the method of purposive selection. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 97 (4), 558-606. [PDF]
SHAO, J. & RAO, J.N.K. (1993). Standard errors for low income proportions estimated from stratified multistage samples. Sankhya, Ser. B, 55, 393-414.
RAO, J.N.K. & SHAO, J. (1996). On balanced half-sample variance estimation in stratified random sampling. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 91, 343-348.
BLASIUS, J. & BRANDT, M. (2010). Representativeness in online surveys through stratified samples. Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 107, 5-21. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échantillon
Échantillonnage systématique : = échantillonnage par intervalles. Systematic sampling.
  Voir aussi Échantillon
Échantillonnage temporel : Observation des comportements/unité observation au moment chosis par le chercheur. Cette période d'observation peut-être continue, divisisée en intervalle ou fixée au hasard. Time-sampling.

Échantillonnage temporel/Critère
Continu par intervalles Au hasard
 

  THOMSON, C., HOLMBERG, M. & BAER, D.M. (1974). A brief report on a comparison of time-sampling procedures. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 7 (4), 623-626. [PDF]
POWELL, J., MARTINDALE, A. & KULP, S. (1975). An evaluation of time-sample measures of behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8 (4), 463-469. [PDF]
ARY, D. & SUEN, H.K. (1983). The use of momentary time sampling to assess both frequency and duration of behavior. Journal of Behavioral Assessment, 5, 143-150.
BRITTLE, R.A. & REPP, A.C. (1984). An investigation of the accuracy of momentary time sampling procedures with time series data. British Journal of Psychology, 75, 481-488.
WIRTH, O., SLAVEN, J. & TAYLOR, M. (2014). Interval sampling methods and measurement error: A computer simulation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47 (1), 83-10.
Voir aussi Échantillon
Échappement (comportement d') : Réponse opérante de l'organisme qui met fin à une situation aversive. Techniquement, l'échappement est un comportement renforcé négativement. Échappement, navette d'évitement et décharge électrique. *évitement. = comportement d'échappement. Escape behavior, escape responding, escape learning.

  SCHOENFELD, W.N. (1950). An experimental approach to anxiety, escape, and avoidance behavior. In P.H. Hoch & J. Zubin (Eds.), Anxiety (pp. 70-99). New York : Grune & Stratton. DOMJAN, M. & ROWELL, J.W. (1969). Discrimination between escapable and inescapable shock. Psychological Reports, 24, 111-114.
KAPLAN, M. (1956). The maintenance of escape behavior under fixed-ratio reinforcement. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 49, 153-157. INCE, L.P. (1969). Escape and avoidance conditioning of responses in the plegic arm of stroke patients : A preliminary study. Psychonomic Science, 16, 49-50.
DINSMOOR, J.A., HUGHES L.H. & MATSUOKA, Y. (1958). Escape-from-shock training in a free-response situation. American Journal of Psychology, 71 (2), 325-337. HINELINE, P.N. & RACHLIN, H. (1969). Notes on fixed-ratio and fixed-interval escape responding in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (3), 397-401. [PDF]
DINSMOOR, J.A., MATSUOKA, Y. & WINOGRAD, E. (1958). Bar-holding as a preparatory response in escape-from-shock training. Journal of Comparative Physiology & Psychology, 51 (5), 637-639. BOLLES, R.C. (1969). Avoidance and escape learning : Simultaneous acquisition of different responses. Journal of comparative Psychology & Physiology, 68, 355-358.
DINSMOOR, J.A. & WINOGRAD, E. (1958). Shock intensity in variable-interval sscape schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 1 (2), 145-148. [PDF] BADIA, P. & CULBERTSON, S. (1970). Behavioral effects of signalled vs. unsignalled shock during escape training in the rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 72, 216-222.
WEISS, B. & LATIES, V.G. (1959). Titration behavior on various fractional escape programs. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 2 (3), 227-2481. [PDF] MOROKOFF, P. & TIMBERLAKE, W. (1971). Cue exposure and overt fear responses as determinants of extinction of avoidance in rats. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 77, 432-438. [PDF]
  BROWN, T.G. & FLORY, R.K. (1972). Schedule-induced escape from fixed-interval reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 17 (3), 395-403. [PDF]
  KNUTSON, J.F. & BAILEY, M.I. (1974). Free-operant escape-avoidance of noise by rats. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 22 (1), 219-229. [PDF]
BAER, D.M. (1960). Escape and avoidance response of preschool children to two schedules of reinforcement withdrawal. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 3 (2), 155-159. [PDF] DINSMOOR, J.A. (1977). Escape, avoidance and punishment : Where do we stand ? Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 28 (1), 83-95. [PDF]
AZRIN, N.H., HOLZ, W.C., HAKE D.F. & AYLLON T. (1963). Fixed-ratio escape reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (3), 449-456. [PDF] CAMHI, J.M., WINSTON, T. & VOLMAN, S. (1978). The escape behavior of the cockroach Periplaneta americana. Journal of Comparative Physiology, 128 (3), 203-212.
MIGLER, B. (1963). Experimental self-punishment and superstitious escape behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (3), 371-385. [PDF] CARR, E.G., NEWSON, C.D. & BINKOFF, J.A. (1980). Escape as a factor in the aggressive behavior of two retarded children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13 (1), 101-117. [PDF]
MIGLER, B. (1963). Bar holding during escape conditioning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (1), 65-72. [PDF] IWATA, B.A., PACE, G.M., KALSHER, M.J., COWDERY, G.E. & CATALDO, M.F. (1990). Experimental analysis and extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23 (1), 11-27. [PDF]
AZRIN, N.H., HAKE, D.F., HOLZ, W.C. & HUTCHINSON, R.R. (1965). Motivational aspects of escape from punishment.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 8 (1), 31-44. [PDF] SCHMAJUK, N.A. & ZANUTTO, B.S. (1997). Escape, avoidance, and imitation : a neural network approach. Adaptive Behavior, 6 (1), 63-129.
WINOGRAD, E. (1965).Escape behavior under different fixed ratios and shock intensities. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 8 (2), 117-124. [PDF] COLEMAN, C.L. & HOLMES, P.A. (1998). The use of noncontingent escape to reduce disruptive behaviors in children with speech delays. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 687-690. [PDF]
AZRIN, N.H., HUTCHISON, R.R. & HAKE, D.F. (1967). Attack, avoidance, and escape reactions to aversive shock. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10 (2), 131-148. [PDF] LALLI, J.S., VOLLMER, T.R., PROGAR, P.R., WRIGHT, C., BORRERO, J., DANIEL, D., BARTHOLD, C.H., TOCCO, K. & MAY, W. (1999). Competition between positive and negative reinforcement in the treatment of escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32 (3), 285-296. [PDF]
SELIGMAN, M.E.P. & MAIER, S.F. (1967). Failure to escape traumatic shock. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74 (1), 1-9. [PDF] EBANKS, M.E. & FISHER, W.W. (2003). Altering the timing of academic prompts to treat destructive behavior maintained by escape. Journal of Applied Analysis of Behavior, 36 (3), 355-359. [PDF]
OVERMIER, J.B. & SELIGMAN, M.E.P. (1967). Effects of inescaplable shocks upon subsequent escape and avoidance responding. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 63, 28-33. HAYES, S.C., STROSAHL, K.D., WILSON, K.G., BISSETT, R T., PISTORELLO, J., TOARMINO, D., POLUSNY, M.A., DYKSTRA, T.A., BATTEN, S.V., BERGAN, J., STEWART, S.H., ZVOLENSKY, M.J., EIFERT, G.H., BOND, F.W., FORSYTH J.P., KAREKLA, M. & MCCURRY, S.M. (2004). Measuring experiential avoidance : A preliminary test of a working model. The Psychological Record, 54, 553-578. [PDF]
  GEIGER, K.B., CARR, J.E. & LEBLANC, L.A. (2010). Function-based treatments for escape-maintained problem behavior : A treatment-selection model for practicing behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 3 (1), 22-32. [PDF]
MALCUIT, G., POMERLEAU, A. et MAURICE, P. (1995). Psychologie de l'apprentissage : termes et concepts. St-Hyacinthe : Edisem. Voir aussi Conditionnement opérant et Navette d'évitement
Échauffement : Le terme a une seule signification qui varie légèrement selon le contexte : a) En apprentissage, plus particulièrement lors de la phases d'acquisition, l'échauffement est une mise en train plus ou moins longue qui permet à un organisme d'atteindre un niveau optimal de préparation avant l'exécution d'une tâche motrice ou verbale. Dans certaines conditions, cette mise en train hausse le niveau de performance du sujet. Ces conditions sont : court laps de temps entre l'échauffement et la tâche, échauffement qui ressemble à la tâche, qui ne crée pas de fatigue ou expose le sujet à une blessure, etc. Échauffement, habileté motrice et exercice. Warm-up, warm-up effect. b) On peut également s'échauffer avant un exercice physique ou la pratique d'un sport. Échauffement, athlète et exercice physique. = étirement, préparation, routine. Warm-up, stretching.

  a
IRION, A.L. (1949). Retention and warming-up effects in paired associate learning. Jour- nal of Experimental Psychology, 39, 669-675. NACSON, J. & SCHMIDT, R.A. (1971). The activity-set hypothesis for warm-up decrement. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3, 318-325. [PDF]
IRION, A.L. & WHAM, D.S. (1951). Recovery from retention loss as a function of amount of pre-recall warming-up. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 270-272. SCHMIDT, R.A. & WRISBERG, C.A. (1971). The activity-set hypothesis for warm-up decrement in a movement' speed task. Journal of Motor Behavior, 3, 318-325.
HAMILTON, C.E. & MOLA, W.A. (1953). Warm-upeffect in human maze learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45, 437-441. HINELINE, P. (1978). Warmup in avoidance as a function of time since prior training. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 29 (1), 87-103. [PDF]
ADAMS, J.A. (1961). The second facet of forgetting : A review of warm-up decrement. Psychological Bulletin, 58 (4), 257-273. HINELINE, P. & ALLOY, L.B. (1978). Warm-up effects in free-operant avoidance in a shuttle box. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 12, 447-450.
BARCH, A.M. (1963). Bilateral transfer of warm-up in rotary pursuit. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 17, 723-726.  
CATALANO, J.F. & WHALEN, P. M. (1967). Factors in recovery from performance decrement : activation. inhibition, and warm- up. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 24, 1223-1231.  
SPATZ, K.C. & IRION, A.L. (1969). Note on the transfer of bilateral warm-up to pursuit rotor performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 81, 607-608.  
SCHMIDT, R.A. (1971). Further tests of the activity-set hypothesis for warm-up decrement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 56-64. HINELINE, P. (1978). Warm-up in free-operant avoidance as a function of the response-shock = shock-shock interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 30 (3), 281-291. [PDF]
MALCUIT, G., POMERLEAU, A. et MAURICE, P. (1995). Psychologie de l'apprentissage : termes et concepts. St-Hyacinthe : Edisem. Voir aussi Habileté motrice et Apprentissage
b
TOMARAS, E. & MacINTOSH, B. (1985). Less is more : standard warm-up causes fatigue and less warm-up permits greater cycling power output. Journal of Applied Physiology, 111, 228-235. TAYLOR, K.-L., SHEPPARD, J.M., LEE, H. & PLUMMER, N. (2009). Negative effect of static stretching restored when combined with a sport specific warm-up component. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 12 (6), 657-661.
  SAMSON, M., BUTTON, D.C., CHAOUACHI, A. & BEHM, D.G. (2012). Effects of dynamic and static stretching within general and activity specific warm-up protocols. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 11 (2), 279-285.
Voir aussi Sport, Athlète et Exercice physique
Échecs
Échouer Échec scolaire Échecs (Jeu)
 
Échec/Échouer : *défaite. /réussite. Failure.

  MILLER, D.T. (1976). Ego-involvement and attributions for success and failure. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 34, 901-906.
RYCKMAN, D. & PECKMAN, P. (1987). Gender differences in attributions for success and failure. Journal of Early Adolescence, 7, 47-63.

HOUSTON, B. & KELLY, K. (1987). Type A behavior in housewives : Relation to work, marital adjustment, stress, tension, health, fear of failure, and self esteem. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31, 55–61.

 

WIGFIELD, A. (1988). Children's attributions for success and failure : Effects of age and attentional focus. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (1), 76-81. [PDF]
WATZLAWICK, P.J. (1988). Comment réussir à échouer. Paris : Éditions du Seuil.
Voir aussi Défaite et Réussite
Échec scolaire : Pour un élève/étudiant, incapacité à atteindre les objectifs d'apprentissage d'un cours ou d'un programme, qui se traduit par une note inférieure à la note de passage, et parfois par le décrochage scolaire. Les causes de l'échec scolaire sont bien connues et nombreuses : manque d'effort des élèves, problème d'attention et de motivation, indiscipline, méthode pédagogique inadéquate, encadrement parental inadéquat, surpeuplement des classes, laxisme des directions d'école, réforme pédagogique nébuleuse et nonscientifique, formation inadéquate des maîtres, etc. Échec, redoubler un cours et rendement scolaire. /réussite scolaire. Academic failure.
  GUSKEY, T.R. (1981). Measurement of the responsibility teachers assume for academic success and failures in the classroom. Journal of Teacher Education, 31 (3), 44-51. JIMERSON, S.R. (1999). On the failure of failure : Examining the association of early grade retention and late adolescent education and employment outcomes. Journal of School Psychology, 37 (3), 243-272.
BOURGEOIS, J.P. (1983). Comment les instituteurs perçoivent l'échec scolaire. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 62 (1), 27-39. TARDIF, J. et A. PRESSEAU (2000). L'échec scolaire en Amérique du Nord : un phénomène insidieux pour un grand nombre d'enfants et d'adolescents. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 130, 89-106.
HALL, B.W., VILLEME, G. & BURLEY, W. (1989). Teachers' attributions for students' academic success and failure and the relationship to teaching level and teacher feedback practices. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 14 (2), 133-144. FALLU, J.S. & JANOSZ, M. (2003). La qualité des relations élève-enseignants à l'adolescence : Un facteur de protection de l'échec scolaire. Revue de Psychoéducation et d'Orientation, 31 (2), 7-30.
LAUTREY, J. (1989). Réussite et échec scolaires : différents éclairages. Psychologie Française, 4, 223-228.  
DEPREEUW, E. (1990). Fear of failure: A complex clinical phenomenon. Belgium : University of Leuven  
ISAMBERT-JAMATI, V. (1992). Quelques rappels de l'émergence de l'échec scolaire comme "problème social" dans les milieux pédagogiques français. In P. Pierrehumbert (Dir), L'échec à l'école : échec de l'école ? (p. 27-42). Lausanne : Delachaux et Niestlé.  
GOSLING, P. (1992). Qui est responsable de l'échec scolaire ? : représentations sociales, attributions et rôle d'enseignant. Paris : Presses universitaires de France. CRAHAY, M. (2005). Peut-on lutter contre l'échec scolaire ? Bruxelles : De Boeck.
BECKERS, J. (1995). Les futurs enseignants se sentent-ils uneresponsabilité vis-à-vis de l'échec scolaire ? Éducation et recherche. Théorie et Pratique, 17 (3), 334-349. GAUTHIER, C. (2005). Échec scolaire et réforme éducative. Quand les solutions proposées deviennent la source du problème. Presses de l'Université de Laval.
Voir aussi Réussite scolaire
Échecs : Jeu qui nécessite à la fois une grande capacité de raisonnement et beaucoup de créativité et de mémoire. /jeu de hasard. Chess.
  BINET, A. (1893). Les grandes memoires : Resume d'une enquete sur les joueurs d'echecs. Revue des Deux Mondes, 117, 826-859. In M.L. Simmel & S.B. Barron (Trans.). (1966). Mnemonic virtuosity: A study of chess players, Genetic Psychology Monographs, 74, 127-162. SAARILUOMA, P. (1990). Apperception and restructuring in chess players' problem solving. In K.J. Gilhooly, M.T.G. Keane, R.H. Logie, and G. Erdos (Eds.), Lines of thought : Reflections on the psychology of thinking. Wiley : London, pp. 41-57.
  HORGAN, D.D. & MORGAN, D. (1990). Chess expertise in children. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4, 109-128.
  SAARILUOMA, P. (1991). Aspects of skilled imagery and visual memory in blindfold chess. Acta Psychologica, 77, 65-89.
  SAARILUOMA, P. (1991). Visuo-spatial interference and apperception in chess. In M. Denis & R. Logie (Eds.), Mental images in human cognition (pp. 83-94). Amsterdam : Elsevier.
BINET, A. (1894). Psychologie des grands calculateurs et joueurs d'échecs. Paris : Hachette. SAARILUOMA, P. (1992). Visuospatial and articulatory interference in chess players' information intake. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 4, 309-320.
  BACHMANN, T. & OIT, M. (1992). Stroop-like interference in chess players' imagery : An unexplored possibility to be revealed by the adapted moving-spot task. Psychological Research, 54, 27-31.
  CHARNESS, N. (1992). The impact of chess research on cognitive science. Psychological Research, 54, 4-9.
  FRYDMAN M. & LYNN, R. (1992). The general intelligence and spatial abilities of gifted young Belgian chess players. British Journal of Psychology, 83, 233-235.
CLEVELAND, A.A. (1907). The psychology of chess and of learning to play it. American Journal of Psychology, 18, 269-308. REYNOLDS, R.I. (1992). Recognition of expertise in chess players. American Journal of Psychology, 105, 409-415.
DE GROOT, A.D. (1946/1965). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague : Mouton Publishers. MAZUR, A., BOOTH, A. & DABBS, J. (1992). Testosterone and chess competition. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 70-77.
SHANNON, C. E. (1950). Programming computer to play chess. Philosophical Magazine, 41, 256-275. SAARILIUMA, P. (1993). Does selective enumeration improve total enumeration? In D. Brogan, A. Gale & K. Garr (Eds.), Visual search II. Taylor and Francis: London 1993.
  CHABRIS, C.F. (1993). The Harvard Cup man-versus-machine chess challenge. ICCA Journal, 16 (1), 57-61.
  SAARILIUMA, P. & HOHLFELD, M. (1994). Chess players' long range planning. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 6, 1-22.
  SAARILIUMA, P. (1994). Location coding in chess. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 47A, 607-630.
FINE, R. (1956). The psychology of the chess player. Dover Publications Inc. GLICKMAN, M.E. (1995). Chess rating systems. American Chess Journal, 3, 59-102.
  SAARILIUMA, P. (1995). Chess players’ thinking. London : Routledge.
DE GROOT, A.D. (1965). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague: Mouton. GOBET, F. & SIMON, H.A. (1996). Recall of random and distorted positions : Implications for the theory of expertise. Memory & Cognition, 24, 493-503.
  CHARNESS, N., KRAMPE, R. & MAYR, U. (1996). The role of practice and coaching in entrepreneurial skill domains : an international comparison of life-span chess skill acquisition. In K.A. Ericsson (Ed.), The road to excellence : The acquisition of expert performance in the arts and sciences, sports and games (pp. 51-80). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
ELO, A.E. (1965). Age changes in master chess perfor- mances. Journal of Gerontology, 20, 289-299. GOBET, F. & SIMON, H.A. (1996). Recall of rapidly presented random chess positions is a function of skill. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3, 159-163.
SIMON, H.A. & CHASE, W.G. (1973). Skill in chess. American Scientist, 621, 394-403. GOBET, F. & SIMON, H.A. (1996). Templates in chess memory : A mechanism for recalling several boards. Cognitive Psychology, 31, 1-40.
  SAARILIOMA, P. & KALAKOSKI, V. (1996). Skilled imagery and long-term working memory. American Journal of Psychology, 110, 177-201
JONES, E. (1973). Le cas de Paul Morphy : Contribution à la psychologie du joueur d'échec. Dans Essais de psychanalyse appliquée. Paris : Payot-Rivages. GOBET, F. & SIMON, H.A. (1996). Ther roles of recognition processes and look-ahead search in time-constrained expert problem solving : Evidence from grandmaster level chess. Psychological Science, 7, 52-55.
CHASE, W.G. & SIMON, H.A. (1973). The mind's eye in chess. In W. G. Chase (Ed.), Visual information processing (pp. 215-281). New York : Academic Press. DE GROOT, A.D. & GOBET, F. (1996). Perception and memory in chess. Heuristics of the professional eye. Assen : Van Gorcum.
CHASE, W.G. & SIMON, H.A. (1973). Perception in chess. Cognitive Psychology, 4, 55-81. [PDF] ROBBINS, T.W., ANDERSON, D.R. BARKER, A.C., BRADLEY, C., FEARNYHOUGH, R., HENSON, HUDSON, S.R. & BADDELEY, A.D. (1996). Working memory in chess. Memory & Cognition, 24 (1), 83-93.
KROGIUS, N. (1976). Psychology in chess. Great Neck, NY : RHM Press. GOBET, F. (1997). Roles of pattern recognition and search in expert problem solving. Thinking & Reasoning, 3, 291-313.
  TISDALL, J. (1997). Improve your chess now. London : Cadogan.
FREY, P W. & ADESMAN, P. (1976). Recall memory for visually presented chess positions. Memory & Cognition, 4, 541-547 GOBET, F. (1998). Chess, psychology of. MIT encyclopedia of the cognitive sciences. Cambridge, MA : The MIT Press.
  SAARILIOMA, P. & KALAKOSKI, V. (1998). Apperception and imagery in blindfold chess. Memory, 6, 67-90.
CHARNESS, N. (1976). Memory for chess positions : Resistance to interference. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 2, 641-653. GOBET, F. & SIMON, H.A. (1998). Expert chess memory: Revisiting the chunking hypothesis. Memory, 6, 225-255.
ELO, A.E. (1978/86). The rating of chess players, past and present. London : Batsford. GOBET, F. (1998). Chess players' thinking revisited. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 57, 18-32.
BERLINER, H. (1978). A chronology of computer chess and its literature. Artificial Intelligence, 10, 201-214. LASSISTER, G.D. (2000). The relative contributions of recognition and search-evaluation processes to high-level chess performance: Comment on Gobet and Simon. Psychological Science, 11, 172-173.
DE GROOT, A.D. (1978). Thought and choice in chess. The Hague : Mouton. REINGOLD, E.M., CHARNESS, N., POMPLUN, M. & STAMPE, D.M. (2001). Visual span in expert chess players : Evidence from eye movements. Psychological Science, 12, 48-55.
  GOBET, F. (2001). Cognitive psychology of chess expertise. In N. J. Smelser & P.B. Baltes (Eds.), International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences (pp. 1663-1667). Oxford : Elsevier.
HEARST, E.S & WIERZBICKI, M. (1979). Battle royal: Psychology and the chessplayer. In J.H. Goldstein (Ed.), Sports, games, and play : Social and psychological viewpoints (pp. 29-63). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. REINGOLD, E.M., CHARNESS, N., SCHULTETUS, R.S. & STAMPE, D.M. (2001). Perceptual automaticity in expert chess players: Parallel encoding of chess relations. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 504-510.
BATCHELDER, W. & BERSHAD, N. (1979). The statistical analysis of a Thurstonian model for rating chess players. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 19, 39-60. SAARILUOMA, P. (2001). Chess and content-oriented psychology of thinking. Psicológica (2001), 22, 143-164. [PDF]
FRANK, A. & D'HONDT, W. (1979). Aptitudes et apprentissage du jeu d'échecs au Zaire (aptitudes and learning of the game of chess in Zaire). Psychopathologie Africaine, 15, 81-98. SAARILUOMA, P. & LAINE, T. (2001). Novice construction of chess memory. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 42, 137-146.
  JOIREMAN, J.A., FICK, C.S. & ANDERSON, J.W. (2002). Sensation seeking and involvement in chess. Personality & Individual Differences, 32, 509-515.
  WATERS, A., GOBET, F. & LEYDEN, G. (2002). Visuo-spatial abilities in chess players. British Journal of Psychology, 30, 303-311.
REYNOLDS, R.I. (1982). Search heuristics of chess players of different calibers. American Journal of Psychology, 95, 383-392. CHABRIS, C.F. & HEARST, E.S. (2003). Visualization, pattern recognition, and forward search : Effects of playing speed and sight of the position on grandmaster chess errors. Cognitive Science, 27, 637-648. [PDF]
MILOJKOVIC, I.D. (1982). Chess imagery in novice and master. Journal of Mental Imagery, 6, 125-144. GOBET, F., DE VOOGT, A. & RETSCHITZKI, J. (2004). Moves in mind : The psychology of board games. Hove, U.K. : Psychology Press.
CHURCH, R.M. & CHURCH, K.W. (1983). Plans, goals, and search strategies for the selection of a move in chess. In P. W. Frey (Ed.), Chess skill in man and machine (pp. 131-156). New York : Springer. BURNS, B.E. (2004). The effects of speed on skilled chess performance. Psychological Science, 15, 442-447.
KELLY, E.J. (1985). The personality of chess players. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 282-284. VAN DER MAAS, H.L.J. & WAGENMAKERS, E.-J. (2005). A psychometric analysis of chess expertise. American Journal of Psychology, 118, 29-60.
  CHARNESS, N., TUYASH, M., KRAMPE, R., REINGOLD, E. & VASYUKOVA, E. (2005). The role of deliberate practice in chess expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 151-165.
HOLDING, D.H. (1985). The psychology of chess skill. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. RIKERS, RMJ.P. & PAAS, F. (2005). Recent advances in expertise research. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 145-149.
  CHARNESS, N., TUYASH, M., KRAMPE, R., REINGOLD, E. & VASYUKOVA, E. (2005). The role of deliberate practice in chess expertise. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19 (1), 51-165.
SAARILUOMA, P. (1985). Chess players' intake of task-relevant cues. Memory & Cognition, 13, 385-391. HOWARD, R.W. (2005). Objective evidence of rising population ability : a detailed examination of longitudinal chess data. Personality & Individual Differences, 38, 347-363.
HOLDING, D.H. (1985). The psychology of chess skill. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. KIEWRA, K.A. & O'CONNOR, T. (2005). Developing young chess masters : What are the best moves ? Chess Life, 60, 24-25.
ELO, A.E. (1986). The rating of chessplayers, past and present. New York : Arco. BILACIC, M. & McLEOD, M.P. (2006). How intellectual is chess ? - A reply to Howard. Journal of Biosocial Science, 1-3. [PDF]
CRANBERG, L.D. & ALBERET, M.L. (1988). The chess mind. In L. K. Obler & D. Fein (Eds.), The exceptional brain.Neuropsychology of talent and special abilities (pp. 156-190). New York : Guilford Press. CHABRIS, C.F. & GLIKMAN, M.E. (2006). Sex differences in intellectual performance : Analysis of a large cohort of competitive chess players. Psychological Science, 17 (12), 1040-1046. [PDF]
CALDERWOOD, R., KLEIN, G.A. & CRANDAL, B.W. (1988). Time pressure, skill, and move quality in chess. American Journal of Psychology, 101, 481-493. GRABNER, R.H., STERN, E. & NEUBAUER, A.C. (2006). Individual differences in chess expertise : A psychometric investigation. Acta Psychologica, 24 (3), 398-420. [PDF]
PFAU, H.D. & MURPHY, M.D. (1988). Role of verbal knowledge in chess. American Journal of Psychology, 101, 73-86. BILALIC, M., McLEOD, P. & GOBET, F. (2007). Does chess need intelligence ? A study with young chess players. Intelligence, 35, 457-470. [PDF]
HOLDING, D.H. (1989). Counting backward during chess move choice. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 27, 421-424. HEARST, E. & KNOTT, J. (2008). Blindfold chess : History, psychology, techniques, champions, world records, and important games. Jefferson, NC : McFarland.
SAARILUOMA, P. (1989). Chess players' recall of auditorily presented chess positions. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 1, 309-320. MECHNER, F. (2010). Chess as a behavioral model for cognitive skill research : review of blindfold chess by Eliot Hearst and John Knott. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 94 (3), 373-386. [PDF]
Voir aussi Résolution de problème, Raisonnement et Jeu
Échelle : Le terme a deux acceptions complémentaires qui renvoient à l'idée de mesure ou d'évaluation.
Échelle de mesure et d'évaluation des phénomènes Échelle psychologique (Test)

Échelle ASRS : Échelle d'auto-évaluation du trouble deficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité chez l'adulte. ADHD Self-report Scale.

  KESSLER, R.C., ADLER, L, AMES, M., DEMLER, O., FARAONE, S., HIRIPI, E., HOWES, M.J., JIN, R., SECNIK, K., SPENCER, T., USTUN, T.B. & WALTERS, E.E. (2005). The World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS): a short screening scale for use in the general population. Psychological Medicine, 35 (2), 245-256.
KESSLER, R.C., ADLER, L, GRUBER, M.J., SARAWATE, C.A, SPENCER, T. & VAN BRUNT, D.L. (2007). Validity of the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener in a representative sample of health plan members. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16 (2), 52-65. [PDF]
YEH, C.B., GAU, S.S., KESSLER, R.C. & WU, Y.Y. (2008). Psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the adult ADHD Self-report Scale. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 17 (1), 45-54.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et Trouble deficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité
 
Échelle de mesure et d'évaluation (des phénomènes) : En science, l'échelle est une façon systématique d'apprécier un phénomène. Le concept recouvre deux réalités complémentaires : Évaluer et mesurer. 1) Mesurer consiste à associer les propriétés des nombres aux objets (ou à leurs propriétés). = quantifier. Scales of measurement. 2) En psychologie, la plupart de ces échelles sont des échelles d'évaluation (et non de mesure). Échelle qualitative qui permet de classer ou d'ordonner les propriétés d'un La confusion provient du fait que l'on traduit soucent le mot scale par mesure, alors que le sens du mot est plus large et recouvre à la fois la mesure et l'évaluation. ( ): Rating scale, response scale.

