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ID - IDENTITÉ - ILLUSION - IM - IN - INE - INI - INT - INTELLIGENCE - INTER - INTERFÉRENCE - INTES - INV - IR - ITINÉRANCE
Iacobucci Dawn ( ) : Psychologue et statisticienne américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude de la mise en marché.
IACOBUCCI, D., SALDANHA, N. & DENG, X. (2007). A meditation on mediation : Evidence that structural equations models perform better than regressions. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 17 (2), 139-153. [PDF]
IACOBUCCI, D. (2009). Everything you always wanted to know about SEM (structural equations modeling) but were afraid to ask. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19 (4), 673-680. [PDF]
IACOBUCCI, D. (2010). Structural equations modeling : Fit indices, sample size, and advanced topics. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 20 (1), 90-98. [PDF]
IACOBUCCI, D. (2012). Mediation analysis and categorical variables : The final frontier. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22 (4), 582-594. [PDF]
IACOBUCCI, D., POSAVAC, S.S., KARDE, F.R., SCHNEIDER, M.J. & POPOVICH, D.L. (2015). The median split : Robust, refined, and revived. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 25 (4), 690-704. [PDF]
Iacono William G. ( ) : Neuropsychologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des jumeaux. Il s'intéresse notamment à l'usage du détecteur de mensonge et au potentiel évoqué (P300). Collaborateur de Krueger, Lykken et McGue.
IACONO, W.G. & LYKKEN, D.T. (1997). The validity of the lie detector : Two surveys of scientific opinion. Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 426-433.
IACONO, W.G., CARLSON, S.R., MALONE, S.M. & McGUE, M. (2002). P3 event-related potential amplitude and the risk for disinhibitory disorders in adolescent boys. Archives General Psychiatry, 59, 750-757. [PDF]
IACONO, W.G. (2008). Effective policing : Understanding how polygraph tests work and are used. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 35 (10), 1295-1308. [PDF]
IACONO, W.G., MALONE, S.M. & McGUE, M. (2008). Behavioral disinhibition and the development of early-onset addiction : Common and specific influences. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 325-348. [PDF]
IACONO, W.G. & MALONE, S.M. (2011). Developmental endophenotypes : Indexing genetic risk for substance abuse with the P300 brain event-related potential. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 239-247. [PDF]
 
PARTRIDGE, T. (2005). Are genetically informed designs genetically informative ? Comment on McGue, Elkins, Walden, and Iacono (2005) and quantitative behavioral genetics. Developmental Psychology, 41 (6), 985-988.
Iatrogène : Qualifie un traitement ou un médicament qui engendre de nouveaux sympômes (plutôt que de les soulager ou de les dissiper). Iatrogenic.

  TWEMLOW, S.W. & GABBARD, G.O. (1981). Iatrogenic disease or doctor-patient collusion ? American Family Physician, 24 (3), 129- 134.
TWEMLOW, S.W. & GABBARD, G.O. (1983). Iatrogenic disease of folie à deux ? In R. Morgan (Ed.), The iatrogenics handbook : A critical look at research and practice in the helping professions (pp. 109-119). Toronto : IPI Publications.
DISHION, T.J., McCORD, J. & POULIN, F. (1999). Iatrogenic effects in early adolescent interventions that aggregate peers. American Psychologist, 54, 755-764.
ICI : = Intervention comportementale intensive. Early intensive behavioral intervention.
Ici et maintenant : Principe de base et maxime de de la thérape gestalt, ainsi que de certaines formes d'humanisme, qui mettent l'accent sur l'importance de l'état psychologique présent du patient, tant émotif que cognitif, par opposition à l'effort de reconstruction d'un passé lointain (l'enfance) indispensable à la guérison selon la psychanalyse. = moment présent. /en tout monde, en tout temps. Here and now.

  NARANJO, C. (1967). I and thou here and now contributions of gestalt therapy. Esalen Institute Paper No. 5. [PDF]
TAVRIS, C., WADE, C., GAGNON, A., GOULET, C. et WIEDMANN, P. (1999/2007). Introduction à la psychologie : les grandes perspectives. St-Laurent : ERPI. Voir aussi Thérape gestalt
ICD-10/ICD-11 : Voir CIM-10/11
Icône : Représentation physique ou électronique d'un objet ou d'une personne. Icone, image mentale et mémoire iconique. Icon, picture.

  LOFTUS, G.R. & SHIMAMURA, A.P. (1985). How much is an icon worth ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 11 (1), 1-13. [PDF]
Ictus amnésique : Forme d'amnésie globale, d'une durée brève, qui survient sans prévenir. = amnésie transitoire globale. Transient global amnesia.

  JENSEN, T.A. & OLIVARIUS, B. (1981). Transient global amnesia: its clinical and pathophysiological basis and prognosis. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 63, 220-230. HODGES, H.R. (1991). Transient amnesia. London : WB Saunders.
HAAS, D.C. & ROSS, G.S. (1986). Transient global amnesia triggered by mild head trauma. Brain, 109 (2), 251-257. ZORZON, M., ANTONUTTI, L., MASE, G., BIASUTTI, E., VITRANI, B. & CAZZATO G. (1995). Transient global amnesia and transient ischemic attack : Natural history, vascular risk factors, and associated conditions. Stroke, 26 (9), 1536-1542.
  ROCATTO, M. & RICOLFI, L. (2005). On the correlation between right-wing authoritarianism and social dominance orientation. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 187-200.
GUIDOTTI, M., ANZALONE, N., MORABITO, A. & LANDI, G. (1989). A case-control study of transient global amnesia. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 52, 320-323. [PDF] WINBECK, K., ETGEN, T., VON EISIENDEL, H.G., ROTTINGER, M. & SANDER, D. (2005). DWI in transient global amnesia and TIA : proposal for an ischaemic origin of TGA. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 76 (3), 438-441. [PDF]
HODGES, H.R. & WARLOW, H.R. (1990). Syndromes of transient amnesia : towards a classification. A study of 153 cases. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 53 (10), 834-843. BUTLER, C. & ZEMAN, A. (2006). Syndrome of transient amnesia. Avances in Clinical Neurosscience & Rehabilitation, 6 (4), 12-14. [PDF]
Voir aussi Amnésie
IDÉAL DU MOI - IDÉE - IDENTIFICATION - IDENTITÉ - IDÉOLOGIE - IDYOSYNCRASIE - IGNORANCE - ILLUSION - IM
Idéal du moi : Dans la théorie de la personnalité de Freud, conception du bien, de ce que l'individu voudrait égaler ou devenir. L'idéal du moi de l'enfant se construit par identification à l'idéal du moi de ses parents (valeur, conception du bien et du mal, etc.). L'idéal du moi tend vers la perfection (morale, esthétique, artistique, sociale, etc.). Ego ideal.
  CHASSEGUET-SMIRGEL, J. (1984). The ego ideal : A psychoanalytic essay on the malady of the ideal. New York : W.W. Norton.
LUCENTE, R.L. (1986). Self-transcending and the adolescent ego ideal. Child & Adolescent Social Work Journal, 3, (3), 161-176.
EDWARDS, N. (1987). The unconscious ego-ideal and analytic group psychotherapy. Group, 11 (3), 165-176.
MOCAYO, R. (2006). The partial object, the ideal ego, the ego-ideal, and the empty subject : Four degrees of sifferentiation within narcissism. The Psychoanalytic Review, 93 (4), 565-602.
TURKEN, H. (2007). The ego-ideal, conflict, and the primacy of the self: women and the cultural restrictions of love object choice. International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies, 4 (1), 52-6.
DENDY, E.B. (2010). Inherent contradictions in the ego ideal. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 79 (4), 991-1023.
HOLT, W. (2012). Humbert, Nabokov and the ego ideal. Other/Wise : Online Journal for the International Forum for Psychoanalytic Education, 9.
TAVRIS, C., WADE, C., GAGNON, A., GOULET, C. et WIEDMANN, P. (1999/2007). Introduction à la psychologie : les grandes perspectives. St-Laurent : ERPI. Voir aussi Théorie de la personnalité et Freud
Idéalisation : Processus psychique par lequel les qualités, les valeurs ou les conduites d'un objet sont considérées comme parfaites. Idealization.
  McMULLIN, E. (1985). Galilean Idealization. Studies in History & Philosophy of Science, 16, 247-273.
WEISBERG, M. (2007). The kinds of idealization. Journal of Philosophy, 104 (12), 639-659. [PDF]
Idéalisme : Doctrine philosophique et épistémologique qui affirme le primat de l'esprit sur la matière; qui ramène l'être biologique ou le cerveau à la pensée, à des phénomènes immatériels. ( ): Berkeley, Hegel, Heidegger, Schopenhauer. /réalisme. Idealism.
  BRAUN, C.M.J. & BARIBEAU, J. (1978). Subjective idealism in Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Human Development, 21, 289-301.
STEPANICH, L. (1991). Heidegger : Between idealism and realism. The Harvard Review Philosophy, 20-28. [PDF]
MEARSHEIMER, J. (2005). E.H. Carr vs. Idealism : The battle rages on. International Relations, 19 (2), 139-152. [PDF]
FORSTER, J. (2008). A world for us : The case for phenomenalistic idealism. Oxford University Press.
Ideas in Ecology & Evolution : Revue scientifique d'écologie. Éditeur : Queen's University.
GORELICK, R. (2011). What is theory. Ideas in Ecology & Evolution, 4, 1-10. [PDF]

Idéation : Voir Idée ou Pensée.
Idéation magique : Voir Pensée magique.
Idéation suicidaire : Voir Pensée suicidaire.
Idée : Ce qui nous vient à l'esprit, occupe notre pensée (mais auquel on ne croit pas nécessairement). = cognition, idéation. Idea.

Types d'idée
Idées de grandeur Idée fausse Idées obsédante
Idée délirante Idée innée Idée suicidaire
 
 

  POSNER, M.I. & KEELE, S.W. (1968). On the genesis of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 77 (3), 353.
BRANSFORD, J.D. & FRANKS, J.J. (1971). The abstraction of linguistic ideas. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 331-350.
POSNER, M.I. & KEELE, S.W. (1970). Retention of abstract ideas. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83, 304-308.
SPERBER, D. (1996). La contagion des idées. Paris : Odile Jacob.
BERGER, J.A. & HEATH, C. (2005). Idea habitats : How the prevalence of environmental cues influences the success of ideas. Cognitive Science, 29, 195-221.
STARK, L.J. & PERFECT, J. (2007). Whose idea was that ? Source monitoring for idea-ownership following elaboration. Memory, 15, 776-783.
STARK, L.J. & PERFECT, J. (2008). The effects of repeated idea elaboration on unconscious plagiarism. Memory & Cognition, 36, 65-73.
Voir aussi Pensée
Idées de grandeur : Voir Mégalomanie.
Idée délirante : Voir Délire.
Idée fausse : Idée ou conception que l'on tient pour vraie, mais qui est soit non-fondée, soit carrément fausse. Contrairement au mythe, qui persiste en dépit du bon sens, des faits ou de toute logique, les idées fausses, même les plus tenaces, finissent par disparaître ou être corrigées. Idée fause, biais et mythe. = idée erronée, idée reçue. Misconception.

  PERRY, R.B. (1904). Conceptions and misconceptions of consciousness. Psychological Review, 11, 282-296. GREGG, V., WINER, G.A., COTTRELL, J.E., HEDMAN, K.E. & FOURNIER, J.S. (2001). The persistence of a misconception about vision after educational interventions. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8 (3), 622-626. [PDF]
BURT, C.L. (1969). Intelligence and heredity : some common misconceptions. Irish Journal of Education, 3, 75 - 94. SALAS, E., MILHAM, L.M. & BOWERS, C.A. (2003). Training evaluation in the military : Misconceptions, opportunities, and challenges. Military Psychology, 15 (1), 3-16. [PDF]
GAITO, J. (1980). Measurement scales and statistics : Resurgence of an old misconception. Psychological Bulletin, 87, 564-567. FERRETTI, R.P., MacCARTHUR, C.D. & OKOLO, C.M. (2005). Misconceptions about history: Reflections on teaching for historical understanding in an inclusive fifth-grade classroom. In T.E. Scruggs & M.A. Mastropieri (Eds). Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities. Cognition and learning in diverse settings (Vol. 18, pp. 261-299). Oxford, UK : Elsevier Sciences/JAI Press.
GUILLEMINAULT, C., ARIAGNO, R., KOROBKIN, R. & COONS, S. (1983). Misconceptions about sleep. Pediatrics, 72 (5), 752-753. UTTAL, W.R. (2005). Psychomythics sources of artifacts and misconceptions in scientific psychology. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
TODD, J.T. & MORRIS, E.K. (1983). Misconception and miseducation : Presentations of radical behaviorism in psychology textbooks. The Behavior Analyst, 6, 153-160. [PDF] SNIDER, V.E. (2006). Myths and misconceptions about teaching. Latham, MD : rowman et Littlefield education.
BANDURA, A. (1984). Recycling misconceptions of perceived self-efficacy. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 8, 231-255. ABBOTT, A.D. (2007). Myths and misconceptions : About behavioral genetics and homosexuality. National Association for Research and Therapy of Homosexuality. [PDF]
TOWNSEND, J.T. & ASHBY, F.G. (1984). Measurement scales and statistics : The misconception misconceived. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 394-401. [PDF] CARIFIO, J. & PERLA, R.J. (2007). Ten common misunderstandings, misconceptions, persistent myths and urban legends about likert scales and likert response formats and their antidotes. Journal of Social Sciences, 3 (3), 106-116. [PDF]
GRIFFITHS, A.K. & GRANT, B.A.C. (1985). High school students' understanding of food webs : Identification of a learning hierarchy and related misconceptions. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22, 421-436. FERRETTI, R.P., MacCARTHUR, C.D. & OKOLO, C.M. (2007). Students' misconceptions about U.S. Westward migration. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40, 145-154.
  VISSCHER, P.M., HILL, W.G. & WRAY, N.R. (2008). Heritability in the genomics era : Concepts and misconceptions. Nature Reviews Genetics, 9, 255-266.
ROLIDER, A. & VAN HOUTEN, R. (1990). The role of reinforcement in reducing inappropriate behavior : Some myths and misconceptions. In A.C. Repp & N.N. Singh (Eds.), Perspectives on the use of nonaversive and aversive interventions for persons with developmental disabilities (pp. 119-128). Sycamore, IL : Sycamore. AAMODT, M.G. (2008). Reducing misconceptions and false beliefs in police and criminal psychology. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 35, 1231-1240. [PDF]
  KASSIN, S.M. (2008). Confession evidence : Commonsense myths and misconceptions. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 35 (10), 1309-1322. [PDF]
  PEDERSEN, A., ALY, A., HARTLEY, L. & McGARTY, C. (2009). An intervention to increase positive attitudes and address misconceptions about Australian Muslims : A call for education and open mindedness. The Australian Community Psychologist, 21, (2), 81-93.
  DEKKER, S., LEE, N.C., HOWARD-JONES, P. & JOLLES, J. (2012). Neuromyths in education : Prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-8. [PDF]
Voir aussi Biais et Mythe
Idée innée : Innate idea.

  TOOBY, J., COSMIDES, L. & BARRETT, H.C. (2005). Resolving the debate on innate ideas : Learnability constraints and the evolved interpenetration of motivational and conceptual functions. In P. carruthers, S. Laurence & S. Stich (Eds.), The innate mind : Structure and content. New York : Oxford University Press. [PDF]
Voir aussi Idée et Inné
Idée obsédante : Voir Obsession et Trouble obsessionnel-compulsif.
Idée principale/secondaire : Dans un texte, distinction faite par l'auteur entre l'esssentiel du sujet et ses éléments superflus ou les idées complémentaires de ce sujet dites "secondaires". Main idea.

  JOHNSTON, P. & AFFLERBACH, P. (1985). The process of constructing main ideas from text. Cognition & Instruction, 2, 207-232.
Idée suicidaire : Voir Pensée suicidaire.
Identification : Le terme a plusieurs acceptions : a) Au sens strict, résultat de l'opération qui consiste à identifier une chose. b) En psychanalyse, processus par lequel un sujet assimile ou fait sien un aspect ou un comportement de l'autre et se transforme totalement ou partiellement, sur le modèle de l'autre. c) Finalement, pour Kelman, il s'agit de l'un des trois processus du changement des attitudes et du conformiste. Identification et groupe d'identificaction. Identification.
  a
  Voir aussi Identifier
b
FENICHEL, O. (1937). The scopophilic instinct and identification. International Journal of Psycho-Analytic, 18, 6-34. MELTZER, D. (1975). Adhesive identification. Contemporary Psycho-Analysis, 11, 289-310.
DE SAUSSURE, R. (1939). Identification and substitution. International Journal of Psycho-Analytic, 20, 465-470. PERRY, D.G. & PERRY, L.C. (1976). Identification with film characters, covert aggressive verbalization, and reactions to film violence. Journal of Research in Personality, 10, 399-409.
KNIGHT, R.P. (1940). Introjection, projection and identification. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 9, 334-341.  
BALINT, A. (1943). Identification. International Journal of Psycho-Analytic, 24, 97-107. SANDLER, J. (1987). The concept of projective identification. Bulletin of the Anna Freud Centre, 10, 33-49.
HENDRICK, I. (1951). Early development of the ego : Identification in infancy. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 20, 44-61. GREATREX, T.S. (2002). Projective identification : How does It work ? Neuro-Psychoanalysis, 4, 187-197.
BORNSTEIN, B. (1953). On problems of identification. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1, 538-549. SIEGEL, J.P. (2004). Identification as a focal point in couple therapy. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 24, 406-419.
REICH, A. (1954). Early identifications as archaic elements in the superego. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 2, 218-238. ZACK, D. (2005). Projective identification, conflict, and psychic change. Canadian Journal of Psychoanalytic, 13, 230-241.
GREENSON, R.R. (1954). Problems of identification-introduction. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 2, 197-199. CARTWRIGHT, D. (2006). Autistic defenses in agoraphobic syndrome: "Flat" objects and the retardation of projective identification. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 54, 109-134.
BANDURA, A. & HUSTON, A.C. (1961). Identification as a process of incidental learning. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. 63, 311-318.  
c
KELMAN, H.C. (1958). Compliance, identification, and internalization : Three processes of attitude change. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2 (1), 51-60. [PDF] TURNER C.W. & BERKOWITZ, L. (1972). Identification with film aggressor (covert role taking) and reactions to film violence. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 21, 256-264.
BANDURA, A. & HUSTON, A.C. (1961). Identification as a process of incidental learning. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 63, 311-318. [PDF] KELMAN, H.C. (1974). Social influence and linkages between the individual and the social system : Further thoughts on the processes of compliance, identification, and internalization. In J. Tedeschi (Ed.), Perspectives on social power. (pp. 125-171). Chicago : Aldine. [PDF]
LEYENS, J.P. & PICUS, S. (1973). Identification with the winner of a fight and name mediation: Their differential effects upon subsequent aggressive behavior. British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 12, 374-377. DOOSJE, B., ELLEMERS, N. & SPEARS, R. (1995). Perceived intragroup variability as a function of group status and identification. Journal of Experimental & Social Psychology, 31, 410-436.
Voir aussi Kelman et Groupe d'identificaction
Identification numérique des drogues (DIN) : Numéro qui permet d'identifier les médicaments homologués par Santé Canada, y compris les antidépresseurs, les antipsychotiques et les anxiolytiques. Drug Identification Number, DIN.
 