Types d'échelle Évaluer/Qualifier Mesurer/Quantifier
Nominale Ordinale D'intervalles De rapports (ratio)
Synonyme Classe= Étiquette = Catégorie = échelle binaire = qualitative = subjective Hiérarchie, rang Quantitative, relative Quantitative, Métrique
En anglais Nominal scale, categorical scale Ordinal scale, ranking scale Interval-scale Ratio-scale
Exemple Genre/Sexe

1= homme/2 = femme

Niveau de scolarité

3 = Universitaire
2 = Cégep
1= secondaire
0= primaire

30o = Température en degré celcius

9,87 secondes pour parcourir un cent mètres

Exemple en psy

1 = névrose
2 = psychose
3 = «normal»

QI = 104 26 de Cote R au cégep Se laver 8 fois les mains, retenir 7 mots
Opérations mathématiques ou logiques permises = ≠ < > + et - + - ×÷
Type de comparaisons permises Égalité Ordre Distance Proportion
Transformations permises On peut remplacer les chiffres par des lettres A= homme/B= femme On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale ou nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale, nominale ou à intervalles
Statut des nombres Choisis de façon arbitraire Respectent un certain ordre de grandeur Préservent l'écart ou la distance entre eux Relations absolues (point 0)
Statut du zéro Désigne par convention une classe 0= homme/1 = femme Désigne par convention le bas de l'échelle, la plus petite valeur du phénomène mesuré Zéro arbitraire ou conventionel; ne désigne pas l'absence du phénomène mesuré Zéro absolu; désigne l'absence ou la nullité du phénomène mesuré
Niveau d'information Minimal + que nomimale
- qu'à intervalles
+ qu'ordinal
- que par rapport
Maximal
Tableau original conçu par Jean Bégin : UQAM/Légèrement modifié par l'auteur de ce site
 


Échelles d'évaluation
Échelle de Guttman Échelle de Thurstone Échelle sémantique différentielle/relative
Échelle de Likert    
 


  STEVENS, S.S. (1946). On the theory of scales of measurement. Science, 103 (2684), 677-680. [PDF] GAITO, J. (1980). Measurement scales and statistics : Resurgence of an old misconception. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 564-567.
  VAN DER VEN, A.H.G.S (1980). Introduction to scaling.Chichester : Wiley.
BENDING, A.W. (1953). The reliability of self-ratings as a function of amount of verbal anchoring and of the number of categories on the scale. Journal of Applied Psychology, 37, 38-41. WRIGHT, B.D. & MASTERS, G.N. (1982). Rating scale analysis. Chicago : MESA Press.
BURKE, C.J. (1953). Additive scales and statistics. Psychological Review, 60 (1), 73-75. TOWNSEND, J.T. & ASHBY, F.G. (1984). Measurement scales and statistics : The misconception misconceived. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 394-401. [PDF]
  WRIGHT, B.D. (1985). Additivity in psychological measurement. In E. Roskam (Ed.), Measurement and personality assessment (pp. 101-112). North Holland : Elsevier Science Ltd.
TORGERSON W.S. (1958). Theory and methods of scaling. New York : John Wiley. MICHELL, J. (1986). Measurement scales and statistics : A clash of paradigms. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 398-407.
  KNAPP, T.R. (1990). Treating ordinal to resolve the controvers. Nursing Research, 39 (2), 121-123. [PDF]
STEVENS, S.S. (1959). Measurement, psychophysics and utility. In C.W. Churchman & P. Ratoosh (Eds.), Measurement : Definitions and theories. New York : Wiley. DE VELLIS, R.F. (1991). Scale development : Theory and applications. London : Sage.
  GREENLEAF, E.A. (1992). Improving rating scale measures by detecting and correcting bias components in some response styles. Journal of Marketing Research, 29, 176-188.
BONEAU, C.A. (1961). A note on measurement scales and statistical tests. American Psychologist, 16, 260-261. VELLEMAN, P.F. & WILKINSON, L. (1993). Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologies are misleading. The American Statistician, 47 (1), 65-72. [PDF]
KOMORITA, S.S. & GFRAHAM, W.K. (1965). Number of scale points and the reliability of scales.Educational and Psychological Measurement, 25, 897-995. FIFE-SCHAW, C. (1995). Levels of measurement. In G.M. Breakwell, S. Hammond & C. Fife-Schaw (Eds), Research methods in psychology. London : Sage.
ROZEBOOM, W.W. (1966). Scaling theory and the nature of measurement. Synthese, 16, 170-233. MacNAUGHTON, R.J. (1996). Numbers, scales, and qualitative research. The Lancet, 347, 1099-1100.
LICHTENSTEIN, S. & NEWMAN, J.R. (1967). Empirical scaling of common verbal phrases associated with numerical probabilities. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 563-564. WRIGHT, B.D. (1997). A history of social science measurement. Educational Measurement : Issues & Practice, 16 (4), 33-45, 52. [PDF]
  LINACRE, J.M. (2004). Optimizing rating scale category effectiveness. In E.V. Smith & R.M. Smith (Eds.), Introduction to Rasch measurement : theory, models and applications (pp. 258-278). Maple Grove, MN : JAM Press.
GARDNER, P.L. (1975). Scales and statistics. Renew of Educational Research, 45, 43-47. PENTA, M., ARNOULD C. & DECRUYNAERE, C. (2005). Développer et interpréter une échelle de mesure. Applications du modèle de Rasch Sprimont : Mardaga.
  CICCHETTI, D., BRONEN, R., SPENCER, S. HAUT, S. BERG, A., OLIVER, P. & TYRER, P. (2006). Rating scales, scales of measurement, issues of reliability resolving some critical issues for clinicians and researchers. The Journal of Nervous & Mental Diseas, 194 (8), 557-564. [PDF]
  BECH, P. (2006). Rating scales in depression : Limitations and pitfalls. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 8 (2), 207-215. [PDF]
  MOORS, G., KIERUJ, N.D. & VERMUNT, J.K. (2014). The effect of labeling and numbering of response scales on the likelihood of response bias. Sociological Methodology, 44 (1), 369-399. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir Échelle d'évaluation
Échelle binaire : Échelle nominale qui consiste à classer les variations d'un phénomène en fonction de deux catégories (d'où le mot binaire) exhaustives et mutuellement exclusives. Exhaustif signifie que toutes les variations connues du phénomène peuvent être classées dans ces deux catégories. Mutuellement exclusif signifie qu'une variation ne peut être classée que dans une et une seule catégorie. EX: Sexe --» 1= hommes et 2= femmes.Tous les individus ont un sexe (catégories exhaustives) et tous sont soit des hommes, soit des femmes (catégories mutuellement exclusives). Dans cette échelle 1 et 2 sont des symboles qui servent à désigner les classes et non des nombres ou des quantités, on ne peut donc pas les additionner ou les multiplier. = échelle nominale ou qualitative, échelle dichotomique. Binary scale.

Exemples d'échelle binaire
Le sexe (genre) Homme ou Femme
La réponse à une question Oui ou Non
L'âge Plus jeune ou Plus vieux
Le résultat d'un cours Échec ou Réussite

  BERTOLI-BARSOTTI, L. & PUNZO, A. (2013). Rasch analysis for binary data with nonignorable nonresponses. Psicologica : International Journal of Methodology and Experimental Psychology, 34 (1), 97-123 [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échelle nominal et Donnée binaire
Échelle d'accord : Voir Question à échelle d'accord.
Échelle d'évaluationn psychologique : Échelle qualitative qui permet d'évaluer les phénomènes psychologiques.

Échelles psychologiques
Échelle ASRS Échelle de Timidité de Cheek et Buss Échelles du bien-être psychologique de Ryff
Échelle d'évaluation de la déficience cognitive Échelle de Weiss Échelle du fonctionnment social de Fabiano et Pelham
Échelle de Barkley Échelle de Wender Échelle subjective de dépression de Zung
Échelle de Bayley Effet de Guttman
Échelle de Brazelton   Échelle SNAP
Échelle de bien-être et de satisfaction de la vie Échelle F Échelle SWAN
Échelle de Bogardus Échelle de dépression de Montgomery et Asberg Échelle Vanderbilt
Échelle de Conners Échelle de Hamilton Échelle Yale-Brown
 

  ALLPORT, G.W. & VERNON, P.E. (1931). Study of values : A scale for measuring the dominant interests in personality. Boston : Houghton Mifflin. Scale.
Voir aussi Échelle qualitative et Phénomène psychologique
Échelle d'évaluation de la déficience cognitive : Échelle d'évaluation des troubles deficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité. Impairment rating scale.
  FABIANO, G.A. & PELHAM, W.E. (2002). Measuring impairment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ADHD Report, 10, 6-10.
FABIANO, G.A., PELHAM, W.E., WASCHBUSCH, D.A., GNAGY, E.M., LAHEY, B.B., CHRONIS, A.M., ONYANGO, A.N., KIPP, H., LOPEZ-WILLIAMS, A. & BURROWS-MACLEAN, L.A. (2006). Practical measure of impairment : psychometric properties of the impairment rating scale in samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and two school-based samples.Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35 (3), 369-385.
MUGNAINI, D. & FABIANO, G.A. (2006). The evaluation of impairment in the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder : the contribution of the impairment rating scale. Minerva Pediatrica, 58 (2), 159-66.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et Troubles deficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité
 
Échelle d'intervalles : Échelle quantitative qui consiste à repérer des variations d'un phénomène dont les intervalles sont constants. Intervalle constant signifie que la distance entre les repaires est connue, quantitative et constante. EX: La température : L'écart entre 10 et 12°C est identique à l'écart entre 14° et 16°C. On peut classer la température (chaude ou froide), l'ordonner (plus ou moins chaude) l'additionner (s'il fait 20°C et que la température augmente de cinq degrés, on dira qu'il fait 25°C) mais on ne peut la multiplier ou la diviser. L'échelle d'intervalles ne mesure pas une réalité physique, elle ne fait que graduer de manière constante l'espace entre deux points limites fixés arbitrairement (Le point de congélation, 0, et le point d'ébullition, c, sur une colonne de mercure divisée par cent unité dans le cas l'échelle celcius. Ou l'heure sur le cadran d'une montre divisée en douze unités de soixante minutes). Pour cette raison, on ne peut affirmer que 40°C est deux fois plus chaud que 20°C (le double de 20°C est en fait 293,15°C). Les échelles de rapport par intervalle possèdent un zéro arbitraire. = échelle relative. Interval-scale.

Exemples d'échelle d'intervalles
Température 0 celcius ou 0 Farenheit ne signifie pas une absence de température
L'heure Minuit ou 0h. ne signifie pas l'absence d'heure


Types d'échelle Évaluer/Qualifier Mesurer/Quantifier
Nominale Ordinale D'intervalles De rapports (ratio)
Synonyme Classe= Étiquette = Catégorie = échelle binaire = qualitative = subjective Hiérarchie, rang Quantitative, relative Quantitative, Métrique
En anglais Nominal scale, categorical scale Ordinal scale, ranking scale Interval-scale Ratio-scale
Exemple Genre/Sexe

1= homme/2 = femme

Niveau de scolarité

3 = Universitaire
2 = Cégep
1= secondaire
0= primaire

30o = Température en degré celcius

9,87 secondes pour parcourir un cent mètres

Exemple en psy

1 = névrose
2 = psychose
3 = «normal»

QI = 104 26 de Cote R au cégep Se laver 8 fois les mains, retenir 7 mots
Opérations mathématiques ou logiques permises = ≠ <> + et - + - ×÷
Type de comparaisons permises Égalité Ordre Distance Proportion
Transformations permises On peut remplacer les chiffres par des lettres A= homme/B= femme On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale ou nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale, nominale ou à intervalles
Statut des nombres Choisis de façon arbitraire Respectent un certain ordre de grandeur Préservent l'écart ou la distance entre eux Relations absolues (point 0)
Statut du zéro Désigne par convention une classe 0= homme/1 = femme Désigne par convention le bas de l'échelle, la plus petite valeur du phénomène mesuré Zéro arbitraire ou conventionel; ne désigne pas l'absence du phénomène mesuré Zéro absolu; désigne l'absence ou la nullité du phénomène mesuré
Niveau d'information Minimal + que nomimale
- qu'à intervalles
+ qu'ordinal
- que par rapport
Maximal
Tableau original conçu par Jean Bégin : UQAM/ Légèrement modifié par l'auteur de ce site
 


  VELLEMAN, P.F. & WILKINSON, L. (1993). Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologies are misleading. The American Statistician, 47 (1), 65-72. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échelle quantitative
Échelle de Barkley : Échelle d'évaluation et de classement du trouble du déficit de l'attention avec hyperactivité.
  BARKLEY, R.A. (1990). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : A handbook for diagnosis and treatment. New York : Guilford.
BARKLEY, R.A. & MURPHY, K.R. (2005). Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder : A clinical workbook. Guilford Press.
BARKLEY, R.A. (2011). Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale-IV (BAARS-IV). Guilford Publications.
BARKLEY, R.A. (2011). Barkley Functional Impairment Scale. Guilford Publications.
 
Voir aussi TDAH
Échelle de Bayley : Échelle d'évaluation du développement (de la naissance à trois ans 1/2) . Bayley Scales of Infant Development.

  BAYLEY, N. (1969/93/2005). Bayley Scales of Infant Development. New York : Psychological Corp.. KELLY-VANCE, L., NEELDEMAN, H., TROIA, K. & OLIVER-RYALLS, B. (1999). Scales of infant development and play-based assessment in two-year old at-risk children. Developmental Disabilitie Bulletin, 27 (1), 1-15. [PDF]
WASHINGTON, K. (1998). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and children with developmental delays : a clinical perspective. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 346-349. GAGNON, S.G. & NAGLE, R.J. (2000). Comparison of the revised and original versions of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development. School Psychology International, 21 (3), 293-305.
WASHINGTON, K., SCOTT, D.T., JOHNSON, K.A., WENDEL, S. & HAY, A.E. (1998). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and children with developmental delays : A clinical perspective. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 19 (5), 346-349. SCHULER, M.E., NAIR, P. & HARRINGTON, D. (2003). Developmental outcome of drug-exposed children through 30 months : A comparison of Bayley and Bayley-II. Psychological Assessment, 15 (3), 435-438.
GAUTHIER, S.M., BAUER, C.R., MESSINGER, D.S. & CLOSIUS, J.M. (1999). The Bayley Scales of Infant Development. II : Where to start. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 20, 197 / Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 20, 75-79. ALFONSO, V.C., RUSSO, P.M., FORTUGNO, D.A. & RADER, D.E. (2005). Critical review of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-Second Edition: Implications for assessing young children with developmental delays. The School Psychologist, 1, 67-73.
BLACK, M.M. & MATULA, K. (1999). Essentials of Bayley Scales of Infant Development II Assessment. New York : John Wiley. HACK, M., TAYLOR, H.G., DROTAR, D., SCHLUCHTER, M., CARTAR, L., WILSON-COSTELLO, D., KLEIN, N., FRIEDMAN, H., MERCURI-MINICH, N. & MORROW, M. (2005). Poor predictive validity of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development for cognitive function of extremely low birth weight children at school age. Pediatrics, 116 (2), 333-341. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et Développement
Échelle de bien-être et de satisfaction de la vie : Satisfaction With Life Scale, SWLS.

  DIENER, E., EMMONS, R.A., LARSEN, R.J. & GRIFFIN, S. (1985). The Satisfaction with Life Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 71-75.
DIENER, E., COLVIN, C.R. & SANDVIK, E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale : Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 149-161.
PAVOT, W.G. & DIENER, E. (1993). Review of the Satisfaction With Life Scale. Psychological Assessment, 5 (2), 164-172. [PDF]
Voir auss Bien-être
Échelle de Brazelton : Échelle d'évaluation et de classement des nouveaux-nés.
  BRAZELTON, T.B. (2001). Échelle de Brazelton. Médecine & Hygiène.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et Nouveaux-nés
Échelle de Bogardus : Échelle d'évaluation inventée par Bogardus pour évaluer les distances sociales, et plus particulièrement le degré de proximité qu'un individu accepte ou tolère dans ses relations avec autrui. Bogardus scale, Bogardus social distance scale.
  BOGARDUS, E. (1947). Measurement of personal-group relations. Sociometry, 10 (4), 306-311.
Voir aussi Distances sociales et Proximité
Échelle de complètement des énoncés : Échelle d'accord qui comporte 11 degrés. Phases completion scale.

  HODGE, D.R. & GILLEPSIE, D.F. (2003). Phrase completions : An alternative to Likert scales. Social Work Research, 27 (1), 45-55.
HODGE, D.R. & GILLEPSIE, D.F. (2005). Phrase completion scales. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social measurement (Vol. 3, pp. 53-62). San Diego : Academic Press.
HODGE, D.R. & GILLEPSIE, D.F. (2007). Phrase completion scales : A better measurement approach than Likert scales ? Journal of Social Service Research, 33 (4), 1-12.
Voir aussi Question à échelle d'accord
Échelle de Conners : Échelle, inventée par Conners, d'évaluation du Trouble du déficit d'attention avec hyperactivité. Conners Parent and Teacher Rating Scales.

  CONNERS, C.K. (1969). A teacher rating scale for use in drug studies with children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126, 884-888.  
WERRY, J.S. & SPRAGUE, R.L. & COHEN, M. (1975). Conners' Teacher Rating Scale for use in drug studies with children an empirical study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 3, 217-229.  
GLOW, R.A., GLOW, P.H. & RUMP, E.E. (1982). The stability of child behavior disorders: A one year test-retest of Adelaide versions of the Conners Teacher and Parent Rating Scales. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 10, 33-60. GUMPIE, T., WILSON, M. & SHALEV, R. (1998). An item response theory analysis of the Conners Teacher's Rating Scale. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 31, 1998.
CONNORS, C.K. (1997). Conners' rating scales : Revised technical manual. North Towanda, NY : Multi-Health Systems. CONNORS, C.K. (1999). Clinical use of rating scales in diagnosis and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 46 (5), 857-870.
EPSTEIN, J.N., MARCH, J.S., CONNORS, C.K. & JACKSON, D.L. (1998). Racial differences on the Conners Teacher Rating Scale. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 109-118. FANTUZZO, J.W., GRIM, S., MORDELL, M., McDERMOOT, P., MILLER, L. & OOLAHAN, K. (2001). A multivariate analysis of the revised Conners' Teacher Rating Scale with low-income, urban preschool children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 141-152.
CONNORS, C.K., SITARENOIS, G., PARKER, J.D. & EPSTEIN, J.N. (1998). The revised Conners Parent Rating Scale (CPRS-R) : factor structure, reliability, and criterion validity. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26, 257-268. CORDES, M. & McLAUGHLIN, T.F. (2004). Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and rating scales with a brief review of the Connors Teacher Rating Scale (1998). International Journal of Special Education, 19 (2), 23-34. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et TDAH
Échelle de dépression de Montgomery et Asberg (MADRS) : Échelle d'évaluation de la dépression développé par Montgomerey et Äsberg. Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale, MADRS, SIGMA.
  MONTGOMERY, S.A. & ÄSBERG, M. (1979). A new depression scale designed to be sensitive to change. British Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 382-389. [PDF] ZIMMERMAN, M., POSTERNAK, M.A. & CHELMINSKI, I. (2004). Derivation of a definition of remission on the Montgomery- Asberg depression rating scale corresponding to the definition of remission on the Hamilton rating scale for depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 38, 577-582.
MONTGOMERY, S.A., SMEYTAKY, N., DE RUITER, M. & MONTGOMERY, D.B. (1985). Profiles of antidepressant activity with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 320 (S), 38-42. ZIMMERMAN, M., POSTERNAK, M.A. & CHELMINSKI, I. (2004). Defining remission on the Montgomery-Åsberg depression rating scale. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 65, 163-168.
WILLIAMS J.B.W. (1996). Structured interview guide for the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale (SIG-MA). Biometrics Research Department. CARMODY, T., RUSH, J., BERNSTEIN, I., WARDEN, D., BRANNAN, S., BURNHAM, D., WOO, A. & TRIVEDI, M. (2006). The Montgomery-Asbergand and the Hamilton ratings of depression :a comparison of measures. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 16, 601-611. [PDF]
HAMMOND, M.F. (1998). Rating depression severity in the elderly physically ill patient : reliability and factor structure of the Hamilton and the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scales. International Journal of Geriatry & Psychiatry, 13, 257-261. MÖLLER, H.J. & SCHNITKER, J. (2007). Prospective study using a modified Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Scale. Nervenarzt, 78,685-690.
SVANBORG, P. & ASBERG, M. (2001). A comparison between the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the self-rating version of the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Journal of Affective Disorders, 64 (2-3), 203-216. WILLIAMS, J.B.W. & KOBAK, K.A. (2008). Development and reliability of a structured interview guide for the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale (SIGMA). British Journal of Psychiatry, 192 (1), 52-58.
KHAN, A., KHAN, S.R., SHANKLES, E.B. & POLISSAR, N.F. (2002). Relative sensitivity of the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression rating scale and the Clinical Global Impressions rating scale in antidepressant clinical trials. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 281-285. CUSIN, C., YANG, H., YEUNG, A. & FAVA, M. (2009). Rating Scales for depression. In L. Baer and M.A. Blais (Eds.), Handbook of clinical rating scales and assessment in psychiatry and mental health (pp. 7-35). Human Press. [PDF]
HAWLEY, C.J., GALE, T.M. & SIVAKUMARAN, T. (2002). Defining remission by cut off score on the MADRS: selecting the optimal value. Journal of Affective Disorders, 72, 177-184. CUNNINGHAM, J.L., WENROTH, L., VON KNORRING, L. & EKSELIUS, L. (2011). Agreement between physicians' and patients' ratings on the Montgomery & Äsberg Depression Rating Scale. Journal of Affective Disorders, 135 (1-3), 148-153.
Vor aussi Dépression et Échelle d'évaluation
Échelle de Guttman : Échelle d'évaluation des attitudes développé par Guttman. Guttman scale.
  GUTTMAN, L. (1944). A basis for scaling qualitative data. American Sociological Review, 9 (2), 139-150. [PDF] GUEST, G. (2000). Using Guttman Scaling to rank wealth : Integrating quantitative and qualitative Data. Field Methods, 12 (4), 346-357. [PDF]
 EDWARDS, A. (1948). On Guttman's scale analysis. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 8, 313-318. ABDI, H. (2000). Guttman scaling. In N. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of research design. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage. [PDF]
 KAY, P. (1964). A Guttman scale model of Tahitian consumer behavior. Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, 20,160-167.  
 KRONEFELD, D.B. (1972). Guttman scaling : Problems of conceptual domain, unidimensionality, and historical inference. Man 7, 255-276.  ENGELHARD, G. (2005). Guttman scaling. In K. Kempf-Leonard (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social measurement (Vol.2 pp. 167-174). San Diego, CA : Academic Press/Elsevier Science.
 MARSHALL, M. & BORTHWICK, M. (1974). Consensus, dissensus and Guttman scales : The Namoluk case. Journal of Anthropological Research, 30, 252-270.  
 KENNY, D.A. & RUBIN, D. A. (1977). Chance reproducibility in Guttman scaling. Social Science Research, 6, 188-196.  
Vor aussi Attitudes et Échelle d'évaluation
Échelle de Hamilton : Échelle d'évaluation de la dépression conçue en 1960 par Hamilton. = Échelle de dépression de Hamilton. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD), HAM-D.
  HAMILTON, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 23, 56-62. [PDF]  
HAMILTON, M. (1966). Assessment of change in psychiatric state by means of rating scales. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 59 (S1), 10-13. MOBERG, P.J., LAZARUS, L.W., MESHOLAM, R.I., BILKER, W., CHUY, I.L., NEYMAN, I. & MARKVART, V. (2001). Comparison of the standard and structured interview guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale in depressed geriatric inpatients. American Journal of Geriatry & Psychiatry, 9, 35-40
HAMILTON, M. (1967). Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness. British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 6, 278-296. WILLIAMS, J.B. (2001). Standardizing the Hamilton depression rating scale : past, present, and future. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical, 251 (S2), 6-12.
HAMILTON, M. (1969). Standardised assessment and recording of depressive symptoms. Psychiatria, Neurologia, Neurochirurgia, 72, 201-205. MÖLLER, H.J. (2001). Methodological aspects in the assessment of severity of depression by the Hamilton Depression Scale. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 251 (S2), 13-20.
BAILEY, J. & COPPEN, A. (1976). A comparison between the Hamilton Rating Scale and the Beck Inventory in the measurement of depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 486-469.  
HEDLUND, J.L. & VIEWIG, B.W. (1979). The Hamilton rating scale for depression : a comprehensive review. Journal of Operational Psychiatry, 10, 149-165.  
HAMILTON, M. (1980). Rating depressive patients. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 41, 21-24. KHAN, A., KHAN, S.R., SHANKLES, E.B. & POLISSAR, N.F. (2002). Relative sensitivity of the Montgomery-Äsberg Depression Rating Scale, the Hamilton Depression rating scale and the Clinical Global Impressions rating scale in antidepressant clinical trials. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 281-285.
BECH, P., ALLERUP, P., GRAM L.F., REISBY, N., ROSENBERG, R., JACONSEN, O. & NAGY, A. (1981). The Hamilton depression scale. Evaluation of objectivity using logistic models. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 63, 290-299. MULLER, M.J. & DRAGIECEVIC, A. (2003). Standardized rater training for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-17) in psychiatric novices. Journal of Affective Disorders, 77, 65-69.
KEARNS, N.P., CRUICKSHANK, C.A., MCGUIGAN, K.J., RILEY, S.A., SHAW, S.P. & SNAITH, R.P. (1982). A comparison of depression rating scales. British Journal of Psychiatry, 141, 45-49. KOBAK, K.A., LIPSITZ, J.D. & FEIGER, A. (2003). Development of a standardized training program for the Hamilton Depression Scale using internet-based technologies: results from a pilot study. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 37, 509-515.
BECH, P., ALLERUP, P., REISBY, N & GRAM, L.F. (1984). Assessment of symptom change from improvement curves on the Hamilton depression scale in trials with antidepressants. Psychopharmacology, 84, 276-281. BAGBY, R.M., RYDER, A.G., SCHULLER, D.R. & MARSHAL, M.B. (2004). The Hamilton depression rating scale : has the gold standard become a lead weight ? American Journal of Psychiatry, 161, 2163-2177.
WILLIAMS, J.B. (1988). A structured interview guide for the Hamilton depression rating scale. Archives of General Psychiatry, 45, 742-747. MORITZ, S., MEIER, B., HAND, I., SCHICK, M. & JAHN, H. (2004). Dimensional structure of the Hamilton depression rating scale in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 125, 171-180.
BERRIOS, G.E. & BULBENA, A. (1990). The Hamilton Depression Scale and the numerical description of the symptoms of depression. In P. Bech & A. Coppen (Eds.), The Hamilton Scales (pp. 80-92). Heildeberg : Springer. ZIMMERMAN, M., POSTERNAK, M.A. & CHELMINSKI, I. (2004). Is the cut off to define remission on theHamilton Ratin gScale for Depression too high? The Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 193, 170-175.
STEINMEYER, E.M. & MÖLLER, H.J. (1992). Facet theoretic analysis of the Hamilton-D scale. Journal of Affective Disorders, 25, 53-61. CARMODY, T., RUSH, J., BERNSTEIN, I., WARDEN, D., BRANNAN, S., BURNHAM, D., WOO, A. & TRIVEDI, M. (2006). The Montgomery-Asberg and the Hamilton ratings of depression : a comparison of measures. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 16, 601-611. [PDF]
BECH, P., ALLERUP, P., MAIER W, ALBUS M, LAVORI P, AYUSO J.L. (1992). The Hamilton scales and the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (SCL-90). A cross-national validity study in patients with panic disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 206-211.  
ANGST, J., SCHEIFFEGER P. & STABL, M. (1993). Efficacy of moclobemide in different patient groups : results of new subscales of the Hamilton Rating Scale. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 16 (S2), 55-62. BECH, P. (2009). Fifty years with the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression. A tribute to Max Hamilton. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 78, 202-211.
HAMMOND, M.F. (1998). Rating depression severity in the elderly physically ill patient: reliability and factor structure of the Hamilton and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scales. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 257-261. KRISTON, L. & VON WOLFF, A. (2011). Not as golden as standards should be : Interpretation of the Hamilton Rating Scale for depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 128 (1-2), 175.
Voir Dépression et Échelle d'évaluation
Échelle de Likert : Échelle d'accord ordinale des attitudes en cinq degrés développée par Likert. Likert scale, five-point Likert items.
EX: Ce lexique est utile. Êtes-vous : ________________ avec cette affirmation.
 
Fortement en accord En accord Ni accord/désaccord Fortement en désaccord En désaccord
1 2 3 4 5

  LIKERT, R. (1932). A technique for the measurement of attitudes. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1-55. JAMIESON, S. (2004). Likert scales : How to (ab)use them. Medical Education, 38, 1212-1218.
JACOBY, J. & MATELL, M.S. (1971). Three-point Likert scales are good enough. Journal of Marketing Research, 8, 495-500. NANNA, M.J. & SAWILOWSKY, S.S. (1998). Analysis of Likert scale data in disability and medical rehabilitation research. Psychological Methods, 3 (1), 255-267.
LARSEN, K.S., REED, M. & HOFFMAN, S. (1980). Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality : A Likert-type scale and construct validity. Journal of Sex Research, 16, 245-257. HODGE, D.R. & GILLEPSIE, D.F. (2007). Phrase completion scales : A better measurement approach than Likert scales ? Journal of Social Service Research, 33 (4), 1-12.
BAGGALEY A. & HULL, A. (1983). The effect of nonlinear transformations on a Likert scale. Evaluation & the Health Professions, 6, 483-491. CARIFIO, J. & PERLA, R.J. (2007). Ten common misunderstandings, misconceptions, persistent myths and urban legends about likert scales and likert response formats and their antidotes. Journal of Social Sciences, 3 (3), 106-116. [PDF]
BIRKETT, N.J. (1986). Selecting the number of response categories for a Likert-type scale. Proceedings of the American Statistical Association 1987 Annual Meetings, Section on Survey Research Methods.  
ALBAUM, G. & MURPHY, B.D. (1988). Extreme response on a Likert scale. Psychological Reports, 63 (2), 501-502. ALLEN, E. & SEAMAN, C.A. (2007). Likert scales and data analyses. Quality Progress, 40, 64-65.
VAN ALPHEN, A., HALFENS, R., HASMAN A. & IMBOS, T. (1994). Likert or Rasch ? Nothing is more applicable than a good theory. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 20, 196-201. NORMAN, G. (2010). Likert scales, levels of measurement and the "laws" of statistics. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 15 (5), 625-632. [PDF]
ALBAUM, G. (1997). The Likert scale revisited : An alternate version. Journal of the Market Research Society, 39, 331- 349. [PDF] BROWN, J.D. (2011). Likert items and scales of measurement ? Shiken : JALT Testing & Evaluation SIG Newsletter, 15 (1), 10-14. [PDF]
MAURER J. & PIERCE, H.R. (1998). A comparison of Likert scale and traditional measures of self-efficacy. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 324-329. DE WINTER, J.C.F. & DODOU, D. (2012). Five-Point Likert Items : t test versus Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 15 (11), 1-16. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échelle d'accord ordinale
Échelle de mesure : Voir Échelle quantitative.
Échelle de probabilité des intentions : Voir Test de probabilité des intentions.
Échelle de rapports : Échelle quantitative qui consiste à mesurer les variations d'un phénomène dont les intervalles et les rapports sont constants. Variations constantes signifie que l'écart entre les mesures est toujours identique. Rapport constant signifie que les rapports entre les variations sont également constants. EX: Le temps. L'écart entre 5 et 10 secondes est identique à l'écart qui existe entre 15 et 20 secondes. 20 secondes est deux fois plus long que 10 secondes, et quatre fois plus que 5 secondes. Les échelles de rapport relative possèdent un zéro absolu. = échelle à proportion ou métrique ou échelle absolue, à variation relative. Ratio-scale, metric scale.

Exemples d'échelle de rapports
Le temps 0 seconde ou 0 minute= absence de temps
La fréquence de mots ou de comportements 0 comportement = absence de comportement


Types d'échelle Évaluer/Qualifier Mesurer/Quantifier
Nominale Ordinale D'intervalles De rapports (ratio)
Synonyme Classe= Étiquette = Catégorie = échelle binaire = qualitative = subjective Hiérarchie, rang Quantitative, relative Quantitative, Métrique
En anglais Nominal scale, categorical scale Ordinal scale, ranking scale Interval-scale Ratio-scale
Exemple Genre/Sexe

1= homme/2 = femme

Niveau de scolarité

3 = Universitaire
2 = Cégep
1 = Secondaire
0 = Primaire

30o = Température en degré celcius

9,87 secondes pour parcourir un cent mètres

Exemple en psy

1 = névrose
2 = psychose
3 = «normal»

QI = 104 26 de Cote R au cégep Se laver 8 fois les mains, retenir 7 mots
Opérations mathématiques ou logiques permises = ≠ <> + et - + - ×÷
Type de comparaisons permises Égalité Ordre Distance Proportion
Transformations permises On peut remplacer les chiffres par des lettres A= homme/B= femme On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale ou nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale, nominale ou à intervalles
Statut des nombres Choisis de façon arbitraire Respectent un certain ordre de grandeur Préservent l'écart ou la distance entre eux Relations absolues (point 0)
Statut du zéro Désigne par convention une classe 0= homme/1 = femme Désigne par convention le bas de l'échelle, la plus petite valeur du phénomène mesuré Zéro arbitraire ou conventionel; ne désigne pas l'absence du phénomène mesuré Zéro absolu; désigne l'absence ou la nullité du phénomène mesuré
Niveau d'information Minimal + que nomimale
- qu'à intervalles
+ qu'ordinal
- que par rapport
Maximal
Tableau original conçu par Jean Bégin : UQAM/Légèrement modifié par l'auteur de ce site


  STEVENS, S.S. & GALANTER, E.H. (1957). Ratio scales and category scales for a dozen perceptual continua. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54, 377-411.
VELLEMAN, P.F. & WILKINSON, L. (1993). Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologies are misleading. The American Statistician, 47 (1), 65-72. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échelle quantitative
Échelle de réponse : Voir Échelle de mesure et d'évaluation. Response scale.