Identification numérique des médicaments homopathiques (DIN-HM) : Numéro qui permet d'identifier les médicaments homéopathiques homologués par Santé Canada. DIN-HM.
 
Identifier/Identité : Identifier consiste à déterminer la nature d'un objet. Cette nature comporte essentiellement deux dimensions : 1) l'objet occupe un espace à un moment donné (propriété spatio-temporelle); 2) l'objet possède un certain nombre de caractéristiques (propriétés physiques). Cet ensemble des caractéristiques/propriétés inaltérables (ou essentielles) d'une entité (individu, groupe, société) qui la définissent (c'est moi/c'est nous) et la distinguent des autres (c'est lui/c'est eux). Ces caractéristiques peuvent être objectives (propriété) ou subjectives (caractéristique attribuée). EX: Je suis une jeune cégépienne d'origine algérienne (propriétés objectives) et je vis dans un quartier du nord de la ville en 2015 (propriété objective) que les gens trouvent d'ailleurs plutôt tranquille (caractéristique attribuée). Tous les objets peuvent être (potentiellement) identifiés, mais seul les objets qui s'attribuent des caractéristiques (les humains, individuellement ou collectivement) ont une identité. Identité et singularité. Identity.

Formes d'identité
Identité (ontologique) Identité de rôle Identités multiples
Identité culturelle Identité ethnique/raciale Identité psychologique
    Identité religieuse
Identité de genre Identité féminine Identité sexuelle
Identité de groupe Identité masculine Identité sociale
 

  ERIKSON, E.H. (1959). The problem of ego identity. Psychological Issues, 1, 101-164.
MARCIA, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 3, 551-558. [PDF]
GREENWOOD, J.D. (1994). Realism, identity and emotion. London : Sage.
McCALL, G. (2003). The me and the not-me: Positive and negative poles of identity. In P. J. Burke, T. J. Owens, R. T. Serpe, & P. A. Thoits (Eds.), Advances in identity theory and research (pp. 11-25). New York: Plenum.
Identité (Crise d'...) : Identity crisis, ego identity.

  ERIKSON, E.H. (1959). The problem of ego identity. Psychological Issues, 1, 101-164.
ERIKSON, E.H. (1968/72). Identity : Youth and crisis. London : Faber & Faber. / Adolescence et crise : la quête de l'identité. Paris : Flammarion.
BAUMEISTER, R.F., SHAPIRO, J.P. & TICE, D.M. (1985). Two kinds of identity crisis. Journal of Personality, 53 (3), 407-424. [PDF]
Voir aussi Identité
Identité (Ontologique) : Identity.

  KIM, J. (1968). Reduction, correspondence, and identity. The Monist, 52, 424-38.
KIM, J. (1979). Causality, identity, and supervenience in the mind-body problem. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 4, 31-49.
Voir aussi Identité
Identité achevée : Marcia utilise ce terme pour désigner l'une des quatre formes (statuts) de l'identité psychologique. = identité accomplie, identité réalisée. Identity achievement.

  MARCIA, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 3 (5), 551-558. [PDF]
MARCIA, J.E. (1976). Identity six years after : A followup Study. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 5 (2), 145-160.
Voir aussi Identité psychologique et Marcia
Identité culturelle : Ce que les individus qui s'identifient à une culture croient être, même s'ils ne le révélent pas publiquement, ou même si ce qu'il disent d'eux-mêmes ne correspond pas à la "réalité sociale". Social identity, racial identity.
  KLINEBERG, O. & ZAVALLONI, M. (1969). Nationalism and tribalism among African students : a study of social identity. Paris : Mouton. SHELTON, J.N. & SELLERS, R.M. (2000). Situational stability and variability in African American racial identity. Journal of Black Psychology, 26 (1), 27-50.
PARHAM, T.A. & HELMS, J.E. (1985). Attitudes of racial identity and self-esteem of Black students : An exploratory investigation. Journal of College Student Personnel, 26, 143-147. YIP, T. & FULIGNI, A.J. (2002). Daily variation in ethnic identity, ethnic behaviors, and psychological well-being among American adolescents of Chinese descent. Child Development, 73 (5), 1557-1572.
PHINNEY, J.S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescents and adults : Review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514. SEARS, D.O., FU, M., HENRY, P.J. & BUI, K. (2003). The origins and persistence of ethnic identity among the "new immigrant groups". Social Psychology Quarterly, 66, 419-437.
OETTING, E.K. & BEAUVAIS, F. (1990-91). Orthogonal cultural identification theory. The cultural identification of minority adolescents. The International Journal of the Addictions, 25, 655-685. SELLERS, R.M. & SHELTON, J.N. (2003). The role of racial identity in perceived racial discrimination. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84 (5), 1079-1092.
ROWE, W., BENNETT, S.K. & ATKINSON, D.R. (1994). White racial identity models : A critique and alternative proposal. Counseling Psychologist, 22, 129-146. MOSSAKOWSKI, K.N. (2003). Coping with perceived discrimination : Does ethnic identity protect mental health? Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 44, 318-331.
RUMBAUT, R.G. (1994). The crucible within : Ethnic identity, self-esteem, and segmented assimilation among children of immigrants. International Migration Review, 28 (4), 748-794. SELLERS, R.M., CALDWELL, C.H., SCHMEELK-CONE, K.H. & ZIMMERMANN M.A. (2003). Racial identity, racial discrimination, perceived stress, and psychological distress among African American young adults. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 44 (3), 302-317.
  SIDANIUS, J., VAN LAAR, C., LEVIN, S. & SINCLAIR, S. (2004). Ethnic enclaves and the dynamics of social identity on the college campus : The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 87 (1), 96-110. [PDF]
HATCH, M.J. & SCHULTZ, M. (1997). Relations between organizational culture, identity and image. European Journal of Marketing, 31 (5/6), 356-365. [PDF]. FULIGNI, A.J., WITKOW, M. & GARCIA, C. (2005). Ethnic identity and academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 41 (5), 799-811.
PHINNEY, J.S., CANTU, C.L. & KURTZ, D.A. (1997). Ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among African American, Latino, and White adolescents. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 26 (2), 165-185. LEE, R.M. (2005). Resilience against discrimination : Ethnic identity and other-group orientation as protective factors for Korean Americans. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52 (1), 36-44.
  SELLERS, R.M., COPELAND-LINDER, N., MARTIN, P.P. & L'HEUREUX-LEWIS, E. (2006). Racial identity matters : The relationship between racial discrimination and psychological functioning in African. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16 (2), 187-216. [PDF]
SELLERS, R.M., SMITH, M.A., SHELTON, J.N.M., ROWLEY, S.A.J. & CHAVOUS, T.M. (1998). Multidimensiona model of racial identity : A reconceptualization of African American racial identity. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 2 (1), 18-39. YIP, T., SEATON, E.K. & SELLERS, R.M. (2006). African American racial identity across the lifespan : Identity status, identity context, and depressive symptoms. Child Development, 77 (5), 1503-1516.
  SAROGLOU, V. & MATHIJSEN, F. (2006). Religion, multiple identities, and acculturation : A study of Muslim immigrants in Belgium. Archiv für Religionspsychologie, 29, 177-198. [PDF]
  UMANA-TAYLOR, A.J. & SHIN, N. (2007). An examination of ethnic identity and self-esteem with diverse populations : Exploring variation by ethnicity and geography. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 13 (2), 178-186.
FRIDERES, J. (2008). Aboriginal cultural identity. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 28 (2), 313-342. [PDF].
  KIANG, L. & FULIGNI, A. (2010). Meaning in life as a mediator of ethnic identity and adjustment among adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39 (11), 1253-1264. [PDF]
RIOS-MORRISON, K., PLAUT, V.C. & YBARRA, O. (2010). Predicting whether multiculturalism positively or negatively influences white Americans' intergroup attitudes : The role of ethnic identification. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 36 (12), 1648-1661. [PDF]
  De la SABLONNIÈRE, R., AUBIN, R., & AMIOT, C.E. (2013). Le processus d'intégration des identités culturelles : La réalité des immigrants. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 34, 247-268.
BERRY, J.W. (1999). Aboriginal cultural identity. Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 19, 1-36. XU, Y., FARVER, J.O.M. & PAUKER, K. (2014). Ethnic identity and self-esteem among Asian and European Americans : When a minority is the majority and the majority is a minority. European Journal of Social Psychology, 45 (1), 62-76. [PDF]
Voir aussi Identité ethnique, Identité et Culture
Identité de genre : Selon Kohlberg, la constance de genre se développe en trois temps. La première étape - l'identité de genre - se développe entre deux et trois ans, et consiste pour l'enfant à identifier son sexe et à l'attribuer aux autres en se fondant sur un certain nombre de caractéristiques physiques (ton de voix grave = homme, cheveux longs = femme). EX: Je suis un garçon, mais maman est une fille (parce qu'elle a une voix aiguë). = ce que l'on devient. Identité de genre, genre et différences sexuelles. Gender identity.

Stades de la constance du genre
1 Identité du genre
2 Stabilité du genre
3 Consistance du genre
 

  KOHLBERG, L.A. (1966). A cognitive-developmental analysis of children's sex- role concepts and attitudes. In E.E. Maccody (Ed.), The development of sex differences. Stanford, CA : Stanford University Press.  
KOHLBERG, L.A. (1969). Stage and sequence : The cognitive-developmental approach to socialization. In D.A. Goslin (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research. Chicago : Rand McNally. EGAN, S.K. & PERRY, D.G. (2001). Gender identity : a multidimensional analysis with implications for psychosocial adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 37, 451–463.
 SHERIF, C.W. (1981). Needed concepts in the study of gender identity. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 6, 375-398. COOLIDGE, F.L., THEDE, L.L. & YOUNG, S.E. (2002). The heritability of gender identity disorder in a child and adolescent twin sample. Behavior Genetics, 32, 251-257. [PDF]
SPENCE, J.T. (1984). Gender identity and its implications for masculinity and femininity. In T.B. Sonderegger (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motiuation : Psychology and Gender (pp. 59-95). Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press. CARVER, P.R., YUNGER, J.L. & PERRY, D.G. (2003). Gender identity and adjustment in middle childhood. Sex Roles, 49, (3-4), 95-109.
FAGOT, B.I., LEINBACH, M.D. (1985). Gender identi~S: ome thoughts on an old concept. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psvchiatry, 24, 684-688.  
 MONEY, J., DEVORE, H. & NORMAN, B.F. (1986). Gender identity and gender transposition : Longitudinal outcome study of 32 male hermaphrodites Assigned as Girls. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 12 (3), 165-181. ZUCKER, K.J. (2005). Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 1, 467-492.
ZUCKER, K.J. & BRADLEY S.J. (1992). Gender identity disorder in children. Annual Review of Sex Research, 3, 73-120. DIAMOND, L.M. (2005). A new view of lesbian subtypes : Stable vs. fluid identity trajectories over an 8-year period. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 119-128.
 MONEY, J. (1994). The concept of gender identity disorder in childhood and adolescence after 39 years. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy 20 (3), 163-77. ZUCKER, K.J., BRADLEY, S.J., OWEN-ANDERSON, A., KIBBLEWHITE, S.J. & CANTOR, J.M. (2008). Is gender identity disorder in adolescents coming out of the closet ? Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 34 (5), 287-290. [PDF]
KROGER, J. (1997). Gender and identity : The intersection of structure, content, and context. Sex Roles, 36, 747–770. MEYER-BAHLBURG, H.F.L. (2010). From mental disorder to iatrogenic hypogonadism : Dilemmas in conceptualizing gender identity variants as psychiatric conditions. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39 (2), 461-476.
MARTIN, C.L. (1998). Gender identity. In A. Kazdin (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychology. Washington, DC : American Psychological Assocation. HAMLIM, M.L. & RUBLE, D. (2010). Gender identity and stereotyping in early and middle childhood. In J.C. Chrisler, D.R. McCreary (Eds.), Handbook of gender research in psychology (pp 495-524). Springer Science+Business Media. [PDF]
Voir aussi Identité et Genre
Identité de groupe : Ce que les individus qui font parti d'un groupe croit être, même s'ils ne le révèlent pas publiquement (ou même si ce qu'il disent d'eux-mêmes ne correspond pas à la réalité). Identité de groupe, racisme et groupe endogène. Group identity.

  LIPIANSKY, E.M. (1992). Identité et communication : l'expérience groupale. Presses Universitaires de France : Paris. DOVIDIO, J.F., GAERTNER, S.L. & KAFATI, G. (2000). Group identity and intergroup relations : The common ingroup identity model. In S. Thye, E.J. Lawler, M. Macy & H. Walker (Eds.), Advances in group processes (Vol. 17, pp. 1-35). Stanford, CT : JAI Press.
LUHTANEN, R. & CROCKER, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale : Self-evaluation of one's social identity. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 302-318. McCOY, S.K. & MAJOR, B. (2003). Group identification moderates emotional responses to perceived prejudice. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29 (8), 1005-1017. [PDF]
BRANSCOMBE, N.R., SCHMITT, M.T. & HARVEY, R. (1999). Perceiving pervasive discrimination among African Americans : Implications for group identification and well-being. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77 (1), 135-149. DUPUIS-DÉRI, F. (2004). Identités mosaïques. Boréal.
WILLIAMS, D.R., PENCER, M.S. & JACKSON, J.S. (1999). Race, stress, and physical health : The role of group identity. New York : Oxford University Press. SHERMAN, D.K. & KIM, H.S. (2005). Is there an "i" in "team" ? The role of the self in group-serving judgments. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88, 108-120. [PDF]
GAERTNER, S.L. & DOVIDIO, J.F. (2007). Reducing contemporary racism : The common ingroup identity model. In C.W. Esqueda (Ed.), Nebraska Symposium on Motivation : Motivational aspects of prejudice and racism (pp. 111-133). New York : Springer.
STENSTROM, D.M., LICKEL, B., DENSON, T.F. & MILLER, N. (2008). The roles of ingroup identification and outgroup entativity in intergroup retribution. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1570-1582. [PDF]
  KLEIN, O., LICATA, L. & PIERUCCI, S. (2011). Does group identification facilitate or prevent collective guilt about past misdeeds? Resolving the paradox. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 563-572.
Voir aussi Identité et Groupe endogène
Identité de rôle : Ensemble des comportements propres aux genres masculin et féminin. Division du travail et des tâches ménagères en fonction du sexe. Identité de rôle et rôle. ( ): identité féminine, identité masculine.
  Voir aussi Identité et Rôle
Identité diffuse : Marcia utilise cette expression pour désigner l'une des quatre formes (statuts) de l'identité psychologique. Identity diffusion, diffusion.

  MARCIA, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 3 (5), 551-558. [PDF]
MARCIA, J.E. (1976). Identity six years after : A followup Study. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 5 (2), 145-160.
STEPHEN J., FRASER E. & MARCIA, J.E. (1992). Moratorium-achievement (MAMA) cycles in life-span identity development : Value orientations and reasoning systems correlates. Journal of Adolescence, 15, 283-300.
Voir aussi Identité psychologique et Marcia
Identité en moratoire : Marcia utilise cette expression pour désigner l'une des quatre formes (statuts) de l'identité psychologique. Moratorium.

  MARCIA, J.E. (1966). Development and validation of ego identity status. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 3 (5), 551-558. [PDF]
MARCIA, J.E. (1976). Identity six years after : A followup Study. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 5 (2), 145-160.
Voir aussi Identité psychologique et Marcia
Identité ethnique : Ce que les individus qui s'identifie à une ethnie croit être, même s'ils ne le révèlent pas publiquement (ou même si ce qu'il disent d'eux-mêmes ne correspond pas à la réalité). = perception de groupe. Ethnic identity.

  PHINNEY, J.S. (1990). Ethnic identity in adolescence and adulthood : A review and integration. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 499-514. PHINNEY, J., HORENCZYK, G., LIEBKIND, K. & VEDDER, P. (2001). Ethnic identity, immigration, and well-being : An interactional perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 493-510.
PHINNEY, J.S. & ALIPURIA, L. (1990). Ethnic identity in college students from four ethnic groups. Journal of Adolescence, 13, 171-184. YANCEY, A., ANESHENENSEL, C. & DRISCOLL, A. (2003). The assessment of ethnic identity in a diverse urban youth population. Journal of Black Psychology, 27, 190-208.
PHINNEY, J.S. & CHAVIRA, V. (1992). Ethnic identity and self-esteem : An exploratory longitudinal study. Journal of Adolescence, 15 (3), 271-281. SIDANIUS, J., VAN LAAR, C., LEVIN, S. & SINCLAIR, S. (2004). Ethnic enclaves and the dynamics of social identity on the college campus : The good, the bad, and the ugly. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 87 (1), 96-110. [PDF]
PHINNEY, J.S. (1996). Ethnic identity and self-esteem : A review and integration. In A. Padilla (Ed.), Hispanic Psychology : Critical issues in theory and research (pp. 57-70). Thousand Oaks : Sage. FULIGNI, A.J., WITKOW, M. & GARCIA, C. (2005). Ethnic identity and academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Developmental Psychology, 41 (5), 799-811.
BAT-CHAVA, Y. & STEEN, E.M. (1997). Ethnic identity and self-esteem : A meta-analytic review. New York : New York State University. LEVIN, S., SINCLAIR, S., SIDANIUS, J. & VAN LAAR, C. (2009). Ethnic and university identities across the college years : A common ingroup identity perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 65, 287-306.
PHINNEY, J.S., CANTU, C.L. & KURTZ, D.A. (1997). Ethnic and American identity as predictors of self-esteem among African American, Latino, and White adolescents. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 26 (2), 165-185.  
SELLERS, R.M., SMITH, M.A., SHELTON, J.N., ROWLEY, S.A.J. & CHAVOUS, T.M. (1998). Multidimensional model of racial identity : A reconceptualization of African American racial identity. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 2, 18-39. KIANG, L. & FULIGNI, A. (2010). Meaning in life as a mediator of ethnic identity and adjustment among adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 39 (11), 1253-1264. [PDF]
Voir aussi Identité sociale, Ethnie, Race et Culture
Identité féminine : Ensemble des caractéristiques et des comportement que l'on attribue culturellement aux femmes et auxquels un une jeune fille s'identifie. Women identity.