Échelle de Thurstone : Échelle ordinale des attitudes développé par Thurstone. Thurstone's scale.
EX: Dans quelle mesure êtes-vous satisfait de ce lexique?
         
Très satisfait Plutôt satisfait Ni in-satisfait Plutôt insatisfait Très insatisfait
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1


  THURSTONE, L.L. (1928). Attitudes can be measured. American Journal of Sociology, 33, 529-54. [LIRE]
THURSTONE, L.L. (1929). Theory of attitude measurement. Psychological Review 36, 222-241. [LIRE]
THURSTONE, L.L. (1930). A scale for measuring attitude toward the movies. Journal of Educational Research, 22,89-94. [LIRE]
SHERIF, M. & HOVLAND C.I (1952). Judgmental phenomena and scales of attitude measurement : Item displacement in Thurstone scales. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 47, 822-832 .
WRIGHT, J.H. & HICKS, J.M. (1966). Construction and validation of a Thurstone scale liberalism-conservatism. Journal Psychology, 50, 9-12.
ANDRICH, D. (1978). Relationships between the Thurstone and Rasch approaches to item scaling. Applied Psychological Measurement, 2, 449-460.
KRUS, D.J., SHERMAN, J.L. & KENNEDY, P.H. (1977). Changing values over the last half-century : the story of Thurstone's crime scales. Psychological Reports, 40, 207-211.
Voir aussi Échelle ordinale des attitudes
Échelle de timidité de Cheek et Buss : Échelle d'évaluation de la timidité et de de la gêne. Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale.
  CHEEK, J.M. & BUSS, A.H. (1981). Shyness and sociability. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 41, 330-339.
HOPKO, D.R., STOWELL, J., JONES, W.H., ARMENTO, M.E.A. & CHEEK, J.M. (2005). Psychometric properties of the revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 84 (2), 185-192.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et gêne
Échelle de Weiss : Échelle d'évaluation des troubles deficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité développée par Weiss. = test de Weiss. Weiss functional impairment rating scale (WFIRS).
  WEISS, M. (2010). The unique aspects of assessment of ADHD. Primary Psychiatry, 17 (5), 21-25.
TARAKCOGLU, M.C., MEMIK, N.C., OLGUN, N.N., AYDEMIR, O. & WEISS, M. (2014). Turkish validity and reliability study of the Weiss Functional Impairment Rating Scale-Parent Report. ADHD : Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders, 7 (2), 129-139.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et TDAH
Échelle de Wender : Échelle d'évaluation du trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité développée par Wender. = Échelle WURS. Wender Utah ADHD Rating Scale (WURS).
  WARD, M.F., WENDER, P.H. & REIMHERR, F.W. (1993). The Wender Utah Rating Scale : an aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150 (6), 885-890. [PDF]
ROSSINIE, D. & O'CONNOR, M.A. (1995). Retrospective self-reorted symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder : reliability of the Wender Rating Scale. Psychological Reports, 77, 751-754.
STEIN, M.A., SANDOVAL, R., SZUMOWSKI, E., ROIZEN, N., REINECKE, M.A., BLONDIS, T.A. & KLEIN, Z. (1995). Psychometric characteristics of the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) : reliability and factor structure for men and women. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 31 (2), 425-433.
McCANN, B.S., SCHEELE, L., WARD, N. & ROY-BYRNE, P. (2000). Discriminant validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in adults. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 12 (2), 240-245. [PDF]
FOSSATI, A., DI CEGLIE, A., ACQUARINI, E., DONATI, D., DONINI, M., NOVELLA, L. & MAFFEI, C. (2001). The retrospective assessment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults : reliability and validity of the Italian version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 4 (2), 326-336.
BAYLÉ, F.J., KREBS, M.O., MARTIN, C. BOUVARD, M.P. & WENDER, P.H. (2003). Version française du Wender Utah rating scale (WURS). Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie/Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 48 (2), 132.
WIERZBICKI, M. (2005). Reliability and validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for college students. Psychological Report, 96 (3), 833-839. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et TDAH
Échelle dichotomique : Voir Échelle nominale/binaire.
Échelles du bien-être psychologique de Ryff : Échelle d'évaluation du bonheur et du bien-être.

  RYFF, C.D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it ? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 57( 6), 1069-1081.
RYFF, C.D. & ESSEX, M.J. (1992). The interpretation of life experience and well-being : the sample case of relocation. Psychology & Aging, 7 (4), 507-517.
BOUFFARD, L. & LAPIERRE, S. (1997). La mesure du bonheur. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 18 (2), 273-316.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation, Bonheur et Bien-être
Échelles du fonctionnement social de Fabiano et Pelham : Échelle d'évaluation du fonctionnement social des enfants conçu par Fabiano et Pelham. Il existe une version pour les parents ou les enseigants. Cette échelle est notamment utilisée pour diagnostiquer le trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité. Impairment Rating Scale (IRS).

  FABIANO, G.A. & PELHAM, W.E. (2002). Measuring impairment in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The ADHD Report, 10, 6-10.
FABIANO, G.A., PELHAM, W.E., WASCHBUSCH, D.A., GNAGY, E.M., LAHEY, B.B., CHRONIS A.M., ONYANGO, A.N., KIPP, H., LOPEZ-WILLIAMS, A. & BURROWS-MACLEAN, L.A. (2006). Practical measure of impairment : psychometric properties of the impairment rating scale in samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and two school-based samples. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 35 (3), 369-385.
MUGNAINI, D. & FABIANO, G.A. (2006). The evaluation of impairment in the attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder : the contribution of the impairment rating scale. Minerva Pediatrica, 58 (2), 159-166.
Voir aussi Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité
Échelle F : Échelle d'évaluation de la personnalité qui s'inspire de la théorie d'Adorno, et qui contient une échelle d'évaluation du pouvoir et de l'autorité. Ici F = fascisme, mais en français l'usage du mot autoritarisme serait sans doute plus indiqué. F-scale.

  DEUTSCH, M. (1960). Trust, trustworthiness and the F. Scale. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 61, 138-140.
KOHN, P.M. (1972). The Authoritarian-Rebellion scale: A balanced F-scale with left-wing reversals. Sociometry, 35, 176-189.
MELOEN, J. (1993). The F-scale as a predictor of fascism : An overview of 40 years of authoritarianism research. In W.F. Stone, G. Lederer & R. Christie (Eds), Strength and weakness : The authoritarian personality today. New York : Springer Verlag.
Voir aussi Autorité
Échelle métrique de Binet-Simon : Voir Test de Binet-Simon.
Échelle nominale : Échelle qualitative qui consiste à classer et nommer les variations d'un phénomène en fonction de catégories exhaustives et mutuellement exclusives. Exhaustif signifie que toutes les variations connues d'un phénomène peuvent être classées dans ces deux catégories. Mutuellement exclusive signifie qu'une variation ne peut être classée que dans une catégorie. EX: Origine ethnique --» 1 = Italien, 2 = Espagnol, 3 = Allemand. Dans cette échelle 1, 2 et 3 sont des symboles qui servent à désigner les classes et non des nombres ou des quantités, on ne peut donc les additionner ou les multiplier. On utilise parfois le terme échelle binaire pour désigner le l'échelle nominale qui ne possède qu'une variation (ou deux classes). = échelle qualitative ou catégorielle ou subjective, échelle dichotomique. Nominal scale, categorical scale, categorical data.

Exemples d'échelle nominale
La réponse à une question Oui ou Non Échelle binaire
Le sexe Homme ou Femme Échelle binaire
La nationalité Québécois d'origine italienne ou Québécois d'origine haïtienne ou Québécois d'origine algérienne ou Québécois de souche -


Types d'échelle Évaluer/Qualifier Mesurer/Quantifier
Nominale Ordinale D'intervalles De rapports (ratio)
Synonyme Classe= Étiquette = Catégorie = échelle binaire = qualitative = subjective Hiérarchie, rang Quantitative, relative Quantitative, Métrique
En anglais Nominal scale, categorical scale Ordinal scale, ranking scale Interval-scale Ratio-scale
Exemple Genre/Sexe

1= homme/2 = femme

Niveau de scolarité

3 = Universitaire
2 = Cégep
1= secondaire
0= primaire

30o = Température en degré celcius

9,87 secondes pour parcourir un cent mètres

Exemple en psy

1 = névrose
2 = psychose
3 = «normal»

QI = 104 26 de Cote R au cégep Se laver 8 fois les mains, retenir 7 mots
Opérations mathématiques ou logiques permises = ≠ <> + et - + - ×÷
Type de comparaisons permises Égalité Ordre Distance Proportion
Transformations permises On peut remplacer les chiffres par des lettres A= homme/B= femme On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale ou nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale, nominale ou à intervalles
Statut des nombres Choisis de façon arbitraire Respectent un certain ordre de grandeur Préservent l'écart ou la distance entre eux Relations absolues (point 0)
Statut du zéro Désigne par convention une classe 0= homme/1 = femme Désigne par convention le bas de l'échelle, la plus petite valeur du phénomène mesuré Zéro arbitraire ou conventionel; ne désigne pas l'absence du phénomène mesuré Zéro absolu; désigne l'absence ou la nullité du phénomène mesuré
Niveau d'information Minimal + que nomimale
- qu'à intervalles
+ qu'ordinal
- que par rapport
Maximal
Tableau original conçu par Jean Bégin : UQAM/Légèrement modifié par l'auteur de ce site


  SCOTT, W. (1955). Reliability of content analysis : The case of nominal scale coding. Public Opinion Quarterly, 17, 321-325. BOCK, D.R. (1972). Estimating item parameters and latent ability when responses are scored in two or more nominal categories. Psychometrika, 37 (1), 29-51.
COHEN, J.A. (1960). A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 20 (1), 37-46. [PDF] LANDIS, J.R. & KOCH, G.G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159-174.
COHEN, J.A. (1968). Weighted kappa : Nominal scale agreement with provision for scaled disagreement or partial credit. Psychological Bulletin, 70, 213-220. VELLEMAN, P.F. & WILKINSON, L. (1993). Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologies are misleading. The American Statistician, 47 (1), 65-72. [PDF]
FLEISS, J.L. (1971). Measuring nominal scale agreement among many raters. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 378-81. AGRESTI, A. (1996/02). An introduction to categorical data analysis. New York : Wiley.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échelle qualitative
Échelle objective : Échelle de mesure qui repose sur une métrique, indépendante des perceptions de celui qui mesure. EX: Les centimètres, les secondes, etc. = échelle de rapport.

 
Échelle ordinale : Échelle qualitative qui consiste à classer et à mettre en ordre les variations d'un phénomène selon un critère connu. Noter X1 > X2. EX: La scolarité est un phénomène dont les variations peuvent être classées et ordonnées de la façon suivante (4 = Université > 3 = Cégep > 2= Secondaire 1= Primaire). Dans cette échelle 1, 2 3 et 4 sont des semi-nombres, c-à-d qu'il désigne un rang (ordinal) mais non une quantité (cardinal). Ainsi on peut donc affirmer que les universitaires ont plus de scolarité que les cégépiens. Toutefois, comme les écarts entre les niveaux ne sont pas nécessairement constants, on ne peut affirmer qu'un universitaire (=4) a deux fois plus d'années de scolarité qu'un élève du secondaire (=2). On peut comparer les mesures, mais on ne peut les multiplier ni les additionner puisque primaire + secondaire n'égalent pas cégep. = échelle de rang, échelle hiérarchique, semi-quantitative. Échelle orfdinale et question à échelle de rang. Ordinal scale, ranking scale, ordered response categories, rank order categories.

Exemples d'échelle ordinale
Le niveau de scolarité Doctorat > Maîtrise > BAC > DEC > DES
L'âge Très vieux > Vieux > Jeune > Très jeune


Types d'échelle Évaluer/Qualifier Mesurer/Quantifier
Nominale Ordinale D'intervalles De rapports (ratio)
Synonyme Classe= Étiquette = Catégorie = échelle binaire = qualitative = subjective Hiérarchie, rang Quantitative, relative Quantitative, Métrique
En anglais Nominal scale, categorical scale Ordinal scale, ranking scale Interval-scale Ratio-scale
Exemple Genre/Sexe

1= homme/2 = femme

Niveau de scolarité

3 = Universitaire
2 = Cégep
1= secondaire
0= primaire

30o = Température en degré celcius

9,87 secondes pour parcourir un cent mètres

Exemple en psy

1 = névrose
2 = psychose
3 = «normal»

QI = 104 26 de Cote R au cégep Se laver 8 fois les mains, retenir 7 mots
Opérations mathématiques ou logiques permises = ≠ <> + et - + - ×÷
Type de comparaisons permises Égalité Ordre Distance Proportion
Transformations permises On peut remplacer les chiffres par des lettres A= homme/B= femme On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale ou nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale, nominale ou à intervalles
Statut des nombres Choisis de façon arbitraire Respectent un certain ordre de grandeur Préservent l'écart ou la distance entre eux Relations absolues (point 0)
Statut du zéro Désigne par convention une classe 0= homme/1 = femme Désigne par convention le bas de l'échelle, la plus petite valeur du phénomène mesuré Zéro arbitraire ou conventionel; ne désigne pas l'absence du phénomène mesuré Zéro absolu; désigne l'absence ou la nullité du phénomène mesuré
Niveau d'information Minimal + que nomimale
- qu'à intervalles
+ qu'ordinal
- que par rapport
Maximal
Tableau original conçu par Jean Bégin : UQAM/ Légèrement modifié par l'auteur de ce site


  KENDALL M.G. (1938). A new measure of rank correlation. Biometrika, 30, 81-93. JOHNSON, D.R. & CREECH, J.C. (1983). Ordinal measures in multiple indicator models : A simulation study of categorization error. American Sociological Review, 48, 398-407.
KENDALL, M.G. (1945). The treatment of ties in ranking problems. Biometrika, 33, 239-251. AGRESTI, A. (1984). Analysis of ordinal categorical data. NY : Wiley.
KRUSKAL, W. (1958). Ordinal measures of association. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 53, 814-861. VELLEMAN, P.F. & WILKINSON, L. (1993). Nominal, ordinal, interval, and ratio typologies are misleading. The American Statistician, 47 (1), 65-72. [PDF]
KENDALL, M.G. (1962). Rank correlation methods. Londres : Griffin. CLIFF, N. (1993). Dominance statistics : Ordinal analyses to answer ordinal questions. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 494-509.
LABOVITZ, S. (1970). The assignment of numbers to rank order categories. American Sociological Review, 35 (3), 515-524. CLIFF, N. (1996). Ordinal methods for behavioral data analysis. Mahwah, NJ : Erbaum.
CICCHETTI, D.V. (1972). A new measure of agreement between rank ordered variables. Proceedings of the American Psychological Association, 7, 17-18. GONZALEZ R. & NELSON, T.O. (1996). Measuring ordinal association in situations that contain tied scores. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 159-165.
UZGIRIS, I.E. & HUNT, J. McVicker (1975). Assessment in infancy : Ordinal scales of psychologic development. Urbana : University of Illinois Press.  
ANDRICH D. (1978). A rating formulation for ordered response categories. Psychometrika, 43, 357-374. JAKOBSON, U. (2004). Statistical presentation and analysis of ordinal data in nursing research. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 18, 437-440.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Échelle qualitative
Échelle qualitative : Échelle qui permet de classer ou d'ordonner les propriétés d'un phénomène. Échelle, analyse et Méthode qualitative. ( ): échelle nominale, binaire, ordinale. Scaling qualitative data.

Types d'échelle Évaluer/Qualifier Mesurer/Quantifier
Nominale Ordinale D'intervalles De rapports (ratio)
Synonyme Classe= Étiquette = Catégorie = échelle binaire = qualitative = subjective Hiérarchie, rang Quantitative, relative Quantitative, Métrique
En anglais Nominal scale, categorical scale Ordinal scale, ranking scale Interval-scale Ratio-scale
Exemple Genre/Sexe

1= homme/2 = femme

Niveau de scolarité

3 = Universitaire
2 = Cégep
1= secondaire
0= primaire

30o = Température en degré celcius

9,87 secondes pour parcourir un cent mètres

Exemple en psy

1 = névrose
2 = psychose
3 = «normal»

QI = 104 26 de Cote R au cégep Se laver 8 fois les mains, retenir 7 mots
Opérations mathématiques ou logiques permises = ≠ <> + et - + - ×÷
Type de comparaisons permises Égalité Ordre Distance Proportion
Transformations permises On peut remplacer les chiffres par des lettres A= homme/B= femme On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale ou nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale, nominale ou à intervalles
Statut des nombres Choisis de façon arbitraire Respectent un certain ordre de grandeur Préservent l'écart ou la distance entre eux Relations absolues (point 0)
Statut du zéro Désigne par convention une classe 0= homme/1 = femme Désigne par convention le bas de l'échelle, la plus petite valeur du phénomène mesuré Zéro arbitraire ou conventionel; ne désigne pas l'absence du phénomène mesuré Zéro absolu; désigne l'absence ou la nullité du phénomène mesuré
Niveau d'information Minimal + que nomimale
- qu'à intervalles
+ qu'ordinal
- que par rapport
Maximal
Tableau original conçu par Jean Bégin : UQAM/ Légèrement modifié par l'auteur de ce site
 


  GUTTMAN, L. (1944). A basis for scaling qualitative data.American Sociological Review, 9 (2), 139-150. [PDF]
COX, D.R. & FAREWELL, V.T. (1997). Qualitative and quantitative aspects should not be confused. British Medical Journal, 314, 73-77. [PDF]
Voir aussi Analyse, Méthode, Recherche, Données qualitatives et Qualité
Échelle quantitative : Échelle qui permet de mesurer la quantité X d'un phénomène. ( ): échelle d'intervalles, échelle de rapports.

Types d'échelle Évaluer/Qualifier Mesurer/Quantifier
Nominale Ordinale D'intervalles De rapports (ratio)
Synonyme Classe= Étiquette = Catégorie = échelle binaire = qualitative = subjective Hiérarchie, rang Quantitative, relative Quantitative, Métrique
En anglais Nominal scale, categorical scale Ordinal scale, ranking scale Interval-scale Ratio-scale
Exemple Genre/Sexe

1= homme/2 = femme

Niveau de scolarité

3 = Universitaire
2 = Cégep
1= secondaire
0= primaire

30o = Température en degré celcius

9,87 secondes pour parcourir un cent mètres

Exemple en psy

1 = névrose
2 = psychose
3 = «normal»

QI = 104 26 de Cote Z au cégep Se laver 8 fois les mains, retenir 7 mots
Opérations mathématiques ou logiques permises = ≠ <> + et - + - ×÷
Type de comparaisons permises Égalité Ordre Distance Proportion
Transformations permises On peut remplacer les chiffres par des lettres A= homme/B= femme On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale ou nominale On peut transformer cette échelle en échelle ordinale, nominale ou à intervalles
Statut des nombres Choisis de façon arbitraire Respectent un certain ordre de grandeur Préservent l'écart ou la distance entre eux Relations absolues (point 0)
Statut du zéro Désigne par convention une classe 0= homme/1 = femme Désigne par convention le bas de l'échelle, la plus petite valeur du phénomène mesuré Zéro arbitraire ou conventionel; ne désigne pas l'absence du phénomène mesuré Zéro absolu; désigne l'absence ou la nullité du phénomène mesuré
Niveau d'information Minimal + que nomimale
- qu'à intervalles
+ qu'ordinal
- que par rapport
Maximal
Tableau original conçu par Jean Bégin : UQAM/ Légèrement modifié par l'auteur de ce site
 


  BURKE, C.J. (1953). Additive scales and statistics. Psychological Review, 60 (1), 73-75.
WELLER, S.C. & ROMNEY, A.K. (1990). Metric scaling : Correspondence analysis. Thousand Oaks CA : Sage.
COX, D.R. & FAREWELL, V.T. (1997). Qualitative and quantitative aspects should not be confused. British Medical Journal, 314, 73-77. [PDF]
Voir aussi Analyse, Méthode, Recherche, Données quantitatives et Quantité
 
Échelle sématique différentielle : Voir Question à échelle sémantique différentielle. = échelle sématique relative.
Échelle subjective : Échelle de classement qui repose sur les perceptions de celui qui mesure ou sur certaines caractéristiques arbitraires comme le zéro subjectif des échelles d'intervalles. ( ): échelle binaire, échelle nominale, échelle ordinale, échelle d'intervalles.

 
Échelle subjective de dépression de Zung : Zung Self-Report Depression Scale.
  CUSIN, C., YANG, H., YEUNG, A. & FAVA, M. (2009). Rating Scales for depression. In L. Baer and M.A. Blais (Eds.), Handbook of clinical rating scales and assessment in psychiatry and mental health (pp. 7-35). Human Press. [PDF]
Échelle SNAP : Échelle d'évaluation et de diagnostic du trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité, développé par Swanson. SNAP Ratings Scale.
  SWANSON, J., SCHUCK, S., MANN, M., CARLSON C., HARTMAN, K., SERGEANT, J., CLEVENGER, W., WASDELL, M. & MCCLEARY, R. (2005). Categorical and dimensional definitions and evaluations of symptoms of ADHD : The SNAP and the SWAN Ratings Scale. [PDF]
SWANSON, J.N., SCHUCK, S., PORTER, M.M., CARLSON, C., HARTMAN, C.A., SERGEANT, J.A., CLEVENGER, W., WASDELL, M., MCCLEARY, R., LAKES, K. & WIGAL, T. (2012). Categorical and Dimensional Definitions and Evaluations of Symptoms of ADHD : History of the SNAP and the SWAN Rating Scales. The International Journal of Educational & Psychological Assessment, 10 (1), 51-69.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité
Échelle SWAN : Échelle d'évaluation et de diagnostic du trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité, développé par Swanson. Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-Behavior (SWAN) scale, SWAN Rating Scales.
  SWANSON, J.M., SCHUCK, S., MANN, M., CARLSON C., HARTMAN, K., SERGEANT, J., CLEVENGER, W., WASDELL, M. & MCCLEARY, R. (2005). Categorical and dimensional definitions and evaluations of symptoms of ADHD : The SNAP and the SWAN Ratings Scale. International Journal of Educational & Psychological Assessment, 10 (1), 51–70. [PDF] + [PDF]
POLDERMAN, T.J., DERKS, E.M., HUDZIAK, J.J., VERHULST, F.C., POSTHUMA, D. & BOOMSMA, D.I. (2007). Across the continuum of attention skills : a twin study of the SWAN ADHD rating scale. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48 (11), 1080-1087. [PDF]
HAY, D.A., BENNETT, K.S., LEVY, F., SERGEANT, J. & SWANSON, J.N. (2007). A twin study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder dimensions rated by the strengths and weaknesses of ADHD- symptoms and normal-behavior (SWAN) scale. Biological Psychiatry 61 (5), 700-705. [PDF]
SWANSON, J.M., SCHUCK, S., PORTER, M.M., CARLSON, C., HARTMAN, C.A., SERGEANT, J.A., CLEVENGER, W., WASDELL, M., MCCLEARY, R., LAKES, K. & WIGAL, T. (2012). Categorical and Dimensional Definitions and Evaluations of Symptoms of ADHD : History of the SNAP and the SWAN Rating Scales. The International Journal of Educational & Psychological Assessment, 10 (1), 51-69.
LAKES, K.D., SWANSON, J.M. & RIGGS, M. (2012). The reliability and validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal behavior rating scales in a preschool sample : continuum measures of hyperactivity and inattention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16 (6), 510-516. [PDF]
ARNETT, A.B., PENNINGTON, B.F., FRIEND, A., WILLCUTT, E.G., BYRNE, B., SAMUELSSON, S. & OLSON, R.K. (2013). The SWAN captures variance at the negative and positive ends of the ADHD symptom dimension. Journal of Attention Disorders, 17 (2), 152-162.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité
Échelle Vanderbilt : Échelle d'évaluation et de diagnostic du trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité. Vanderbilt attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnostic.
  WOLRAICH, M.L., FEURER, I.D., BAUMGAERTAL, A. & PINNOCK, T.Y. (1998). Obtaining systematic teacher reports of disruptive behavior disorders utilizing DSM-IV. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 26 (2), 141-152.
WOLRAICH, M.L., LAMBERT, E., DOFFING, M.A., BICKMAN, L., SIMMONS, T. & WORLEY, K. (2003). Psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt ADHD diagnostic Parent Rating Scale in a referred population. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 28 (8), 559-568. [PDF]
BARD, D.E., WOLRAICH, M.L., NEAS, B., DOFFING, M. & BECK, L. (2013). The psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnostic parent rating scale in a community population. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 34 (2), 72-82.
WOLRAICH, M.L., BARD, D.E., NEAS, B., DOFFING, M. & BECK, L. (2013). The psychometric properties of the Vanderbilt attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder diagnostic teacher rating scale in a community population. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 34 (2), 83-93.
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité
Échelle Yale-Brown. : Échelle d'évaluation et de diagnostic du trouble obsessionnel-compulsif. Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, (Y-BOCS).

  GOODMAN, W.K., PRICE, L.H., RASMUSSEN, S.A., MAZURE, C., FLEISCHMANN, R.L., HILL, C.L., HENINGER, G.R. & CHARNEY, D.S. (1989). The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale. I. Development, use, and reliability. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 1006-1011. STEKETEE, G.S., FROST, R.O. & BOGERT, K. (1996). The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale: Interviewer versus self-report. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 34, 675-684.
GOODMAN, W.K., PRICE, L.H., RASMUSSEN, S.A., MAZURE, C., DELGADO, P., HENINGER, G.R. & CHARNEY, D.S. (1989). The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) : Part II. Validity. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 1012-1016. DEACON, B.J. & ABRAMOWITZ, J.S. (2005). The Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale : factor analysis, construct validity, and suggestions for refinement. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 573-585.
MCKAY, D., DANYKO, S., NEZIROGLU, F. & YARYURA, T.J.A. (1995). Factor structure of the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale : A two dimensional measure. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 33, 865-869. TOBIAS, M. & THYER, B.A. (2006). Using the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) in social work assessment : Issues of reliability and validity.Journal of Evidence-based Social Work, 3, 49-60.
WOODY, S.R., STEKETEE, G. & CHAMBLESS, D.L. (1995). Reliability and validity of the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale. Behavior Research & Therapy, 33, 597-605. PERTUSA, A., FERNANDEZ, D.L.C., ALONSO, P., MENCHON, J.M. & MATAIX-COLS, D. (2012). Independent validation of the dimensional Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (DY-BOCS). European Psychiatry, 27, 598-604
Voir aussi Échelle d'évaluation et de diagnostic du trouble obsessionnel-compulsif.
Écholalie : Du grec echo qui signifie "répéter" et lalie qui signifie "langage". Tic du langage qui consiste à répéter systématiquement les derniers mots entendus d'une phrase. On observe ce comportement verbal chez les autistes, les schizophrènes et les individus atteints du syndrome de Gille la Tourette, qui agissent ainsi pour répondre à leur interlocuteur ou mettre fin à la conversation. Écholalie et psittacisme. Echolalia.
  RISLEY, T.R. & WOLF, M.M. (1967). Establishing functional speech in echolalic children. Behavior Research & Therapy, 5, 73-88. PHILLIPS, G.M. & DYER, C. (1977). Late onset echolalia in autism and alied disorders. British Journal of Developmental Dichotomy of Speech & Language Disorders of Communication, 12, 47-59.
FAY, W.H. (1967). Childhood echolalia. Folia Phoniatrics, 19, 297-306. TUCKER, G.H., O'DELL, S.L. & SUIB, M.R. (1978), Control of selective echolalia via the instatement of general alternative response. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 16, 302-306.
FAY, W.H. & BUTLER, B.V. (1968). Echolalia, I.Q.,and the in autism and alied disorde. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 11, 365-371 PALYO, W.J., COOKE, T.P., SCHULER, A.L. & APOLLONI, T. (1979). Modifying echolalic speech in preschool children : Training and generalization. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 83, 480-489.
FAY, W.H. (1969). On the basis of autistic echolalia. Journal of Communication Disorders, 2, 38-47. CHARLOP, M.H. (1983). The effects of echolalia on acquisition and generalization of receptive labeling in autistic children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16 (1), 111-126. [PDF]
FREEMAN, B.J., RITVO, E. & MILER, R. (1975). An operant procedure to teach an echolalic, autistic child to answer questions apropriately. Journal of Autism & Chilhood Schizophrenia, 5, 169-176.  
  Voir aussi Autisme, Schizophrènie et Tic
DUBOIS, J., GIACOMO, M., GUESPIN, L., MARCELLESI, C., MARCELLESI, J.-P. et MÉVEL, J.-P. (1999). Dictionnaire linguistique et des sciences du langage. Paris : Larousse.
Écholocation : Capacité à utiliser les sons pour situer les objets dans l'espace, notamment observée chez la chauve-souris.
 
Échopraxie : Répétition automatique des gestes, des attitudes ou des mouvements, notamment observé chez les schzophrènes.

 
Éclairage : Indoor lighting.

  BARON, R.A., REA, M.S. & DANIELS, S.G. (1992). Effects of indoor lighting (illwninance and spectta1 distribution) on the perfor- mance ofcognitive tasks and interpersonal behavior : The potential mediating role of positive affect. Motivation & Emotion, 16, 1-55.
Éclectisme : Doctrine philosophique qui emprunte aux différentes théories d'un domaine les concepts les plus éclairants et les techniques les plus efficaces pour résoudre un problème donnée, même si ces concepts et ces techniques sont entre eux en partie ou totalement incompatibles sur le plan théorique. Éclectisme et pluralisme. /psychologie unifiée. Eclecticism, eclectic treatments.
  NORCROSS, J., GLASS, C.R., ARNKOFF, D.B., HOROWITZ, M.J., KARASU, B., LAMBERT, M.J., SHOHAM, V., STILES, W.B., SHAPIRO, D.A., BARKHAM, M. & STRUPP, H.H. (1995). A roundtable on psychotherapy integration : Common factors, technical eclecticism, and psychotherapy research. Journal of Psychotherapy Practice & Research, 4, 248-271.
GARFIELD, S.L. (2000). Eclecticism and integration : A personal retrospective view. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 10 (4), 341-355.
HOWARD, J.S., SPARKMAN, C.R., COHEN, H.G., GREEN, G. & STANISLAW, H. (2005). A comparison of intensive behavior analytic and eclectic treatments for young children with autism. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 26, 359-383.
DOUBLE, D.B. (2007). Eclecticism and Adolf Meyer's functional understanding of mental illness. Philosophy, Psychiatry & Psychology, 14, 356-358. [PDF]
Eco Umberto (Alexandrie Italie 1932-2016) : Semiologue, philosophe et écrivain italien. Il a dit : «Celui qui ne lit pas aura vécu une seule vie. Celui qui lit, aura vécu 5000 ans. La lecture est une immortalité en sens inverse».
ECO, U. (1976/77). A theory of semiotics. Bloomington : Indiana U.P./London : Macmillan.
ECO, U. (1999). Kant et l'ornithorynque. Paris : Grasset.
 
 
École : Le terme a deux acceptions : a) En éducation, il désigne le lieu (ensemble des classes) où se fait l'instruction/éducation publique/nationale des citoyens, notamment des enfants (scolarisation). École, réussite scolaire et enseigner. = milieu scolaire, lieu d'apprentissage. School. b) En histoire des sciences, le mot désigne un point de vue particulier sur l'objet d'étude ou les méthodes d'une science ou d'un domaine. = perspective, école de pensée. System, perspective, approach.

École (Éducation)
Directeur d'école    
École primaire École secondaire Préparation à l'école
 
Grandes écoles de pensée
École autrichienne École de Francfort École de la relation d'objet
École empiriste anglo-saxone École de la psychologie du moi École expérimentale allemande
École de Berlin École de la psychologie du soi École freudo-marxiste
École de Chicago en économie École de Palo Alto École japonaise de primatologie
École de Chicago en psychologie École de Vienne École russe
École de Chicago (en sociologie) École de Wurzbourg École sensualiste
 
  a
RICE, J.M. (1893). The public school system of the United States. New York : The Century Company. FEGUSON, R.F. (1991). Paying for public education : New evidence on how and why money matters. Harvard Journal on Legislation, 28 (2), 465-498.
DEWEY, J. (1907). The school and society. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. SNOW, C.E., BARNES, W.S., CHANDLER, J., GOODMAN, I.F. & HEMPHILL, L. (1991). Unfulfilled expectations : Home and school influences on literacy. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
BECKER, H. (1963). Why school is a lousy place to learn anything. In R.J. Burgess (Ed.), Howard Becker on education. Buckingham : Open University Press. ENGELMANN, S. (1991). Change schools through revolution, not evolution. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1,295-304.
SMITH, M.B. & PILIAVIN, J.A. (1969). The schools and prejudice : Findings. In C.Y. Glock and E. Siegelman (Eds.), Prejudice, U.S.A. New York : Frederick Prayer, Inc. CARD, D. & KRUEGER, A.B. (1992). School quality and Black-White relative earnings : A direct assessment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107 (1), 151-200.
ELDER, G.H. (1969). Peer socialization school. Educational Leadersahip, 26 (2), 466-47. [PDF] CARD, D. & KRUEGER, A.B. (1992). Does school quality matter ? Returns to education and the characteristics of public schools in the United States. Journal of Political Economy 100 (1), 1-40.
CANTRELL, R.P., CANTRELL, M.L., HUDDLESTON, C.M. & WOOLDRIDGE, R.L. (1969). Contingency contracting with school problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2 (3), 215-220. [PDF] PAPERT, S. (1993). The children's machine : Rethinking school in the age of the computer. New York : Basic Books.
  ECCLES, J.S. & HAROLD, R.D. (1993). Parent-school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers' College Record, 94, 568-587.
KOZOL, J. (1972). Free schools. Boston : Houghton Mifflin. TEDDLIE, C. & STRINFIELD, S. (1993). Schools make a difference : Lessons learned from a 10 year study of school effects. New York : Teachers College Press.
GRUNWALD, B. (1972). Strategies for behavior change in schools. The Counseling Psychologis, 3, 55-57. AINLEY, M.D. (1994). Engagement with learning: Adolescent perceptions of self and school. The Australian Educational & Developmental Psychologist, 11, 15-23.
  BOUCHARD, P. et St-AMANT, J.C. (1994). On devrait fermer toutes les écoles et en faire comme la nôtre (Études et recherches du Centre de recherche et d'intervention sur la réussite scolaire). Québec : Université Laval/Centrale de l'enseignement du Québec.
  SYLVA, K. (1994). School influences on children's development. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35 (1), 135-170. [PDF]
REIMER, E. (1973). School is dead. Harmondsworth : Penguin Education. THORNE, B. (1994). Gender play : Girls and boys in school. New Brunswick, NJ : Rutgers University Press.
 GREENBERG, B. (1974). School vandalism : Its effects and paradoxical solutions. Crime Prevention Review, 1, (2), 11-18. WIGFIELD, A. & ECCLES, J.S. (1994). Children's competence beliefs, achievement values, and general self-esteem' : Change across elementary and middle school. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14 (20), 107-138.
  MAYER, G.R. (1995). Preventing antisocial behavior in the schools. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 467-478. [PDF]
  PETERSON, G.J., BEEKLEY, C.Z., SPEAKER, K.M. & PIETRZAK, D. (1996). An examina on of violence in three rural school districts. Rural Educator, 19, 25-32.
  JOHNSON, D. & JOHNSON, D.R. (1996). Conflict resolution and peer mediation programs in elementary and secondary schools : A review of the research. Review of Educational Research, 66 (4), 459-506. [PDF]
GOOD, T.L., BIDDLE, B. & BROPHY, J.E. (1977). Do schools make a difference ? In H. Clarizio, R. Craig & W. Mehrens (Eds.), Contemporary readings in educational psychology. Boston : Allyn & Bacon. SLAVIN, R. (1996). Every child, every school : Success for all. Corwin.
WILEY, G.M. & ESKILSON, A. (1978). Why did you learn in school today ? Teachers' perceptions of causality. Sociology of Education, 51 (4), 261-269. ERCHUL, P. & RAVEN, B.H. (1997). Social power in school consultation : A comprehensive view. Journal of School Psychology, 35, 137-171.
  HANUSHEK, E.A. (1997). Assessing the effects of school resources on student performance : An update. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 19 (2), 141-164.
  ROBERT, M. et TONDREAU, J. (1997). L'école québécoise. Débats, enjeux et pratiques sociales. Une analyse sociale de l'éducation pour la formation des maîtres. Anjou : Les Éditions CEC.
HOBBS, N. (1978). Families, schools, and communities : An ecosystem for children. Teachers College Record, 79 (4), 756-766. JONES, G.R. (1997). Cyberschools. Englewood, CO : Jones Digital Century.
MAYER, G.R. & BUTTERWORTH, T.A. (1979). Preventive approach to school violence and vandalism : An experimental study. The Personnel & Guidance Journal, 57, 436-441. WENTZEL, K.R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school : The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (2), 202-209. [PDF]
  HERRING, M. & NORTHUP, J. (1998). The generalization of social skills for a child with behavior disorders in the school setting. Journal Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 20 (3), 51-66.
BARKLEY, R. (1979). Using stimulant drugs in the classroom. School Psychology Digest, 8, 412-425. ELLISON, L. (1998). Managing stress in schools . In B. Davies & L. Ellison. (Eds.), Education management for the 1990s. NewYork : Longman.
  WENTZEL, K.R. (1998). Social support and adjustment in middle school : The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 202-209. [PDF]
   SKIBA, R.J. & PETERSON, R.L. (1999). The dark side of zero tolerance : Can punishment lead to safe schools ? Phi Delta Kappan, 80, 372-382.
GERSTEN, R.M. (1982). High school follow-up of DI Follow Through. Direct Instruction News, 2, 3. LARNER, M.B., ZIPPIROLI, L. & BEHRMAN, R.E. (1999). When school Is out : Analysis and recommendations. The Future of Children, 9 (2), 4-20. [PDF]
WALKER H. M. (1983). Applications of response cost in school settings : Outcomes, issues, and recommendations. Exceptional Education Quarterly, 3, 47-55. SMITH, P.K. & BRAIN, P. (2000). Bullying in schools : Lessons from two decades of research. Aggressivre Behavior, 26, 1-9. [PDF]
 MAYER, G.R., BUTTERWORTH, T., NAKPAKTITIS, M. & SULZER-AZAROFF, B. (1983). Preventing school vandalism and improving discipline : a three-year study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16 (4), 355-369. [PDF] JEYNES, W.H. (2000). Assessing school choice : A balanced perspective. Cambridge Journal of Education, 30 (2), 223-241.
WOODS, P. (1983). The sociology of the school. London : Routledge and Kegan Paul. BROSSARD, L. (2001). L'école est-elle adaptée aux élèves des milieux défavorisés. Vie pédagogique, 120, 54-55.
  GAGNON, J.C. & LEONE, P.E. (2001). Alternative strategies for school violence prevention. New Directions for Youth Development, 92, 101-125.
MAHONY, P. (1985). School for the boys ? Co-education reassessed. Londres : Hutchinson/ The Explorations in Feminism Collective. MARZANO, R.J., PICKERING, D.J. & POLLOCK, J.E. (2001). Classroom instruction that works. Alexandria, VA : ASCD.
OAKES, J. (1985). Keeping track : How schools structure inequality. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. MARZANO, R.J. (2003). What works in schools. Translating Research into Action. Alexandria : A.S.C.D.
GOOD, T.L. & WEINSTEIN, R. (1986). Schools make a difference : Evidence, criticisms, and new directions. American Psychologist, 41(10), 1090-1097. ZUCKER, A. (2004). Developing a research agenda for ubiquitous computing in schools. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 30, 371-386.
HANUSHEK, E.A. (1986). The economics of schooling : Production and efficiency in public schools. Journal of Economic Literature, 24 (3), 1141-1177. WENTZEL, K.R., McNAMARA, C. & CALDWELL, K. (2004). Friendships in middle school : Influences on motivation and school adjustment. Journal of Educational Psychology, 96 (2), 195-203.
  McKERCHAR, P.M. & THOMPSON, R.F., (2004). A descriptive analysis of potential reinforcement contingencies in the preschool classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37 (4), 431-444. [PDF]
MONTMARQUETTE, C. & MAHSEREDJAN, S. (1989). Does school matter for Educational Achievement? A Two-Way Nested-Error Components Analysis. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 4, 181-193. KRATOCHWILL, T.R., ALBERS, CA. & SHERNOFF, E. (2004). School-based interventions. Child & Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 13, 885-903.
SLAVIN, R. (1989). School and classroom organization. Erlbaum. SMITH, P.K., TALAMELLI, l., COWIE, H., NAYLOR, P. & CHAUHAN, P. (2004). Profiles of non-victims, escaped victims, continuing victims and new victims of school bullying. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 565-581. [PDF]
  LABAREE, D.F. (2005). Progressivism, schools, and schools of education : An American romance. Paedagogica Historica, 41 (1-2), 275-288.
ANADON, M. (1989). L'école québécoise: jeux et enjeux de forces sociales. Québec : Les presses de l'Université Laval. JUVONEN, J., NISHINA, A. & GRAHAM, S. (2006). Ethnic diversity and perceptions of safety in urban middle schools. Psychological Science, 17, 393-400. [PDF]
  DUPAUL, G.J., JITENDRA, A.K., TRESCO, K.E., VILE-JUNOD, R.E., VOLPE, R.J. & LUTZ, J.G. (2006). Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Are there gender differences in school functioning ? School Psychology Review, 35 (2), 292-308. [PDF]
  KERR, D.C.R., LUNKENHEIMER, E.S. & OLSON, S.L. (2007). Assessment of child problem behaviors by multiple informants : a longitudinal study from preschool to school entry. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 48 (10), 967-975.
BINDER, C. & WATKINS, C.L. (1990). Precision teaching and direct instruction : Measurably superior instructional technology in schools. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 3 (4), 74-96. McKOWN, C. & WEINSTEIN, R.S. (2008). Teacher expectations, classroom context, and the achievement gap. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 235-261.
  SUGAI, G. & HORNER, R.H. (2008). What we know and need to know about preventing problem behavior in schools. Exceptionality, 16, 67-77.
  SUGAI, G. & HORNER, R.H. (2009). Responsiveness-to-intervention and school-wide positive behavior supports : Integration of multi-tiered approaches. Exceptionality, 17, 223-237.
SKINNER, E.A., WELBORN, J.G. & CONNELL, J.P. (1990). What it takes to do well in school and whether I've got it : The role of perceived control in children's engagement and school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 22-32. VASALAMPI, K., SALMELA-ARO, K. & NURM, J.-E. (2010). Education-related goal appraisals and self-esteem during the transition to secondary education : A longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 4, 481-490. [PDF]
  SUGAI, G. & HORNER, R.H. (2010). School-wide positive behavior support : Establishing a continuum of evidence based practices. Journal of Evidence-based Practices for Schools, 11 (1), 62-83.
  HULAC, D.M., TERRELL J., VINING, O., & BERNSTEIN, J. (2011). Behavioral interventions in schools. New York, NY: Routledge.
GRÉGOIRE, R. (1990). Les facteurs qui favorisent une bonne école: rapport d'une recherche biblio- graphique sélective et analytique. Québec : Ministère de l'Éducation du Québec, Direction de la recherche. BOULTON, M.J., DON, J. & BOULTON, L. (2011). Predicting children's liking of school from their peer relationships. The Social Psychology of Education, 14, 489-501.
  CAPPELLA, E., HAMRE, B., KIM, H.Y., HENRY, D., FRAZIER, S., ATKINS, M. & SCHOENWALD, S. (2012). Teacher consultation and coaching within mental health practice : Classroom and child effects in urban elementary schools. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 80, 597-610.
  LABAREE, D.F. (2012). School syndrome : Understanding the USA's magical belief that schooling can somehow improve society, promote access, and preserve advantage. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44, (2), 143-163.
  FRAZIER, S.L., MEHTA, T.G., ATKINS, M.S., HUR, K. & RUSCH. D. (2013). Not just a walk in the park : Efficacy to effectiveness for after school programs in communities of concentrated urban poverty. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 40 (5), 406-418.
  SALDANA, J. (2013). Power and conformity in today's schools. international Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 3 (1), 228-232. [PDF]
  MORIN-MESSABEL, C. & SALLE, M. (Eds.) (2013) À l'école des stéréotypes. Paris : L'Harmattan.
Voir Apprentissage, Classe, Enseigner, Étudier et harcèlement à l'école.
b
 MARX, M.H. & HILLIX, W.A. (1973). Systems and theories in psychology. New York : McGraw-Hill.
Voir aussi École scientifique et Perspective
École (Directeur d'...) :

  BRASSARD, A., CLOUTIER, M., DE SAEDELEER, S., CORRIVEAU, L., FORTIN, R., GÉLINAS, A. & SAVOIE-ZACK, L. (2004). Rapport à l'activité éducative et identité professionnelle chez les directeurs d'établissement des ordres d'enseignement préscolaire et primaire. Revue de Science de l'Éducation, 30 (3), 487-508.
CATTONAR, B., LESSARD, C., BLAIS, J.G., LAROSE, F., RIOPEL, M.C., TARDIF, M., BOURQUE, J. & WRIGHT, A. (2007). Les directeurs et les directrices d'école au Canada : Contexte, profil et travail. Enquête pancanadienne auprès des directions et des enseignants d'écoles primaires et secondaires (2005-2006). Montréal, Québec : Chaire de recherche du Canada sur le personnel et les métiers de l'Éducation.
ARCHAMBAULT, J. & HARNOIS, L. (2009). Diriger une école primaire de milieu défavorisé. Éthique publique, 11 (1), 86-93.
École (Préparation à...) : Chez l'enfant, ensemble des habiletés cognitives et sociales, acquises grâce aux parents, qui lui permettent de réussir son entrée à l'école.

  LIN, H., LAWRENCE, F.R. & GORRELL, J. (2003). Kindergarten teachers' views of children's readiness for school. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 18, 225-237.
KONOLD, T.R. & PLANTA, R.C. (2005). Empirically-derived, person-oriented patterns of school readiness in typically-developing children : Description and prediction to first-grade achievement. Applied Developmental Science, 9, 174-187.
DUNCAN, G.J., DOWSETT, C.J., CLAESSENS, A., MAGNUSON, K., HUSTON, A.C., KLEBANOV, P., PAGANI, L.S., FEINSTEIN, L., ENGEL, BROOKS-GUNN, J.M., SEXTON, H., DUCKWORTH. K. & JAPEL, C. (2007). School readiness and later achievement. Developmental Psychology, 43 (6), 1428-1446. [PDF]
École (primaire) :

 
École (secondaire) :

  LEE V., BRYK, A. & SMITH, J. (1993). The organization of effective secondary schools. Review of Research in Education, 19, 171-267.
VASALAMPI, K., SALMELA-ARO, K. & NURM, J.-E. (2010). Education-related goal appraisals and self-esteem during the transition to secondary education : A longitudinal study. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 4, 481-490. [PDF]
École (scientifique ou de pensée) : Conception particulière d'un objet d'étude et des méthodes visant à l'étudier. École de pens et perspective.

Grandes écoles de pensée
École autrichienne École de Francfort École de la relation d'objet
École empiriste anglo-saxone École de la psychologie du moi École expérimentale allemande
École de Berlin École de la psychologie du soi École freudo-marxiste
École de Chicago en économie École de Palo Alto École japonaise de primatologie
École de Chicago en psychologie École de Vienne École russe
École de Chicago (en sociologie) École de Wurzbourg École sensualiste
 
École autrichienne (en économie) : Groupe d'économistes partisans de l'individualisme méthodologique. ( ): Hayek, Menger, Mises, Rothbard. = École de Vienne.
 
École empiriste anglo-saxonne : ( ): Bacon, Hume, Locke.

 
École de Berlin : Berlin school.

  SUNDQVIST, F. (2007).The gestalt according to the Berlin school (The crossroads between empiricism and rationalism : Part III. Gestalt Theory, 29 (1), 223-241.
École de Chicago (en économie) : ( ): Friedmann, Stiegler.

 
École de Chicago (en psychologie) : Groupe de philosophes et de psychologues réunis autour des travaux de Dewey, entre 1910 et 1935. ( ): Angell, Dewey. Chicago school.
 
École de Chicago (en sociologie) : Groupe de sociologues réunis autour des travaux de Small, Thomas et Park, et qui s'est d'abord fait connaître par ses Études sur les relations interethniques, le racisme et la délinquance. ( ): Becker, Goffman, Hughes, Lasswell, Mead, Park, Small, Thomas, Znaniecki. Chicago school.

 
École de Francfort : ( ): Adorno, Fromm, Horkheimer, Lazarsfeld, Lewin et Marcuse. Frankfurt school.
  BOTTOMORE, T. (1984). The Frankfurt school. Tavistock Publication, Key Sociologists.
McLAUGLIN, N. (1999). Origin myths in the social sciences : Fromm, the Frankfurt school and the emergency of critical theory. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 24, 109-139.
École de la psychologie du moi : Voir Psychologie du moi.

 
École de la psychologie du soi : Voir Psychologie du soi.

 
École de Palo Alto : Palo Alto est une ville de la Californie située près de l'Univerité Stanford. L'expression désigne trois groupes multidisciplinaires constitués de scientifiques (psychologues, linguistes, sociologues, chimistes, etc.), de psychiatres et de philosophes. Le premier groupe, surnommé le Groupe de Palo Alto, s'intéresse plus particulièrement à la communication et aux contraintes liées à sa pratique, notamment chez les schizophrènes. Il est fondé en 1952 par Bateson, Weakland, Healy et Fry. = Bateson Project. Le second groupe, orienté vers la psychothérapie, a été fondé en 1958 par Jackson, Satir et Riskin et se nomme Mental reasearch Institute. En 1967, Fish, Watzlawick, Weakland et Bodin créent un troisième groupe autour du Brief Therapy Center, une clinique de psychothérapie brève. ( ): Bateson, Fisch, Jackson, Haley, Mucchielli, Satir, Watzlawick, Weakland, Wilden.
  EDMOND, M. et PICARD, D. (1984). L'École de Palo Alto. Retz editions.
WITTEZEALE, J. et GARCIA, T. (1992/2006). À la recherche de l'École de Palo Alto. Paris : Seuil.

Watzlawick, Fish et Weakland
 
École de Vienne : Voir Positivisme logique.

  SCHLICK, M. (1937). L'École de Vienne et la philosophie traditionnelle. Dans L'unité de la science : la méthode et les méthodes (pp. 99–107). Paris : Heinman & Cie.
JACOB, P. (Dir.) (1980). De Vienne à Cambridge. Paris : NRF Gallimard.
École de Wurzbourg : École de psychologues allemands du début du 20e siècle. = École de Würzbourg. ( ): Bühler, Külpe, Selz. Wurzburg group.
  KOSTYLEFF, N. (1910). Les travaux de l'école de Wurzbourg : contribution à l'étude objective de la pensée. Revue Philosophique, 70, 554-580.
École de la relation d'objet : Groupe de psychanalystes qui considère que le développement de la personnalité repose davantage sur la relation mère/père-enfant que sur les pulsions et leurs mécanismes (position orthodoxe défendue par Freud et de ses disciples). ( ): Bowlby, Winnicott. Object relation theorist.
  SUTHERLAND, D (1980). The British object relations theorists : Balint, Winnicott, Fairbairn, Guntrip. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 28, 829-860.
École expérimentale allemande : Groupe de physiologistes et d'anatomiste allemands réunis autour des travaux de Müller. ( ): Brücke, Dubois-Reymond, Fechner, Helmholtz, Henle, Kühne, Ludwig, Müller, Schwann, Virchow, Weber, Wundt.

 
École freudo-marxiste : ( ): Reich, Fromm, Marcuse.

 
École japonaise de primatologie : ( ): Imanishi, Itani, Matsuzawa, Nishida.

 
École privée : Voir École. /école publique. Private school.

  ZIMMER, R.W. & TOMA, E.F. (2000). Peer effects in private and public schools across countries. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management 19, 75-92.
JEYNES, W.H. & BEUTTLER, F. (2012). What private & public schools can learn from each other. Peabody Journal of Education, 87 (3), 285-304.
École publique : Voir École. /école privée. Public school.

  RICE, J.M. (1893). The public school system of the United States. New York : The Century Company.
ZIMMER, R.W. & TOMA, E.F. (2000). Peer effects in private and public schools across countries. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management 19, 75-92.
JEYNES, W.H. & BEUTTLER, F. (2012). What private & public schools can learn from each other. Peabody Journal of Education, 87 (3), 285-304.
École russe : Désigne le programme de recherche expérimentale mis sur pied par Bechterev et Pavlov pour étudier les réflexes et le conditionnement répondant. = école de réflexologie.

  BROZEK, J. (1973). Soviet historiography of psychology: Sources of biographic and bibliographic information.Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 9, 152-161.
IVERSEN, I.H. (1992). Skinner's early research : From reflexology to operant conditioning. American Psychologist, 47, 1318-1328.
École sensualiste : ( ): Cabanis, Condillac.

 
Écologie : Le terme a cinq acceptions complémentaires qui tous mettent l'accent sur l'intéraction entre l'ndividu et son milieu. : a) À l'origine, il désigne une branche de la biologie qui étudie le lien étroit entre une espèce et son milieu, sa niche et ses ressources. = écologie animale. Ecology. b) Par extension, le terme désigne également une branche de la psychologie qui étudie la relation entre un humain et son milieu organisée en système. = écologie humaine. Human ecology. c) Le mot renvoie aussi à la discipline au carrefour de la psychologie béhavioriste et de l'écologie animale, qui, comme son nom l'indique, considère que cette relation avec le milieu ou l'environnement s'établit essentiellement au moyen de comportement. Behavioral ecology, behavioural ecology. d) Le mot désigne également une idéologie doublée d'un mouvement social et politique de défense et de préservation de l'environnement humain et de la faune. = mouvement contestataire en faveur de l'environnement, contre la pollution, le gaspillage, groupes écologistes, militant écologiste.= écologie politique. e) Finalement, et plus récemment, on utilise l'expression psychologie écologique pour désigner la branche de la psychologie scientifique qui étudie les comportements individuels et sociaux qui contribuent à la pollution, au réchauffement climatique et au développement durable. Conservation psychologie.

Forme d'écologie
Écologie animale Écologie béhaviorale Écologie politique
  Écologie humaine Psychologie écologique
 


  a
ELTON, C.H. (1927). Animal ecology. Londres : Sidgwick & Jackson.
O'CONNOR, R.J. (2000). Why ecology lags behind biology.The Scientist 14 (20), 35.
Voir Écologie animale
b
BARKER, R.G. (1965). Explorations in ecological psychology. American Psychology, 20 (1), 1-14.
WINTER, D.D. (1996). Ecological psychology : Healing the split between planet and self. New York : Harper Collins.
SHAW, R., TURVEY, M.T. & MACE, W. (1982). Ecological psychology: The consequences of a commitment to realism. In W. Weimer & D. Palermo (Eds.), Cognition and the symbolic processes H. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Voir Écologie humaine
c
WILLEMS, E.P. (1974). Behavioral technology and behavioral ecology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7 (1), 151-165. [PDF]
Voir Écologie béhaviorale
d
JOIREMAN, J., VAN LANGE, P.A.M. & VAN VUGT, M. (2004). Who cares about the environmental impact of cars ? Those with an eye toward the future. Environment & Behavior, 35, 1-20. [PDF]
LIPIETZ, A. (2007). Écologie politique et mondialisation. L'Economie Politique, 34, 1-8. [PDF]
LIPIETZ, A. (2012). Qu'est-ce que l'écologie poltique ? La grande transformation du XXIe siècle. Paris : Les Petits Matins.
LEBLANC, J. & MAHEU, A. (2014). La place du discours critique du Réseau québécois des groupes écologistes et de ses membres dans les médias. Nouveaux Cahier du Socialisme, 11, 114-128.
Voir Réchauffement climatique, Développement durable, Rapport du Club de Rome et Mouvement social et politique
 
e
OSKAMP, S. (1995). Applying social psychology to avoid ecological disaster. Journal of Social Issues, 51 (4), 217-238.
OSKAMP, S. (2000). Psychological contributions to achieving an ecologically sustainable future for humanity. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (3), 373-390. [PDF]
CLAYTON, S. & BROOK, A. (2005). Can psychology help save the world ? A model for conservation psychology. Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy, 5 (1), 87-102. [PDF]
Voir Réchauffement climatique, Développement durable
Écologie animale : Branche de la biologie, au carrefour de l'éthologie et de la psychologie animale, qui étudie l'influence du milieu sur les stratégies évolutive des espèces (croissance, reproduction, organisation sociale, mode d'alimentation, agressivité), et sur les statégies d'adaptation des individus (stratégie alimentaire, apprentissage, etc.), alors que l'éthologie classique s'intéresse davantage aux déterminants biogénétique. = écologie comportementale, écologie béhaviorale, bioécologie. ( ): Davies, Caraco, Côté, Elton, Giraldeau, Kacelnik, Kramer, Krebs, Krief, Lack, Lefebvre. Animal ecology.

  ELTON, C.H. (1927). Animal ecology. Londres : Sidgwick & Jackson. LICKLITER, R. (2000). An ecological approach to behavioral development : Insights from comparative psychology. Ecological Psychology, 12, 319-334. [PDF]
ELTON, C.H. (1927). Animal ecology and evolution. Oxford : Clarendon Press. KREBS, C.J. (2005). Ecology. Benjamin Cummins.
CODY, M.L. (1974). Optimization in ecology. Science, 183, 1156-1164. OWENS, I.P.F. (2006). Where is behavioural ecology going ? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 356-361. [PDF]
WRANGHAM, R.W. (1980). An ecological model of female-bonded primate groups.Behaviour 75, 262-300. GIRALDEAU, L.A. et DUBOIS, F. (2009). Le comportement animal. Paris : Dunod.
Voir aussi Éthologie et Animal
Écologie behaviorale : Discipline au carrefour de la psychologie béhavioriste et de l'écologie animale. = écologie comportementale. ( ): Behavioural ecology.

  WILLEMS, E.P. (1974). Behavioral technology and behavioral ecology. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7 (1), 151-165. [PDF] DANCHIN, É., GIRALDEAU, L.-A. et CÉZILLY, F. (Dirs.) (2005). Introduction à l'écologie comportementale : Comportement, adaptation et évolution. Paris : Dunod Éditeur.
KRANTZ, P.J. & RISLEY, T.R. (1977). Behavioral ecology in the classroom. In D.K.O'Leary & S.G. O'Leary (Eds.), Class room management : The sucesful use of behavior modification (pp. 349-366). New York : Pergamon Press.  
ROGERS-WARREN, A. & WARREN, S.F (Eds.) (1977). Ecological perspectives in behavior analysis. Baltimore : University Park Press.  
TIMBERLAKE, W. (1984). An ecological approach to learning. Learning & Motivation, 15, 321-333. [PDF] OWENS, I.P.F. (2006). Where is behavioural ecology going ? Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 21, 356-361. [PDF]
FANTINO, E. (1985). Behavior analysis and behavioral ecology : A synergistic coupling. The Behavior Analyst, 8 (2), 151-157. [PDF]  
VAN HOUTEN, R. & ROLIDER, A., NAU P., BECKER, M., CHALDOVSKI, I., SCHERER, M. & FRIEDMANN, R. (1985). Large scale reduction in speeding and accidents in Canada and Israel : A behavioral ecological perspective. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 87-93. [PDF] MORRIS, E.K. (2009). Behavior analysis and ecological psychology : past, present, and future : a review of Harry Heft's ecological psychology in context. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 92 (2), 275-304. [PDF]
SCHROEDER, S.R. .(Ed.). (1990). Ecobehavioral analysis and developmental disabilities : The twenty-firstcentury. New York : Springer-Ver- lag.  
THOMPSON, N.S. & DERR, P.G. (1995/966). On the use of mental terms in behavioral ecology and sociobiology. Behavior & Philosophy, 23 (3)/24 (1), 31-37. [PDF]  
KAISER, F. G., WOLFING, S. & FUHRER, U. (1999). Environmental attitude and ecological behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 1-19. [PDF] BABAJOLA, S. & LAWAN, U. (2009). Factors predicting BCG immunization status in northern Nigeria : a behavioral-ecological perspective.Journal of Child Health Care, 13 (1), 46-62. [PDF]
LICKLITER, R. (2000). An ecological approach to behavioral development : Insights from comparative psychology. Ecological Psychology, 12, 319-334. GARAMSZEGI, L.Z., CALHIM, S., DOCHTERMANN, N., HEGYI, G., HURD, P.L., JORGENSEN, C., KUTSUKAKE, N., LAJEUNESSE, M.J., POLLARD, K.A., SCHIELZETH, H., SYMONDS, M.R.E. & NAKAGAWA, S. (2009). Changing philosophies and tools for statistical inferences in behavioral ecology. Behavioral Ecology, 20, 1363-1375. [PDF]
Voir aussi Béhaviorisme et Écologie animale
Écologie humaine/Écologiste : Perspective psychologique qui a pour objet d'étude l'accommodation mutuelle et progressive entre l'individu en croissance et les propriétés changeantes des milieux, immédiats ou non, dans lesquels vit cet individu. Bronfenbrenner est l'un des fondateurs de cette perspective. = écologie sociale, approche communautaire, psychologie communautaire, analyse éco-systémique, approche systémique. ( ): Adler, Barker, Belsky, Berry, Bouchard, Bronfenbrenner, Burgess, Caron, Catalano, Ceci, Chamberland,Dooley, Garbarino, Garon, Hanker, Hazan, Hobbs, Julien, Mishara, Morris, Nadeau, Novaco, Rappaport, Richerson, Tarabulsy, Tessier, Théorêt, Tousignant, Tsai, Volling, Weinstein, Whalen, Ying, Youngblade. Human ecology, ecological perspective, ecological psychology.
  BARKER, R.G. (1965). Explorations in ecological psychology. American Psychology, 20, 1-14. PENCE, A. (Ed.) (1990). Ecological research with children and families. New York : Columbia University.
KUNKEL, J.H. (1967). Some behavioral aspects of the ecological approach to social organization. American Journal of Sociology, 73 (1), 12-29.  
BARKER, R.G. (1968). Ecological psychology. Concepts and methods for studying the environment of human behaviour. Stanford : Stanford University Press. BURGESS, R.L. (1991). Social and ecological issues in violence toward children. In R.T. Ammerman & M. Hersen (Eds.), Case studies in family violence (pp. 15-38). New York : Plenum.
WIRTH, L. (1969). Human Ecology. In In R. Sennett. (Ed.), Classic essays on the cultures of cities. New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts.  
BATESON, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. N.Y.: Ballentine Books. RICCIO, G.E. & STROFFREGEN, T.A. (1991). An ecological theory of motion sickness and postural instability. Ecological Psychology, 3, 195-240. [PDF]
BRONFENBRENNER, U. (1977). The ecology of human development. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. GARBARINO, J. (1992). Children and families in the social environment. New York, NY : Aldine de Gruyter.
CARR, T. H., COOKE, T. P., STRAIN, P.S. & McILLAN, D. (1975). An ecologically oriented approach to youth deviance. Journal of Community Psychology, 4, 389-400.  
CATALANO, R. (1979). Health, behavior, and the community : an ecological perspective. Pergamon Press. BARON, R.M. & MISOVICH, S.J. (1993). Dispositional knowing from an ecological perspective. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 541-552.
BELSKY, J. (1980). Child maltreatment : an ecological integration. American psychologist, 35, 320-336.  
WHALEN, C.K. & HENKER, B. (Eds.) (1980). Hyperactive children : The social ecology of identification and treatment. New York : Academic Press. BELSKY, J. (1993). Etiology of child maltreatment : A developmental- ecological analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 413-434.
OGBU, J.U. (1981). Origins of human competence : A cultural-ecological perspective. Child Development, 52, 413-429. BERRY, J.W. (1994). De la psychologie culturelle et ethnique : Un perspective écologique. Cahiers Internationaux de Psycholgie Sociale, 24, 9-32.
BRONFENBRENNER, U. (1981). The ecology of human development : Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press. BRONFENBRENNER, U. (1996). Le modèle Processus-Personne-Contexte-Temps dans la recherche en psychologie du développement : Principes, applications et implications. In R. Tessier & G.M. Tarabulsy (Eds), Le "modèle écologique" dans l'étude du développement de l'enfant (pp. 9-58). Ste-Foy, Qc : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
RIGER, S., LEBAILLY, R. & GORDON, M. (1981). Community ties and urbanites fear of crime : An ecological investigation. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 653-665. FRASER, M. (1997). Risk and resilience in childhood : An ecological perspective. Washington DC : NASW Press.
McARTHUR, L.Z. & BARON, R.M. (1983). Toward an ecological theory of social perception. Psychological Review, 90, 215-238. GILLEPSIE, C.W., PELREN, S.L. & TWARDOSZ, S. (1998). An ecological perspective on the voluntary book use of 2- and 3-year-olds in day care. Early Education & Development, 9, 283-306.
WICKER, A.W. (1984). An introduction to ecological psychology. CUP Archive. BRONFENBRENNER, U. & MORRIS, P.A. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damon & R.M. Lerner (Eds), Handbook of child psychology : Theoretical models of human development (Vol. 1, pp. 993-1028). New York : Wiley.
GIBSON, E. (1984). Perceptual development from the ecological approach. Advances in Developmental Psychology, 3, 243-286. WHITLEY, E., GUNNELL, D., DORLING, D. & DAVEY SMITH, G. (1999). Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty and suicide. British Medical Journal, 319, 1034-1037. [PDF]
TIMBERLAKE, W. (1984). An ecological approach to learning. Learning & Motivation, 15, 321-333. [PDF] NATSOULAS, T. (1999). An ecological and phenomenological perspective on consciousness and perception : Contact with the world at the very heart of the being of consciousness. Review of General Psychology, 3 (3), 224-245.
  BRONFENBRENNER, U. (2001).The bioecological model of human development. [PDF]
STIGGINS, R. & BRIDGEFORD, N. (1985). The ecology of classroom assessment. Journal of Educational Measurement, 22, 271-286. BRONFENBRENNER, U. (2004). Making human beings human : Bioecological perspectives on human development. Sage Publications.
HARDIN, G. (1985). Human ecology : the subversive, conservative science. American Zoologist, 25, 469-476. DHAMI, M.K., HETWIG, R. & HOFFRAGE, U. (2004). The role of repre- sentative design in an ecological approach to cognition. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 959-988.
BRONFENBRENNER, U. (1986). Ecology of the family as a context for human development. Developmental Psychology, 22, 723-742. FURMAN, G.C. & GRUENEWALD, D.A. (2004). Expanding the landscape of social justice : A critical ecological analysis. Educational Administration Quarterly, 40, 47-76.
TERRISSE, B. et DANSEREAU, S. (1988). Une approche systémique en intervention précoce. International Journal of Early Chilhood, 20 (2), 11-22. VOLLING, B. (2005). The transition to siblinghood : A developmental ecological systems perspective and directions for future research. Journal of Family Psychology, 19 (4), 542-549. [PDF]
TURVEY, M.T., SOLOMON, H.Y. & BURTON, G. (1989). An ecological analysis of knowing by wielding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52 (3), 387-407. [PDF]  WAKEFIELD, J.C. (2005). Does social work need the eco-systems perspective?: Part 1. Is the perspective clinically useful ? New York : McGraw-Hill.
SLAUGHTER-DEFOE, D.T., NAKAGAWA, K., TAKANISHI, R. & JOHNSON, D.J. (1990). Toward cultural/ecological perspectives on schooling and achievement in African - and Asian-American children. Child Development, 61, 363-383.  WAKEFIELD, J.C. (2005). Does social work need the eco-systems perspective ? : Part 2. Does the perspective save social work from incoherence? New York : McGraw-Hill.
BRONFENBRENNER, U. (1977). The ecology of human development. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. BRONFENBRENNER, U. & MORRIS, P.A. (2006). The bioecological model of human development. In R.M. Lerner & W. Damon ( Eds.), Theoretical models of human development (Vol. 1, pp.793-828). New York : Wiley. [PDF]
  DANIEL, D.B. & POOLE, DA. (2009). Learning for life : An ecological approach to pedagogical research. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 4, 91-96.
  Voir aussi Système de Bronfenbrenner  
Ecological Psychology : Revue scientifique d'écologie humaine. Éditeur : The International Society for Ecological Psychology.
RICCIO, G.E. & STROFFREGEN, T.A. (1991). An ecological theory of motion sickness and postural instability. Ecological Psychology, 3, 195-240. [PDF]