  SCHENKEL, S. & MARCIA, J.E. (1972). Attitudes toward premarital intercourse in determining ego identity status in college women. Journal of Personality, 40, 472-482.
POOLE, K. (1972). The etiology of gender identity and the lesbian. Journal of Social Psychology, 87, 51-57.
JOSSELSON, R. (1987). Finding herself : Pathways to identity development in women. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
JONES, S.R. (1997). Voices of identity and difference : A qualitative exploration of the multiple dimensions of identity development in women college students. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 376-386.
Voir aussi Identité
Identité masculine : Men identity.

  FREUND, K., LANGEVIN, R., SATTERBERG, J. & STEINER, B. (1977). Extension of the gender identity scale for males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 507-519.
BADINTER, E. (1992). X Y. de l'identité masculine. Paris : Odile Jacob
Voir aussi Identité
Identités multiples : Voir Trouble dissociatif de la personnalité.
Identité psychologique : Ce qu'un individu croit être, même s'il ne le révèle pas publiquement (ou même si ce qu'il dit de lui-même ne correspond pas à la réalité). Identité et crise d'identité. = ego, moi, soi, identité individuelle. *identité collective. ( ): Voir tableau ci-bas. Identity, identity development, ego identity, identity process.

Forme d'identité
Identité achevée Identité diffuse Identité masculine
Identité de genre Identité en moratoire Identités multiples
Identité de rôle Identité féminine Identité sexuelle
 

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ALTABE, M.N. & THOMPSON, J.K. (1995). Advances in the assessment of body image disturbance: Implications for treatment strategies. In L. Vandecreek (Ed.), Innovations in clinical practice (pp. 89–110). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.  
KROGER, J. (1995). On the nature of structural transition in the identity formation process. Newsletter of the Canadian Psychological Society, 1, 5-6. KROGER, J. & MARCIA, J.E. (2010). The identity statuses : Origins. In S.J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx & V. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research. Springer Science+Business Media. [PDF]
HELSON, R., STEWART, A. & OSTROVE, J. (1995). Identity in three cohorts of midlife women. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69, 544-557. BERZONSKY, M.D. (2011). A social-cognitive perspective on identity construction. In S.J. Schwartz, K. Luyckx & V.L. Vignoles (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 55-76). New York : Springer.
BLOUIN, A.G. & GOLDFIELD, G.S. (1995). Body image and steroid use in male bodybuilders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18(2), 159–165.  
CÔTÉ, J.E. (1996). Sociological perspectives on identity formation : the culture–identity link and identity capital. Journal of Adolescence, 19 (5), 417-428. SEATON, C.L. & BEAUMONT, S.L. (2011). The link between identity style and intimacy : Does emotional intelligence provide the key ? Identity : An International Journal of Theory & Research, 11, 311-332.
BERZONSKY, M.D, & FERRARI, J.R. (1996). Identity orientation and decisional strategies. Personality & Individual Differences, 20, 597–606. LUYCKX, K., KLIMSTRA, T., DURIEZ, B., SCHWARTZ, S. & VANHALST, J. (2012). Identity processes and coping strategies in college students : Short-term longitudinal dynamics and the role of personality. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 41, 1226-1239. [PDF]
MEEUS, W. (1996). Studies on identity development in adolescence. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 25, 569-599. SNEED, J.R., WHITBPURNE, S.K., SCHWARTZ, S.J. & HUANH, S. (2012). The relationship between identity, intimacy, and midlife well-being : Findings from the Rochester Adult Longitudinal Study. Psychology & Aging, 27 (2), 318-323.
VALDE, G.A. (1996). Identity closure : A fifth identity status. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157, 245-254. CLARK-PLASKIE, M. & SHAW, J.P. (2014). Beyond stages : Mentoring as transitional identity space for adult learners. Educational Research, 5 (2) 58-70. [PDF]
KROGER, J. & GREEN, K. (1996). Events associated with identity status change. Journal of Adolescence, 19, 477-490. KROGER, J. (2014). Identity development through adulthood: The move toward "wholeness". In Oxford Handbooks Online. [LIRE]
BERZONSKY, M.D. (1997). Identity development, control theory, and self-regulation: An individual differences perspective. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12, 347-353. LUYCKX, K., SCHWARTZ, S., RASSART, J., KLIMSTRA, T. (2015). Intergenerational associations linking identity styles and processes in adolescents and their parents. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 13 (1), 67-83
JENSEN, M., KRISTIANSEN, I., SANDBEKK, M. & KROGER, J. (1998). Ego identity status in cross cultural context : A comparison of Norwegian and United States university students. Psychological Reports, 83, 455-460. [PDF] FADJUKOFF, P. & KROGER, J. (2016). Identity development in adulthood : Introduction. Identity, 16 (1), 1-7. [PDF]
WATERMAN, A.S. (1999). Identity, the identity statuses, and identity status development : A contemporary statement. Developmental Review, 19, 591-621.  
Voir aussi Théorie de l'identité et Identité
Identité raciale : Voir Identité ethnique.
Identité religieuse : Religious Identity.

  VERKUYTEN, M. (2007). Religious group identification and inter-religious relations : A study among Turkish-Dutch Muslims. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 10, 341-357.
VERKUYTEN, M. & YILDIZ A. A. (2007). National (Dis)identification and Ethnic and Religious Identity : A Study Among Turkish-Dutch Muslims. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1448-1446. [PDF]
 
Voir aussi Identité sociale
Identité sexuelle : Selon Bem, l'identité sexuelle se développe en trois temps : 1) d'abord acquérir le sentiment (je me sens un x ) et la conviction intime (je crois être un x) d'être un garçon ou une fille; 2) apprendre les comportements, qui dans chaque culture, sont propres à son genre; 3) choisir un partenaire sexuel masculin ou féminin. Identité sexuelle, trouble de l'dentité sexuelle et genre. = identité sexuée, identité de genre. ( ): Voir tableau ci-bas. Sexual identity, gender identity.
Identité sexuelle
identité féminine Identié masculine
 


  STOLLER, R. (1964). A contribution to the study of gender identity. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 45, 220-226. DIAMOND, L.M. (2000). Sexual identity, attractions, and behavior among young sexual-minority women over a two-year period. Developmental Psychology, 36, 241-250. [PDF]
GREEN, R. (1974). Sexual identity conflict in children and adults. New York : Basic Books. DIAMOND, L.M. (2000). Sexual identity, attractions, and behavior among young sexual-minority women over a two-year period. Developmental Psychology, 36, 241-250. [PDF]
GREEN, R. (1978). Sexual identity of 37 children raised by homosexuals or transsexual parents. Psychiatry, 135 (6), 692-97.  
MONEY, J. & RUSSO, A.J. (1979). Homosexual outcome of discordant gender identity/role : Longitudinal follow-up. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 4, 29-41.  
DIAMOND, M. (1979). Sexual identity and sex roles. In V. Bullough. (Ed), The frontiers of sex research (pp. 33-56). Buffalo, NY : Prometheus. ZUCKER, K.J. (2001). Gender identity disorder in children and adolescents. In G.O. Gabbard (Ed.), Treatment of psychiatric disorders (Vol. 2, pp. 2069-2094). Washington, D.C : American Psychiatric Association.
CASS, V.C. (1979). Homosexual identity formation : A theoretical model. Journal of Homosexuality, 4, 219-235. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. et ROUYER, V. (2002). Le père dans la construction de l'identité sexuée de l'enfant. Confrontation des modèles théoriques. L'Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 31 (4), 523-533.
DIAMOND, M. (1982). Sexual identity, monozygotic twins reared in discordant sex roles and a BBC follow-up. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 11, 181-185. DIAMOND, L.M. (2002). Sex and gender are different: Sexual identity and gender identity are different. Clinical Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 7 (3), 320-334
McCONAGHY, N. & ARMSTRONG, M.S. (1983). Sexual orientation and consistency of sexual identity. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 12, 317-327. ZUCKER, K.J. (2002) Gender identity disorder. In M. Rutter & E. Taylor (Eds.), Child and adolescent psychiatry (pp. 737–753). Oxford : Blackwell Science.
HOENIG, J. (1985). The origins of gender identity. In B.W. Steiner (Ed.), Gender dysphoria : Development, research, management (pp. 11-32). New York : Plenum. GOGUIKIAN-RATCLIFF, B., (2002). Le développement de l'identité sexuée: Du lien familial au lien social. Publications Universitaires Européennes, Bern
FAGOT, B.I. & LEINBACH, M.D. (1985). Gender identity : Some thoughts on an old concept. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 24, 684-688. LEVITT, H.M., GERRISH, E.A. & HIESTAND, K.R. (2003). The misunderstood gender : A model of modern femme identity. Sex Roles, 48, 99-113.
TROIDEN, R.R. (1988). Gay and lesbian identity formation : A sociological analysis. Dix Hills, NY : General Hall. ZUCKER, K.J. (2004). Gender identity disorder. In D. Bell, S.L. Foster and E.J. Mash (Eds.), Behavioral and emotional problems in girls (pp. 285–319). New York : Kluwer Academic/Plenum Press.
BUTLER, J. (1990/2005). Gender trouble : Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York : Routledge. / Trouble dans le genre : le féminisme et la subversion de l'identité. Paris : La découverte, [PDF] SWAAB, D.F. (2004). Sexual differentiation of the human brain : relevance for gender identity, transsexualism and sexual orientation. Gynecological Endocrinology, 19 (6), 301-312. [PDF]
ZUCKER, K.J. (1990). Treatment of gender identity disorders in children. In R. Blanchard & B.W. Steiner (Eds.), Clinical management of gender identity disorders in children and adults (pp. 27-45). Washington, D.C. : American Psychiatric Press, Inc. ZUCKER, K.J. & SPITZER, R. (2005). Was the gender identity disorder of childhood diagnosis introduced into DSM-III as a backdoor maneuver to replace homosexuality ? A historical note. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 31, 31-42. [PDF]
ZUCKER, K.J. & BRADLEY S.J. (1992). Gender identity disorder in children. Annual Review of Sex Research, 3, 73-120. ROUYER, V. (2007). La construction de l'identité sexuée. Paris : Armand Colin.
MEYER-BAHLBURG, H.F.L. (1993). Gender identity development in intersex patients. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America, 2, 501-511. DIAMOND, L.M. & BUTTERWOTH, M.R. (2008). Questioning gender and sexual identity : Dynamic links over time. Sex Roles, 59, 365-376
ZUCKER, K.J. & BRADLEY S.J. (1995). Gender identity disorder and psychosexual problems in children and adolescents. Guilford Press. SWAAB, D.F. & GARCIA-FALGUERAS, A. (2009). Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientatio. Functional Neurology, 24 (1), 17-28. [PDF]
CHAILAND, C. (1995). La naissance de l'identité sexuée. In S. Lebovici, R. Diatkine et M. Soulé (Eds.), Traité de psychiatrie de l'enfance et de l'adolescence. Paris : PUF. ZUCKER, K.J. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for gender identity disorder in children. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39,(2), 477-498. [PDF]
ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. (1997). Influence de la différenciation paternelle sur la construction de l'identité sexuée de l'enfant de 20 mois. Enfance, 50 (3), 425-434. [PDF] BUSSEY, K. (2011). Gender identity development. In S.J. Schwartz, Luyckx, K. & Vignoles, V. L. (Eds.), Handbook of identity theory and research (pp. 603-628). Springer.
PARKER, R.A. & ALDWIN, C.M. (1997). Do aspects of gender identity change from early to middle adulthood ? Disentangling age, cohort, and period effects. In M.E. Lachman & J.B. James (Eds.), Multiple paths of midlife development (pp. 67-107). Chicago : University of Chicago Press.  
LE MANNER-IDRISSI, G. (1997). L'identité sexuée. Paris : Dunod.  
ZUCKER, K.J. (1999). Gender identity disorder in the DSM-IV. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 25, 5-9. ROUYER, V., MIEYAA, Y. et LE BLANC, A. (2014). Socialisation de genre et construction des identités sexuées. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 187, 97-137. [PDF]
Voir aussi Transsexualisme, Identité, Orientation sexuelle et Dysphorie
 
Identité sociale : Social identity.
  KLINEBERG, O. & ZAVALLONI, M. (1969). Nationalism and tribalism among African students : a study of social identity. Paris : Mouton. DRURY, J. & REICHER, S. (2000). Collective action and psychological change : The emergence of new social identities. British Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 579-604
TAJFEL, H. (1978). Social categorization, social identity, and social comparison. In H. Tajfel (Ed.), Differentiation between social groups. London : Academic Press. DOBBS, M. & CRANO, W.D. (2001). Outgroup accountability in the minimal group paradigm : Implications for aversive discrimination and social identity theory. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 355-364.
  HOGG, M.A. (2000). Subjective uncertainty reduction through self- categorization : A motivational theory of social identity processes. European Review of Social Psychology, 11, 223-255.
   HASLAM, S.A. PLATOW, M., TURNER, J., REYNOLDS, K., MCGARTY, C., OAKES, P., JOHNSON, S., RYAN, M. & VEENSTRA, K. (2001). Social identity and the romance of leadership : The importance of being seen to be ? Doing it for us ? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 4, 191-205.
  HOGG, M.A. (2001). A social identity theory of leadership. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 5, 184-200.
MUMMENDEY, A. & SCHREIBER, H. J. (1983). Better or just different ? Positive social identity by discrimination against or differentiation from outgroups. European Journal of Social Psychology, 13, 389-397. McGARTY, C. (2001). Social identity theory does not maintain that identification produces bias, and Self-categorization Theory does not maintain that salience is identification : Two comments on Mummendey, Klink and Brown. British Journal of Social Psychology 40 (2), 173-176.
TAJFEL, H. & TURNER J.C. (1985). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In S. Worchel and W.G. Austin (Eds.), Psychology of intergroup relations (pp. 33-48). Chicago : Nelson-Hall. ELLEMERS, N., SPEARS, R. & DOOSJE, B. (2002). Self and social identity. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 161-186.
  DOOSJE, B., SPEARS, R. & ELLEMERS, N. (2002). Social identity as both cause and effect : The development of group identification inresponse to anticipated and actual changes in the intergroup status hierarchy. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 57-76.
  HOGG, M.A. (2003). Social identity. In M. Leary & J. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 462-497). New York : Guilford Press.
ASFORTH, B.E. & MAEL, F. (1989). Social identity theory and the organization. Academy of Management Review, 14, 20-39. PADILLA, A.M. & PEREZ, W. (2003). Acculturation, social identity, and social cognition: A new perspective. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25 (1), 35-55. [PDF]
  ABRAMS, D. & HOGG, M.A. (2004). Metatheory : Lessons from social identity research. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 8, 98-106.
HOGG, M.A. & McGARTY, C. (1990). Self-categorization and social identity. In D. Abrams & M.A. Hogg (Eds.), Social identity theory : Constructive and critical advances (pp. 10-27). New York : Springer- Verlag. ONORATO, R.S. & TURNER, J.C. (2004). Fluidity in the self-concept : The shift from personal to social identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 34, 257-278.
LUHTANEN, R., & CROCKER, J. (1992). A collective self-esteem scale: Self-evaluation of one’s social identity. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 302-318. VAN VUGT, M. & HART, C.M. (2004). Social identity as social glue : The origins of group loyalty. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 86, 583-598. [PDF]
SMITH, E.R. (1993). Social identity and social emotions: Toward new conceptualizations of prejudice. In D.M. Mackie & D.L. Hamilton (Eds.), Affect, cognition, and stereotyping : Interactive processes in group perception (pp. 297-315). San Diego, CA : Academic Press. RUBIN, M. & HEWSTONE, M. (2004). Social identity, system justification, and social dominance : Commentary on Reicher, Jost et al., and Sidanius et al. Political Psychology, 25 (6), 823-844.
   REICHER S.D. & HASLAM, S.A. & HOPKINS, N. (2005). Social identity and the dynamics of leadership: Leaders and followers as collaborative agents in the transformation of social reality. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 547-568.
REICHER, S.D., LEVINE, R.M. (1994). Deindividuation, power relations between groups and the expression of social identity: The effects of visibility to the out-group. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 145-163 HOGG, M.A. (2005). Uncertainty, social identity and ideology. Advances in Group Processes, 22, 203-230.
REICHER, S., SPEARS, R. & POSTMES, T. (1995). A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. European Review of Social Psychology, 6, 161-98.  HASLAM, S.A., RYAN, M.K., POSTMES, T., SPEARS, R., JETTEN, J. & WEBLEY, P. (2006). Sticking to our guns : Social identity as a basis for the maintenance of commitment to faltering organizational projects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 607-628.
HASLAM, A., OAKES, P., TURNER, J.-C. & McGARTY, G. (1996). Social identity, self-categorization, and the perceived homogeneity of ingroups and outgroups : The interaction between social motivation and cognition. In R. Sorrentino & E. Higgins (Eds.), Handbook of motivation and cognition: the interpersonal context. Handbook of motivation and cognition (pp. 182-222). New York : Guilford Press. HOGG, M.A. & REID, S.A. (2006). Social identity, self-categorization, and the communication of group norms. Communication Theory, 16, 7-30. [PDF]
REICHER, S.D. (1996). Social identity and social change: Rethinking the context of social psychology. In W. P. Robinson (Ed.), Social groups and identities : Developing the legacy of Henri Tajfel (pp. 317-336). Oxford, UK : Butterworth-Heinemann. KLEIN, O., SPEARS, R. & REICHER, S.D. (2007). Social identity performance : Extending the strategic side of SIDE. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 11, 28-45. [PDF] + [PDF]
REICHER, S.D. (1996)."The Battle of Westminster" : Developing the social identity model of crowd behavior in order to explain the initiation and development of collective conflict. European Journal of Social Psychology, 26, 115-134. HOGG, M.A. & SMITH, J.R. (2007). Attitudes in social context : A social identity perspective. European Review of Social Psychology, 18, 89-131.
  HORNSEY, M.J. (2008). Social identity theory and self-categorization theory : A historical review. Social & Personality Psychology Compass, 2/1, 204-222. [PDF]
  VAN LAAR, C., LEVIN, S. & SINCLAIR, S. (2008). Social identity and personal identity concerns in stereotype threat : The case of affirmative action. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 30 (4), 295-310. [PDF]
  De la SABLONNIÈRE R. & TOUGAS, F. (2008). Relative deprivation and social identity in times of dramatic social change : The case of nurses. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38 (9), 2293-2314.
   REICHER, S.D. & HASLAM, S.A. & RATH, R. (2008). Making a virtue of evil : A five step social identity model of development of collective hate. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2/3, 1313-1344. [PDF]
  RYDELL, R.J., McCONNELL, A.R. & BEILOCK, S.L. (2009). Multiple social identities and stereotype threat : Imbalance, accessibility, and working memory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 96, 949-966. [PDF]
REICHER, S.D., LEVINE, R.M. & GORDJIN, E. (1998). More on deindi- viduation, power relations between groups and the expression of social identity: Three studies on the effects of visibility to the in-group. British Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 15-40. ABRAMS, D. (2009). Social identity on a national scale : Optimal distinctiveness and young people's self-expression through musical preference. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 12, 303-317.
TURNER, J.C. (1999). Some current themes in research on social identity and self-categorization theories. In N. Ellemers, R. Spears & B. Doosje (Eds.), Social identity : Context, commitment, content (pp. 6-34). Oxford, England : Blackwell. VAN LAAR, C., DERKS, B., ELLEMERS, N. & BLEEKERS, D. (2010). Valuing social identity : Consequences for motivation and performance in low status groups. Journal of Social Issues, 66 (3), 602-617.
ELLEMERS, N., KORTEKAAS, P. & OUWERKER, J.W. (1999). Self-categorisation, commitment to the group and group self-esteem as related but distinct aspects of social identity. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 371-389. ROBNETT, R.D. & SUSSKIND, J.E. (2010). Who cares about being gentle ? The impact of social Identity and the gender of one's friends on children's display of same-gender favoritism. Sex Roles, 63 (11-12), 820-832. [PDF]
ABRAMS, D. (1999). Social identity, social cognition, and the self : The flexibility and stability of self-categorization. In D. Abrams & M.A. Hogg (Eds.), Social identity and social cognition (pp. 197-229). Oxford, UK : Basil Blackwell. CVENCEK, D., GREENWALD, A.G. & MELTZOFF, A.N. (2012). From cognitive consistency : A fundamental principle in social cognition. B. Gawronski & Strack, F. (Eds.), Balanced identity theory : Review of evidence for implicit consistency in social cognition. [PDF]
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Voir aussi Identité et Société
Identity : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de l'identité.
KROGER, J. (2003). What transits in an identity status transition ? Identity, 3 (3), 197-220.