Ecology : Revue scientifique d'écologie humaine.
COWHILL, U. (1966). Season of birth in man. Contemporary situation with special reference to Europe and the Southern Hemisphere. Ecology, 47, 614-623.

Économétrie : Econometric.

   LEAMER, E. (1983). Let's take the con out of econometrics. American Economic Review, 73, 31-43.
Économie
Écoonométrie Économie d'énergie Économie durable
Économie (Science) Économie de jetons  
 
Économie/Économiste : Du grec oikos qui signifie «demeure ou maison» et nomos qui signifie «administrer ou gérer». Science empirique qui étudie la production, la distribution et la consommation des biens et services dans une société, ainsi que les systèmes d'échange, monétaire ou non, qui permettent la réalisation de ces trois fonctions. L'économie est sans doute la science humaine la plus formalisée. ( ): Atkouf, Attali, Becker, Bentham, Black, Buchanan, Catalano, Chossudovsky, Curtin, Cyert, Deaton, Diamond, Dostaler, Ellsberg, Fehr, Fortin, Frank, Friedman, Galbraith, Gill, Grinols, Hayek, Jevons, Juster, Herman, Krugman, Laffer, Landry, Leontief, Lepage, Levitt, Levitt-Polanyi, Lipietz, Malthus, March, Maris, Marshall, Marx, Menger, Mises, Morgenstern, Olson, Orivel, Pareto, Parizeau, Paulsen, Petrella, Pigou, Piketty, Ricardo, Rifkin, Roth, Rothbard, Samuelson, Say, Schelling, Schumacher, Schumpeter, Simon, Smith, Stiglitz, Thaler, Tobin, Tullock, Von Mises, Urunuela, Van Audenrode, Veblen, Wallis, Walras. Economy.
  VEBLEN, T. (1898). Why is economics not an evolutionary science? Quarterly Journal of Economics 12, 373-397. [PDF] BARBEZAT, D.A. (1992). The market for new Ph.D. economists. Journal of Economic Education, 23 (3), 262-276.
KATONA, G. (1953). Rational behavior and economic behavior. Psychoogical Review, 60 (5), 307-318.  FRANK, R.H., GILOVICH, T. & REGAN, D.T. (1993). Does studying economics inhibit cooperation ? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7, 159-171. [PDF]
FRIEDMAN, M. (1953/95). The methodology of positive economics/La méthodologie de l'économie positive. In M. Friedman (1953/95), Essays in positive economics / Essais d'économie positive. Chicago/Paris : University of Chicago Press/Litec. HURSH, S. (1984). Behavioral economics. Journal of the Expermental Analysis of Behavior, 42, 435-452. [PDF]
STIGGLER, G.J. (1954). The economist plays with blocs. American Economic Review, 44, 7-14. KIRMAN, A. (1989). The intrinsic limits of modern economic theory. The emperor has no clothes. The Economic Journal, 99, 126-139. [PDF]
  KAHNEMAN, D. & THALER, R. (1991). Economic analysis and the psychology of utility : Applications to compensation policy. American Economic Review, 81, 341-346. [PDF]
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BUCHANAN, J.M. & TOLLISON, G. (Ed) (1972), Theory of public choice : Political applications of economics. Ann Arbor : University of Michigan Press. SIMON, H. (1993). Altruism and economics. American Economic Review 83, 156-161.
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BECKER, G.S. (1976). Altruism, egoism, and genetic fitness : Economics and sociobiology. Journal of Economic Literature, 14 (3), 817-826.  FRANK, R.H., GILOVICH, T. & REGAN, D.T. (1996). Do economists make bad citizens ? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 10, 187-192. [PDF]
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  STARMER, C. (1999). Experiments in economics : Should we Trust the dismal scientists in white coats ? Journal of Economic Methodology, 6 (1), 1-30.
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  ROTH, A.E. (2002). The economist as engineer. Econometrica, 70 (4), 1341-178.
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HURSH, S.R. (1980). Economic concepts for the analysis of behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 34 (2), 219-238. [PDF] MICHEL-KERJAN, E. & SLOVIC, P. (Eds.) (2010). The irrational economist : Making decisions in a dangerous world. New York : Public Affairs.
 ALLISON, J. (1981). Economics and operant conditioning. In P. Harzem & M.D. Zeiler (Eds.), Advances in analysis of behaviour : Predictability, corelation and contiguity (Vol. 2, pp. 321-353). Chichester : Wiley. COLES, P., CAWLEY, J., LEVINE, P.B., NIEDERLE, M., ROTH, A.E. & SIEGRFRIED, J.J. (2010). The job market for new economists : A market design perspective. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 24 (4), 187-206. [PDF]
TULLOCK, G. (1986). The economics of wealth and poverty. London, England : Wheatsheaf Press. IOANNIDIS, J.P.A. & DOUCOULIAGOS, C. (2013). What's to know about the credibility of empirical economics ? Journal of Economic Surveys, 27 (5), 997-1004. [PDF]
 TIMBERLAKE, W. & PEDEN, B.F. (1987). On the distinction between open and closed economies. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 48, 35-60. [PDF] MARCIL, A. (2016). Les passagers clandestins - Métaphores et trompe-l'oeil de l'économie. Montréal : Somme toute.
Voir aussi S.O.S. Économie
Économie (Macro...) : Macroeconomic.

  HARKNETT, K. & SCHEIDER, D. (2012). Is a bad economy good for marriage ? The relationship between macroeconomic conditions and marital stability from 1998-2009. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series. [PDF]
Économie (Micro...) : Microeconomic.

  SMITH, V.L. (1982). Microeconomic Systems as an Experimental Science. American Economic Review, 72 (5), 923-955.
Économie d'énergie : Energy consumption.

   HASS, J.W., BAGLEY, G.S. & ROGERS, R.W. (1975). Coping with the energy crisis : Effects of fear appeals upon attitude toward energy consumption. Journal of Applied Psychology, 60, 754-756. McCLELLAND, S.L. & COOK, S.W. (1980). Energy conservation effects of continuous in-home feedback in all-electric homes. Journal of Environmental Systems, 9 (2), 29-38.
KOHLENBERG, R.J., PHILLIPS, T. & PROCTOR, W. (1976). A behavioral analysis of peaking in residential electrical-energy consumers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (1), 13-18. [PDF] HAYES, S.C. & CONE, J.D. (1981). Reduction of residential consumption of electricity through simple monthly feedback. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14 (1), 81-88. [PDF]
  HESLOP, L.A., MORAN, L. & COUSINEAU, A. (1981). Consciousness' in energy conservation behavior : an exploratory study. Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 299-305.
 SEAVER, W.B. & PATTERSON, A.H. (1976). Decreasing fuel-oil consumption through feedback and social commendation.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (2), 147-152. [PDF] WINETT, R.A., HATCHER, J.W., FORT, T.R. LECKLITER, I.N. LOVE, S.Q. RILEY, A.W. & FISHBACK, J.F. (1982). The effects of videotape modeling and daily feedback on residential electricity conservation, home temperature and humidity, perceived comfort, and clothing worn : Winter and summer. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15 (3), 381-402. [PDF]
HAYES, S.C. & CONE, J.D. (1977). Reducing residential electrical energy use : payments, information, and feedback. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14 (1), 425-435. [PDF]  VAN RAAIJ, W.F. & VERHALLEN, T.M.M (1983). A behavioral model of residential energy use. Journal of Economic Psychology, 3 (1), 39-63.
 PALMER, M.H., LLOYD, M.E. & LLOYD, K.E. (1977). An experimental analysis of electricity conservation procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10 (4), 665-671. [PDF] MACEY, S.M. & BROWN, M.A. (1983). Residential energy conservation; The role of past experience in repetitive household behavior. Environment & Behavior 15 (2), 123- 141.
 CUNNINGHAM, W.H. & JOSEPH, B. (1978). Energy conservation, price increases and payback periods. In H.K. Hunt (Ed.), Advances in Consumer Research, 5. (Vol 5, pp. 201-205). Association for Consumer Research. WINETT, R.A., LECKLITER, I.N., CHINN, D.E., STAHL, B. & LOVE, S.Q. (1985). Effects of television modeling on residential energy conservation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18 (1), 33-44. [PDF]
 DARLEY, J.M. (1978). Energy conservation techniques as innovations and their diffusion. Energy & Buildings, 1, 339-343.  BLACK, J.S., STERN, P.C. & ELWORTH, J.T. (1985). Personal and contextual influences on household energy adaptations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70 (1), 3-21.
   HUTTON, B.R., MAUSER, G.A., FILIATRAULT, P. & ANTOLA, O.T. (1986). Effects of cost-related feedback on consumer knowledge and consumption behavior : A field experimental approach. Journal of Consumer Research, 13, 327-336.
   NEUMAN, K. (1986). Personal values and commitment to energy conservation. Environment & Behavior, 18 (1), 53-74.
WINETT, R.A., NEALE, M.S. & GRIER, H.C. (1979). Effects of self-monitoring and feedback on residential electricity consumption. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12 (2), 173-184. [PDF]  VAN RAAIJ, W.F. & VAN HOWELINGEN, J.H. (1989). The effect of goal-setting and daily electronic feedback on in-home energy use. Journal of Consumer Research, 16, 98-105.
 BITTLE, R.G., VALESANO, R.M. & THALER, G.M. (1979-80). The effects of daily feedback on residential electricity usage as a function of usage level and type of feedback information. Journal of Environmental Systems, 9 (3), 275-287.  BRANDON, G. & LEWIS, A. (1999). Reducing household energy consumption : A qualitative and quantitative field study. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 19, 75-85. [PDF]
Voir aussi Polluer, Recycler et Comportement de propreté
Économie de jetons : Technique de modification du comportement inventée par Stats, qui se déroule en deux étapes : 1) d'abord on utilise des renforçements secondaires, appelés jetons, pour renforcer les comportements souhaités du sujet/malade/patient; 2) le sujet/malade/patient accumule ses jetons dans le but de les échanger contre des renforcements primaires ou d'autres renforçateurs secondaires. EX: À l'école, les enseignants utilisent de l'argent de Monopoly (renforcements secondaires) pour renforcer les «bons comportements» de leur élèves. Cet argent pourra ensuite être échangé contre des heures de jeu ou de la nourriture (renforcement primaire). Économie de jetons, façonnement et renforcement positifs. = système de jetons. Token economy, token system, token reinforcement program.
  WOLFE, J.B. (1936). Effectiveness of token-rewards for chimpanzees. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 12, 1-72.  
STAATS, A.W., MINKE, K.A, FINLEY, J.R., WOLF, M.M. & BROOKS, L.O. (1964). A reinforcer system and experimental procedure for the laboratory study of reading acquisition. Child Development, 35, 209-231. ROBINSON, P.W., NEWBY, T.J. & GANZELL, S.L. (1981). A token system for a class of underachieving hyperactive children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14 (3), 307-315. [PDF]
BIRNBRAUER, J.S. & LAWLER, J. (1964). Token reinforcement for learning. Mental retardation, 33, 275-279. KAZDIN, A.E. (1982). The token economy : a decade later. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15 (3), 431-445. [PDF]
BINBRAUER, J.S., WOLF, M.M., KIDDER, J.D. & TAGUE, C.E. (1965). Classroom behavior of retarded pupils with token reinforcement. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 219-235. MILTENBERGER, R.G. & FUQUA, W. (1983). Effects of token reinforcement schedules on work rate : A case study. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 88, 229-232.
MALAGODI, E.F. (1967). Acquisition of the token-rewrd habit in the rart. Psychological Reports, 20 (3), 1335-1342. JASON, L.A. (1985). Using a token-actuated timer to reduce television viewing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18 (3), 269-272. [PDF]
O'LEARY, K.D. & BECKER, W.C. (1967). Behavior modification of an adjustment class : A token reinforcement program. Exceptional Child, 33, 637-642. BASHORE, C. & McLAUGHLIN, T.F. (1995). The effects of precision teaching and a token economy on handwriting skills : A case study. Journal of Precision Teaching & Celeration, 13 (1), 60-66.
AYLLON, T. & AZRIN, N. (1968). The token economy : A motivational system for therapy and rehabilitation. New York : Appleton. JACKSON, K. & HACKENBERG, T.D. (1996). Token reinforcement, choice, and self-control in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 66 (1), 29-49. [PDF]
ATTHOWE, J.H. & KRASNER, L. (1968). Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a chronic psychiatric ward. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 37-43. CAVALIER, A.C., FERRETTI, R.P. & HODGES, A.E. (1997). Self-management within a classroom token economy for students with learning disabilities. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, 167-178.
CLARK, M., LACCHOWITZ, J. & WOLFF, M.M. (1968). A pilot basic education program for school drop-outs incorporating a token reinforcement system. Behavior Research & Therapy, 6, 183-188.  
KUYPERS, D.S., BECKER, W.C. & O'LEARY, K.D. (1968). How to make a token system fail. Exceptional Children, 34, 101-109.  
WOLF, M.M., GILES, D. & HALL, R.V. (1968). Experiments with token reinforcement in a remedial classroom. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 6 (1), 51-64.  
PHILLIPS, E.L. (1968). Achievement place : token reinforcement procedures in a home-style rehabilitation setting for "pre-delinquent" boys. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1 (3), 213-223. [PDF] AYLLON, T. (1999). How to use token economy and point systems. Austin, Texas : Pro-Ed.
ATTHOWE, J.M. & KRASNER, L. (1968). Preliminary report on the application of contingent reinforcement procedures (token economy) on a chronic psychiatric ward. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73, 37-43. McGOEY, K.E. & DUPAUL, G.J. (2000). Token reinforcement and response cost procedures: Reducing the disruptive behavior of preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. School Psychology Quarterly, 15, 330-343.
  LIBERMAN, R.P. (2000). The token economy. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1398. [PDF]
ZIMMERMAN, E.H., ZIMMERMAN, J. & RUSSELL, C.D. (1969). Differential effects of token reinforcement on instruction-following behavior in retarded students instructed as a group. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2 (3), 101-112. [PDF] LEBLANC, L.A., HAGOPIAN, L.P. & MAGLIERI, K.A. (2000). Use of a token economy to eliminate excessive inappropriate social behavior in an adult with developmental disabilities. Behavioral Interventions, 15 (1), 35-143. [PDF]
O'LEARY, K.D., BECKER, W.C., EVANS, M.B. & SAUDARGAS, R.A. (1969). A token reinforcement program in a public school : a replication and systematic analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2 (1), 3-13. [PDF] MOORE, J.W., TINGSTROM, D.H., DOGGETT, R.A. & CARLYON, W.D. (2001). Restructuring an existing token economy in a psychiatric facility for children. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 23 (3), 53-59.
MILLER, L.K. & SCHNEIDER, R. (1970). The use of a token precisely for children whose behavior had denied system in project Head Start. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3 (3), 191-197. [PDF] FOSTER, T.A. & HACKENBERG, T.D. & VAIYA, M. (2001). Second-order schedules of token reinforcement with pigeons : Effects of fixed- and variable-ratio exchange schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 76 (2), 159-178. [PDF]
WINKLER, R.C. (1970). Management of chronic psychiatric patients by a token reinforcement system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3 (1), 47-55. [PDF] LEPAGE, J.P. (2003). Reducing assault on an acute psychiatric unit using a token economy : a 2-year follow-up. Behavioral Interventions, 18, 179-190.
WINKLER, R.C. (1971). The relevance of economic theory and technology to token reinforcement systems. Behavior Research & Therapy, 9 (2), 81-88. GHEZZI, P.M., WILSON, G., TARBOX, R.S.F. & MacALEESE, K.R. (2003). Token economy. In W. O'Donohue, J.E. Fisher & S.C. Hayes (Eds.), Cognitive behavior therapy : Applying empirically supported techniques in your practice (pp. 436-441). Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
O'LEARY, K.D. & DRABMAN, R. (1971). Token reinforcement programs in the classroom : A review. Psychological Bulletin, 75, 379-398. BONIECKI, K. & MOORE, S. (2003). Breaking the silence : using a token economy to reinforce classroom participation. Teaching of Psychology, 30, 224-227.
McLAUGHLIN, T.F. & MALABY, J. (1972). Intrinsic reinforcers in a classroom token economy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5 (3), 263-270.[PDF] ZLOMKE, K. & ZLOMKE, L. (2003). Token economy plus self-monitoring to reduce disruptive classroom behaviors. The Behavior Analyst Today, 4 (2), 177-182. [PDF]
PHILLIPS, E.L., PHILLIPS, E.A., FIXSEN, D.L. & WOLF, M.M. (1971). Achievement place : Modification of the behaviors of predelinquent boys within a token economy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4 (1), 45-59. [PDF] KAHNG, S., BOSCOE, J.H. & BYRNE, S. (2003). The use of an escape contingency and a token economy to increase food acceptance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36 (3), 349-353. [PDF]
KAZDIN, A.E. & BOOTZIN, R.R. (1972). The token economy : an evaluative review. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5 (3), 343-372. [PDF] FILCHEK, H.A. & McNEIL, C.B. (2004). The use of token economies in preschool classrooms : practical and philosophical concerns. Journal of Early & Intensive Behavior Intervention, 1 (1), 94-104.
McLAUGHLIN, T.F. & MALABY, J. (1972). Reducing and measuring inappropriate verbalizations in a token classroom. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5 (3), 329-333. [PDF] FOSTER, T.A. & HACKENBERG, T.D. (2004). Choice and unit price in a token reinforcement context. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 81 (1), 5-25. [PDF]
FJELLSTEDT, N. & SULZER-AZAROFF, B. (1973). Reducing latency of a child's responding to instructions by means of a token system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6 (1), 125-130. [PDF] DICKERSON, F.B., TENHULA, W.N. & GREEN-PADEN, L.D. (2005). The token economy for schizophrenia : review of the literature and recommendations for future research. Schizophrenia Research, 75 (2-3), 405-416.
LIBB J., SACHS C. & BOYD, W. (1973). Reinforcement strategies for token economies in a special classroom setting. Psychological Reports, 32, 831–834. TIANO, J., McNEIL, C.B., FORSTON, B.L. & HUMPHREYS, L.A. (2005). Managing classroom behavior of Head Start children using response cost and token economy procedures. Journal of Early & Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2 (1), 28-39.
INGHAM, R.J. & ANDREWS, G. (1973). An analysis of a token economy in stuttering therapy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6 (2), 219-229. [PDF] TARBOX, R.S.F., GHEZZI, P.M. & WILSON, G. (2006). The effects of token reinforcement on attending in a young child with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 21, 155-164.
KNAPCZYK, D.R. & LIVINGSTON, G. (1973). Self-recording and student teacher supervision : variables within a token economy structure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6 (3), 481-486. [PDF] YANKELEVITZ, R.L, BULLOCK, C.E. & HACKENBERG, T.D. (2008). Reinforcer accumulation in a token-reinforcement context. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 90 (3), 283-299. [PDF]
DALTON, A.J., RUBINO, C.A. & HISLOP, M.W. (1973). Some effects of token rewards on school achievement of children with down's syndrome'. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6 (2),251-259. [PDF] HACKENBERG, T.D. (2009). Token reinforcement : A review and analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 91 (2), 257-286. [PDF]
KAZDIN, A.E. (1973). Role of instructions and reinforcement in behavior changes in token reinforcement programs. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64 (1), 63-71. MATSON, J.L. & BOISJOLI, J. (2009). The token economy for children with intellectual disability and/or autism : A review.Research in Developmental Disabilities, 30 (2), 240-248
EVERETT, P.B., HAYWARD, S.C. & MEYERS, A.W. (1974). The effects of a token reinforcement procedure on bus ridership. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7 (1), 1-9. [PDF] STILITZ, I. (2009). A token economy of the early nineteenth century. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42 (4), 925-926. [PDF]
CHRISTENSEN, D.E. (1975). Effects of combining methylphenidate and a classroom token system in modifying hyperactive behavior. American Journal of Mental Deficiency, 80 (3), 266-276. SRAN, S.K. & BORREO, J.C. (2010). Assessing the value of choice in a token system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43 (3), 553-557. [PDF]
BREYER, N.L. & ALLEN, G.J. (1975). Effects of implementing a token economy on teacher attending behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8 (4), 373-380. [PDF] LUECHA, T. (2011). The effect of using token economy and social reinforcement to stimulate preschool students' vegetable and fruit consuming behavior. International Conference on Social Science & Humanity IPEDR, 5 (2), 19-21. [PDF]
GREENE, D., STERNBERG, B. & LEPPER, M.R. (1976). Overjustification in a token economy. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 34, 1219-1234. REED, D.K. & MARTENS, B.K. (2011). Temporal discounting predicts student responsiveness to exchange delays in a classroom token system. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44 (1), 1-18. [PDF]
SNELL, R. & COLE, M. (1976). The use of a VI schedule of token reinforcement to effect all-day control of thumbsucking in the classroom. SALT: School Applications of Learning Theory, 9, 14–21.  
HOBSS, T.R. & HOLT, M. (1976). The effects of token reinforcement on the behavior of delinquents in cottage settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (2), 189-198. [PDF] BOERKE, K.W. & REITMAN, D. (2011). Token economies. In W.W. Fisher, C.C. Piazza & H.S. Roane (Eds.), Handbook of applied behavior analysis (pp. 370-385). New York, NY : The Guilford Press.
NELSON, R.O., LIPINSKI, D.P. & BLACK, J.L. (1976). The reactivity of adultre retarded self-monitoring : A comparison among behaviors of different valence and a comparison with token reinforcement. The Psychological Record, 26, 189-201. LOLICH, E., McLAUGHLIN, T.F. & WEBER, K.P. (2012). The effects of using reading racetracks combined with direct instruction precision teaching and a token economy to improve the reading performance for a 12-year-old student with learning disabilities. Academic Research International 3 (2), 245-252. [PDF]
POLING, A. (1978). Technical note: Construction of a simple, inexpensive token board. Mental Retardation Bulletin, 6,10-12. DOLL, C., McLAUGHLIN, T.F. & BARRETTO, A. (2013). The token economy : A recent review and evaluation. International Journal of Basic & Applied Science, 2 (1), 131-149. [PDF]
NELSON, G.L. & CONE, J.D. (1979). Multiple-baseline analysis of a token economy for psychiatric inpatientS. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12 (2), 255-271. [PDF] DONALDSON, J., DELEON, I.G., FISHER, A. & KAHNG, S. (2014). Effects of and preference for conditions of token earn vs. loss. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 47, 537-548. [PDF]
Voir aussi Façonnement et Renforcement positifs
Économie durable : Voir Développement durable.
EcoPsychology : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire. Éditeur : Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. publishers.
GUÉGUEN, N., MEINERI S., GRANDJEAN I. & MARTIN, A. (2010). The combined effect of the foot-in-the-door technique and the "But you are free of technique": An evaluation on the selective sorting of household wastes. EcoPsychology, 2 (4), 231-237. [PDF]

Ecosystems : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire. Éditeur : Springer.
 BERKES, F., KISLALIOGLU, M., FOLKE, C. & GADGIL, M. (1998). Exploring the basic ecological unit : Ecosystem-like concepts in traditional societies. Ecosystems, 1, 409-415. [PDF]

Écosystème : Système animal ou humain. Ecosystem.

   HOBBS, N. (1978). Families, schools, and communities : An ecosystem for children. Teachers College Record, 79 (4), 756-766.
 BERKES, F., KISLALIOGLU, M., FOLKE, C. & GADGIL, M. (1998). Exploring the basic ecological unit : Ecosystem-like concepts in traditional societies. Ecosystems, 1, 409-415. [PDF]
Écoute active : Technique thérapeutique non directive, développée par les humanistes, qui consiste à écouter son client de manière à favoriser chez lui la description authentique de ses expériences. L'objectif de cette technique est d'amener le client à préciser ou approfondir sa pensée, tout en évitant de poser un jugement sur ses affirmations/questions. Écoute active et Technique thérapeeutique non-directive.

 
Écoute dichotique : Dichotic listening.

  KONECNI, V.J. & SLAMECKA, N.J. (1972). Awareness in verbal nonoperant conditioning : An approach through dichotic listening. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 94, 248-254. [PDF]
 HOLENDER, D. (1986). Semantic activation w!thout conscious identification in dlchotic listening, parafoveal vision, and visual masking : a survey and appraisal. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 9, 1-23.
Écouter : Il y a de plus en plus de documents audiovisuels disponibles sur Internet. Ce symbole indique les documents que l'on peut entendre gratuitement sur ce site. Il s'agit habituellement d'extraits de conférence ou d'entrevue. Exemple
Écrire : Utilisation des lettres et du code linguistique d'une langue pour produire des mots et les assembler en phrases qui forment un tout signifiant. Écrire, dysorthograpie et orthographe. = composer, rédiger. writing, creative writing, composition, written language.