Idéologie/Idéologue : Idées et valeurs politiques, économiques, morales, religieuses ou philosophiques communes à un ensemble d'individus (citoyen si société, militaire si armée, etc), ayant pour fonction de souder ces individus en un groupe cohésif (favoriser les échanges, la collaboration, la défense des intérêts communs) et de faire de nouveaux adeptes (prosélytisme), afin d'influencer les comportements des électeurs, les décisions des institutions et celles la la société en général. = orientation politique. ( ): Voir tableau-ci-bas. Ideology.
Forme d'ideologie
Autoritarisme Facisme Nationalisme
Conservatisme Gauche Néo-libéralisme
Droite Libéralisme Réactionnaire
Extrêmisme Marxisme  
 

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SIDANIUS, J., EKEHAMMAR, B. & LUKOWSKY, J. (1982). Socio-political ideology and party conflict in Sweden. Mankind Quarterly, 7, 3-25. ALFORD, J.R., FUNK, C.L. & HIBBING, J.R. (2005). Are political orientations genetically transmitted ? American Political Science Review, 99 (2), 153-167. [PDF]
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  VAN HIEL, A., DURIEZ, B. & KOSSOWSKA, M. (2006). The presence of left-wing authoritarianism in Western Europe and its relationship with conservative ideology. Political Psychology, 27 (5), 769-793. [PDF]
  JOST, J.T. (2006). The end of the end of ideology. American Psychologist, 61, 651-670.
TETLOCK, P.E. (1983). Cognitive style and political ideology. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 45, 118-126. [PDF] DEAUX, K. REID, A., MARTIN, D. & BIKMEN, N. (2006). Ideologies of diversity and inequality : Predicting collective action in groups varying in ethnicity and immigrant status. Political Psychology, 27, 123-146.
SIMON, M. (1983). Comprendre les idéologies. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. LEAPER, C. & VAN, S. (2008). Masculinity ideology, covert sexism, and perceived gender typicality in relation to young men's academic motivation and choices in college. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 9 (3), 139-153.
SIDANIUS, J. & EKEHAMMAR, B. (1983). Sex, political party preference, and higher-order dimensions of sociopolitical ideology. Journal of Psychology, 115, 233-239. CHARNEY, E. (2008). Genes and ideologies. Perspectives on Politics, 6, 299-319.
BOUDON, R. (1984). L'idéologie. Paris : Fayard. WADE, J.C. (2008). Masculinity ideology, male reference group identity dependence, and African American men's health-related attitudes and behaviors. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 9 (1), 5-16. [PDF]
  JOST, J.T., FREDERICO, C.M. & NAPIER, J.L. (2009). Political ideology : Its structure, functions, and elective affinities. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 307-333. [PDF]
  STERN, C., WEST, T.V., JOST, J.T. & RULE, N.O. (201). The politics of Gaydar : Ideological differences in the use of gendered cues in categorizing sexual orientation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 104 (3), 1-22. [PDF]
THEORET M. et GLADU S. (1984). Analyse "systémique" de l'influence de l'idéologie sexuelle dominante sur les thérapies sexuelles/systems' analysis of the influence of the dominating sexual model upon the sexual therapies. Revue de Modification du Comportement, 14 (1), 15-30. TUCKER, W.H. (2009). The Cattell controversy : Race, science, and ideology. University of Illinois Press.
  DITLMANN, R.K., PURDIE-VAUGHNS, V. & EIBACH, R.P. (2011). Heritage- and ideology-based national identities and their implications for immigrant citizen relations in the United States and in Germany. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35, 395-405. [PDF]
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KROSCH, A.R., BERNTSEN, L., AMODIO, D.M., JOST, J.T. & VAN BAVEL, J.J. (2013). On the ideology of hypodescent : Political conservatism predicts categorization of racially ambiguous faces as Black. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49, 1196-1203. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Valeur
Idiosyncrasie : Du grec idios qui signifie «qui a un tempérament particulier», syn qui veut dire «avec» et ratos qui signifie «vigueur». Caractéristique propre de la personnalité ou du comportement d'un individu en particulier. Ces caractéristiques, qui rendent parfois l'individu imprévisible ou anormal (on dit aussi excentrique), échappent souvent aux théories en vigueur dans un domaine, théories qui, elles, reposent sur l'observation de régularités. Idiosyncrasie et science idiosyncratique. = singularité, particularité. /nomothétique, régularité, généralité, loi. Idiosyncratic.

  RUSHTON, J.P., JACKSON, D.N. & PAUNONEN, S.V. (1981). Personality : Nomothtic or idiographic ? A response to Kenrick and Stringfield. Psychological Review, 88 (6), 582-589. [PDF]
CONE, J.D. (1986). Idiographic, nomothetic, and related perspectives in behavioral assessment. In R.O. Nelson & S.C. Hayes (Eds.), Conceptual foundations of behavioral assessment (pp. 111-128). New York : Guilford.
CARR, E.G., YARBROUGH, S.C. & LANGDON, N.A. (1997). Effects of idiosyncratic stimulus variables on functional analysis outcomes. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30 (4), 673-685. [PDF]
STRICKER, G. & GOLD, J.R. (1999). The Rorschach : Toward a nomothetically based, idiographically applicable configurational model. Psychological Assessment, 11 (3), 240-250.
THOMAE, H. (1999). The nomothetic-idiographic issue : Some roots and recent trends. International Journal of Group Tensions, 28 (1), 187-215.
MOLENAAR, P.C.M. (2004). A manifesto on psychology as idiographic science : Bringing the person back into scientific psychology, this time forever. Measurement : Interdisciplinary Research & Perspectives, 2 (4), 201-218. [PDF]
Voir aussi Science Idiosyncratique et Nomothétique
IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à la cybernétique.
SUN, R. (1994). A neural network model of causality. IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks, 5 (4), 604-611. [PDF]

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à la cybernétique.
BICKLE, J. (2006). Ruthless reductionism in recent neuroscience. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man & Cybernetics, 36, 134-140.

Ignorance/Ignorer : Ce qu'on ne sait pas ou ce qu'on a pas conscience d'ignorer. Ignorance.

  GLUCKSBERG, S. & McCLOSKEY, M. (1981). Decisions about ignorance : Knowing that you don't know. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 7, 311-325.
GILENS, M. (2001). Political ignorance and collective policy preferences. American Political Science Review, 95 (2), 379-396.
NORTON, J. (20008). Ignorance and indifference. Philosophy of Science, 75, 45-68. [PDF]
Ignorance pluraliste : Sous-groupe d'invidividus qui croient avoir des idées, des croyances ou des valeurs différentes du reste du groupe. En dépit du rejet de la norme du groupe, ce sous-groupe agit en conformité avec celle-ci, donnant ainsi à penser que la dissidence est nulle. Pluralistic ignorance.
  KATZ, D. & ALLPORT, F.H. (1931). Student attitudes. Syracuse, N.Y. : Craftsman.
MILLER, D.T. & McFARLAND, C. (1987). Pluralistic ignorance : When similarity is interpreted as dissimilarity. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53, 298-305.
PRENTICE, D.A. & MILLER, D.T. (1993). Pluralistic ignorance and alcohol use on campus : Some consequences of misperceiving the social norm. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 64 (2), 243-256.
PRENTICE, D.A. & MILLER, D.T. (1996). Pluralistic ignorance and the perpetuation of social norms by unwitting actors. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 29, pp. 161-209). San Diego, CA : Academic Press.
MILLER, D.T., MONIN, B. & PRENTICE, D.A. (2000). Pluralistic ignorance and inconsistency between private attitudes and public behaviors. In D.J. Terry & M.A. Hogg (Eds.), Attitudes, behavor, and social context : The role of norms and group membership (pp. 95-113). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
Ignorance stratégique : Feindre de ne pas savoir ce que l'on est censé connaître; dissimuler volontairement une information. EX: Certains étudiants se gardent de répondre aux questions du professeur par crainte d'être qualifiés de "bol" par les autres étudiants de la classe. Strategic ignorance.

  CARRILLO, J. & MARIOTTI, T. (2000). Strategic ignorance as a self-disciplining device. Review of Economic Studies, 66, 529-544.
Iguane (Iguana iguana) : Animal de la classe des reptiles. Iguana.

  BURGHARDT, G.M. (1977). Of iguanas and dinosaurs: Social behavior and communication in neonate reptiles. American Zoologist 17, 177-190.
BURGHARDT, G.M. & GREENE, H.W. & RAND, A. S. (1977). Social behavior in hatchling green iguanas : Life at a reptile rookery. Science 195, 689-691.
GREENE, H.W., BURGHARDT, G.M., DUGAN, B.A. & RAND, A.S. (1978). Predation and the defensive behavior of green iguanas (Reptilia, Lacertilia, Iguanidae). Journal of Herpetology, 12 (2), 169-176.
DUGAN, B.A., RAND, A.S., BURGHARDT, G.M. & BOCK, B.C. (1981). Interactions between nesting crocodiles and iguanas. Journal of Herpetology, 15, 409-414.
DRUMMOND, H. & BURGHARDT, G.M. (1983). Nocturnal and diurnal nest emergence in green iguanas. Journal of Herpetology, 17, 290-292.
RODDA, G.H. & BURGHARDT, G.M. (1985). Iguana iguana (green iguana). Terrestriality. Herpetological Review, 16, 112.
BURGHARDT, G.M. & RAND, A.S. (1985). Group size and growth rate in hatchling green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 18, 101-104.
Voir aussi Reptile et Animal
Illich Ivan (Vienne 1926-2002 Brême allemagne) : Philosophe et libre penseur autrichien. On lui doit le concept de contre-productivité.
LLICH, I. (1971). Libérer l'avenir. Seuil : Paris.
ILLICH, I. (1971). Deschooling Society / Une société sans école. Paris : Seuil.
ILLICH, I. (1973). Tools for conviviality / La Convivialité. Paris : Seuil.
ILLICH, I. (1973). Energy and equity / Énergie et équité. Paris : Seuil.
ILLICH, I. (1975). Némésis médicale / Medical nemesis. Paris : Seuil.
Illusion (visuelle) : Le terme a deux significations voisines : a) Au sens strict, ce qui paraît vrai, mais s'avère en réalité faux. ( ): illusion de causalité, illusion de contrôle, illusion de liberté. b) Tout objet ou situation qui peut être interprété de plus d'une manière ou qui peut entraîner une erreur de perception. Face à une illusion, on se demande "qu'est-ce qui est vrai ? Quelle est la réalité ? Mes sens me trompent-ils ?". Illusion et paréidolie. = illusion perceptive. ( ): Voir tableau ci-bas. Illusion, visual illusion, trick eyes.
 
Albert Einstein (vu de près) ou Marilyn Monroe (vu de loin) ?
Deux ou trois tubes ?

Illusions visuelles
Illusion d'Ames Illusion de Jastrow Illusion de Münsterberg
Illusion d'Ebbinghaus Illusion de Hering Illusion de Poggendorff
Illusion d'Helmholtz Illusion de Kanizsa Illusion de Ponzo
Illusion d'Hermann Illusion de la jeune/vieille femme Illusion de Rubin
Illusion d'Oppel-Kundt Illusion de la lune Illusion de Wundt
Illusion d'Ouchi Illusion de Judd Illusion de Zöllner
Illusion de Baldwin Illusion de Moebius Illusion des visages
Illusion de dégradé Illusion de mouvement Illusion du mur du café
Illusion de Deboeuf Illusion de Muller-Lyer Illusion spatiale
Illusion de Frazer    
 
Illusions sémantiques
  Illusion de Moses  

  a
 
b
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Voir aussi Illusion auditive, Perception et Magie
Illusion auditive : Auditory illusion.

  DEUTSCH, D. (1974). An auditory illusion. Nature, 251, 307-309. [PDF]
DEUTSCH, D. (1983). Auditory illusions and audio. Journal of the Audio Engineering Society, 31, 606. [PDF]
SHORE, D.I., HALL, S.E. & KLEIN, R.M. (1998). Auditory saltation: A new measure of an old illusion. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 103, 3730-3733.
DEUTSCH, D. (2004). The Octave Illusion Revisited Again. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 30, 355-364.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion d'Ames : Chambre ou pièce déformée de telle manière que deux personnes ou objets de même taille placés dans les coins opposés de la dite pièce seront perçus comme étant de tailles différentes lorsqu'une personne les observe par une ouverture pratiquée dans le mur (votre point de vue ci-dessous). Cette illusion s'explique par un fonctionnement inadéquat de la constance perceptive des tailles. = chambre d'Ames. Ames illusion, Ames room .
 
Ces trois hommes ont la même taille
ITTELSON, W.H. (1952). The Ames demonstrations in perception. New York: Hafner Press.
ITTELSON, W.H. (1961). The monocular and binocular distorted rooms. In F.P. Kilpatrick (Ed.), Explorations in Transactional Psychology (pp 145-171). New York : New York University Press.
GEHRINGER, W. & ENGEL, E. (1986). Effect of ecological viewing conditions on the Ames' distorted room illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 12 (2), 181-185.
RUNESON, S. (1988). The distorted room illusion, equivalent configurations, and the specificity of static optic arrays. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 14 (2), 295-304.
DWYER, J., ASTON, R. & BROERSE, J. (1990). Emmert's law in the Ames room. Perception, 9, 35-41. [PDF]
GLENNERSTER, A., GILSON, S.J., TCHEANG, L. & PARKER, A.J. (2003). Perception of size in "dynamic Ames room". Journal of Vision, 3 (9), 490.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion d'Ebbinghaus : Illusion. = cercles de Tichener. Ebbinghaus illusion, Titchener circles.