  BIRREN, J.E. & BOTWINICK, J. (1951). The relation of writing speed to age and to the senile psychoses. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 15 (3), 243-249. SMITH, F. (1994). Writing and the writer. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
AJURIAGUERRA J.D., AUZIAS, M., COUMES, I., LAVONDES-MONOD, V., PERRON, R. & STAMBAK M. (1964). L'écriture de l'enfant : L'évolution de l'écriture et ses difficultés. Paris : Delachaux et Niestlé. MOATS, L.C. (1994). The missing foundation in teacher education : Knowledge of the structure of spoken and written language. Annals of Dyslexia, 44 (1), 81-10. [PDF]
OLSON, D.R. (1977). From utterance to text : The bias of language in speech and writing. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 257-281. BASHORE, C. & McLAUGHLIN, T.F. (1995). The effects of precision teaching and a token economy on handwriting skills : A case study. Journal of Precision Teaching & Celeration, 13 (1), 60-66.
VARGAS, J.S. (1978). A behavioral approach to the teaching of composition. Behavior Analyst, 1, 16-24. DAHL, K.L. & FREPPON, P.A. (1995). A comparison of innercity children's interpretations of reading and writing instruction in the early grades in skills-based and whole language classrooms. Reading Research Quarterly, 30 (1), 50-74.
PELLEGRINI, A.D. (1980). The relationship between kindergartner's play and achievement in prereading, language, and writing. Psychology in the schools, 17 (4), 530-535.  
CALKINS, L.M. (1980). When children want to punctuate : Basic skills belong in context. Language Arts, 57, 567-573. ALBRETCH, P. (1998). Using precision teaching techniques to encourage creative writing. Journal of Precision Teaching & Celeration, 16 (1), 18-21.
FLOWER, L. & HAYES, J. (1981). A cognitive process theory of writing. College Composition & Communication, 32 (4), 365-387. TROIA, G., GRAHAM, S. & HARRIS, K.R. (1999). Teaching students with learning disabilities to mindfully plan when writing. Exceptional Children, 65, 235-252.
BRUCE, B.C., COLLINS, A. RUBIN, A. & GENTNER, D. (1982). Three perspectives on writing. Educational Psychologist, 17, 131-145. ZESIGER, P., DEONNA, T. & MAYOR, C. (2000). L'acquisition de l'écriture. Enfance, 53 (3), 295-304. [LIRE]
DYSON, A.H. (1983). The role of oral language in early writing processes. Research in the Teaching of English, 17, 1-30.  
APPLEBEE, A.N. (1984). Writing and reasoning. Review of Educational Research, 54, 577-596.  
DISTEFANO, P. & KILLION, J. (1984). Assessing writing skills through a process approach. English Education, 16 (4), 203-207. GERSTEN, R. & BAKER, S. (2001). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities : A meta-analysis. The Elementary School Journal, 101 (3), 251-272.
HARRIS, J. (1985). Student writers and word processing: A preliminary evaluation. College Composition & Communication 36, 323-30.  
McMANUS, I.C. (1985). Writing hand position, birth stress, and familial factors. Current Psychological Research & Reviews, 4, 195-203. [PDF] OLIVE, T. & KELLOGG, R.T. (2002). Concurrent activation of high- and low-level writing processes. Memory & Cognition, 30 (4), 594-600.
GANSCHOW, L. (1985). Diagnosing and remediating writing problems of gifted students with language learning disabilities. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 9 (1), 24-43. JIMERSON, S.R. & KAUFMAN, A.M. (2003). Reading, writing, and retention : A primer on grade retention research. The Reading Teacher, 56, 622-635.
HULT, C. (1985). The effects of word processing on the correctness of student writing. Research in Wordprocessing Newsletter 3 (8), 1-5.  
DILLARD, J. & DAHL, K.L. (1986). Learning through teaching in a reading/writing classroom. Language Arts, 63 (7), 692-697 BAKER, S., GERSTEN, R. & GRAHAM, S. (2003). Teaching expressive writing to students with learning disabilities : Research-based applications and examples. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 36 (2), 109-123.
MOROCCO, C.C. & NEUMAN, S.B. (1986). Word processors and the acquisition of writing strategies. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 19 (4), 243-247. ZESIGER, P. (2003). Acquisition et trouble de l'écriture. Enfance, 55 (1), 56-64. [PDF]
LUTZ, J.A. (1987). A study of professional and experienced writers revising and editing at the computer and with pen and paper. Research in the Teaching of English, 21 (4), 398-421.  
JUEL, C. (1988). Learning to read and write : A longitudinal study of 54 children from first through fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80 (4), 437-447. [PDF]  
RAPHAEL, T.E., KIRSCHNER, B.W. & ENGLERT, C.S. (1989). Expository writing program: Making connections between reading and writing. The Reading Teacher, 41 (8), 790-795. SCHUNK, D.H. (2003). Self-efficacy for reading and writing : Influence of modeling, goal setting, and self-evaluation. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 19, 159-172. [PDF]
RAPHAEL, T.E., ENGLERT, C.S. & KIRSCHNER, B.W. (1989). Students' metacognitive knowledge about writing. Research in the Teaching of English, 23 (4), 343-379. HUNT, R.A. (2004). Reading and writing for real : Why it matters for learning. Atlantic Universities' Teaching Showcase, 55, 137-146. [PDF]
MOLITOR, S. (1989). Developing and manipulating knowledge by writing. In P. Boscolo (Ed.) Writing : Trends in European research (pp. 160-71). Padova : UPSEL Editore. PIOLAT, A. (Ed.) (2004). Écriture. Approches en sciences cognitives. Aix-en-Provence : Presses Universitaires de Provence.
STANOVICH, K.E. & WEST, R.E. (1989). Exposure to print and orthographic processing. Reading Research Quarterly, 24, 402-433. [PDF] GARCIA, J.N. & DE CASO, A.M. (2004). Effects of a motivational intervention for improving the writing of children with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 141-159. [PDF]
SIMARD, C. (1990). Tendances actuelles en ensignement de l'écrit au Québec. Dans G. Gagné, M. Pagé et E. Tarrab (Dirs.), Didactique des langues maternelles (pp. 243-255). Brussel : De Boeck-Wesmael. FREDERICK, L.D. & STEVENTON, C. (2004). Writing. In N. Marchand-Martella, T. Slocum & R. Martella (Dirs.), Introduction to direct instruction (pp. 140-177). Boston : Pearson Education.
SANDLER, A., WATSON, T., FOOTO, M., LEVINE, M., COLEMAN, W. & HOOPER, S. (1992). Neurodevelopmental study of writing disorders in middle childhood. Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 13 (1), 17-23.  
SPRENGER-CHAROLLES L. (1992). Les premiers apprentissages de la lecture et de l'écriture. Langue Française, 80, 63-80. DEHAENE, S., COHEN, L., SIGMAN, M. & VINCKIER, F. (2005). The neural code for written words : A proposal. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (7), 335-341. [PDF]
SMITH, C.L. & HOGAN, D. (1992). Practice precisely write. Journal of Precision Teaching, 9 (1), 26-27. GOSWANI, U. & ZIEGLER, J.C. (2006). A developmental perspective on the neural code for written words. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10 (4), 142-143.
MOORE, J. (1992). Magic pencils - reading by writing. Journal of Precision Teaching, 9 (1), 30-32. PIOLAT, A. (Ed.) (2006). Lire, écrire, communiquer et apprendre avec Internet. Marseille : Solal Editions.
TRAXLER, M. J. & GERNSBACHER, M. A. (1993). Improving written communication through perspective taking. Language & Cognitive Processes, 8, 311-334.  VINTER, A. et ZESIGER, P. (2007). L'écriture chez l'enfant : Apprentissage, troubles et évaluation. In S. Ionescu & A. Blanchet (Eds.), Psychologie du développement et de l'éducation (pp 327-351). Paris : Presses Universitaires de Paris.
DAHL, K.L. & SCHARER, P.L. (1993). Children's spontaneous utterances during early reading and writing instruction in whole-language classrooms. Journal of Reading Behavior, 25 (3), 279-294. [PDF] BERNINGER, V.W., NIELSEN, K., BBOTT, R., WIJSMAN, E. & RASKIND, W. (2008). Writing problems in developmental dyslexia : Under-recognized and under-treated. Journal of School Psychology, 46, 1-21. [PDF]
HABIB, M. & SERRATRICE, G. (1993). L'écriture et le cerveau. Mécanismes neuro-physiologiques. Paris : Masson. BERNINGER, V. (2009). Highlights of programmatic, interdisciplinary research on writing. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 24 (2), 68-80. [PDF]
VAN DOORN, R.R.A. & KEUSS, P.J.G. (1993). Does the production of letter strokes in handwriting benefit from vision ? Acta Psychologica, 82 (1-3), 275-290. VAN KRAAYENOORD, C.E., MILLER, R., MONI, K.B. & JOBLING, A. (2009). Teaching writing to students with learning difficulties in inclusive english classrooms : Lessons from an exemplary teacher. English Teaching : Practice & Critique, 8 (1), 23-51. [PDF]
VAN GALEN, G.P., PORTIER, S.J., SMITS-ENGELSMAN, B.C. M. & SCHOMAKER, L.R.B. (1993). Neuromotor noise and poor handwriting in children. Acta Psychologica, 82 (1-3), 161-178. CARLSON, B., McLAUGHLIN, T.F., DERBY, K.M. & BLECHER, J. (2009). Teaching preschool children with autism and developmental delays to write. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 17 (7), 225-238. [PDF]
FREEMAN, G. & HAUGHTON, E. (1993). Handwriting fluency. Journal of Precision Teaching, 10 (2), 31-32. BERNINGER, V. & O'MALLEY, M.M. (2011). Evidence-based diagnosis and treatment for specific learning disabilities involving impairments in written and/or oral language. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44, 167-183.
BRUNNER, M., McLAUGHLIN, T.F. & SWEENEY, W.J. (1993). Employing error drill and feedback to improve the legibility of manuscript and cursive handwriting. Journal of Precision Teaching, 11 (1), 32-37 MUELLER, P.A. & OPPENHEIMER, D.M. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard : Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological Science, 1-10. [PDF]
Voir aussi Écrire à la main, Agraphie, Lire, Noter, Lettre, Dysgraphie, Motivation scolaire et Dysortographie
Écriture manuscrite : Façon particulière de tracer les lettres, de former les mots. = écriture à la main. ( ): écriture cursive, écriture scripte. Handwriting.

  LEMKE, E.A. & KIRCHNER, J.H. (1971) Multivariate study of handwriting, intelligence and personality correlates. Journal of Personality Assessment, 35, 584-592.  
GRAY, N. (1978). L'écriture scripte ? : un handicap pour les enfants. Communication et langages, 40, 29–41  
ROSENTHAL, D. & LINES, R. (1978) Handwriting as a correlate of extraversion. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 45-48.  
WANN, J.P. (1986). Handwriting disturbance : developmental trends. In H.T.A. Whiting & M.G. Wade (Eds.), Themes in motor development (pp. 207-223). Dordrecht : Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. JAMES, K.H. & ATWOOD, T.P. (2009). The role of sensorimotor learning in the perception of letter-like forms : Tracking the causes of neural specialization for letters. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 26 (1), 91-100. [PDF]
WANN, J.P. & KARDIRKAMANATHAN, M. (1991). Variability in children's handwriting : Comp ter diagnosis of writing difficulties. In J. Wann, A. Wing & N. Sovik (Eds.), Development of graphic skills (pp. 223-236). London : Academic Press. JAMES, K.H. & ENGLEHARDT, L. (2012). The effects of handwriting experience on functional brain development in pre-literate children. Trends in Neuroscience & Education, 1 (1), 32-42.
VAN DOORN, R.R.A. & KEUSS, P.J.G. (1993). Does the production of letter strokes in handwriting benefit from vision ? Acta Psychologica, 82 (1-3), 275-290. PEVERLY, S.T., VEKARIA, P.C., REDDINGTON, L.A., SUMOWSKI, J.F., JOHNSON, K.R. & RAMSAY, C.M. (2013). The relationship of handwriting speed, working memory, language comprehension and outlines to lecture note-taking and test-taking among college students. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27 (1), 115-126.
VAN GALEN, G.P., PORTIER, S.J., SMITS-ENGELSMAN, B.C.M. & SCHOMAKER, L.R.B. (1993). Neuromotor noise and poor handwriting in children. Acta Psychologica, 82 (1-3), 161-178.  
TETT, R.P. & PALMER, C.A. (1997). The validity of handwriting elements in relation to self-report personality trait measures. Personality & Individual Differences, 22, 11-18.  
BASHORE, C. & McLAUGHLIN, T.F. (1995). The effects of precision teaching and a token economy on handwriting skills : A case study. Journal of Precision Teaching & Celeration, 13 (1), 60-66. MUELLER, P.A. & OPPENHEIMER, D.M. (2014). The pen is mightier than the keyboard : Advantages of longhand over laptop note taking. Psychological Science, 1-10. [PDF]
Voir aussi Agraphie, Écriture, Lettre, Dysgraphie et Dysortographie
 
Ectasy : Drogue synthétique à la fois stimulante et hallucinogène, qui influence l'humeur. Ectasy.

  BREGGIN, P.R. (2001). From Prozac to Ecstasy : the implication of new evidence for drug-induced brain damage. Ethical Human Sciences & Services, 3, 3-5.
DIAMOND, S., BERMUDEZ, R. & SCHENSUL, J. (2006). What's the rap about ecstasy ? Journal of Adolescent Research, 21, 269-298.
Écureuil : Petit mammifère rongeur, à longue queue touffue, qui vit dans les bois et les villes et se nourrit de graines, de fruits secs et des tomates de jardin de mon voisin... Squirrel.
 
 
WOODS, G.T. (1941). Mid-summer food of gray squirrels. Journal of Mammalogy 22, 321-322. BROWN, B.W. & BATZLI, G.O. (1985). Field manipulations of fox squirrel (Sciurus niger) and gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) populations : How important is interspecific competition ? Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63, 2134-2140.
BROWN, L.G. & YEAGER, L.E. (1945). Fox squirrels and gray squirrels In Illinois. Natural History Survey Division, bulletin, 23 (5), [PDF] FERRON, J. (1985). Social behaviour of the golden-mantled ground squirrel (Spermophilus lateralis). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 63, 2529-2533
NICHOLS, J.T. (1958). Food habits and behavior of the gray squirrel. Journal of Mammalogy, 39, 376-380. FERRON, J., OUELLET, J.P. & LEMAY, Y. (1986). Spring and summer time budgets and feeding behaviour of the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 64 (2), 385-391. [PDF]
SKINNER, B.F. (1962). Squirrel in the yard : Certain sciurine experiences of B.F. Skinner. Harvard Alumni Bulletin, 64, 642-645. RACEY, P.A. (1986). Red and grey squirrels: Some behavioural and biometric differences. Journal of Zoology, 209A, 279-304.
BALPH, D.F. & STOKES, A.W. (1963). On the ethology of Uinta squirrels. American Midland Naturalist, 69, 106-126. SMALLWOOD, P.D. & PETERS, W.D. (1986). Gray squirrel food preferences : The effects of tannin and fat concentration. Ecology, 67, 168-174.
EWER, R.F. (1966). Juvenile behaviour in the African ground squirrel, Xerus erythropus (E. Geoff.). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 23, 190-216.  
PACK, J.C., MOSBY, H.S. & SIEGEL, P.B. (1967). Influence of social hierarchy on gray squirrel behavior. Journal of Wildlife Management, 31, 720-728.  
NIXON, C.M., WORLLEY, D.M. & McCLAIN, M.W. (1968). Food habits of squirrels in southeast Ohio. Journal of Wildlife Management 32, 294-304. SHERMAN, P.W. (1989). Mate guarding as paternity insurance in Idaho ground squirrels. Nature, 338, 418-420.
NIXON, C.M. (1969). Squirrel population decline following a late spring frost. Journal of Wildlife Management 33, 353-357. DILL, L.M. & HOUTMAN, R. (1989). The influence of distance to refuge on flight initiation distance in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 67, 233-235.
HORWICH, R.H. (1972). The ontogeny of social behavior in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 8 (S), 1-103. SETOGUCHI, M. (1990). Food habits of red-bellied tree squirrels on a small island in Japan. Journal of Mammalian, 71, 570-578.
BARKALOW, F.S. & SOOTS, R.F. (1975). Life span and reproductive longevity of the gray squirrel, Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin. Journal of Mammalogy, 56, 522-524. JACOBS, L.F. & LIMAN, E.R. (1991). Grey squirrels remember the locations of buried nuts. Animal Behaviour, 41, 103-110.
FERRON, J. (1975). Solitary play in the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). California Journal of Zoology, 53, 1495-1499. [PDF] HOLMES, W.G. (1994). The development of littermate preferences in juvenile Belding's ground squirrels. Animal Behaviour, 48, 1071-1084. [PDF]
FERRON, J. (1976). Cycle annuel d'activité de l'écureuil roux (Tamiasciurus Hudsonicus), adultes et jeunes en semi-liberté; au Québec. Le Naturaliste Canadien, 103 (1), 1-10. [PDF] HOLMES, W.G. (1995). The ontogeny of littermate preferences in juvenile golden-mantled ground squirrels : Effects of rearing and relatedness. Animal Behaviour, 50, 309-322.
THOMPSON, D.C. (1977). Reproductive behavior of the grey squirrel. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55, 1176-1184. MATEO, J.M. (1996). Early auditory experience and the ontogeny of alarm-call discrimination in Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110 (2), 115-124. [PDF]
PAULS, R.W. (1978). Behavioural strategies relevant to the energy economy of the red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 56, 1519-1525. HANSON, M.T. & COSS, R.G. (1997). Age differences in the response of California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi) to avian and mammalian predators. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111 (2), 174-184.
VILJOEN, S. (1977). Behaviour of the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi cepapi (A. Smith, 1836). Mammalia, 41, 119-166. MATEO, J.M. & HOLMES, W.G. (1997). Development of alarm-call responses in Belding’s ground squirrels : the role of dams. Animal Behaviour, 54, 509-524. [PDF]
THOMPSON, D.C. (1978). The social system of the grey squirrel. Behaviour, 64, 305-328. MATEO, J.M. & HOLMES, W.G. (1999). How rearing history affects alarm-call responses of Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi, Sciuridae). Ethology, 105, 207-222. [PDF]
THOMPSON, D.C. (1978). Reproductive behavior of the grey squirrel. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 55, 1176-1184. MATEO, J.M. & HOLMES, W.G. (1999). Plasticity of alarm-call response development in Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi, Sciuridae). Ethology, 105, 193-206. [PDF]
THOMPSON, D.C. & THOMPSON, P.C. (1980). Food habits and caching behavior of urban gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 58, 701-710. McCOWAN, B., FRANCESCHINI, N.V. & VICINO, G.A. (2001). Age differences and developmental trends in alarm peep responses by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). American Journal of Primatology, 53, 19-31.
FERRON, J. (1981). Comparative ontogeny of behaviour in four species of squirrels (Sciuridae). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 55 (3), 193-216. HANSON, M.T. & COSS, R.G. (2001). Age differences in arousal and vigilance in California ground squirrels (Spermophilus beecheyi). Developmental Psychobiology, 39, 199-206.
ROBINSON, S.R. (1981). Alarm communication in Belding's ground squirrels. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 56, 150-168. HARE, J.F. & ATKINS, B. A. (2001). The squirrel that cried wolf : reliability detection by juvenile Richardson’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii). Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 51, 108-112.
SHERMAN, P.W. (1981). Kinship, demography, and Belding's ground squirrel nepotism. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 8, 251-259. WILSON, D.R. & HARE, J.F. (2003). Richardson’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus richardsonii) do not communicate predator movements via changes in call rate. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 81, 2026-2031. [PDF]
LEGER, D.W., BERNEY-KEY, S.D. & SHERMAN, P.W. (1981). Vocalizations of Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). Animal Behaviour, 32, 753-764. MATEO, J.M. (2006). Developmental and geographic variation in stress hormones in wild Belding’s ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). Hormones & Behavior, 50, 718-725. [PDF]
SHERMAN, P.W. (1982). Infanticide in ground squirrels. Animal Behaviour, 30, 938-939. MATEO, J.M. (2007). Ecological and hormonal correlates of anti-predator behavior in Belding's ground squirrels (Spermophilus beldingi). Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 62 (1), 37-49. [PDF]
LEWIS, A.R. (1982). Selection of nuts by gray squirrels and optimal foraging theory. American Midland Naturalist, 107, 250-257. SHERMAN, P.W. & WAUTERS, L. (2009). Squirrels. In D.W. Macdonald (Ed.), The new encyclopedia of mammals (pp. 150-161) Princeton University Press.
MOLLER, H. (1983). Foods and foraging behaviour of red (Sciurus vulgaris) and grey (Sciurus carolinensis) squirrels. Mammal Review, 13, 81-98. BRUCK, J.N. & MATEO, J.M. (2010).How habitat features shape ground squirrel navigation. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124, 176-186.
BURNIE, D. (Dir.) (2001). Animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley /Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi. Voir aussi Animal
Eczéma : Maladie de peau, dont l'origine est parfois psychologique (psychosomatique).

   
EDELMAN - ÉDINGER - ÉDITEUR - ÉDUCATION - EDWARDS - EELEN - EFFET - EFFICACITÉ - EFFORT - EFRON - EG
Edelman Gerald Maurice (New York 1929-) : Biologiste, neuropsychologue et lauréat du prix Nobel de physiologie et de médecine en 1972 pour ses travaux sur la structure chimique des anticorps. Il est l'un des principaux opposants au modèle dualiste de traitement de l'information. Il a développé une théorie de la mémoire et de la conscience qui s'articule autour du principe de la «sélection naturelle» des liaisons entre les neurones. Collaborateur de Tononi.
EDELMAN, G. (1987). Neuronal darwinism : The theory of neuronal group selection. New York : Basic Books.
EDELMAN, G. (1990). The remembered present : A biological theory of consciousness. New York : Basic Books.
EDELMAN, G. (1994). Biologie de la conscience. Paris : Odile Jacob.
EDELMAN, G. et TONONI, G. (2000). How matter becomes imagination. New York : Basic Books / Comment la matière devient conscience. Paris : Éditions Odile Jacob.
EDELMAN, G. (2006). Second nature : Brain science and human knowledge. Yale University Press.
   
Edgeworth Francis Ysidro (Edgeworthstown 1845-1926 Oxford) : Philosophe, économiste et statisticien irlandais.
EDGEWORTH, F.Y. (1883). The method of least squares. Philosophical Magazine, 16, 360-375.
EDGEWORTH, F.Y. (1884). The philosophy of chance. Mind 9, 223-235.
EDGEWORTH, F.Y. (1884). A priori probabilities. Philosophical Magazine, 18, 204-210.
EDGEWORTH, F.Y. (1895). On some recent contributions to the theory of statistics. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 58, 506-515.
EDGEWORTH, F.Y. (1905). The law of error. Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 20, 35-65, 113-141.
Edgington Eugene S. ( ) : Statisticien et méthodologiste canadien.
EDGINGTON, E.S. (1966). Statistical inference and nonrandom samples. Psychological Bulletin, 66, 485-487.
EDGINGTON, E.S. (1967). Statistical inference from N = 1 experiments. Journal of Psychology, 65, 195-199.
EDGINGTON, E.S. (1969). Statistical inference : The distribution-free approach. New York : McGraw-Hill.
EDGINGTON, E.S. (1972). = 1 experiments : Hypothesis testing. The Canadian Psychologist, 13 (1), 121-135.
EDGINGTON, E.S. (1995). Randomization tests. New York : Marcel-Dekker.
Edinger Jack D. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain et spécialisé dans l'étude du sommeil et de l'insomnie. Collaborateur de Bootzin, Buysse, Epsie et Morin.
EDINGER, J.D., WOHLGEMUTH, W.K., RADTKE, R.A., MARSH, G.R. & QUILLIAN, R.E. (2001). Cognitive behavioral therapy for treatment of chronic primary insomnia : a randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medicine Assoicaition, 285, 185-1864.
EDINGER, J.D. & SAMPSON, W.S. (2003). A primary care "friendly" cognitive-behavioral insomnia therapy. Sleep, 2, 177-182
EDINGER, J.D., WOHLGEMUTH, W.K., KRYSTAL, A.D. & RICE, J.R. (2005). Behavioral insomnia therapy for fibromyalgia patients : a randomized clinical trial. Archives of Internal Medicine, 165, 2527-2555.
EDINGER, J.D., WOHLGEMUTH, W.K., RADTKE, R.A., COFFMAN, C.J. & CARNEY, C. (2007). Dose-response effects of cognitive- behavioral insomnia therapy : a randomized clinical trial. Sleep, 30 (2), 203-212. [PDF]
EDINGER, J.D., OLSEN, M.K., STECHUCHAK, K.M., MEANS, M.K., LINEBERGER, M.D., KIRBY, A. & CARNEY, C.E. (2009). Cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with primary insomnia or insomnia associated predominantly with mixed psychiatric disorders : a randomized clinical trial. Sleep, 32 (4), 499-510. [PDF]
Éditeur : Dans la notice d'un livre (1) ou d'un article de livre (2), désigne la maison d'édition qui publie l'ouvrage concerné. Dans le modèle de référence de l'American Psychological Association, cette information est placée après le lieu de l'édition, à la fin de la notice. = maison d'édition.

(1)
SKINNER, B.F. (1971). L'analyse expérimentale du comportement. Paris : Seuil.
(2)
BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Démarche scientifique et cycle de la recherche. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 1-34). St-Hyacinthe : Edisem.

 Éditorial : Court Article rédigé par la direction d'une revue scientifique,dont le but est généralement de susciter la réflexion. Editorial, letter from editor.

FREYD, J.J. (2007). Archiving dissociation as a precaution against dissociating dissociation. [Editorial] Journal of Trauma & Dissociation, 8 (3), 1-5. [PDF]

  MILENKOVIÆ, P. (2002). Editorial communication with authors. Archive of Oncology, 10 (2), 91-92. [PDF]
Edney Julian J. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des effets pervers. Collaborateur de Bell.
EDNEY, J.J. (1974). Human territoriality. Psychological Bulletin, 81 (12), 959-975.
EDNEY, J.J. & HARPER, C.S. (1978). The effects of information in a resource management problem : A social trap analog. Human Ecology, 6 (4), 387-395.
EDNEY, J.J. (1980). The commons problem : Alternative perspectives. American Psychologist, 35, 131-150
EDNEY, J.J. & BELL, P.A. (1984). Group-outcome orientation, external disaster, and stealing in a simulated commons. Small Group Behavior, 15, 87-108.
EDNEY, J.J. & BELL, P.A. (1987). Freedom and equality in a simulated commons. Political Psychology, 8, 229-243.

Éducation/Éducateur/Éduquer : Du latin educare qui signifie "nourrir, instruire". Le terme a trois acceptions complémentaires : a) Au sens large, il désigne ce qu'une société transmet à ses citoyens (comportements, règles, valeurs, connaissances, etc.) par l'entremise de ses institutions (la famille, l'école, le travail, es médias, etc.). En ce sens, le terme englobe aussi des éléments moins positifs comme les préjugés, les stéréotypes ou le racisme. = socialisation, élever un enfant. b) Il désigne plus précisément ce qui est transmis systématiquement et formellement par l'école - les matières - par l'entremise des enseignants/professeurs. Certains éducateurs ont une formation en psychologie, on utilise alors le terme psycho-éducateur ou psychopédagogue pour les désigner. = enseignement ou planification et organisation de l'enseignement. = instruction publique. c) Par extension, il en est venu à désigner le domaine des sciences qui étudie a et b (voir ci-dessus). = sciences de l'éducation, formation des maîtres, pédagogie. ( ): Abrami, Aichorn, Ames, Anderson, Becker, Bereiter, Berlyne, Binder, Blais, Brophy, Bruner, Canter, Centra, Chandler, Chesebro, Chickering, Cole, Covington, Eccles, Emmer, Debesse, De Jong, Elliott, Epstein, Evertson, Gagné, Gamson, Gauthier, Glass, Groff, Gorham, Gottfredson, Greene, Guba, Guilford, Gunawardena, Guthrie, Hall, Hambleton, Hedges, Hershkowitz, Hidi, Holmberg, Hsu, Jimerson, Jones, Judd, Karsenti, Leighton, Lemke, Lincoln, Lindquist, Linnenbrink-Garcia, McIsaac, Marsh, Mayer, McCroskey, McKevitt, Meirieu, Mercer, Miles, Morine-Dershimer, Nicholls, Ninness,Nunnally, Olkin, O'leary, Palinscar, Paris, Péladeau, Piaget, Piéron, Pintrich, Rasinski, Richmond, Riesman, Sanders, Scheffler, Schrodt, Sfard, Shulman, Skinner, Skinner, Shapiro, Sheldon, Slavin, St-amant, Symonds, Tardif, Tardif, Teven, Tinto, Théorêt, Van Voorhis, Vargas, Vrasidas, Wentzel, Wigfield, Witt, Zembylas. Education.


Types d'éducation
Éducation aux adultes Éducation religieuse Éducation sexuelle
Éducation à distance Éducation scolaire Éducation spécialisée
 

  a
LOCKE, J. (1690). De l'éducation des enfants. ROUSSEAU, J.-J. (1762). Émile, ou de l'éducation. Libraire Duchesne.
  HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. & SANDLER, H.M. (1996). Parental involvement in children's education : Why does it make a difference ? Teachers College Record, 97 (2), 311-331. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Socialisation
b
WHITEHEAD, A.N. (1929). The aims of education. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. LINDSLEY, O.R. (1991). Skinner's impact on education. Journal of Precision Teaching, 8 (1), 58-60.
SHAW, F.B. (1937). A modern concept of education. American Journal of th Public Health, 27, 587-590. [PDF] LIPMAN, M. (1991). Thinking in education. Cambridge : Cambridge Univ.ersity Press
DEWEY, J. (1938). Experience and education. New York : Kappa Delta Pi. BARRETT, B.H., BECK, R., BINDER, C., COOK, D.A., ENGELMANN, S., GREER, R.D., KYRKLUND, S.J., JOHNSON, K.R., MALONEY, M., McCORKLE, N., VARGAS, J.S. & WATKINS, C.L. (1991). The right to effective education. The Behavior Analyst, 14, 79-82. [PDF]
  WILLIAMS, B.F., McLAUGHLIN, T.F., WILLIAMS, R.L., HOWARD, V.F. & MARCHAND-MARTELLA, N.E. (1993). The NCATE process and behaviorally-based spécial education. Journal of Behavioral Rducation, 3 (1), 39-59. [PDF]
DEWEY, J. (1944). Democracy and education. New York : Free Press. TOMIC, W. (1993). Behaviorism and cognitivism in education. Psychology : A Journal of Human Behavior, 30 (3/4), 39-46. [PDF]
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c
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Éducation à distance : Voir Apprentissage à distance. Distance education.

  GUNAWARDENA, C.N. & McISSAC, M.S. (2004). Distance education. In D. H. Jonassen (Ed.), Handbook of research on educational communications and technology (pp. 355- 395). Mahwah, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Voir aussi Apprentissage à distance
Éducation aux adultes : Branche de l'éducation qu vise à développer des programmes d'enseignement destinés aux adultes qui désirent se recycler ou compléter leurs études.

  DARKENWALD, G.G. & MERRIAM, S.B. (1982). Adult education : Foundations of practice. New York : Harper and Row.
MERRIAM S. B. & BROCKETT, R.G. (1997). The profession and practice of adult education : An introduction. San Francisco, California : Jossey-Bass.
Education & Child Psychology : Revue scientifique de de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : .
ARORA, T. & THOMPSON, D. (1987). Defining bullying for a secondary school. Education & Child Psychology, 4, 110-120.

Éducation religieuse :

  MORAN, G. (1983). Education : Sexual and religious. In T. Nugent (Ed.), A challenge to love (pp. 159-173). New York : Crossroads Publishing.
Voir aussi Éducation et Religion
Éducation sexuelle : Sex education.

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SAMSON, J.-M. (1979). Sex education and values : Is indoctrination avoidable? In D.B. Cochrane & M. Manley-Casimir (Eds.), Development of moral reasoning : Practical approaches (pp. 232-268). New York : Praeger. KENNEY, A. & ORR, M.T. (1984). Sex education : An overview of current programs, policies, and research. Phi Delta Kappan, 65, 491-496.
KIRBY, D. (1980). The effects of school sex education programs : A review of the literature. Journal of School Health, 50, 559-563. DURAND, G. (1985). L'éducation sexuelle. Montreal : Éditions Fides.
GORDON, S. (1981). The case for a moral sex education in the schools. Journal of School Health, 51, 214-218. GEORGE, K.D. & BEHRENDT, A.E. (1985). Research priorities in sex education. Journal of Sex Education & Therapy, 11 (1), 56-60.
SAMSON, J.-M. (1981). L'éducation sexuelle à l'école. Montreal : Guérin. KELLY, G.F. (Ed.). (1985). Sex education : Past, present, future [Special issue]. Journal of Sex Education & Therapy, 11 (1).
DESAULNIERS, M.-P. (1982). Values and sex education. Lumen Vitae, 38, 309-321. PARCEL, G.S., LUTTMAN, D. & LAHERTY-ZONIS, C. (1985). Development and evaluation of a sex education curriculum for young adolescents. Education & Therapy, 11 (1), 38-45.
MORRIS, R.W. (1986). Integrating values in sex education. Journal of Sex Education & Therapy, 12 (2), 43-46.
MARSMAN, J. & HEROLD, E.S. (1986). Attitudes towards sex education and values in sex education. Family Relations, 35, 357-361.
Voir aussi Éducation
Éducation spécialisée : Branche de l'éducation qu vise à développer des programmes d'enseignement destinés à des enfants qui souffrent de déficience intellectuelle ou qui présentent de sévères troubles d'apprentissage. ( ): Cronin, Langevin, Patton, Terrisse.

 
Educational & Psychological Measurement : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : Sage.
FERNANDEZ, J., MATEO, M. & MIGUEL, J. (1998). Is there a relationship between class size and student ratings of teacher quality ? Educational & Psychological Measurement, 58 (4), 596-604.

Educational Leadership : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : .
RASINKI, T.V. (2004). Creating fluent readers. Educational Leadership, 61 (6), 46-51.

Educational Psychologist : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : Taylor et Francis.
DECI, E.L., VALLERAND, R.J., PELLETIER, L.G. & RYAN, R.M. (1991). Motivation and education : The self-determination perspective. The Educational Psychologist, 26, 325-346. [PDF]

Educational Psychology Review : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : Springer.
WENTZEL, K.R. & WIGFIELD, A. (1998). Academic and social motivational influences on students' academic performance. Educational Psychology Review, 10 (2), 155-175. [PDF]

Educational Psychology in Practice : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : Taylor et Francis.
ADAMS, M. (2016). Coaching psychology : an approach to practice for educational psychologists. Educational Psychology in Practice, 32 (3), 231-244.

Educational Research & Reviews : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : Academic Journals.
ARSLAN, C., HAMARTA, E. & USLU, M. (2010). The relationship between conflict communication, self- esteem and life satisfaction in university students. Educational Research & Reviews, 5 (1), 31-34. [PDF]

Educational Researcher : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : American Educational Research Association.
GARDNER, H. & HATCH, T. (1989). Multiple intelligences go to school : Educational implications of the theory of multiple intelligences. Educational Researcher, 18 (8), 4-10. [PDF]

Educational Technology & Society : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : International Forum of Educational Technology & Society.
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Educational Technology Research & Development : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : Springer. = ETR & D.
MAGLIARO, S.G., LOCKEE, B.B. & BURTON, J.K. (2005). Direct instruction revisited : A key model for instructional technology. Educational Technology Research & Development, 54 (4), 41-55. [PDF]

Educational Theory : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : Educational Theory Summer Institute.
KLATT, H.J. (1991). Learning disabilities : A questionable construct. Educational Theory, 41, 47-60.

Éduquer : Voir Éducation.
Edwards Allen Louis (1914-1994) : Psychologue, méthodologiste et statisticien américain.

No 82
EDWARDS, A.L. (1970). The measurement of personality traits by scales and inventories. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
EDWARDS, A.L (1971). Probability and statistics. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
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EDWARDS, A.L. (1973). Statistical methods. Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
EDWARDS, A.L. (1982). The social desirability variable in personality assessment and research. The Greenwood Press.
Eeg :
Eelen Paul ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste belge et spécialiste du conditionnement répondant. Collaborateur de Baeyens et De Houwer.
EELEN, P. & d'YDEWALLE, G. (1976). Producing or observing response-outcome contingencies in a two response alternative task. Psychologica Belgica, 16, 61-71.
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Efféminé : Voir Comportement efféminé.
Effet : Ce mot, très utilisé en science, a au moins quatre acceptions : a) Résultat, conséquence ou produit d'une cause; b) Phénomène dont la régularité a été empiriquement constatée et décrite, sans par ailleurs avoir été nécessairement expliquée (cause); s'apparente alors à une loi; c) Phénomène hypothétique, souvent extraordinaire, dont l'existence n'a pas été montrée. EX: Effet Mozart; d) Résultat prévisible d'un procédé ou d'une technique. On donne souvent à un effet le nom de celui qui l'a découvert ou mis systématiquement en évidence. EX: Effet Stroop. Effet et cause. = produit de la cause, conséquence de la cause, variable Y, variable mesurée. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Effect.


X Y
Cause Effet


Effets observés
Effet aha Effet d'ordre de naissance Effet de profondeur Effet Matilda
Effet de blocage Effet de proximité Effet McClintock
Effet de compensation Effet de rareté Effet miroir
Effet anti-papal Effet de complémentarité Effet de rebond Effet modéré
Effet autocinétique Effet de concentration Effet de récence Effet Mozart
Effet Baldwin Effet de contraste Effet de répétition Effet Obama
Effet Barnum Effet de familiarité Effet de révélation Effet Ouija
Effet buffet Effet de génération Effet de sélection Effet permafrost
Effet cocktail party Effet de grandeur Effet de similarité Effet pervers
Effet caméléon Effet de groupe Effet de surjustification Effet placebo
Effet cathartique Effet de foule Effet des tests de mémoire Effet plafond/plancher
Effet Colavita Effet de halo Effet dodo/Effet thérapeutique équivalent Effet plafond de verre
Effet d'amorçage Effet de Hebb Effet domino Effet Pygmalion
Effet d'arche Effet dodo Effet du faux consensus Effet Ranschburg
  Effet Einstellung    
Effet d'assoupissement Effet électromagnétique Effet du moment de la naissance Effet Ringelman
Effet d'audience Effet Hollywood Effet du passant Effet remorque
Effet d'entraînement Effet de l'expérimentateur Effet du rythme Effet secondaire
Effet d'espacement Effet de la couleur Effet du thérapeute Effet significatif
Effet d'espacement (long) Effet de la lune Effet électromagnétique Effet Stroop
Effet d'éventail Effet de la majorité Effet Flynt Effet subliminal
Effet d'exposition Effet de la nouveauté Effet Forer Effet thérapeutique équivalent/Effet dodo
Effet d'hypercorrection Effet de la présence des autres Effet Garcia Effet tiroir
Effet d'inertie Effet de masquage Effet Hawthorne Effet turban
Effet d'interaction Effet de médiation Effet idéomoteur Effet Udnaze
Effet d'interférence Effet de modération Effet indésirable Effet Veblen
Effet d'ombrage (verbale) Effet de polarisation Effet John Henry Effet Vivaldi
Effet d'ordre Effet de position Effet Khoeler Effet Von Restorff
  Effet de primauté Effet Matthieu Effet Zeigernick
  Effet de production    
 

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FEINGOLD, A. (1995). The additive effects of differences in central tendency and variability are important in comparisons between groups. American Psychologist, 50, 5-13.  
Effet (Ampleur de l'...) : Groupe de tests statistiques, proposé par Cohen, qui permettent de mesurer la différence (d) entre deux groupes ou deux mesures et, partant, l'ampleur de l'effet d'un traitement. Plus simplement, cette mesure correspond à la moyenne du groupe expérimental/traitement (M1) moins la moyenne du groupe contrôle (M2) divisé par l'écart/type du groupe expérimental (S1) moins l'écart/type du groupe contrôle (S2), divisé par deux. Effet de grandeur et méta-analyse. = degré de l'effet, taille de l'effet, importance de l'effet, grandeur de l'effet, intensité de l'effet. ( ): D de Cohen, G de Hedges. Effect size.


d = M1 -M2/[(S1 + S2) / 2]


Indice d Interprétation de l'indice
< 0.10 Pas de différence
< 0.11 d 0.35 Petite différence
< 0.36 d 0.65 Différence moyenne
< 0.66 d 1.00 Grande différence
> 1.00 Très grande différence

   
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SEIFERT, T.L. (1991). Determining effect sizes in various experimental designs. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 51 (2), 341-347. THOMPSON, B. (2006). Research synthesis : Effect sizes. In J.L. Green, G. Camilli & P.B. Elmore (Eds.), Handbook of complementary methods in educational research (pp. 583-603). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
PRENTICE, D.A. & MILLER, D.T. (1992). When small effects are impressive. Psychological Bulletin, 112 (1), 160-164. [PDF] KELLEY, K. (2007). Confidence intervals for standardized effect sizes : Theory, application, and implementation. Journal of Statistical Software, 20 (8), 1-23. [PDF]
COHEN, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112, 155-159. THOMPSON, B. (2007). Effect sizes, confidence intervals, and confidence intervals for effect sizes. Psychology in the Schools, 44, 423-432.
McGRAW, K.O. & WONG, S.P. (1992). A common language effect size statistic. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 361-365. RUSCIO, J. (2008). A probability-based measure of effect size : Robustness to base rates and other factors. Psychological Methods, 13, 19-30.
KRAEMER, H.C. (1993). Reporting the size of effects in research studies to facilitate assessment of practical or clinical significance. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 17, 527-536. MATTHEW, S.M., GENTRY, M., MCCOACH, D.B., WORRELL, F.C., MATTHEWS, D. & DIXON, F. (2008). Evaluating the state of a field : Effect size reporting in gifted education. The Journal of Experimental Education, 77 (1), 55-65. [PDF]
SNYDER, P. & LAWSON, S. (1993). Evaluating results using corrected and uncorrected effect size estimates. Journal of Experimental Evaluation, 61 (3), 34-349. ROSNOW, R.L. & ROSENTHAL, R. (2008). Assessing the effect size of outcome research. In A.M. Nezu & C.M. Nezu (Eds.), Evidence-based outcome research (pp. 379-401). Oxford University Press.
ROSENTHAL, R. & RUBIN, D.B. (1994). The counternull value of an effect size : A new statistic. Psychological Science, 5, 329-334. WYKES, T., STEEL, C., EVERITT, B. & TARRIER, N. (2008). Cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia : Effect sizes, clinical models, and methodological rigor. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 34 (3), 523-537. [PDF]
FLEISS, J.L. (1994). Measures of effect size for categorical data. In H. Cooper & L.V. Hedges (Eds.), The handbook of research synthesis (pp. 245-260). New York : Russell Sage. CORTINA, J.M. & LANDIS, R.S. (2009). When small effect sizes tell a big story, and when large effect sizes don't. In C.E. Lance & R.J. Vandenberg (Eds.), Statistical and methodological myths and urban legends (pp. 287-308). New York, NY : Routledge.
RAY, J.W. & SHADISH, W.R. (1996). How interchangeable are different estimators of effect size ? Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64, 1316-1325. DURLAK, J.A. (2009). How to select, calculate, and interpret effect sizes. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 917-928. [PDF]
GREENWALD, A.G., GONZALEZ, R., HARRIS, R.J. & GUTHRIE, D.G. (1996). Effect sizes and p-values : What should be reported and what should be replicated ? Psychophsysiology, 33, 175-183. [PDF] FRÖLICH, M., EMRICH, E., PIETER, A. & STARK, R. (2009). Outcome effects and effects sizes in sport sciences. International Journal of Sports Science & Engineering, 3, 175-179. [PDF]
FERN, E.F. & MONROE K.B. (1996). Effect-size estimates : issues and problems in interpretation. Journal of consumer research, 23 (2), 89-105. BOURQUE, J., BLAIS, J.-G. et LARISE, F. (2009). L'interprétation des tests d'hypothèses : la taille de l'effet et la puissance. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 35 (1), 211-226. [PDF]
ROSNOW, R.L. & ROSENTHAL, R. (1996). Computing contrasts, effect sizes, and counternulls on other people's published data : General procedures for research consumers. Psychological Methods, 1 (4), 331-340. GUÉGUEN, N. (2009). L'importance d'un effet : méthodologie simple de détermination et d'évaluation de "l'effect size". European Journal of Scientific Research, 38 (1), 20-25. [PDF]
LEFEVRE, J.-A., SADESKY, G.S. & BISANZ, J. (1996). Selection of procedures in mental addition : Reassessing the problem size effect in adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 22, 216-230. [PDF] CUMMING, G. & FIDLER, F. (2010). Effect sizes and confidence intervals. In G.R. Hancock & R.O. Mueller (Eds.) The reviewer's guide to quantitative methods in the social sciences (pp. 79-91). London : Routledge
 GEARY, D.C. (1996). The problem size effect in mental addition : Developmental and cross-national trends. Mathematical Cognition, 2, 63-93. [PDF] LOUREL, M., GUÉGUEN, N., PASCULA, A. & MOUDA, F. (2011). The importance of effect : a simple methodology for the "effect size". Psychology, 2 (6), 631-632. [PDF]
BELSKY, J. (1997). Theory testing, effect-size evaluation, and differential susceptibility to rearing influence : The case of mothering and attachment. Child Development, 64, 598-600. GUÉGUEN, N., LOUREL, M., PASCULA, A. & MOUDA, F. (2009/11). L'importance d'un effet : Méthodologie simple de détermination et d'évaluation de "l'effect size". European Journal of Scientific Research, 38 (1), 20-25/Cahiers Santé, 21 (2), 103-105. [PDF]
  WILCOX, R.R. & TIAN, T. (2011). Measuring effect size : A robust heteroscedastic approach for two or more groups. Journal of Applied Statistics, 38, 1359-1368.
MORSE, D.T. (1998). Minsize : A computer program for obtaining minimum sample size as an indicator of effect size. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 58, 142-153. WILCOX, R.R. (2011). Inferences about a probabilistic mesasure of effect size when dealing with more than two groups. Journal of Data Science, 9, 471-486. [PDF]
BOURQUE, J., BLAIS, J.-G. et LARISE, F. (2009). L'interprétation des tests d'hypothèses : p, la taille de l'effet et la puissance. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 35 (1), 211-226. [PDF] FRITZ, C.O., MORRIS, P.E. & RICHLER, E.M. (2011). Effect size estimates : Current use, calculations, and interpretations. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 141 (1), 2-18. [PDF]
KESELMAN, H.J., MILLER, C.W. & HOLLAND, B. (2011). Many tests of significance : new methods for controlling type I errors. Psychological Methods, 16, 420-431. [PDF] FIDLER, F. & CUMMING, G. (2013). Effect size estimation and confidence intervals. In J.B. Weiner, J.A. Schinka & W.F. Velicer (Eds.), Handbook of psychology : Research methods in psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 142-163). Hoboken, NJ : Wiley.
THYER, B.A. & MYERS, L.L. (2011). Behavioral and cognitive theories. In J.R. Brandell (Ed.), Theory and practice in clinical social work (pp. 21-40). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications. BUTTON, K.S., IOANNIDIS, J.P.A., MOKRYSZ, C., NOSEK, B.A., FLINT, J., ROBINSON, E.M.J. & MUNAFÒ, M.R. (2014). Power failure : why small sample size undermines the reliability of neuroscience. Nature/Reviews Neuroscience, 14, 365-376. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Effets et Méta-analyse
Effet aha : "Aha" effects.
  AUBLE, P.M. & FRANKS, J.J. & SORACI, S.A. (1979). Effort toward comprehension : Elaboration or "aha!"? Memory & Cognition, 7, 426-434.
WILLS, T.W., ESTOW S., SORACI, S.A. & GARCIA, J. (2006). The aha effect in groups and other dynamic learning contexts. Journal of General Psychology, 133, 221-236.
GARNER, R.L. (2006). Humor in pedagogy : How Ha-Ha can lead to Aha! College Teaching, 54 (1), 177-180.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet antagoniste :

  FONTAINE, O. & RICHELLE, M. (1967). Antagonisme des effets centraux et périphériques de la trémorine par deux sympathicolytiques : l'atropine et la scopolamine. Psychopharmacologia, 11, 154-164.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet anti-papal : À l'instar du pape, qui est infaillible, certaines personnes font pas ou peu d'erreurs, mais quand elles en font, leur entourage les souligne à grand trait et insiste pour que les dites erreurs soit admises. Dans ce contexte, la peine est souvent disproportionnée eu égard à l'erreur... EX : L'erreur stratégique de Jacques Parizeau, le soir du référedum.

   
 
Voir aussi Effets
Effet autocinétique : Effet de perception qui se fonde sur l'illusion du mouvement, utilisé par Sherif dans le cadre de ses études sur le conformisme. Autokinetic effect.
  SHERIF, M. (1935). A study of some social factors in perception. Archives of Psychology, 27 (187), 17-22.
GREGORY, R.L. & ZANGWILL, O.L. (l963). The origin of the autokinetic effect. Quartely Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 252.
Voir aussi Effets et Illusion du mouvement
Effet Baldwin : Baldwin effect.
  SIMPSON, G.G. (1953). The Baldwin effect. Evolution, 7, 110-117.
WADDINGTON, C.H. (1953). The "Baldwin Effect", "Genetic Assimilation" and "Homeostasis". Evolution, 7 (4), 386-387.
GRIFFITHS, P.E. (2003). James Mark Baldwin's 'social heredity', epigenetic inheritance and niche-construction. In B.H. Weber & D.J. Depew (Eds.), Evolution and learning : The Baldwin effect reconsidered. Cambridge, Mass. : MIT Press.
GRIFFITHS, P.E. (2006). The Baldwin effect and genetic assimilation : contrasting explanatory foci and gene concepts in two approaches to an evolutionary process. In P. Carruthers, S. Laurence & S. Stich (Eds.), The innate mind : : Culture and cognition (Vol. 2, pp. 91-101). Oxford : Oxford University Press. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets
Effet Barnum : Tendance à considérer des énoncés généraux sur la personnalité, généralement positifs, comme s'appliquant à soi. Ce phénomène est notamment à l'origine du succès des horoscopes. Cet effet, mis en évidence en 1948 par le psychologue B.R. Forer, a été baptisé ainsi en l'honneur de Phineas T. Barnum, propriétaire du cirque du même nom, qui aurait un jour déclaré : « À chaque minute naît un gogo ». /effet Forer. Barnum effect, forer effect, personal validation fallacy.
  FORER, B.R. (1949). The fallacy of personal validation : A classroom demonstration of gullibility. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 44, 118-123. [PDF] DICKSON, D.H. & KELLY I.W. (1985). The "Barnum effect" in personality assessment : A review of the literature. Psychological Reports, 57, 367-382.
  JOHNSON, J.T., CAIN, L.M., FALKE, T.L., HAYMAN, J. & PERILLO, E. (1985). The "Barnum effect" revisited : Cognitive and motivational factors in the acceptance of personality descriptions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49 (5), 1378-1391. [PDF]
  HOLMES, C.B., BUCHANNAN, J.A., DUNGAN, D.S. & REED, T. (1986). The Barnum effect in Luscher Color Test interpretation. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 42, 133-136.
FORER, B.R. (1968). Personal validation and the person. Psychological Reports, 3, 12-14. FURNHAM A. & SCHOEFIELD, S. (1987). Accepting personality test feedback : A review of the Barnum effect. Current Psychological Research & Reviews, 6, 162-178.
SNYDER, C.R. SHENKEL, R.J. & LOWERY, C.R. (1977). Acceptance of personality interpretations : The "Barnum effect" and beyond. Journal of Consultation & Clinical Psychology, 45 (1), 104-114. GLICK, P., GOTTESMAN, N.D. & JOLTON, J. (1989). The fault is not in the stars : susceptibility of skeptics and believers in astrology to the Barnum effect. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 15, 572-583.
FICHTEN, C.S. & SUNERTON, B. (1983). Popular horoscopes and the Barnum effect. The Journal of Psychology, 114, 123-134. [PDF] FRENCH, C.C., FOWLER, M., McCARTHY, K. & PEERS, D. (1991). Belief in astrology : A test of the Barnum effect. Skeptical Inquirer, 15, 166-172.
  BEINS, B.C. (1993). Using the Barnum effect to teach about ethics and deception in research. Teaching of Psychology, 20, 33-35.
VALLERAND, R.J. (Dir.) (1994). Les fondements de la psychologie sociale. Montréal : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Effets
Effet buffet à volonté : Tendance à participer à des activités si de la nourriture - gratuite et ad libitum - est disponible sur place. Cet effet a été observé par Goulet lors des assemblées syndicales, des vernissages et des rassemblements politiques. Il s'agit en fait d'une variation sur le thème des renforcements primaires distribués selon un programme de renforcement continu (ici on remplace le syndiqué par un pigeon ou un rat, au choix). On observe un effet semblable avec l'alcool (mais davantage d'effets secondaires...). = effet homard, effet boeuf, effet mandarin. Free food effect.

   OSBORNE, S.R. (1977). The free food (contrafreeloading) phenomenon : A review and analysis. Animal Learning & Behavior, 5, 221-235.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet caméléon : Tendance à se comporter (expression faciales et verbales, mimiques, postures, etc) comme les gens qui nous entournent. Chameleon effect.

  CHARTRAND, T. & BARGH, J.A. (1999). The chameleon effect : The perception-behavior link and social interaction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 76 (6), 893-910. [PDF]
 LAKIN, J.L., JEFFERIS, V.E., CHENG, C.M. & CHARTRAND, T. (2003). The chameleon effect as social glue : Evidence for the evolutionary significance of nonconscious mimicry. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 145-162.
 BAILENSON J.N. & YEE, N. (2005). Digital chameleons : Automatic assimilation of nonverbal gestures in immersive virtual environments. Psychological Science, 16, 814-819.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet cathartique : Au sens large, signifie libération. En psychanalyse, il s'agit d'une méthode mise au point par Breuer et Freud (1895), afin de permettre au patient d'abréagir c-à-d de libérer un affect pathogène (émotion désagréable, de la colère, de l'agressivité) en se remémorant par la parole les événements traumatiques associés au refoulement de l'affect en question. Plusieurs études semblent montrer que cette méthode ne fonctionne pas; elle produirait même l'effet contraire, c-à-d une augmentation de l'agressivité. = effet cathartique, hypothèse de la catharsis, se défouler. Catharsis, punching bag effect.
  FESHBAGH, S. (1956). The catharsis hypothesis and some consequences of interaction with aggressive and neutral play objects. Journal of Personality, 24 (4), 449-462. LEWIS W.A. & BUCHER, A.M. (1992). Anger, catharsis, the reformulated frustration-aggression hypothesis and health consequences. Psychotherapy, 29, 385-392.
KONECNI, V.J. & DOOB, A.N. (1972). Catharsis through displacement of aggression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 23 (3), 379-387. [PDF] BUSHMAN, B.J., BAUMEISTER, R.F. & STACK, A.D. (1999). Catharsis, aggression, and persuasive influence : Self-fulfilling or self-defeating prophecies ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 76, 367- 376.
GEEN, R.G., STONNER, D. & SHOPE, G.L. (1975). The facilitation of aggression by aggression : Evidence against the catharsis hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 31, 721-726. BUSHMAN, B.J., BAUMEISTER, R.F. & PHILLIPS, C.M. (2001). Do people aggress to improve their mood ? Catharsis beliefs, affect regulation opportunity, and aggressive responding. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81, 17-32.
KONECNI, V.J. (1975). Annoyance, type and duration of postannoyance activity, and aggression : The "cathartic effect". Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 104, (1), 6-102. [PDF] BUSHMAN, B.J. (2002). Does venting anger feed or extinguish the flame? Catharsis, rumination, distraction, anger, and aggressive responding. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 724-731. [PDF]
GEEN, R.G. & QUANTY, M.B. (1977). The catharsis of aggression : An evaluation of a hypothesis. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 1-37. New York : Academic Press. BUSHMAN, B.J. & WHITAKER, J L. (2010). Like a magnet : Catharsis beliefs attract angry people to violent video games. Psychological Science, 21 (6), 790-792. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets et Abréaction
Effet cocktail party : Effet découvet par Cherry. Cocktail party phenomenon.

   CHERRY, E.C. (1953). Some experiments on the recognition of speech, with one and with two ears. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 25 (5), 975. [PDF]
WOOD, N.L. & COWAN, N. (1995). The cocktail party phenomenon revisited : Attention and memory in the classic selective listening procedure of Cherry (1953). Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 255-260.
CONWAY, A.R.A., COWAN, N. & BUNTING, M F. (2001). The cocktail party phenomenon revisited : The importance of working memory capacity. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8, 331-335. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets
Effet Colavita : Sur le plan de l'attention, primat ou dominance de la vision sur l'audition. EX:En présence de deux signaux simultanés - l'un visuel, l'autre auditif - on a tendance à ne répondre qu'au signal visuel (ou à y répondre en premier). Colavita visual dominance effect.
  COLAVITA, F.B. (1974). Human sensory dominance. Perception & Psychophysics, 16, 409-412.
KOPPEN, C. & SPENCE, C. (2007). Spatial coincidence modulates the Colavita visual dominance effect. Neuroscience Letters, 417 (2), 107-111.
KOPPEN, C. & SPENCE, C. (2007). Seeing the light : exploring the Colavita visual dominance effect. Experimental Brain Research, 180 (4), 737-754.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet d'amorçage : Voir Amorçage.
Effet d'arche : Bow effect, U- shaped curve.

  LACOUTURE, Y. (1997). Bow, range, and sequential effects in absolute identification : A response-time analysis. Psychological Review, 60, 121-133.
KENT, C. & LAMBERTS, K. (2005). An exemplar account of the bow effect and set-size effects in absolute identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 31, 289-305.
DODDS, P., DONKIN, C., BROWN, S.D., HEATHCOTE, A. & MALRLEY, A.A.J. (2011). Stimulus-specific learning : disrupting the bow effect in absolute identification. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 73 (6), 1977-1986 [PDF] + [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets
Effet d'assoupissement : Effet découvert par Hovland. On observe ce phénomène lorsqu'un individu exposé à un message persuasif livré par une source peu crédible dissocie après un certain temps le message de sa source, au point de considérer le message comme valable, et donc de se laisser persuader. Le terme assoupissement renvoie ici à l'idée que même les individus vigilants ("Ce message a peu de valeur car il émane d'une source peu crédible") finissent avec le temps par baisser leur garde (oublier la relation entre le message et la source) et se laisser convaincre. Effet d'assoupisemnt et persuasion. Sleeping effect.
  HOVLAND, C.I., LUMSDALE, A.A. & SHEFFIELD, F.D. (1949). Experiments on mass communication : Studies in social psychology in World War II : Volume III. Princeton : Princeton University Press. COOK, T.D., GRUDER, C.L., HENNIGAN, K.M. & FLAY, B.R. (1979). History of the sleeper effect : Some logical pitfalls in accepting the null hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 86 (4), 662-679.
HOVLAND, C.I., JANIS, I.L. & KELLEY, H.H. (1953). Communications and persuasion : Psychological studies in opinion change. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press. SITTON, S.C. & GRIFFIN, S. (1980). The sleeper effect in reconstructive memory. Journal of General Psychology, 103 (1), 21-25.
WEISS, W.A. (1953). A "sleeper" effect in opinion change. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 48, 173-180. HANNAH, D.B. & STERNTHAL, B. (1984). Detecting and explaining the sleeper effect. The Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (2), 632-642.
CATTON, W.R. (1960). Changing cognitive structure as a basis for the "Sleeper Effect". Social Forces, 38 (4), 348-354. MAZURSKY, D. & SCHUL, Y. (1988). The effects of advertisement encoding on the failure to discount information : implications for the sleeper effect. Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (1), 24-36.
SCHULMAN, G.I. & WORALL, C. (1970). Salience patterns, source credibility, and the sleeper effect. Public Opinion Quarterly, 34 (3), 371-382. PRATKANIS, A.R., GREENWALD, A.G., LEIPPE, M.R. & BAUMGARDNER, M.H. (1988). In search of reliable persuasion effects : III. The seeper effect is dead. Long live the sleeper effect. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54 (2), 203-218. [PDF]
WEBER, S.J. (1971). Source primacy-recency effects and the sleeper effect. Proceedings of the 79th Annual Convention of the American Psychological Association, 6, 385-386. UNDERWOOD, J. & PEZDEK, K. (1998). Memory suggestibility as an example of the sleeper effect. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 5 (3), 449-453.
CAPON, N. & HULBERT, J. (1973). The sleeper effect : An awakening. Public Opinion Quarterly, 37 (3), 333-358. PRIESTER, J., WEGENR, D., PETTY, R. & FABRIGAR, L. (1999). Examining the psychological process underlying the sleeper effect : The elaboration likelihood model explanation. Media Psychology, 1 (1), 27-48.
GILLIG, P.M. & GREENWALD, A.G. (1974). Is it time to lay the sleeper effect to rest? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 29, 132-139. [PDF] LARISCY, R.A.W. & TINKMAN, S.F. (1999). The sleeper effect and negative political advertising. Journal of Advertising, 28 (4), 13-30.
GRUDER, C.L., COOK, T.D., HENNIGAN, K.M., FLAY, B.R. & HALAMAJ, J. (1978). Empirical tests of the absolute sleeper effect predicted from the discounting cue hypothesis. Personality Social Psychology, 36 (10), 1061-1074. [PDF] KUMKALE, G.T. & ALBARRACIN, D. (2004). The sleeper effect in persuasion : A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 130 (1), 143-172. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets et Persuasion
Effet d'audience : Le fait de se savoir observer par une ou plusieurs personnes (foule) peut augmenter ou diminuer la perfomrance d'un individu. Effet d'audience, Facilitation sociale et effet de groupe. Audience influence.

Effets d'audience
Facilitation sociale Le comportement augmente
Indolence sociale Le comportement diminue


  TRAVIS, L.E. (1925). The effect of a small audience upon eye-hand coordination. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 20 (2), 142-146.  
ALLPORT, F.H. (1919). Editorial comment upon the effect of an audience. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 18, 342-344. [LIRE]  
PAIVIO, A. (1965). Personality & audience influence. In B. Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 2, pp. 127-173). New York : Academic Press TERRY, D.J. & KEARNES, M. (1993). Effects of an audience on the task performance of subjects with high and low self-esteem. Personality & Individual Differences, 15 (2), 137-145.
COTTRELL, N.B., SEKERAK, G.J., WACK, D.L. & RITTLE, R.H. (1968). Social facilitation of dominant responses by the presence of an audience and the mere presence of others. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 9, 245-250. WRIGHT, E.F., VOYER, D., WRIGHT, R.D. & RONEY, C. (1995). Supporting audiences and performance under pressure : The home-ice disadvantage in hockey championships. Journal of Sport Behavior, 18, 21-28.
MARTENS, R. (1969). Effect of an audience on learning and performance of a complex motor skill. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 12 (3), 252-260. SETA, C.A. & SETA, J.J. (1995). When audience presence is enjoyable : The influences of audience awareness of prior success on performance and task interest. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 16, 95-108.
PAULUS, P.B. & MURDOCH, P. (1971). Anticipated evaluation and audience presence in the enhancement of dominant responses. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 7, 280-291.  GEISLER, W.W.G. & LEITH, L.M. (1997). The effect of self-esteem, self-efficacy, and audience presence on soccer penalty shot performance. Journal of Sport Behavior, 20 (3), 322-337.
QUARTER, J. & MARCUS, A. (1971). Drive level and the audience effect : A test of Zajonc's theory.The Journal of Social Psychology, 83, 99-105. WALLACE, H.M., BAUMEISTER, R. & VOHS, K.D. (2005). Audience support and choking under pressure : A home disadvantage ? Journal of Sports Sciences, 23 (4), 429-438. [PDF]
BERKEY, A.S. & HOPPE, R.A. (1972). The combined effect of audience and anxiety on paired-associates learning. Psychonomic Science, 29 (6A), 351-353.  
Voir aussi Facilitation sociale, Avantage du terrain, Foule et Indolence sociale
Effet d'entraînement : Tendance à penser ou à faire comme la majorité des gens, à faire ce qui est populaire, ce que les autres font. Effet d'entraînement, pensée de groupe et conformisme. = effet remorque, effet de mode, effet Hygrade (La saucisse...), vague, rouleau compresseur. / Underdog effect, bandwagon.
  GALLUP, G.H. & RAE, S.F. (1940). Is there a bandwagon vote ? Public Opinion Quarterly, 4 (2), 244-249.
ZECH, C.E. (1975). Leibensteinís bandwagon effect as applied to voting. Public Choice 21, 117-122.
STAFFIN, P.D. (1977). The bandwagon curve. American Journal of Political Science 21, 695-709.
TVERSKY, A. & KAHNEMAN, D. (1981). Bandwagon and underdog effects and the possibility of election predictions. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 106, 1039-1061.
McALLISTER, I. & STUDLAR, D.T. (1991). Bandwagon, underdog, or projection ? Opinion polls and electoral choice in Britain, 1979-1987. The Journal of Politics, 53, 720-740.
Voir aussi Effets et Conformisme
Effet d'espacement (des apprentissages) : Désigne le fait qu'il est préférable d'espacer les séances d'apprentissage d'un comportement/connaissance si l'on veut en augmenter la période de rétention (mémoire), pluôt que de les concencenter en un court laps de temps (effet de concentration); il est donc préférable d'étudier souvent (répétition) pendant peu de temps qu'une seul fois très longtemps. /effet de concentration des apprentissages. Spacing effect, SE, effect of spaced repetitions, spaced repetition, distributed practice.