 
   
MASSARO, D.W. & ANDERSON, N.H. (1971). Judgemental model of the Ebbinghaus illusion. Journal of Expererimental of Psychology, 89, 147-151. GLOVER, S. & DIXON, P. (2002). Dynamic effects of the Ebbinghaus illusion in grasping: support for a planning/control model of action. Perception & Psychophysics, 64 (2), 266-278.
GIRGUS, J.S., COREN, S. & AGDERN, M. (1972). The interrelationship between the Ebbinghaus and the Delboef illusions. Journal of Experimental of Psychology, 95, 453-455. ROSE, D. & BRESSANS, P. (2002). Going round in circles : shape effects in the Ebbinghaus illusion. Spatial Vision, 15, (2), 191-203. [PDF]
JAEGER, T. & POLLACK, R.H. (1977). Effect of contrast level and temporal order on the Ebbinghaus circles illusion. Perception & Psychophysics 21, 83-87. VISHTON, PM. & FABRE. E. (2003). Effects of the Ebbinghaus illusion on different behaviors : one- and two-handed esimation; metric and comparative judgement. Spatial Vision, 16 (3-4), 377-392. [PDF]
JAEGER, T. (1978). Ebbinghaus illusions : size contrast or contour interaction phenomena ? Perception & Psychophysics 24 (4), 337-342. ROBERTS, B, HARRIS, M.G. & YATES, T.A. (2005). The roles of inducer size and distance in the Ebbinghaus illusion (Titchener circles). Perception, 34 (7), 847-856.
WEINTRAUB, D.J. (1979). Ebbinghaus illusion : context, contour, and age influence the judged size of a circle amidst circles, Journal of Expererimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance 5, 353-364. VUK, M. & PODLESEK, A. (2005). The effect of inner elements of the context figures on the Ebbinghaus illusion. Horizons of Psychology, 14 (4), 9-22. [PDF]
JAEGER, T. & GRASSO, K. (1993). Contour lightness and separation effects in the Ebbinghaus illusion. Perceptual & Motor Skills 76, 255-258. DE FOCKERT, J., DAVIDOFF, J., FAGOT, J., PARRON, C. & GOLDSTEIN, J. (2007). More accurate size 519 contrast judgments in the Ebbinghaus Illusion by a remote culture. Journal of Experimental 520 Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 33 (3), 738-742.
EHRENSTEIN, W.H. & HAMADA, J. (1995). Structural factors of size contrast in the Ebbinghaus illusion. Japanese Psychological Research 37, 158-169. SOVRANO, V., ALBERTAZZI, L. & ROSA SALVA, O. (2015). (2015). The Ebbinghaus illusion in a fish 681 (Xenotoca eiseni). Animal Cognition, 18 (2), 533-542.
CHOPLIN, J. M. & MEDIN, D.L. (1999). Similarity of the perimeters in the Ebbinghaus illusion. Perception & Psychophysics 61, 3-12. SHERMAN, J.A. & CHOUINARD, P.A. (2016). Attractive Contours of the Ebbinghaus illusion. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 122(1), 88-95.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion d'Helmholtz : Illusion. Helmholtz illusion.

 
 
THOMPSON, P. & MIKELIDOU, K. (2011). Applying the Helmholtz illusion to fashion: Horizontal stripes won't make you look fatter. iPerception, 2 (1), 69-76.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion d'Hermann : Illusion. Herman illusion.
 
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion d'Oppel-Kundt : Oppel-Kundt illusion.

 
 
KUNDT, A. (1863). Untersuchungen über Augenmab und optische Täuschungen. Poggendorffs Annalen der Physik und Chemie, 120, 118-158. DUCHARME, R., DELORME, A. & BOULARD, M. (1967). The Oppel-Kundt illusion in the white rat. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 24 (3), 1271-1276.
  COREN, S. & HOENIG, P. (1972). Eye movements and decrement in the Oppel-Kundt illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 12, 224-225.
OPPEL, J.J. (1855). Uber geometrisch-optische Tauschungen [About geometric-optical illusions]. Jahresbericht des Frankfurter Vereins, 1854-1855, 37-47. DEREGOWSKI, J.B. & McGEORGE, P. (2006). Oppel-Kundt illusion in three-dimensional space. Perception, 35(10), 1307-1314.
PIAGET, J. & Osterrieth, P. A. (1953). Recherches sur le developpement des perceptions: XVII. L'evolution de l'illusion d'Oppel-Kundt en fonction de l'âge. Archives de Psychologie, 34, 1-38. MILELLIDOU, K. & THOMPSON, P. (2011). Bisection and dissection of horizontal lines: The long and the short of the Oppel-Kundt illusion. Journal of Vision, 11 (11), 1184.
PIAGET, J. et BANG, V. (1961). Comparaison de l'illusion d'Oppel-Kundt au tachistoscope et en vision libre. Archives des Sciences, 9, 210-213. PIA, L., NEPPI-MODONA, M., ROSSELLI, F. B., MUSCA- TELLO, V., ROSATO, R. & RICCI, R. (2012). The Oppel-Kundt illusion is effective in modulating horizontal space representation in humans. Perceptual & Motor Skills: Perception, 115 (3), 729-742.
GAUDREAU, J., LAVOIE G. et DELORME, A. (1963). La perception des illusions de Müller-Lyer et d'Oppel-Kundt chez Ies deficients mentaux. Canadian Journal of Psychololy, 17, 259-263. MILELLIDOU, K. & THOMPSON, P. (2014). Crossing the line : estimations of line length in the Oppel-Kundt illusion. Journal of Vision, 14 (8), 1-10. [PDF]
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion d'Ouchi : Illusion inventée par Hajime Ouchi. Ouchi illusion.
 
OUCHI, H. (1977). Japanese optical and geometrical art. New York : Dover.
ASHIDA, H., KITAOKA, A. & SAKURAI, K. (2005). A new variant of the Ouchi illusion reveals Fourier-component-based processing. Perception, 34, 381-390.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Baldwin : Illusion inventée par Hajime Ouchi. Baldwin illusion.
 
CLAVADETSCHER, J.E. & ANDERSON, N.H. (1977). Comparative judgment : A test of two theories using the Baldwin figure. Journal o f Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 3, 119-135.
PRESSEY, A.W. & WILSON, A.E. (1980). Assimilation theory and the Baldwin illusion. The Italian Journal of Psychology, 7, 65-73.
PRESSEY, A.W. (1985). The role ofintemal contextual features in the Baldwin illusion. In J.L. McGaugh (Ed.), Contemporary psychology : Biological processes and theoretical issues. New York : Elsevier
PRESSEY, A.W. & SMITH, N.E. (1986). The effects of location, orientation, and cumulation of boxes in the Baldwin illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 40 (5), 344-350. [PDF]
WILSON, A.E. & PRESSEY, A.W. (1988). Contrast and assimilation in the Baldwin illusion. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 66, 195-204.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de causalité/corrélation : Voir Corrélation trompeuse.
Illusion de contrôle : Voir Contrôle (Illusion) .
Illusion de Darwin : Illusion. Darwin illusion.

  JENKINS, R. & WISEMAN, R. (2009). Darwin Illusion : Evolution in a blink of the eye. Perception, 38, 1413-1415. [PDF]
Illusion de dégradé gris de Logvinenko : Illusion. Logvinenko illusion.
 
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusions de Delboeuf : Illusion découverte par Delboeuf. Delboeuf illusion.
 
 
DELBOEUF, J.L.R. (1892). Sur une nouvelle illusion d'optique. Bulletin de l'Academie Royale Belgique, 24, 545-558. WEINTRAUB, D.J. & COOPER, L.A. (1972). Coming of age with the Delboeuf illusion: Brightness contrast. cognition. and perceptual development. Developmental Psychology, 6, 187-19
PIAGET, J. MATALON, B. et BANG, V. (1961). L'évolution de l'illusion dite "verticale-horizontale", de ses composantes (rectangle et équerre) et de l'illusion de Delboeuf en présentation tachistoscopique. Archives de Psychologie, 38 (149), 23-68. O'HALLORAN, W.J. & WEINTRAUB, D.J. (1977). Dolboeuf "illusions" of circle size induced via photoflash- generated afterimages. Perception & Psychophysics, 22, 171-176.
SANTOSTEFANO, S. (1963). A developmental study of the Delboeuf illusion.Perceptual & Motor Skills, 17, 23-29. PRESSEY, A.W. (1977). Measuring the Titchener circles and Delboeuf illusions with the method of adjustment. Bulletin o f the Psychonomic Society, 10, 118-120.
PIAGET, J. & PAPERT, S. (1963). Note sur les relations entre les illusions de Müller-Lyer et de Delboeuf : À propos d'une étude de J. Beuchet et de J.-F. Richard sur le décentrement des masses. L'Année Psychologique, 63 (2), 351-357. [PDF] GENTAZ, E. & HATWELL, Y. (2004). Geometrical haptic illusions : The role of exploration in the Müller-Lyer, vertical-horizontal, and Delboeuf illusions. Psychonomic Bulletin & Revue, 11 (1), 31-40. [PDF]
Voir aussi Illusion
 
Illusions de Frazer :

  FRAZER, J. (1908). A new illusion of visual direction. British Journal of Psychology, 2, 307–320.
Illusions de Jastrow : Illusion découverte par Jastrow.
 
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Hering : Illusion découverte par Hering (1861).

 
PARK, K. & SHEBILSKE, P. (1991). Phoria, Hering's laws, and monocular perception of direction. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 17 (1), 219-231.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Judd : Illusion. Judd illusion.

 
POST, R.B., WELCH, R.B. & CAUFIELD, K. (1998). Relative spatial expansion and contraction within the Müller-Lyer and Judd illusions. Perception, 27 (7), 827-838.
MON-WILLIAMS, M. & BULL, R. (2000). The Judd illusion : evidence for two visual streams or two experimental conditions ? Experimental Brain Research, 130, 273-276
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Kanizsa : Illusion découverte par Gaetano Kanizsa en 1955. Kanizsa illusion.
 
OYAMA, T. (1998). Are illusory contours a cause or consequence of apparent differences in brightness and depth in the Kanizsa square ? Perception, 17, 513-521.
Voir aussi Illusion
 
Illusion de la jeune/vieille femme : Illusion.

 
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de la lune : La lune semble plus grosse lorsqu'elle est près de l'horizon. Moon illusion.

  HOLWAY, A.H. & BORING, E.G. (1940). The moon illusion and the angle of regard. American Journal of Psychology, 53, 509-516. BAIRD, J.C. & WAGNER, M. (1982). The moon illusion: I. How high is the sky ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 111 (3), 296-303.
TAYLOR, D.W. & BORING, E.G. (1942). The moon illusion as a function of binocular regard. American Journal of Psychology, 55, 189-201. REES, W.G. (1986). The moon illusion. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Astronomical Society, 27 (2), 205-211.
KAUFMAN, L. & ROCK, I. (1962). The moon illusion, II. Science, 136, 953-961. [PDF] McREADY, D. (1986). Moon illusions redescribed. Perception & Psychophysics, 39 (1), 64-72. [PDF]
ROCK, I. & KAUFMAN, L. (1962). The moon illusion, ll. Science, 136, 1023-1031. [PDF] HERSHENSON, M. (1989). The moon illusion. Erlbaum Associates.
  BAIRD, J.C., WAGNER, M. & FULD, K. (1990). A simple but powerful theory of the moon illusion. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance 16, 675-677.
ROCK, I. & KAUFMAN, L. (1962). On the moon illusion [Letter to the editor]. Science, 137, 906-911. SUZUKI, K. (1991). Moon illusion simulated in complete darkness : planetarium experiment reexamined. Perception & Psychophysics, 49, 349-354.
RESTLE, F. (1970). Moon illusion explained on the basis of relative size. Science, 167, 1092-1096. KAUFMAN, L. & KAUFMAN, J.H. (2000). Explaining the moon illusion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97 (1), 500-505. [PDF]
ROSS, H.E. & ROSS, G.M. (1976). Did Ptolemy understand the moon illusion ? Perception, 4, 377-385. KAUFMAN, L. & KAUFMAN, J.H., NOBLE, R., EDLUND, E., BAI, S. & KING, T. (2006). Perceptual distance and the constancy of size and stereoscopic depth. Spatial Vision, 19 (5), 439-457. [PDF]
SMITH, O.W., SMITH, P.C., GEIST, C.C. & ZIMMERMANN, R.R. (1978). Apparent size contrasts of retinal images and size constancy as determinants of the moon illusion. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 46, 803-808. SUZUKI, K. (2007). The moon illusion : Kaufman and Rock's (1962) apparent-distance theory reconsidered. Japanese Psychological Research, 49 (1), 57-67.
  KAUFMAN, L. VASSILIADES, V., NOBLE, R. & KAUFMAN, J.H. (2007). Perceptual distance and the moon illusion. Spatial Vision, 20 (1-2) 155-175. [PDF]
  ANTONIDES, J. & KUBOTA, T. (2013). Binocular disparity as an explanation for the moon illusion [PDF]
 
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de liberté : Le déterminisme est la doctrine philosophique qui postule que la liberté n'existe pas, que tous les comportements sont déterminés par un ensemble de causes. En conséquence, ceux qui croient tout de même en cette liberté sont victimes d'une illusion car ils sous-estiment ou ignorent l'existence du déterminisme. Illusion of liberty.

  Voir aussi Lberté et Déterminisme
Illusion de Moebius : Illusion. Moebius illusion.
 
ROSEN, S.M. (1994). Science, paradox, and the Moebius principle : The evolution of a "transcultural" approach to wholeness. New York : New York Press.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Moses : Combien d'espèces différentes d'animaux Moïse a-t-il emmenées sur son arche ? Réponse ; aucune.
  BREDART, S. & MODOLO, K. (1988). Moses strikes again : Focalization effect on a semantic illusion. Acta Psychologica, 67 (2), 135-144.
VAN OOSTENDORP, H. & DE MUL, S. (1990). Moses beats Adam: A semantic relatedness effect on a semantic illusion. Acta Psychologica, 74 (1), 35-46
REDER, L.M. & CLEEREMANS, A. (1990). The role of partial matches in comprehension : The Moses illusion revisited. In A. Graesser & G Bower (Eds.), The psychology of learning and motivation (Vol. 25, pp. 233-258). New York : Academic Press. [PDF]
REDER, L.M. & KUSBIT, G.W. (1991). Locus of the Moses illusion : Imperfect encoding, retrieval or match ? Journal of Memory & Language, 30, 385-406. [PDF]
KAMAS, E., REDER, L.M. & AYERS, M. (1996). Partial matching in the Moses illusion: Response bias not sensitivity. Memory & Cognition, 24, 687-699. [PDF]
PARK, H. & REDER L.M. (2004). Moses illusion : Implications for human cognition. In R.F. Pohl (Ed.), Cognitive illusions : A handbook on fallacies and biases in thinking, judgment, and memory (pp. 275 292). Hove, UK : Psychology Press. [PDF]
BOTTOMS, H.C., ESLICK, A.N. & MARSH, E.J. (2010). Memory and the Moses illusion : Failures to detect contradictions with stored knowledge yield negative memorial consequences. Memory, 18 (6), 670-678. [PDF]
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de mouvement : Classe d'illusion qui crée une impression de mouvement. On peut créer cette Illusion de plusieurs façon, notamment par la sucession rapide d'images, comme au cinéma (au moins 24 images à la seconde). Utilisée par sherif dans ses recherche sur le conformisme (effet autocinétique). Illusion du mouvement et perception du mouvement. Motion illusion, Illusion of motion, Illusory motion, apparent movemet, motion aftereffect.

 
 
GUILFORD, J.P. (1929). Illusory movement from a rotating barber pole. American Journal of Psychology 41, 686-687. GREGORY, R.L. (1995). Brain created visual motion : an illusion ? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, B, 260, 167-168.
KOHLER, W. & WALLACH, H. (1944). Figural after-effects : An investigation of visual processes. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 88 (4), 269-357. VERSTRATEN, F.A.J. (1996). On the ancient history of the direction of the motion aftereffect. Perception, 25, 1177-1188.
KOHLER, W. & EMERY, D.A. (1947). Figural after-effects in the third dimension of visual space. The American Journal of Psychology, 60 (2), 159-201. SCHMIDT, W.C. & KLEIN, R.M. (1997). A spatial gradient of acceleration and temporal extension underlies three illusions of motion. Perception, 26, 857-874.
GANZ, L. (1966). Mechanism of the figural aftereffects. Psychological Review, 73 (2), 128-150.  
ANSTIS, S.M. & ROGERS, B.J. (1975). Illusory reversals of movement and depth during changes in contrast. Vision Research, 15, 957-961.  
ULLMAN, S. (1979). The interpretation of visual motion. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.  
GREGORY, R.L. & HEARD, P.F. (1983). Visual dissociations of movement, position, and stereo depth: Some phenomenal phenomena. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35A, 217-237 [PDF] WADE, N.J., THOMPSON, P. & MORGAN, M. (2014). The after-effect of Adolf Wohlgemuth's seen motion. Perception, 43, 229-234.
GREGORY, R.L. & HARRIS, J.P. (1984). Real and apparent movement nulled. Nature, 307, 729-730. AGRILLO, C., GORI, S. & BERAN, M.J. (2015). Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive illusory motion. Animal Cognition, 18 (4), 895-910. [PDF]
Voir aussi Perception du mouvement et illusion d'Ouchi
Illusion de Müller-Lyer : Illusion découverte en 1889 par Müller-Lyer. Mueller-Lyer illusion.
 
MÜLLER-LYER, F.C. (1889). Optische urteilstäuschungen. Archiv für Physiologie, 263-327. ADAM, J. & BATEMAN, L. (1980). Control stimuli in investigations of the acute-angled and obtuse-angled Miiller-Lyer illusions. Perception, 9, 467-474.
JUDD, C.H. (1905). The Mueller-Lyer illusion. Psychological Review Monograph Supplement, 7 (29), 55-82. DAY, R.H. & KNUTH, H. (1981). The contributions of F.C. Müller-Lyer. Perception, 10 (2), 126-146.
LEWIS, E.O. (1909). Confluxion and contrast effects in the Mueller-Lyer illusion. British Journal of Psychology, 3, 21-41. GREIST-BOUSQUET, S. & SCHIFFMAN, H. R. (1981). The many illusions of the Miiller-Lyer : Comparisons of the wings-in and wings- out illusions and manipulation of standard and dot forms. Perception, 10, 147-154.
WARDEN, C.J. & BAAR, J. (1929). The Müller-Lyer illusion in the ring dove, Turtur risorius Journal of Comparative Psychology, 9 (4), 275-292.  
BEUCHET, J. & RICHARD, J.-F. (1962). Le décentrement des masses dans l'illusion de Müller-Lyer. Bulletion de Psychologie, 16, 297-316. ADAM, J. & BATEMAN, L. (1983). A correlational analysis of symmetry between the arrowhead and featherhead Mueller-Lyer illusions. Perception, 12, 119-129.
PIAGET, J. & PAPERT, S. (1963). Note sur les relations entre les illusions de Müller-Lyer et de Delboeuf : à propos d'une étude de J. Beuchet et de J.-F. Richard sur le décentrement des masses. L'Année Psychologique, 63 (2), 351-357. [PDF] COREN, S. & PORAC, C. (1983). The creation and reversal of the Mueller-Lyer illusion through attentional manipulation. Perception, 12, 49-54.
GAUDREAU, J., LAVOIE G. & DELORME, A. (1963). La perception des illusions de Müller-Lyer et d'Oppel-Kundt chez Ies deficients mentaux. Canadian Journal of Psychololy, 17, 259-263. MACK, A., HEUER, F. VILLARDI, K. & CHAMBERS, D. (1985). The dissociation of position and extent in Mueller-Lyer figures. Perception & Psychophysics, 37, 335-344.
RUDEL, R. & TEUBER, H.L. (1963). Decrement of visual and haptic Müller-Lyer illusion on repeated trials : A study of cross-modal transfer. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15, 125-131. GILAM, B. & CHAMBERS, D. (1985). Size and position are incongruous : Measurements on the Müller-Lyer figure. Perception & Psychophysics, 37, 549-556.
POLLACK, R.H. (1964). Simultaneous and successive presentation of elements of the Müller-Lyer figure and chronological age. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 19, 303-310. PRESSEY, A.W. & MARTIN, N.S. (1990). The effects of varying fins in Mueller-Lyer and Holding illusions. Psychological Research, 52 (1), 46-53.
MALOTT, R., MALOTT, M. & POKRZYWINSKI, J. (1967). The effects of outward-pointing arrowheads on the Mueller-Lyer illusion in pigeons. Psychonomic Science, 9(1), 55-56.  
PRESSEY, A.W. (1967). A theory of the Müller-Lyer illusion. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 25 (2), 569-572. FREDEBON, J. (1992). Framing effects and the reversed Muller-Lyer illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 52 (3), 307-314. [PDF]
TSAI, L.S. (1967). Müller-Lyer illusion by the blind. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 25, 641-644.  
DEWAR, R.E. (1967). Stimulus determinants of the magnitude of the Mueller-Lyer illusion. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 24, 708-710. PRESSEY, A.W. & PRESSEY, C.A. (1992). Attentive fields are related to focal and contextual features : a study of the Müller-Lyer distortions. Perception & Psychophysics 51 (5), 423-436. [PDF]
BURHAM, C.A. (1968). Decrement of the Müller-Lyer illusion with saccadic and tracking eye movements. Perception & Psychophysics, 3, 424-426.  
BOLLES, R.C. (1969). The role of eye movements in the Muller Lyer illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 6, 175-176. REDDING, G. M. & HAWLEY, E. (1993). Length illusion in fractional Mueller-Lyer stimuli : An object-perception approach. Perception, 22, 819-828.
PRESSEY, A.W. (1970). The assimilation theory applied to a modification of the Müller-Lyer illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 8 (6), 411-412. PREDEBON, J. (1994). The reversed Müller-Lyer illusion in conventional and in wing-amputated Müller-Lyer figurs. Psychological Research, 56, 217-223.
WAITE, H. & MASSARO, D.W. (1970). Test of Gregory's constancy scaling explanation of the Müller-Lyer illusion. Nature, 227, 733-734.  
SEKULER, R. & ERLEBACHER, A. (1971). Two illusions of Muller-Lyer : Confusion theory reexamined. American Journal o f Psychology, 84, 477-486. PREDEBON, J. (1996). The role of the angle components in the wings-in and wings-out forms of the Müller-Lyer illusion. Perception, 25 (7), 773-781.
GIRGUS, J.S., COREN, S. & AGDERN, M. (1972). The interrelationship between the Ebbinghaus and the Delboef illusions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 95, 453-455. WANG, M.F. & IRWIN, R.J. & RAUTUS, M.J. (1998). Discriminability in length of lines in the Müller-Lyer figure.Perception & Psychophysics, 60 (3), 511-517. [PDF]
PRESSEY, A.W. & BROSS, M. (1973). Assimilation theory and the reversed Miiller-Lyer illusion. Perception, 2, 211-217. POST, R.B., WELCH, R.B. & CAUFIELD, K. (1998). Relative spatial expansion and contraction within the Müller-Lyer and Judd illusions. Perception, 27 (7), 827-838.
WEINTRAUB, D.J., TONG, L. & SMITH, A.J. (1973). Müller-Lyer versus size/reflectance-contrast illusion: Is the age-related decrement caused by a declining sensitivity to brightness contours ? Developmental Psychology, 8, 6-15. NELSON, B. & GREENE, E. (1998). Similar Mueller-Lyer effects from operant and comparison response modes. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 86, 499-511.
CHRISTIE, P.S. (1975). Asymmetry in the Mueller-Lyer illusion : Artifact or genuine effect ? Perception, 4, 453-457. SKILLEN, J., WHITAKER, D., POPPLE, A. & MCGRAW, P.V. (2002). The importance of spatial scale in determining illusions of orientation. Vision Research, 42, 2447-2455.
WONG, T.S. (1975). The respective role of limb and eye movements in the haptic and visual Müller-Lyer illusion. Quarterly Journal of ExPerimental Psychology, 27, 659-666. MILAR, S. & AL-ATTAR, Z. (2002). The Müller-Lyer illusion in touch and vision : Implications for multisensory processes. Perception & Psychophysics, 64 (3), 353-365. [PDF]
DAY, R.H. & DICKINSON, R.G. (1976). Apparent length of the arms of acute and obtuse angles, and the components of the Miiller-Lyer illusion. Australian Journal of Psychology, 28, 137-148. HELLER, M. A., BRACKETT, D. D., WILSON, K., YONEYAMA, K., BOYER, A. & STEFFEN, H. (2002). The haptic Müller-Lyer illusion in sighted and blind people. Perception, 31, 1263-1274.
PRESSEY, A.W., DILOLLO, V. & TAIT, R.W. (1977). Effects of gap size between shaft and fins on the Müller-Lyer illusion. Perception, 6 (4), 435-439. GENTAZ, E. & HATWELL, Y. & JACQUET, A-Y. (2004).The Visual and the Haptic Müller-Lyer Illusions: Correlation Study. Current psychology letters 13 (2), 2-7. [PDF]
PRESSEY, A.W. & WILSON, A. E. (1977). The hydra-headed Mueller- Lyer effect : A theoretical puzzle. Perception & Psychophysics, 22, 392-394. GENTAZ, E. & HATWELL, Y. (2004). Geometrical haptic illusion s: The role of exploration in the Müller-Lyer, vertical-horizontal, and Delboeuf illusions. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11 (1), 31-40. [PDF]
RESTLE, F. & DECKER, J. (1977). Size of the Mueller-Lyer illusion as a function of its dimensions : Theory and data. Perception & Psychophysics, 21, 489-503. [PDF] HOWE, C.Q. & PURVES, D. (2005). The Müller-Lyer illusion explained by the statistics of image-source relationships. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 102 (4), 1234-1239. [PDF]
PRESSEY, A.W., DILOLLO, V. (1978). Effects of distance between standard and comparison lines on the Miiller-Lyer illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 24, 415-419. [PDF] SUGANUMA, E., PESSOA, V.F., MONGE-FUENTES, V., CASTRO, B.M. & TAVARES, M.C.H. (2007). Perception of the Müller-Lyer illusion in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Behavioural. Brain Research, 182(1), 67-72.
GOLDBERG, L.R. (1979). A general scheme for the analytic decomposition of objective test scores : Illustrative demonstrations using the Rod-and-Frame Test and the Muller-Lyer Illusion. Journal of Research in Personality, 13, 245-265. [PDF] PEPPERBERG, I.M., VIVINAY, J. & CAVANAGH, P. (2008). Processing of the Müller-Lyer illusion by a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Perception, 37, 765-781. [PDF]
  TUDUSICUC, O. & NIEDER, A. (2010). Comparison of length judgments and the Mueller-Lyer 700 illusion in monkeys and humans. Experimental Brain Research, 207(3-4), 221-231.
  REDDING, G.M. & VINSON, D.W. (2010). Virtual and drawing structures for the Müller-Lyer illusions. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 72 (5), 1350-1366. [PDF]
WHITE, I.A. & WHITE, J.J. (1980). The importance of F.C. Müller-Lyer's ideas for "Der Zauberberg". The Modern Language Review, 75 (2), 333-348. GIOVANNELLA, C. & GALLI, G. (2010). Visual perception, awareness and self-control : the Brentano-Müller-Lyer illusion. Proceedings of the 2010 workshop on Eye gaze in intelligent human machine interaction, 108-113. [PDF]
  SOVRANO, V., DA POS, O. & ALBERTAZZI, L. (2015). The Müller-Lyer illusion in the teleost fish 683 Xenotoca eiseni. Animal Cognition, 19 (1), 123-132 .
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Münsterberg :

  MÜNSTERBERG, H. (1897). Die vershobene Schachbrettfigur. Zeitschrift für Psychologie, 15, 184-188.
MOULDEN, B. & RENSHAW, J. (1979). The Münsterberg illusion and "irradiation". Perception, 8, 275-301.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Poggendorff : Illusion. Poggendorff illusion.

 
FISHER, G.H. (1966). A tactual Poggendorff illusion. Nature, 212, 105-106.  
PRESSEY, A.W. & SWEENEY, O. (1970). Age changes in the Poggendorff illusion as measured by a method of production. Psychonomic Science, 19, 99-100. PRESSEY, A.W. & WILSON, A.E. (1974). The Poggendorff illusion in imagination. Bulletin of the Psychonomic society, 3 (6), 447-449.
KRANTZ, D.H. & WEINTRAUB, D.J. (1971). The Poggendorff illusion : Amputations, rotations, and other perturbations. Perception & Psychophysics, 10, 257-264. MALLENBY, T.W. (1975). The effect of verbal mediation on the reduction of error to the Poggendorff illusion. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 5 (2), 170-172.
HILL, A.L. (1971). Poggendorff illusion : Effects of intelligence, viewing distance, and space between the vertical lines. Psychonomic Science, 26, 71-72. WILSON, A.E. & PRESSEY, A.W. (1976). The role of apparent distance in the Poggendorff illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 20, 309-316. [PDF]
PRESSEY, A.W. & SWEENEY, O. (1972). Some puzzling results on the Poggendorff illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 12. 433-437. [PDF] WEINTRAUB, D.J. & KRANTZ, D.H. (1980). The Poggendorff illusion: Consider all the angles. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 6, 718-725.
KRANTZ, D.H. & WEINTRAUB, D.J. (1973). Factors affecting perceived orientation of the Poggendorff transversal. Perception & Psychophysics, 4, 511-517. PREDEBON, J. (1990). Illusion decrement and transfer of illusion decrement in obtuse- and acute-angle variants of the Poggendorff illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 48 (5), 467-476. [PDF]
HILL, A.L. (1974). Examination of Pressey's assimilation theory of the Poggendorff illusion. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 38 (1), 27-35. WENDEROTH, P. & ALAIS, D. (1990). Lack of evidence for a tactual Poggendorff illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 48, 234-242.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Ponzo : Illusion. Ponzo illusion.

 
LEIBOWITZ, H.W. & JUDIATH, J. A. (1967). The relation between age and the Ponzo illusion. American Journal of Psychology, 80, 105-109. PRESSEY, A.W. (1974). Measuring the Ponzo illusion with the method of production. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 6, 424-426. [PDF]
LEIBOWITZ, H.W. & HEISEL, M.A. (1968). L'évolution de l'illusion de Ponzo en fonction de rage. Archives de Psychologie, 36, 328-331. PRESSEY, A.W. (1974). Age changes in the Ponzo and filled-space illusions. Perception & Psychophysics, 15 (2), 315-319. [PDF]
PRESSEY, A.W. BUTCHARD, N. & SCRIVNER, L. (1971). Assimilation theory and the Ponzo illusion : Quantitative predictions. Canadian Joumal of Psychology, 25, 486-497. THOMPSON, J.G. & SCHIFFMAN, H.R. (1979). The role of attention in the perception of the Ponzo illusion. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 13 (6), 336-338.
FARQUHAR, M. & LEIBOWITZ, H.W. (1971). The magnitude of the Ponzo illusion as a function of age for large and for small stimulus configurations. Psychonomic Science, 25 (2), 97-99. PRESSEY, A.W. & EPP, D. (1992). Spatial attention in Ponzo-like patterns. Perception Psychophysics, 52, 211-221. [PDF]
QUINA, K. & POLLACK, R.H. (1972). Effects of test line position and age on the magnitude of the Ponzo illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 12 (2B), 253-256. [PDF] FUJITA, K. (1996). Linear perspective and the Ponzo illusion : a comparison between rhesus 533 monkeys and humans1. Japanese Psychological Research, 38 (3), 136-145.
  FUJITA, K. (1997). Perception of the Ponzo illusion by rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees, and 536 humans : Similarity and difference in the three primate species. Perception & Psychophysics, 537 59 (2), 284-292.
FINEMAN, M.B. & CARLSON, J. (1973). A comparison of the Ponzo illusion with a textural 527 analogue. Perception & Psychophysics, 14 (1), 31-33. PRINZMETAL, W., SHIMAMURA, A.P. & MIKOLINSKI, M. (2001). The Ponzo illusion and the perception of orientation. Perception & Psychophysics, 63 (1), 99-114. [PDF]
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Rubin : Illusion créée par Rubin, qui repose sur la loi figure-fond.

 
RUBIN, E. (1950). Visual figures apparently incompatible with geometry. Acta psychologica, 7, 365-387.
HASSON, U., HENDLER, T., BASHAT, D.B. & MALACH, R. (2001). Vase or face ? A neural correlates of shape-selective grouping processes in the human brain. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13 (6), 744-753. [PDF]
WAKE, H., WAKE, T. & OYAMA, T. (2014). Rotationg goblet and talking profile: Does a rotating goblet increase the figural dominance of profiles in Rubin's type of figure-ground reversal patterns ? Perception, 43, 1018-1032.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de transparence : Tendance à surestimer la capacité des autres à connaître nos intentions ou nos motifs cachés. Illusion of transparency.

  Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion des visages : Illusion.

 
(S'éloigner lentement de l'écran pour "voir" l'illusion)
Voir aussi Visage et Illusion
Illusion de Wundt :

 
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion de Zöllner : Illusion optico-géométrique. Zöllner illusion.

 
 
MORINAGA, S. (1933). A study of the Zöllner illusion. Japanese Journal of Psychology, 8, 195-242. KITAOKA, A. & ISHIHARA, M. (2000). Three elemental illusions determine the Zöllner illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 62, 569-575.
WALLACE, G.K. & CRAMPIN, D.J. (1969). The effect of background density on the Zöllner illusion. Vision Research, 9, 167-177. PETRUZZI, R., VICARIO, G.B. & ZANUTTINI, L (2008). Counteraction in visual phenomena : Further measurements on Zöllner illusion. Gestalt Theory, 30 (1), 208-212.
OYAMA, T. (1975). Determinants of the Zöllner illusion. Psychological Research, 37, 261-280. WATANABE, S., NAKAMURA, N. & FUJITA, K. (2011). Pigeons perceive a reversed Zöllner illusion. Cognition, 119(1), 137-141.
PARLANGELI, O. & RONCATO, S. (1995). The global figural characteristics in the Zöllner illusion. Perception, 24, 501-512. AGRILLO, C., PARRISH, A.E. & BERAN, M.J. (2014). Do rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) perceive the Zöllner illusion ? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 21 (4), 986-994.
Voir aussi Illusion
Illusion du mur du café : Illusion découverte par Pierce, puis expliquée par Gregory. Cafe wall illusion, Kindergarten illusion.

 
PIERCE, A.H. (1898). The illusions of the kindergarten patterns. Psychological Review, 5 (3), 233-253.
GREGORY, R.L. & HEARD, P. (1979). Border locking and the Cafe Wall illusion. Perception, 8 (4), 365-380.
WOODHOUSE, J.M. & TAYLOR, S.P. (1987). Further studies of the Café Wall and hollow squares illusions. Perception, 16, 467-471.
GREGORY, R.L. & HEARD, P. (1998). The café wall revisited. Perception 27, 92
KITAOKA, A., PINNA, B. & BRELSTAFF, G. (2004). Contrast polarities determine the direction of Café Wall tilts. Perception, 33, 11-20.
TAKEUCHI, T. (2005). The effect of eccentricity and the adapting level on the café wall illusion. Perception & Psychophysics, 67, 1113-1127.
RONCATO, S. (2006). Orientation misperceptions induced by contrast polarity : comment on Contrast polarities determine the direction of Café Wall tilts' by Akiyoshi Kitaoka, Baingio Pinna, and Gavin Brelstaff (2004). Perception, 35, 401-409.
Voir aussi Illusion
 
Illusion spatiale : Illusion. Spatial illusion.

  COREN, S. GIRGUS, J.S. & DAY, R.H. (1973). Visual spatial illusions : Many explanations. Science, 179, 503-504.
Illusoire (Corrélation) : Voir Corrélation illusoire.
Illustration : Voir Image.
IMAGE - IMAGE CORPORELLE - IMAGE MENTALE - IMAGERIE PAR RÉSONANCE - IMITATION - IMPRESSION - IMPULSIVITÉ - IN
Im : Préfixe qui signifie in, et qui se change en im devant le p et le m. Signifie «non, ne pas, absence de».

Im-
Immatériel Imprévisible  
Immobile/immobilité Impuissance  
 
Image : Représentation d'une chose. = illustration, phgotographie. Picture, illustration.

Types d'image
Image physique Image du corps Images rémanenete/consécutives
Image de soi Image mentale Image sociale
 


Image (physique) : Représentation d'un objet physique. = illustration, phgotographie. Picture, illustration.

  SAMUELS, S.J. (1967). Attentional processes in reading : The effect of pictures in the acquisition of reading responses. Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 337-342. SCHALLERT, D.L. (1980). The role of illustrations in reading comprehension. In B. Spiro, B. Bruce & W. Brewer (Eds.), Theoretical issues in reading. Hillsdale : Erlbaum.
LESGOLD, A.M., LEVIN, J.R., SHIMRON, J. & GUTTMAN, J. (1975). Pictures and young children's learning from oral prose. Journal of Educational Psychology, 67, 636-642. ELSTER, C. & SIMONS, H.D. (1985). How important are illustrations in children's readers? The Reading Teacher, 39, 148-152.
CONCANNON, S.J. (1975). Illustrations in books for children : Review of Research. The Reading Teacher, 29, 254-256.  
RIGNEY, J.W. & LUTZ, K.A. (1976). Effect of graphic analogies of concepts in chemistry on learning and attitude. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 305-311. SMITH, B.D. & ELIFSON, J.M. (1986). Do pictures make a difference in college textbooks ? Reading Horizons, 26 (4), 270-277. [PDF]
LEVIN, J.R., BENDER, B.G. & LESGOLD, A.M. (1976). Pictures, repetition, and young children's oral prose learning. AV Communications Review, 24, 367-380. MAYER, R.E. & GALLINI, J.K. (1990). When is an illustration worth ten thousand words ? Journal of Educational Psychology, 82 (4), 715.
ROYER, J.M. & CABLE, G.W. (1976). Illustrations, analogies, and facilitative transfer in prose learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 205 -209. FANG, Z. (1996). Illustrations, text, and the child reader : What are pictures in children's storybooks for ? Reading Horizons, 37 (2), 130-142. [PDF]
LESGOLD, A.M., DEGOOD, H. & LEVIN, J.R. (1977). Pictures and young children's prose learning : A supplementary report. Journal of Reading Behavior, 2, 353-360. GARRY, M. & GERRIE, M.P. (2005). When photographs create false memories. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14 (6), 321-325. [PDF]
Image de soi : Voir Estime de soi. Self-esteem.
Image consécutive : Voir image rémanente. Visual afterimage.
Image corporelle : Conception que l'on a de notre corps, de ses caractéristiques, que l'on considère souvent comme des qualités ou des défauts. Pour corriger ces défauts, certaines personnes ont recours à une chirurgie. Image corporelle, sihouette et estime de soi. = image du corps. Body image.