  JOST, A. (1897). The strength of associations in their dependence on the distribution of repetitions. Zeitschrift fur Psychologie und Physiologie der Sinnesorgane, 16, 436-472. SCHNEIDER, S.M. & MORRIS, E K. (1992). Sequences of spaced responses : Behavioral units and the role of contiguity. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 58 (3), 537-555. [PDF]
  CHALIS, B.H. (1993). Spacing effects on cued-memory tests depend on level of processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19 (2), 389-396.
  BAHRICK, H.P., BAHRICK, L.E., BAHRICK, A.S. & BAHRICK, P.O. (1993). Maintenance of foreign language vocabulary and the spacing effect. Psychological Science, 4, 316-321.
  KAHANA, M.J. & GREENE, R.L. (1993). The effects of spacing on memory for homogeneous lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 19, 159-162. [PDF]
EBBINGHAUS, H. (1913). Memory : A contribution to experimental psychology. New York : Columbia University. CHALIS, B.H. & SIDHU, R. (1993). Dissociative effects of massed repetition on implicit and explicit measures of memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 115-127.
MACE, C.A. (1932). The psychology of study. London : Methuen & Co. Ltd. CHALIS, B.H. (1993). Spacing effects on cued-memory tests depend on level of processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 19, 389-396.
REYNOLDS, J.H. & GLASER, R. (1964). Effects of repetition and spaced review upon secondary school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 297-308. WOZNIAK, P.A. & GORZELANCYK, E.J. (1994). Optimization of repetition spacing in the practice of learning. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 54, 59-62.
AUSUBEL, D.P. & YOUSSEF, M. (1965). The effect of spaced repetition on meaningful retention. Journal of General Psychology, 73, 147-150. CERMAK, L.S., VERFAELLIE, M., LANZONI, S., MATHER, M. & CHASE, K.A. (1996). Effect of spaced repetitions on amnesia patients' recall and recognition performance. Neuropsychology, 10 (2), 219-227.
MELTON, A.W. (1970). The situation with respect to the spacing of repetitions and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 596-606. BRAUN, K. & RUBIN, D.C. (1998). The spacing effect depends on an encoding deficit, retrieval, and time in working memory : Evidence from once-presented words. Memory, 6 (1), 37-65
BJORK, R.A. & ALLEN, T.W. (1970). The spacing effect : Consolidation or differential encoding ? Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 567-572. [PDF] RUSSO, R., PARKIN, A.J., TAYLOR, S.R. & WILKS, J. (1998). Revising current two-process accounts of spacing effects in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 24 (1), 161-172.
  TOPPINO, T.C. & SCHNEIDER, M.A. (1999). Observation : The mix-up regarding mixed and unmixed lists in spacing-effect research. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 25, 1071-1076.
HINTZMAN, D.L., BLOCK, R.A. & SUMMERS, J.J. (1973). Modality tags and memory for repetitions : Locus of the spacing effect. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 12, 229-238. TOPPINO, T.C. & BLOOM, L.C. (2002). The spacing effect, free recall, and two-process theory : A closer look. ournal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 28 (3), 437-444.
HINTZMAN, D.L. (1974). Theoretical implications of the spacing effect. Theories in cognitive psychology : The loyola symposium. Oxford, England : Lawrence Erlbaum. RUSSO, R., MAMMARELLA, N. & AVONS, S.E (2002). Toward a unified account of spacing effects in explicit cued-memory tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 28 (5), 819-829. [PDF]
JOHNSTON, W.A. & UHL, C.N. (1976). The contribution of encoding effort and variability to the spacing effect on free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 2, 153-160. MAMMARELLA, N., RUSSO, R. & AVONS, S.E. (2002). Spacing effects in cued-memory tasks for unfamiliar faces and nonwords. Memory & cognition, 30 (8), 1238-1251. [PDF]
CORNOLDI, C. & LONGONI, A. (1977). The MP-DP effect and the influence of distinct repetitions on recognition of random shapes. Italian Journal of Psychology, 4, 65-76. RUSSO, R. & MAMMARELLA, N. (2002). Spacing effects in recognition memory: When meaning matters. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 14, 49-59
WHITTEN, W.B. & BJORK, R.A. (1977). Learning from tests : Effects of spacing. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 16, 465-478. [PDF] DE BOER, V. (2003). Optimal learning and the spacing effect : Theory, application and experiments based on the memory chain model. Artificial Intelligence Master's Thesis for Computational Psychology, University of Amsterdam.
GLENBERG, A.M. (1977). Influences of retrieval processes on the spacing effect in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 3, 282-294. [PDF] RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. (2003). Spacing and repetition effects in human memory : Application of the SAM model. Cognitive Science, 27, 431-452. [PDF]
SHAUGHESSY, J.J. (1977). Long-term retention and the spacing effect in free-recall and frequency judgments. American Journal of Psychology, 90, 587-598. HILLARY, F., SCHULTHEIS, M.T., CHALLIS, B.H., CARNIVALE, G., GALSKI, T. & DELUCA, J. (2003). Spacing of repetition improves learning and memory in moderate to severe TBI. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 25 (1), 49-58. [PDF]
ROSS, B. & LANDAUER, T. (1978). Memory for at least one of two items : Test and failure of several theories of spacing effects. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 17, 669-680. KAHANA, M.J. & HOWARD, M.C. (2005). Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists. Psychonomic Bulletin & review, 12 (19), 159-164. [PDF]
GLENBERG, A.M. (1979). Component-Levels theory of the effects of spacing of repetitions on recall and recognition. Memory & Cognition, 7, 95-112. VERKOEIJEN, P.P.J.L., RIKERS, R.M.J.P. & SCHMIDT, H.G. (2005). Detrimental influence of contextual change on spacing effects in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30 (4), 796-800. [PDF]
GLENBERG, A.M. & LEHMAN, T.S. (1980). Spacing repetitions over 1 week. Memory & Cognition, 8, 528-538. MAMMARELLA, N., AVONS, S.E & RUSSO, R. (2004). A short-term perceptual priming account of spacing effects in explicit cued-memory tasks for unfamiliar stimuli. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 16 (3), 387-402.
GLENBERG, A.M. & SMITH, S.M. (1981). Spacing repetitions and solving problems are not the same. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 20, 110-119. KAHANA, M.J. & HOWARD, M.W. (2005). Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists ?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12 (1), 159-164. [PDF]
  VERKOEIJEN, P.P.J.L., RIKERS, R.M.J.P. & SCHMIDT, H.G. (2005). Limitations to the spacing effect demonstration of an inverted u-shaped relationship between interrepetition spacing and free recall. Experimental Psychology, 52 (4), 257-263.[PDF]
REDER, L. & ANDERSON, J. (1982). Effects of spacing and embellishment on memory for main points of a text. Memory & Cognition, 10, 97-102. [PDF] APPLETON-KNAPP, S.L., BJORK, R.A. & WICKENS, T.D. (2005). Examining the spacing effect in advertising : Encoding variability, retrieval processes, and their interaction. Journal of Consumer Research, 32 (2), 266-276.
LEICHT, K.L. & OVERTON, R. (1987). Encoding variability and spacing repetitions. American Journal of Psychology, 100 (1), 61-68. CEPEDA, N.J., PAHSLER, H., VUL, E., WIXTED, J.T. & ROHRER, D. (2006). Distributed practice in verbal recall tasks : A review and quantitative synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 354-380.
  KARPICKE, J.D. & ROEDIGER, H.L. (2007). Expanding retrieval practice promotes short-term retention, but equally spaced retrieval enhances long-term retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 33 (4), 704-719.
BIRD, C.P. (1987). Influence of the spacing of trait information on impressions of likability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 23 (6), 481-497. GREENE, R.L. (2008). Repetition and spacing effects. In Roediger H.L. (Ed.), Learning and memory : A comprehensive reference. Cognitive Psychology of Me
DEMPSTER, F.N. (1988). The spacing effect : A case study in the failure to apply the results of psychological research. American Psychologist, 43 (8), 627-634. BJORK, R.A., KORNELL, N. & BJORK, R.A. (2008). Learning concepts and categories : Is spacing the "enemy of induction"? Psychological Science, 19, 585-592. [PDF]
GREENE, R.L. (1989). Spacing effects in memory : Evidence for a two-process account. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 15 (3), 371-377. TOPPINO, T.C., FEARNOW-KENNEY, M.D., KIEPERT, M.H. & TEREMULA, A.C. (2009). The spacing effect in intentional and incidental free recall by children and adults: Limits on the automaticity hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 37 (3), 316-325. [PDF]
Voir aussi Répétition et Rythme des apprentissages
Effet d'éventail : Effet, mise en évidence par Anderson, qui révèle que plus un réseau de concepts est dense, plus il est long et difficile de récupérer les informations de ce réseau; et plus on commet des erreurs lorsque tente de le faire. = effet de réseau. Fan effect.

  ANDERSON, J.R. (1974). Retrieval of propositional information from long-term memory. Cognitive Psychology, 6 (4), 451-474. RADVANSKY, G.A. (1999). The fan effect : A tale of two theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 128 (2), 198-206.
MOESER, S.D. (1979). The role of experimental design in investigations of the fan effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 5 (2), 125-134. GOETZ, P. & WALTERS, D. (2000). A neuronal basis for the fan effect. Cognitive Science, 24 (1), 151-167.
REDER, L.M. & ROSS, B.H. (1983). Integrated knowledge in different tasks : The role of retrieval strategy on fan effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 9, 55-72. [PDF] REDER, L.M., DONAVOS, D.K. & ERICKSON, M.A. (2002). Perceptual match effects in direct tests of memory : The role of contextual fan. Memory & Cognition, 30 (2), 312-323.
REDER, L.M. & WIBLE, C. (1984). Strategy use in question-answering : Memory strength and task constraints on fan effects. Memory & Cognition, 12, 411-419. GOMEZ-ARIZA, C. & BAJO, M.T. (2003). Interference and integration: The fan effect in children and adults. Memory, 11 (6), 505-523.
GERARD, L., ZACKS, T.R., HASHER, L. & RADVANSKY, G.A. (1991). Age deficits in retrieval : The fan effect. Journal of Gerontology : Psychological Sciences, 46 (4), 131-136. [PDF] SOHN, M.-H., ANDERSON, J.R., REDER, L.M. & GOODE, A. (2004). Differential fan effect and attentional focus. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11 (4), 729-734. [PDF]
RADVANSKY, G.A. & ZACKS, T.R. (1991). Mental models and the fan effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 17, 940-953. [PDF] BUNTIG, M.F., CONWAY A. & HEITZ, R.P. (2004). Individual differences in the fan effect and working memory capacity. Journal of Memory & Language, 51, 604-621.
ANDERSON, J.R. & REDER, L.M. (1999). The fan effect : New results and new theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 128 (2), 189-197. [PDF] SCHNEIDER, D.W. & ANDERSON, J.R. (2012). Modeling Fan Effects on the Time Course of Associative Recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 64 (3), 127-160. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets
Effet d'exposition : Le fait de se trouver en présence d'un stimulus à plusieurs reprises rend ce stimulus plus familier (la familiarité, à son tour, augmente la préférence pour ce stimulus ou sa valeur renforçante). = exposition. Exposure effect, mere exposure effect.

  ZAJONC, R.B. (1968). Attitudinal effects of mere exposure. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 9, 1-27. MORELAND, R.L. & ZAJONC, R.B. (1982). Exposure effects in person perception : Familiarity, similarity, and attraction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 18, 395-415.
ZAJONC, R.B. & RAJECKI, D.W. (1969). Exposure and affect : A field experiment. Psychonomic Science, 17, 216-217. SEAMON, J., MARSH, R.L. & BRODY, N. (1984). Critical importance of exposure duration for affective discrimination of stimuli that are not recognized. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 10, 465-469
HINTZMAN, D.L. (1970). Effects of repettion and exposure duration on memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83, 435-444. BORNSTEIN, R.F. (1989). Exposure and affect : Overview and meta-analysis of research, 1968-1987. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 263-289.

KRUGMAN, H.E. (1972). Why three exposures may be enough. Journal of Advertising Research, 12, 11-14.

 
ZAJONC, R.B., SHAVER P.R., TAVRIS, C. & VAN KREVELD, D. (1972). Exposure, satiation, and stimulus discriminability. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 21, 270-280. MORELAND, R.L. & BEACH, S. (1992). Exposure effects in the classroom : The development of affinity among students. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 255-276.
SAEGERT S., SWAP, W. & ZAJONC, R. (1973). Exposure, Context, and Interpersonal Attraction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 25 (2), 234-242. PERETZ, I., GAUDREAU, D. & BONNEL, A.-M. (1998). Exposure effects on music preference and recognition. Memory & Cognition, 26, 884-890
STANG, D.J. (1974). Methodological factors in mere exposure research. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 1014-1025 BORNSTEIN, R.F. & D'AGOSTINO, P.R. (1992). Stimuls recognition and the mere exposure affect. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 63 (4), 545-552.
ZAJONC, R.B., MARKUS, H. & WILSON, W.R. (1974). Exposure effects and associative learning. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 10, 248-263.  
ZAJONC, R.B., CRANDALL, R., KAIL, R.V. & SWAP, W. (1974). Effect of extreme exposure frequencies on different affective ratings of stimuli. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38, 667-678. SEAMON, J., WILLIAMS, P., CROWLEY, M., KIM, I., LANGER, S., ORNE, P. & WISHENGRAD, D. (1995). The mere exposure effect is based on implicit memory-effects of stimulus type, encoding conditions, and number of exposures on recognition and affect judgments. ournal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 21, 711-721.
MILLER, R.L. (1976). Mere exposure, psychological reactance and attitude change. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 59, 1-9.  CUSUMANO, D.L. & THOMPSON, J.K. (1997). Body image and body shape ideals in magazines : exposure, awareness, and internalization. Sex Roles, 37 (9-10), 701-721.
MORELAND, R.L. & ZAJONC, R.B. (1976). A strong test of exposure effects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12, 170-179. RHODES, G., HALBERSTADT, J. & BRAJKOVIC, G. (2001). Generalization of mere exposure effects to averaged composite faces. Social Cognition, 19, 57-70.
MILLER, R.L. (1976). Mere exposure, psychological reactance and attitude change. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 59, 1-9. HARMON-JONES, E. (2000). The role of affect in the mere exposure effect : Evidence from psychophysiological and individual differences approaches. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27 (7), 889-898. [PDF]
MORELAND, R.L. & ZAJONC, R.B. (1977). Is stimulus recognition a necessary condition for the occurrence of exposure effects ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 35, 191-199. SZPUNAR K.K., SCHELLENBERG, E.G. & PLINER, P. (2004). Liking and memory for musical stimuli as a function of exposure. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 30, 370-381.
SWAP, W.C. (1977). Interpersonal attraction and repeated exposure to rewards and punishers. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 248-251. PESKIN, M. & NEWELL, F. (2004). Familiarity breeds attraction : Effects of exposure on the attractiveness of typical and distinctive faces. Perception, 33, 147-157.
HARRISSON, A.A. (1977). Mere exposure. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in Experimental social psychology (pp. 39-83). New York : Academic Press. ZEBROWITZ, L.A., WEINEKE, K. & WHITE, B. (2008). Mere exposure and racial prejudice : Exposure to other-race faces increases liking for strangers of that race. Social Cognition, 26, 259-275. [PDF]
MORELAND, R.L. & ZAJONC, R.B. (1979). Stimulus recognition may not mediate exposure effects. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37, 1985-1989. CARTER, T.J., FERGUSON, M.J. & HASSIN, R.R. (2011). A single exposure to the American flag shifts support toward Republicanism up to 8 months later. Psychological Science, 22 (8), 1011-1018. [PDF]
WILSON, W.R. (1979). Feeling more than we can know : Exposure effects without learning. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37 (6), 811-821. CARUSO, E.M., VOHS, K.D., BAXTER, B. & WAYTZ, A. (2013). Mere exposure to money increases endorsement of free- market systems and social inequality. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 142, 301-306.
Voir aussi Effets et Familiarité
Effet d'hypercorrection : Dans un examen, après la correction, tendance à corriger plus fréquemment (hypercorrection) les erreurs de mémoire pour lesquelles nous avions la certitude de ne pas nous être trompé, plutôt que les erreurs de mémoire pour lesquelles nous étions plus ou moins certain. Hypercorrection effect.
  BUTTERFIELD, B.A. & METCALFE, J. (2001). Errors committed with high confidence are hypercorrected. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 27 (6), 69-84.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet d'inertie : Voir Inertie. Inertia.
Effet d'interaction : Voir Interaction. Interaction effect.
Effet d'interférence : Voir Interférence. Interference effect.
Effet d'ombrage verbale : Voir Ombrage verbal.
Effet d'ordre : Dans un plan à mesures répétées, effet parasite d'une variable non-contrôlée qui influence davantage le sujet lors de la première mesure que lors de la seconde, ou vice-versa. EX: Si on demande à un groupe de sujets de résoudre des problèmes mathématiques, il est possible qu'ils soient plus fatigués (variable parasite nuisible) lors de la seconde mesure. Par contre, les effets d'apprentissage ou de familiarité avec la tâche (effet parasite favorable) se feront davange sentir lors de seconde mesure. Effet d'ordre, ordre de présentation et contrebalancement. Effect of order, effect of item order

  TULVING, E. (1965). The effect of order of presentation on learning of "unrelated" words. Psychonomic Science, 3, 337-338. [PDF]
LAFFITTEE, R.G. (1984). Effects of item order on achievement test scores and students' perceptions of test difficulty. Teaching of Psychology, 11 (4), 212-214.
SERRA, M. & NAIRNE, J.S. (1993). Design controversies and the generation effect : Support for an item-order hypothesis. Memory & Cognition 1993, 21 (1), 34-40.
ENGLEKAMP, J. & DEHN, D.M. (2000). Item and order information in subject-performed tasks and experimenter-performed tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 26, 671– 682.
JONKER, T.R., LEVENE, M. & MacLEOD, C.M. (2014). Testing the item-order account of design effects using the production effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 40 (2), 441-448. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets et Contrebalancement
Effet d'ordre des naissances : Voir Ordre des naissances.
Effet de blocage : Voir Blocage. Blocking.
Effet de compensation : Compensation effect.

  KERVYN, N., JUDD, C.M. & YZERBYT, V.Y. (2009). You want to appear competent ? Be mean ! You want to appear sociable ? Be lazy ! Group differentiation and the compensation effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 363-367.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet de complémentarité : Voir Complémentarité.
Effet de concentration : /Effet d'espacement. Effect of massed, effects of massed repetition.

  EBBINGHAUS, H. (1913). Memory : A contribution to experimental psychology. New York : Columbia University.
BLOOM, K.C. & SHUELL, T.J. (1981). Effects of massed and distributed practice on the learning and retention of second-language vocabulary. Journal of Educational Research, 74, 245-248.
CHALIS, B.H. & SIDHU, R. (1993). Dissociative effects of massed repetition on implicit and explicit measures of memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 115-127.
Voir aussi Effets et Effet d'espacement
Effet de contraste : Contrast effect, contrast.

  REYNOLDS, G.S. (1961). Behavioral contrast. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 4 (1), 57-71. [PDF] MALONE, J.C. & STADDON, J.E.R. (1973). Contrast effects in maintained generalization gradients. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 19 (1), 167-179. [PDF]
REYNOLDS, G.S. (1961). Contrast, generalization, and the process of discrimination. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 4 (4), 289-294. [PDF]  KELLER, K. (1974). The role of elicited responding in behavioral contrast. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21 (2), 249-257. [PDF]
REYNOLDS, G.S. & CATANIA, A.C. (1961). Behavioral contrast with fixed-interval and low-rate reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 4 (4), 387-393. [PDF] SHIMP, C.P. & MENLOVE, R.L. (1974). Contrast as a function of component duration. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4, 193-194.
TERRACE, H.S. (1963). Discrimination learning, the peak shift, and behavioral contrast. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (1), 727-741. [PDF] MACKINTOSH, N.J. (1974). A search for contrast effects in discrete-trial discrimination learning by pigeons. Learning & Motivation, 5, 311-327.
REYNOLDS, G.S. (1963). Some limitations on behavioral contrast and induction during successive discrimination. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (1), 131-139. [PDF] SCHWARTZ, B. (1974). Behavioral contrast in thepigeon depends upon the location of the stimulus. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 3, 365-368.
NEVIN, J.A. & SHETTLEWORTH, S.J. (1966). An analysis of contrast effects in multiple schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 9 (4), 305-315. [PDF]  BENINGER, R.J. & KENDALL, S.B. (1975). Behavioral contrast in rats with different reinforcers and different response topographies. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 24 (3), 267-280. [PDF]
 BLOOMFIELD, T.M. (1966). Two types of behavioral contrast discrimination learning would establish stimulus discrimination learning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 9 (2), 155-161. [PDF] SCHWARTZ, B. (1975). Discriminative stimulus location as a determinant of positive and negative behavioral contrast in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 23 (2), 167-176. [PDF]
 BLOOMFIELD, T.M. (1967). Some temporal properties of behavioral contrast. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10 (2), 159-164. [PDF]  ALLISON, J. (1976). Contrast, induction, facilitation, suppression, and conservation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 19 (2), 185-198. [PDF]
TERRACE, H.S. (1968). Discrimination learning, the peak shift, and behavioral contrast.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11 (6), 727-741. [PDF] JUDD, C.M. & HARCKIEWITZ, J.M. (1980). Contrast effects in attitude judgment : An examination of the accentuation hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 38, 390-398.
 WINTON, R.N. & GAY, R.A. (1969). Behavioral contrast in one component of a multiple schedule as a function of the reinforcement conditions operating in the following component. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (2), 239-246. [PDF] WILLIAMS, B.A. (1983). Another look at contrast in multiples chedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 39 (2), 345-384. [PDF]
 HALLIDAY, M.S. & BOAKES, R.A. (1971). Behavioral contrast and response independent reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 16 (3), 429-434. [PDF] WILLIAMS, B.A. & WIXTED, J.T. (1994). Shortcomings of the behavioral competition theory of contrast : Reanalysis of McLean (1992). Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 61 (1), 107-112. [PDF]
 PEAR, J.J. & WILKIE, D.M. (1971). Contrast and induction in rats on multiple schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 15 (3), 289-296. [PDF]  HANTULA, D. A. & CROWELL, C.R. (1994). Behavioral contrast in a two-option analogue task of financial decision making. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27 (4), 607-617. [PDF]
   LEONARDS, U. & SINGER, W. (1997). Selective temporal interactions between processing streams with differential sensitivity for colour and luminance contrast. Vision Research, 37 (9), 1129-1140. [PDF]
 WAITE, W.W. & OSBORNE, J.G. (1972). Sustained behavioral contrast in children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 18 (1), 115-117. [PDF]  PRINZMETAL, W., NWACHUKU, I., BODANSKI, L., BLUMENFELD, L. & SHIMIZU N. (1997). The phenomenology of attention. 2. Brightness and contrast. Consciousness & Cognition, 6 (2-3), 372-412.
 WEXLEY, K.N., YUKL, G.A., KOVACKS, S.Z. & SANDERS, R. (1972). Importance of contrast effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 45-58.  LEONARDS, U. & SINGER, W. (1998). Two segmentation mechanisms with differential sensitivity for color and luminance contrast. Vision Research, 38 (1), 101-109.
HARRISON, M. & PEPITONE, A. (1972). Contrast effect in the use of punishment. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 23 (3), 398-404.  NOTHDURFT, H.-C. (2000). Salience from feature contrast : Variations with texture density. Vision Research, 40, 3181-3200.
Voir aussi Salience, Vividité et Effets
 
Effet de convergence : Convergence aléatoire de deux phénomènes qui finissent par se recouper dans le temps et l'espace, donnant ainsi l'impression que leur rencontre a été planifiée et organisée. = causalité illusoire, planification illusoire.

  HUMBAD, M.N., DONNELLAN, B., IACONO, W.G., McGUE, M. & BURT, S.A. (2010). Is spousal similarity for personality a matter of convergence or selection ? Personality & Individual Differences, 49 (7), 827-830. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets
Effet de familiarité : Voir Familiarité.
Effet de génération : Effet découvert par Slamecka et Graf, et qui révèle que l'on retient mieux une information qui exige un effort pour produire ou obtenir cette information (actif), qu'une information que l'on observe (passif). EX: Les étudiants retiennent mieux la matière lorsque les professeurs leur fournissent des notes de cours troués (actif), que des notes de cours entières. Effet de génération et apprentissage actif. = effet de l'effort, effet production. Generation effect.

  SLAMECKA, N.J. & GRAF, P. (1978). The generation effect : Delineation of a phenomenon. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 4 (6), 592-604. BURNS, D.J. (1990). The generation effect : A test between single- and multifactor theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 16, 1060-1067.
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GREENE, R.L. (1988). Generation effects in frequency judgment. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 14, 298-304. PESTA, B.J., SANDERS, R.E. & NEMEC, R.J. (1996). Older adults' strategic superiority with mental multiplication : A generation effect assessment. Experimental Aging Research, 22, 155-169.
WATKINS, M.J. & SECHLER, E.S. (1988). Generation effect with an incidental memorization procedure. Journal of Memory & Language, 27, 537-544. NICOLAS, S. & TARDIEU, H. (1996). The generation effect in a word- stem completion task : The influence of conceptual processes. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 8, 405-424.
JOHNS, E.E. & SWANSON, L. G. (1988). The generation effect with nonwords. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 14, 180-190. WESRERMAN, D.L. & GREENE, R.L. (1997). The effects of visual masking on recognition memory : Similarities to the generation effect. Journal of Memory & Language, 37, 584-596.
GARDINER, J.M. & HAMPTON, G.A. (1988). Item-specific processing and the generation effect : Support for a distinctiveness account. American Journal of Psychology, 101 (4), 495-504. [PDF] GREENE, R.L., THAPAR, A. & WESTERMAN, D.L. (1998). The effects of generation on memory for order. Journal of Memory & Language, 38, 255-264.
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Voir aussi Effets et Apprentissage actif
Effet de grandeur : Voir Ampleur de l'effet. Effect size.
Effet de groupe :Au sein d'un groupe, influence ou pression exercée sur certains comportements d'un individu par l'effet du nombre ou de la majorité. = effet du nombre. Group pressure.

  ASCH, S.E. (1951). Effects of group pressure upon the modification and distortion of judgements. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leaders, and men (pp. 177-190). New York : Russell and Russell Inc.
Voir aussi Effets
Effet de halo : Tendance à associer entre eux les traits positifs (ou négatifs) de la personnalité. EX: D'une belle personne (trait positif de la personnalité), on dira qu'elle est sûrement intelligente (autre trait positif); alors que si elle est laide, on sera enclin à croire qu'elle n'est pas très intelligence ou gentille (Traits négatifs). Halo effect.
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TIMMERMAN, K. & HEWITT, J. (1980). Examining the halo effect of physical attractiveness. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 51 (2), 607-612. MURPHY, K.R., JAKO, R.A. & ANHALT, R.L. (1993). Nature and consequences of halo error : A critical analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78 (2), 218-225.
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LANCE, C.E. & WOEHR, D.J. (1986), Statistical control of halo : clarification from two cognitive models of the performance appraisal process, Journal of Applied Psychology, 71 (4), 679-685. ROSENZWIG, P. (2007). The halo effect ... and the eight other business delusions that deceive managers. Free Press.
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Voir aussi Effets
Effet de l'expérimentateur : Voir biais de l'expérimentateur.
Effet de la couleur : Voir Couleur.
Effet de la foule : Voir Foule et Avantage du terrain.
Effet de la lune : Pseudophénomène qui consiste en l'influence psychologique de la lune sur les individus. Effet de la lune, croyance et astrologie. Lunar influence, moon cycle effect, Lunar madness, lunacy, effect of the full moon

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MARTIN, S., KELLY, I. & SAKLOFSKE, D. (1988). Lunar phase and birthrate : A fifty-year critical review. Psychological Reports, 63, 923-934. BIERMANN, T., AEMANN, C., McAULIFFE, C., STRÖBEL, A., KELLER, J., SPERLING, W., BLEICH, S., KORNHUBER, J. & REULBACH, U. (2009). Relationship between lunar phases and serious crimes of battery : a population-based study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 50, 573-577. [PDF]
COHEN-MANSFIELD, J., MARX, M.S. & WERNER, P. (1989). Full moon : does it influence agitated nursing home residents ? Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45 (4), 611-614. TEJEDOR, M.J., ETXABE, M.P. & AGUIRRE-JAIME, A. (2010). Emergency psychiatric condition, mental illness behavior and lunar cycles : Is there a real or an imaginary association? Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 38 (1), 50-56. [PDF]
Voir aussi Effets, Croyance et Astrologie
Effet de la majorité : Voir Majorité.
Effet de la nouveauté : Voir Nouveauté.
Effet de la présence des autres : Presence of others.

  COTTRELL, N.B., SEKERAK, G.J, WACK, D.L. & RITTLE, R.H. (1968). Social facilitation of dominant responses by the presence of an audience and the mere presence of others. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 9, 245-250. [PDF]
MARKUS, H. (1978). The effect of mere presence on social facilitation : An unobtrusive test. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 389-397. [PDF]
GUERIN, B. (1986). Mere presence effects in humans : A review. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 22 (1), 38-77.
ROBINSON-STAVELEY, K. & COOPER, J. (1990). Mere presence, gender, and reactions to computers : Studying human-computer interaction in the social context. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 168-183.
TERRY, D.J. & KEARNES, M. (1993). Effects of an audience on the task performance of subjects with high and low self-esteem. Personality & Individual Differences, 15 (2), 137-145.
HUGUET, P., GALVAING, M.P., MONTEIL, J.M. & DUMAS, F. (1999). Social presence effects in the Stroop task : Further evidence for an attentional view of social facilitation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77 (5), 1011-1025.
GRANT, T. & DAJEE, K. (2003). Types of task, types of audience, types of actor : Interactions between mere presence and personality type in a simple mathematical task. Personality & Individual Differences, 35 (3), 633-639.
Voir aussi Comparaison sociale, Effet d'audience et Facilitation sociale
 
Effet de la température (du milieu) : Variable qui influence certains comportements, notamment l'agressivité et la violence. = chaleur. Heat, hot temperature.

  HERSH, A.H. (1924). The effects of temperature upon the heterozygotes in the bar series of drosophila. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 39, 55-71. BELL, P.A. (1992). In defense of the negative affect escape model of heat and aggression. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 342-346.
GRIFFITT, W. (1970). Environmental effects on interpersonal affective behavior : Ambient effective temperature and attraction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 15, 240-244. ANDERSON, C.A., DEUSER, W.E. & DENEVE, K. (1995). Hot temperatures, hostile affect, hostile cognition, and arousal : Tests of a general model of affective aggression. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 21, 434-448. [PDF]
BARON, R.A. (1972). Aggression as a function of ambient temperature and prior anger arousal. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 21, 183-189.  
BARON, R.A. & LAWTON, S. F. (1972). Environmental influences on aggression : The facilitation of modeling effects by high ambient temperatures. Psychonomic Science, 26, 80-83. WYON, D., WYON, I. & NORIN, F. (1996). Effects of moderate heat stress on driver vigilance in a moving vehicle. Ergonomics, 39 (1), 61-75.
BELL, P.A. & BARON, R.A. (1974). Environmental influences on attraction : Effects of heat, attitude similarity, and personal evaluations. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 4 (5), 479-481. [PDF] ANDERSON, C.A., ANDERSON, K.B. & DEUSER, W.E. (1996). Examining an affective aggression framework : Weapon and temperature effects on aggressive thoughts, affect, and attitudes. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 22, 366-376. [PDF]
BARON, R.A. & BELL, P.A. (1975). Aggression and heat : Mediating effects of prior provocation and exposure to an aggressive model. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 31, 825-832. ANDERSON, C.A., BUSHMAN, B.J. & GROOM, R.W. (1997). Hot years and serious and deadly assault : Empirical tests of the heat hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 1213-1223. [PDF]
BELL, P.A. & BARON, R.A. (1976). Aggression and heat : The mediating role of negative affect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 18-30. ANDERSON, C.A. & ANDERSON, K.B. (1998). Temperature and aggression : Paradox, controversy, and a (fairly) clear picture. In R. Geen & E. Donnerstein (Eds.), Human aggression : Theories, research and implications for policy (pp. 247-298). San Diego, CA : Academic Press. [PDF]
BELL, P.A. & BARON, R.A. (1977). Aggression and ambient temperature : The facilitating and inhibiting effects of hot and cold environments. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 9, 443-445. ANDERSON, C.A., ANDERSON, K.B., DORR, N., DENEVE, K.M. & FLANAGAN, M. (2000). Te