  STAFFIERI, J. (1967). A study of social stereotype of body image in children. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 7, 101–104.  
DIBIASE, W. & HJELLE, L. (1968). Body-image stereotypes and body type preferences among male college students. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 27, 1143–1146.  
CHAPMAN, L.J., CHAPMAN, J.P. & RAULIN, M.L. (1978). Body-image aberration in schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 87 (4), 399-407. GILA, A., CASTRO, J., CESENA, J. & TORO, J. (2005). Anorexia nervosa in male adolescents : body image, eating attitudes and psychological traits. Journal of Adolescence Health, 36, 221-226.
GUY, R.F., RANKIN, B.A. & NORWELL, M.J. (1980). The relation of sex role stereotyping to body image. The Journal of Psychology, 105, 167–173.  
CASH, T.F. & BROWN, T.A. (1987). Body image in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa : A review of the literature. Behavior Modification, 11, 487–521.  
DOLAN, B.M., BIRTCHNELL, S.A. & LACEY, J.H. (1987). Body image distortion in non-eating disordered women and men. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 31, 513–520.  
KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A., BOSTRÖM, G. & RÖSSNER, S. (1990). Influence of body image on estimation of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice, 10 (S), 155-158.  
HERZOG, D.B., NEWMAN, K.L. & WARSHAW, M. (1991). (1991). Body image dissatisfaction in homosexual and heterosexual males. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 179, 356–359.  
BRODIE, D.A., SADE, P.D. & RILEY, V.J. (1991). Sex differences in body image perceptions. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 72, 73–74.  
MYERS, P.R. & BIOCCA, F.A. (1992). The elastic body image : The effect of television advertising and programming on body image distortions in young women. Journal of Communication, 42, 108-133.  
BLOUIN, A.G. & GOLDFIELD, G.S. (1995). Body image and steroid use in male bodybuilders. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 18 (2), 159-165.  
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POPE, H.G., OLIVARDIA, R., GRUBER, A.J. & BORWIECKI, J. (1999). Evolving ideals of male body image as see through action toys. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 26, 65-72.  
THOMPSON, J.K. HEINBERG, L.J., ALTABE, M.N. & TANTLEFF-DUNN, S. (1999). Exacting beauty : Theory, assessment and treatment of body image disturbance. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association. DAVISON, T. & McCABE M. (2006). Adolescent body image and psychosocial functioning. Journal of social psychology, 146 (1), 15-30.
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Voir aussi Chirurgie, Silhouette idéale, Estime de soi, Satisfaction corporelle et Trouble alimentaire
Image mentale : Image produite par le cerveau virtuel, qui représente la réalité plus ou moins fidèlement. Objet d'étude de l'intelligence artificielle et de l'école cognitive américaine. Image, rotation mentale et représentation mentale. = image, imagerie mentale, information visuelle. Picture, image, imagery, mental Imagery.
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KORAN, M.L. & KORAN, J.J. (1980). Interaction of learner characteristics with pictorial adjuncts in leaming from science text. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 17, 477-483. BARTOLOMEO, P. (2002). The relationship between visual perception and visual mental imagery : A reappraisal of the neuropsychological evidence. Cortex, 38, 357-378.
KOSSLYN, S.M. (1980). Image and mind. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press. KOSSLYN, S.M., THOMPSON, W.L. & GANIS, G. (2002). Mental imagery doesn't work like that. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 25, 198-200.
FINKE, R.A. (1985). Theories relating mental imagery to perception. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 236-259. PYLYSHYN, Z.W. (2002). Mental imagery : In search of a theory. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 25 (2), 157-237. [PDF]
REY, G. (1981). What are mental images ? In N. Block (Ed.), Readings in the Philosophy of Psychology (Vol. 2). Cambridge, Massachusetts : Harvard University Press. PYLYSHYN, Z.W. (2003). Return of the mental image : Are there really pictures in the brain ? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (3), 113-118.
  BECKER, A. (2004). Television, disordered eating, and young women in Fiji : Negotiating body image identity during rapid social change. Culture, Medicine & Psychiatry, 28, 533-559. [PDF]
BLUTH, L.F. (1981). The illustration-comprehension relationship : A review of the literature. Reading Improvement, 18 (3), 251-258. KOSSLYN, S.M. (2005). Mental images and the brain. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 22 (3/4), 333-347. [PDF]
BLOCK, N. (Ed.) (1981). Imagery. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. STRANGE, D., HAYNE, H. & GARRY, M. (2006). A photo, a suggestion, a false memory. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 587-603.
PYLYSHYN Z.W. (1981). The imagery debate : analogue media versus tacit knowledge. Psychological Review, 88, 16-45. KOSSLYN, S.M. THOMPSON, W.L. & GANIS, G. (2006). The case for mental imagery. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
STONE, D. & GLOCK, M. (1981). How do young adults read directions with and without pictures ? Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 419-426. WADE, N.J. (2007). Image, eye and retina. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 24, 1229-1249.
SHEPARD, R.N. & COOPER, L.A. (1982). Mental images and their transformations. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. STRANGE, D., GARRY, M., BERNSTEIN, D.M. & LINDSAY, D.S. (2010). Photographs cause false memories for the news. Acta Psychologica, 136 (1), 90-94. [PDF]
Voir aussi Rotation mentale et Représentation mentale
Image rémanente : Image créée par la fixation prolongée d'un stimulus - ce qui engendre une fatigue des récepteurs sensoriels de la rétine - et qui persiste après la disparition de ce stimulus. La peristance de cette image (= vert) crée une illusion visuelle lorsque le sujet fixe un nouveu stimulus (= blanc), lequel engendre une image consécutive complémentaire (= rouge) qui ne correspond pas à la nature du stimulus (= blanc). EX: Si on fixe pendant un certain temps un carré vert (voir X ci-bas), l'observation subséquente d'une surface uniforme blanche laissera apparaître un carré rouge. Il s'agit d'une image consécutive complémentaire car le rouge et le vert sont des couleuurs complémentaires. La dimension d'une image consécutive dépend de la distance de la surface où se forme l'image; plus la surface est loin, plus l'image est de grande dimension. = image consécutive, peristance rétinienne. Visual afterimage.
    X = Image consécutive
 
CRAIK, W.J.K. (1940). Origin of afterimages. Nature, 148, 512-512. WADE, N.J.(1972). Orientation effects on line afterimages. Perception & Psychophysics, 12, 409-416.
  ATKINSON, J. (1972). Visibility of an afterimage in the presence of a second afterimage. Perception & Psychophysics, 12, 257-262.
KOHLER, W. & WALLACH,. H. (1944). Figural after-effects : an investigation of visual processes. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 88 (4), 269-357. WALKER, E.H. (1973). A mathematical theory of optical illusions and figural aftereffects. Perception & Psychophysics, 13 (3), 467-486.
  WADE, N.J. (1973). Orientation and spatial frequency effects on linear afterimages. Perception & Psychophysics, 13, 446-450.
OSGOOD, C.E. & HEYER, A.W. (1952). A new interpretation of figural after-effects. Psychological Review, 59 (2), 98-118. WADE, N.J. (1974). Figural effects in afterimage fragmentation. Perception & Psychophysics, 15, 115-122.
OYAMA, T. (1956).Temporal and spatial factors in figural after-effects. Japanese Psychological research, 3, 25-36. OYAMA, T. & ICHIHARA, S. (1977). Which determines figural after-effect, retinal size or apparent size ? Japanese Psychological Research, 15 (2), 92-98. [PDF]
McEWEN, P. (1959). Figural after-effects, retinal size and apparent size. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 6 (1), 35-44. OYAMA, T. (1977). Feature analysers, optical illusions, and figural aftereffects. Perception, 6 (4), 401-406.
GREGORY, R.L., WALLACE, J.G. & CAMPBELL, F.W. (1959). Changes in the size and shape of visual after-images observed in complete darkness during changes of position in space. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11 (1), 54-55. VIRSU, V. & LAURINEN, P. (1977). Long-lasting afterimages caused by neural adaptation. Vision Research, 17, 853-860.
  ANSTIS, S.M., ROGERS, B.J. & HENRY, J. (1978). Interactions between simultaneous contrast and colored afterimages. Vision Research, 18, 899-911.
OYAMA, T. (1960). Figural after-effects as a function of hue and brightness. Japanese Psychological research, 2, 74-80. OYAMA, T. (1978). Figural aftereffects. In R. Held, H.W. Leibowitz & H.-L. Teuber (Ed.), Handbook of sensory physiology, VIII : Perception (pp. 569-592). Berlin : Springer-Verlag
SPERLING, G. (1960). Negative afterimage without prior positive image. Science, 131, 1613-1614. [PDF] WILLIAMS, D.R. & MacLEOD, D.I.A. (1979). Interchangeable backgrounds for cone afterimages. Vision Research, 19, 867-877.
STORY, A.W. (1961). Has apparent size been tested as a factor in figural after-effects ? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 13 (4), 204-208. BURBECK, C.A. (1986). Negative after-images and pho- topic luminance adaptation in human vision. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 3, 1159-1165.
TERWILLIGER., F. (1961). Retinal size as a determiner of the direction of size distortion in figural after-effects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental PsychologY, 13(4), 209-217. KELLY, D.H & MARTINEZ- URIEGAS, E. (1993). Measurements of chromatic and achromatic afterimages. Journal of the Optical Society of America, 10, 29-37.
DAY, R.H. & LOGAN, J.A. (1961). A further investigation of apparent size and retinal size as determinants of the figural after-effect. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 13 (4), 193-203. SCHILLER, P.H. & DOLAN, R.P. (1994). Visual aftereffects and the conse- quences of visual system lesions on their perception in the rhesus monkey. Visual Neuroscience, 11, 643-665.
SUTHERLAND, N.S. (1961). Figural after-effects and apparent size. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 13 (4), 222-228. [PDF] YEH, S.-L., CHEN, I.-P., DE VALOIS, K.K. & DE VALOIS, R.L. (1996). Figural aftereffects and spatial attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 22, 446-460.
BRINDLEY, G.S. (1962). Two new properties of foveal after-images and a photochemical hypothesis to explain them. The Journal of Physiology, 164, 168–179. WILSON, H.R. (1997). A neural model of foveal light adaptation and afterimage formation. Visual Neuroscience, 14, 403-423.
VON WRIGHT, J.M. (1963). A note on interocular transfer and the colour of visual after-images. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 4, 241-244. SHIMOJO, S., KAMITANI, Y. & NISHIDA, S. (2001). After-image of perceptually filled-in surface. Science, 293, 1677-1680.
BARLOW, H.B. & SPARROCK, J.M.B. (1964). The role of afterimages in dark adaptation. Science, 144, 1309-1314. SUZUKI, S. & GRABOWECKY, M. (2003). Attention during adaptation weakens negative afterimages. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 29, (4), 793-807. [PDF]
GANZ, L. (1966). Is the figural aftereffect an aftereffect ? A review of its intensity, onset, decay, and transfer characteristics. Psychological Bulletin, 66 (3), 151-165. LOU, L. (2007). Apparent afterimage size, Emmert's law, and oculomotor adjustment. Perception, 36, 1214-1228.
GANZ, L. (1966). The mechanism of the figural after-effect. Psychological Review, 73 (2), 128-150. VAN LIER, R., VERGEER, M. & ANSTIS, S. (2009). Filling-in afterimage colors between the lines. Current Biology, 19, 323-324.
POLLACK, R.H. (1967). Comment on "Is the figural aftereffect an aftereffect ?" Psychological Bulletin, 68 (1), 59-61. SPRERANDIO, I., LAK, A. & GOODALE, M.A. (2012). Afterimage size is modulated by size-contrast illusions. Journal of Vision, 12 (2), 18, 1-10. [PDF]
Voir aussi Palinopsie
Image sociale : Conception que nous avons des autres (individu, entreprise, gouvernement). Image et réputation. Image.

  MATTES, K., SPEZIO, M., HACKJIN, K. TODOROV, A., ADOLPHS, R. & ALVAREZ, R.M. (2010). Predicting election outcomes from positive and negative trait assessments of candidate images. Political Psychology, 31 (1), 41-58. [PDF]
Imagerie mentale : Voir Neuroimagerie cognitive et Imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle.
Imagerie (Technique d'...):

Formes d'imagerie
Imagerie par résonance magnétique Imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle Tomographie par émission de positrons
  Neuro-imagerie mentale  
 
Imagerie par résonance magnétique (IRM) : Voir Neuro-imagerie cognitive. Magnetic resonance imaging.
  ANDREASON, N.C., ARNDT, S., SWAYZE, V. CIZADLO, T., FLAUM, D., OL'EARY, D., EHRHARDT, J.C & YUH, W.T. (1994). Thalamic abnormalities in schizophrenia visualized through magnetic resonance averaging. Science, 266, 294-298 GASPAROVIC, C., YEO, R.A., MANNELL, M., ELGIE, R., PHILLIPS, J.P., DOZEMA, D. & MAYER, A.R. (2009). Neurometabolite concentrations in gray and white matter in mild traumatic brain injury : A 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy study. Journal of Neurotrauma, 26, 1635-1643. [PDF]
BRAUN, C.M.J., DUMONT M. et BOULANGER, Y. (1998). Différences cérébrales entre les sexes en spectroscopie par résonance magnétique. Science et Comportement, 27, 39. ROYET, J.P., HUDRY, J. et VIGOUROUX, M. (2000). Application de l'imagerie cérébrale à l'étude de l'olfaction. In Y. Christen, L. Collet et M.T. Droix-Lefaix (Dirs.), Rencontres IPSEN en ORL. (Tome 4, p. 73-87). Éditions Irvinn.
GUR, R.E., COWELL, P., TURETSKY, B.I., GALLACHER, F., CANNON, T., BILKER, W.D. & GUR, R.C. (1998). A follow-up magnetic resonance imaging study of schizophrenia. Archives of General Psychiatry, 55, 145-152. CASTELLANOS, F.X. (2002). Anatomic magnetic resonance imaging studies of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 4 (4), 444-448. [PDF]
YEO, R.A., HILL, D., CAMPBELL, R., IGIL, J. & BROOKS, W.M. (2000). Developmental instability and working memory in children : a magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation. Developmental Neuropsychology, 17, 143-159. KASTLER, B.D. VETTER, Z. PATAY et GERMAIN, P. (2006). Comprendre l'IRM : Manuel d'auto-apprentissage. Masson.
  DRONKERS, N.F., PLAISANT, O., IBA-ZIZEN, M.T. & CABANIS, E.A. (2007). Paul Broca's historic cases : high resolution MR imaging of the brains of Leborgne and Lelong. Brain, 130, 1432-1441. [PDF]
Voir aussi Cerveau et Neuro-imagerie mentale
Imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle (IRMf) : Technique qui s'appuie sur les principes de l'imagerie par résonance magnétique et qui permet de décrire les variations dans la consommation d'oxygène du cerveau (qui est une des mesures de l'activité globale du cerveau). Ces variations permettent d'inférer l'existence de certaines fonctions cognitives (neuro-imagerie cognitive). Functional neuroimaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, FMRI.
  BLAMIRE, D.A. & BREITER, H. (1994). Functional magnetic resonance imaging. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 2-7. HENSON, R. (2005). What can functional neuroimaging tell the experimental psychologist ? Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58A, 193-233.
  WAGER, T.D., JONIDES, J., SMITH, E.E. & NICHOLS, T.E. (2005). Towards a taxonomy of attention-shifting : Individual differences in fMRI during multiple shift types. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5, 127-143.
COHEN, M.S. (1996). Functional MRI : A phrenology for the 1990's ? Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 6, 273-274. RACINE, E., BAR-ILAN, O. & ILLES, J. (2005). fMRI in the public eye. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 6, 159-164.
COHEN, M.S. (1997). Parametric analysis of fMRI data using linear systems methods. NeuroImage, 6 (2), 93-103. KNUTSON, B. & COOPER, J.C. (2005). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of reward prediction. Current Opinion in Neurology, 18 (4), 411-417. [PDF]
BANICH, M.T., MILHAM, M.P., ATCHLEY, R., COHEN, N.J., WEBB, A., WSZALEK, T., KRAMER, A.F., LIANG, Z.P., WRIGHT, A., SHENKER, J. & MAGIN, R. (2000). fMRI studies of Stroop tasks reveal unique roles of anterior and posterior brain systems in attentional selection. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, 988-1000. [PDF] KOELSCH, S., FRITZ, T., VON CRAMON, D.Y., MULLER, K. & FRIEDERICI, A.D. (2006). Investigation of emotion with music : An fMRI study. Human Brain Mapping, 27 (3), 239-250. [PDF]
KNUTSON, B., WESDORP, B., KAISER, E. & HOMMER, D. (2000). FMRI visualization of brain activity during a monetary incentive delay task. Neuroimage, 12, 20-27. MITCHELL, K.J., RAYE, C.L., JOHNSON, M.K. & GREENE, E.J. (2006). An fMRI investigation of short-term source memory in young and older adults. NeuroImage, 30, 627-633. [PDF]
PRICE, C.J. (2000). The anatomy of language : contributions from functional neuroimaging. Journal of Anatomy, 197, 335-359. FEIGENSON, N. (2006). Brain imaging and courtroom evidence : On the admissibility and persuasiveness of fMRI. International Journal of Law in Context, 2, 233-255.
AHARON, I., ETCOFF, N., ARIELY, D., CHABRIS, C.F., O'CONNOR, E. & BREITER, H.C. (2001). Beautiful faces have variable reward value : fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron, 32 (3), 537-551. [PDF] KAISER, A., KUENZLI, E., ZAPPATORE, D. & NITSCH, C. (2007). On females' lateral and males' bilateral activation during language production: A fMRI study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 63, 192-198. [PDF]
HENSON, R., SHALLICE, T. & DOLAN, R.J. (2002). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of proactive interference during spoken cued recall. NeuroImage, 17, 543-558. [PDF] VAUCLAIR, J. & NICOLAS, S. (Dirs) (2007). Localisation cérébrale des fonctions mentales. De la cranioscopie de Gall à l'IRMf. Éditions Solal.
BERTHOZ, S., ARMONY, J.L., BLAIR, R.J. & DOLAN, R.J. (2002). An fMRI study of intentional and unintentional (embarrassing) violation of social norms. Brain, 125, 1696-1708. POLDRACK, R.A. (2008). The role of fMRI in cognitive neuroscience : Where do we stand ? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 18, 223-227. [PDF]
POTENZA, M.N., LEUNG H.C., BLUMBERG, H.P., BRADLEY S., PETERSON, B.S., FULBRIGHT, R.K., LACADIE, C.M., AWEL SKUDLARSKI, A. & GORE, J.C. (2003). An fMRI Stroop task study of ventromedial prefrontal cortical function in pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160, 1990-1994. [PDF] KAISER, A, HALLER, S., SCHMITZ, S. & NITSCH, C. (2009). On sex/gender related similarities and differences in fMRI language research. Brain Research Reviews, 61 (2), 49-59. [PDF]
EISENBERGER, N.I., LIEBERMAN, M.D. & WILLIAMS, K.D. (2003). Does rejection hurt ? : An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302, 290-292. [PDF] SPANIOLA, J., DAVIDSON, P.S.R., KIM, A.S.N., HAN, H., MOCOVITCH, M. & GRADY, C.L. (2009). Event-related fMRI studies of episodic encoding and retrieval: Meta-analyses using activation likelihood estimation. Neuropsychologia 47, 1765-1779. [PDF]
BLACKWOOD, N.J., BENTALL, R.P., FFYTCHE, D.H., SIMMONS, A., MURRAY, R.M. & HOWARD, R.J. (2003). Self-responsibility and the self-serving bias : an fMRI investigation of causal attributions. Neuroimage, 20 (2), 1076-1085. BENEVENTI, H., TÖNNESSEN F.E. & ERSLAND, L. (2009). Dyslexic children show short-term memory deficits in phonological storage and serial rehearsal : An fMRI Study. International Journal of Neuroscience, 119, 2017-2043.
  SVELJO, O.B., KOPRIVSEK, K.M., LUCIC, M.A., PRULOVIC, M.B. & CULIÉ, M. (2010). Gender differences in brain areas involved in silent counting by means of fMRI. Nonlinear Biomedical Physics, 4 (S1), 1-8. [PDF]
MATTHEWS, P.M. & JEZZARD, P. (2004). Functional magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 75, 6-12. [PDF] LANDI, N., MENCL, W.E., FROST, S.J., SANDAK, R.B. & PUGH, K.R. (2010). An fMRI study of multimodal semantic and phonological processing in reading disabled adolescents. Annals of Dyslexia, 60, 102-121. [PDF]
KANWISHER, N. & DUNCAN, J. (Eds.). (2004). Functional neuroimaging of visual cognition : Attention and performance. New York : Oxford University Press. BRAZE, D., MENCL, W.E., TABOR, W., PUGH, K.R., CONSTABLE, R.T., FULBRIGHT, R.K., MAGNUSON, J.S., VAN DYKE, J.A. & SHANKWEILER, D.P. (2011). Unification of Sentence processing via ear and eye : An fMRI study. Cortex, 47, 416-431. [PDF]
HARUNO, M., KURODA, T., DOYA, K., TOYAMA, K., KIMURA, M., SAMEJINA, K., IMAMIZU, H. & KAWATO, M. (2004). A neural correlate of reward-based behavioral learning in caudate nucleus : a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of a stochastic decision task. Journal of Neurosciences, 24, 1660-1665. [PDF] MASSON, S., POTVIN, P., RIOPEL, M., BRAULT FOISY, L.-M. & LAFORTUNE, S. (2012). Using fMRI to study conceptual change : Why and how ? International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 7 (1), 19-35. [PDF]
CHEN, C.Y., YEN, J.Y., WANG, P.W., LIU, G.C., YEN, C.F. & KO, C.H. (2016). Altered functional connectivity of the insula and nucleus accumbens in internet gaming disorder : A resting state fMRI study. European Addiction Research, 22 (4), 192-200. [PDF]
Voir aussi Cerveau et Imagerie par résonance magnétique
Imagination/Imaginer : Imagination, image mentale et créativité. Imagination.
  PERKY, C.W. (1910). An experimental study of imagination. American Journal of Psychology, 21, 422-452.
ELKIND, D. & BOWEN, R. (1979). Imaginary audience behavior in children and adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 15, 33-44.
KOEHLER, D. (1991). Explanation, imagination, and confidence in judgment. Psychological Bulletin, 110 (3), 499-519. [PDF]
RYAN, R.M. & KUCZKOWKI, R. (1994). The imaginary audience, self-consciousness, and public individuation in adolescence. Journal of Personality, 62 (2), 219- 238. [PDF]
HOLTON, G. (1998). Scientific imagination. Harvard : Harvard University Press.
WOLFBERG, P. (1999). Play and imagination in children with autism. New York : Teachers' College Press.
JOANISSE, M.F. & SEIDENBERG, M.S. (2005). Imaging the past : Neural activation in frontal and temporal regions during regular and irregular past-tense processing. Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 5 (3), 282-296. [PDF]
Imagination, Cognition & Personality : Revue scientifique de psychologie. Éditeur : Baywood Publishing Compagny.
STROUD, L.R., GLASER, J. & SALOVEY, P. (2005/6). The effetcs of partisanship and candidate emotionaly on voter preference. Imagination, Cognition & Personality, 25 (1), 25-44.

Imago : Selon Jung, représentation inconsciente d'un personnage réel ou fictif. Imago.
 
Imanishi Kinji (1902-1992) : Primatologue et entomologiste japonais. Il est l'un des pionniers de l'étude de la culture animale.
IMANISHI, K. (1958). Gorillas : a preliminary survey in 1958. Primates, 1 (2), 73-78.
IMANISHI, K. (2002). A Japanese view of nature : The world of living things. London : Routledge Curzon.
 
 
 
IMAO : Voir Inhibiteur de monoamine oxydase.
Imbo Ineke ( ) : Psychologue cognitivste américaine d'origine belge et spécialiste de l'étude des habiletés mathématiques et des différences culturelles. Collaboratrice de Lefevre.
IMBO, I.& VANDIERENDONCK, A. (2007). The development of strategy use in elementary school children: working memory and individual differences. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 96, 284-309
IMBO, I. & VANDIERENDONCK, A. (2008). Practice effects on strategy selection and strategy efficiency in simple mental arithmetic. Psychological Research, 72, 528–541
IMBO, I. & LEFEVRE, J.A. (2009). Cultural differences in complex addition : efficient Chinese versus adaptive Belgians and Canadians. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35 (6), 1465-1476.
IMBO, I. & LEFEVRE, J.A. (2011). Cultural differences in strategic behavior : a study in computational estimation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 37, 1294-1301.
IMBO, I. VANDEN BUCKLE, C., DE BRAUWER, J. & FIAS, W. (2014). Sixty-four or four-and-sixty ? The influence of language and working memory on children's number transcoding. Frontiers in Psychology, 5 : [213], 1-10. [PDF]
Imipramine : Première molécule découverte comme antidépresseur (trycyclique) en 1957 et commercialisée l'annnée suivante. = melipramine. Imipramine.
  TERRACE, H.S. (1963). Errorless discrimination learning in the pigeon : Effects of chlorpromazine and imipramine. Science, 140, 318-319. THASE M.E., MALLINGER A.G., MCKNIGHT D. & HIMMELHOCH J.M. (1992). Treatment of imipramine-resistant recurrent depression, IV : A double-blind crossover study of tranylcypromine in anergic bipolar depression. American Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 195-198.
BLACKMAN, S., BENTON, A.J. & COVE, M. (1964). The effect of imipramine on enuresis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 120, 1194-1195. CLARK, D.M., SALKOVSKIS, P.M., HACKMAN, A., MIDDLETON, H., ANASTASIADES, P. & GELDER, M. (1994). A comparison of cognitive therapy, applied relaxation, and imipramine in the treatment of panic disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry, 164, 759-769.
KLEIN, D.F. (1964). Delineation of two drug-responsive anxiety syndromes. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 5, 397-408. STRAVYNSKI, A., VERREAULT, R., GAUDETTE, G., LANGLOIS, R., GAGNIER, S. & LAROSE, R. (1994). The treatment of depression with group behavioral-cognitive therapy and imipramine. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 39, 387-390.
PRANGE, A.J., WILSON, I.C., RABON, A.M. & LIPTON, M.A. (1969). Enhancement of imipramine antidepressant activity by thyroid hormone. American Journal of Psychiatry, 126 (4), 457-469.  
WILSON, I.C., PRANGE, A.J., MCCLANE, T.K., RABON, A.M. & LIPTON, M.A. (1970). Thyroid hormone enhancement of imipramine in nonretarded depressions. New England Journal of Medicine, 282 (19), 1063-1067.  
RAPOPORT, J.L., QUINN, P.O., BRADBARD, G. & RIDDLE, D. (1974). Imipramine and methylphenidate treatments of hyperactive boys. Archives of General Psychiatry 30 (6), 789-793.  
WERRY, S., AMAN, M.G. & DIAMOND, E. (1980). Imipramine and methylphenidate in hyperactive children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 21 (1), 27-35.  
ZITRIN, C.M., KLEIN, D.F., WOERNER, M.G. & ROSS, D. (1983). Treatment of phobias: A comparison of imipramine and placebo. Archives of General Psychiatry, 40, 125-138.  
COHN, J.B. & WILOX, C. (1985). A comparison of fluoxetine, imipramine, and placebo inpatients with major depressive disorde. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 46, 26-31. BARLOW, D.H., GORMAN, J.M., SHEAR, M.K. & WOODS, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder : A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association, 283 (19), 2529-2536. [PDF]
COVI, L. & LIPMAN, R.S. (1987). Cognitive behavioral group psychotherapy combined with imipramine in major depression. Psychopharmacology Bulletin, 23, 173-176. LEPOLA, U., ARATO, M., ZHU Y. & AUSTIN, C. (2003). Sertraline versus imipramine treatment of comorbid panic disorder and major depressive disorder. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64 (6), 654-662.
LABERGE, B., GAUTHIER, J. et FRADET, C. (1988). L'imipramine dans le traitement par exposition de l'agoraphobie : Un examen critique de la littérature. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 20 (3), 332-348.  
Voir aussi Trouble d'hyperactivité et Methylphenidate
Imitation/Imiter : Chez les humains et chez plusieurs espèces animales, reproduction des comportements d'un modèle à la suite de l'observation de ce modèle. Imitation, mimétisme et apprentissage par observation. = reproduction. Imitation, imitative behavior, imitation learning, spontaneous imitation.
  TARDE, G. (1890). Les maladies de l'imitation. Revue scientifique, 24, 737-748. SHERRY, D.F. & GALEF, B.G. (1990). Social learning without imitation : More about milk bottle opening by birds. Animal Behaviour, 40, 987-989.
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Voir aussi Apprentissage par observation Mimétisme et Imitation différée
 
Imitation différée : Comportement appris grâce à un modèle, mais émis en l'absence de celui-ci. Delayed imitation, deferred imitation.

  GARCIA, E.E. (1976). The development and generalization of delayed imitation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (4), 499. [PDF]
EPSTEIN, R. (1984). Spontaneous and deferred imitation in the pigeon. Behavioural Processes, 9, 347-354.
BARNAT, S.B., KLEIN, P.J. & MELTZOFF, A.N. (1996). Deferred imitation across changes in context and obiect : Memory and generalization in 14-Month-old infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 19, 241-25. [PDF]
BARR, R. (2005). Retrieval protracts deferred imitation by 6-month-olds. Infancy, 7 (3), 263-283. [PDF]
JONES, E.J.H. & HERBERT, J.S. (2006). Exploring memory in infancy : Deferred imitation and the development of declarative memory. Infant & Child Development, 15,195-205. [PDF]
Voir aussi Jeu symbolique, Fonction symbolique et Imitation
 
Immatériel : Qui existe mais qui ne peut être localisé dans le temps et l'espace. Qui ne possède pas les propriétés intrinsèques de la matière (poids, longueur, densité, etc). /matériel.

  Voir aussi Esprit et Dualisme
Immersion (Traitement par...) : Voir Thérapie par immersion. Flooding, implosive therapy.
Immigration/Immigrant : Consiste à quitter volontairement son pays pour vivre ailleurs. Contrairement aux réfugiés, forcé de quitter son pays en raison d'une guerre, d'un coup d'état ou pour échapper à la justice, l'immigrant choisit sa terre d'accueil. Immigration.
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LEE, E.S. (1951). Negro intelligence and selective migration : A Philadelphia test of the Kleinberg hypothesis. American Sociological Review, 16, 227-233. SEARS, D.O., FU, M., HENRY, P.J. & BUI, K. (2003). The origins and persistence of ethnic identity among the "new immigrant groups". Social Psychology Quarterly, 66, 419-437.
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  BADIE, B. (2010). Chez nous, c'est aussi chez eux : Migrations dans la mondialisation. Revue Projet, 7 (1), 5-13. [PDF]
LEDENT, J. et TERMOTE, M. (1999). L'immigration et la croissance des régions métropolitaines : implications politiques. Options politiques - Policy Options, 20, 39-44. COSTELLO, K. & HODSON, G. (2011). Social dominance-based threat reactions to immigrants in need of assistance. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 220-231.
KRAMER, E., IVEY, S. & YING, Y. (Eds.) (1999). Immigrant women's health : Problems and solutions. San Francisco : Jossey-Bass. DITLMANN, R.K., PURDIE-VAUGHNS, V. & EIBACH, R.P. (2011). Heritage- and ideology-based national identities and their implications for immigrant citizen relations in the United States and in Germany. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 35 395-405. [PDF]
  CARPENTIER, J. & De la SABLONNIÈRE, R. (2013). Identity profiles and well being of multicultural immigrants: the case of Canadian immigrants living in Quebec. Frontiers in Cultural Psychology, 4, 1-15.
  HANNOVER, B., MORF, C.C., NEUHAUS, J., RAU, M., WOLFGRAMM, C. & ZANDER-MUSIC, L. (2013). How immigrant adolescents' self-views in school and family context relate to academic success in Germany. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43, 175-189
  VERKUYTEN, M.(2018). The benefits of studying immigration for social psychology. European Journal of Social Psychology, 48(3), 225-239.
  MAHFUD Y., BADEA, C., VERKUYTEN, M. & REYNOLDS, K. (2018). Multiculturalism and attitudes towards immigrants: The impact of perceived cultural distance. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 49 (6), 945-958.
Voir aussi Culture et Enculturation
Immobilité : Absence de mouvement ou de comportement. Immobility, tonic iimmobility.

  BAYARD, J. (1957). The duration of tonic iimmobility in guinea pigs. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psy- chology, 50, 130-133. HEIDT, J.M., MARX, B. & FORSYTH, J.P. (2005). Tonic immobility and unwanted sexual experiences in childhood : A preliminary report evaluating the sequela of rape-induced paralysis. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 43, 1157-1171.
GALLUP, G.G., LEDBETTER, D.H. & MASER, J.D. (1976). Strained differences among chickens in immobility. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 90, 1075-1081. FUSÉ, T.M.K., FORSYTH, J.P., MARX, B., GALLUP, G.G. & WEAVER, S. (2007). Factor structure of the Tonic Immobility Scale in female survivors of sexual assault : An exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21, 265-283.
NASH, R.F. & GALLUP, G.G. (1976). Habituation and tonic immobility in domestic chickens. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 90, 870-876. BADOS, A., TORIBIO, L. & GARCIS-GRAU, E. (2008). Traumatic events and tonic immobility. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 11 (2), 516-521. [PDF]
RATNER, S.L. (1977). Immobility of invertebrates : What can we learn ? Psychological Record, 1, 1-13.  
HENNIG, C.W. (1979). Biphasic effects of serotonin on tonic immobility in domestic fowl. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 2, 519-523. VOLCHAN, E., SOUZA, G.G., FRANKLIN, C.M., NORTE, C.E., ROCHA-REGO, V., OLIVEIRA, J.M., DAVID, I.A., MENDLOWICZ, M.V., FREIRE COUTINHO, E.S., FISZMAN, A., BERGER, W., MARQUES-PORTELLA, C. & FIGUEIRA, Y. (2011), Is there tonic immobility in humans ? Biological evidence from victims of traumatic stress. Biological Psychology, 88, 13-19. [PDF]
GALLUP, G.G., BOREN, J.C., SUAREZ, S.D., WALLNAU, L.B. & GAGLIARDI, G.J. (1980). Evidence for the integrity of central processing during tonic immobility. Physiology & Behavior, 23, 189-194.  
WHITMAN, P.A., MARSHALL, J.A. & KELLER, E.L. (1986). Tonic immobility in the smooth dogfish shark, Mustelus canis. Copeia, 829-832. Voir aussi Mouvement
Impact : Anglicisme lorsqu'il est utilisé au sens "d'effet". En français, ce terme a un sens plus physique que psychologique. EX: L'impact d'une balle sur un mur. En science humaine/sociale, remplacer par effet, si le facteur explicatif de cet effet est une cause, et influence. si le facteur explicatif de cette influence est peut-être une cause. On utilise également les mots conséquence et incidence. Impact.

  TERMOTE, M. (2002). La mesure de l'impact économique de l'immigration internationale. Problèmes méthodologiques et résultats empiriques. Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, 31 (1), 35-67.
MOSCOVITCH, D.A., HOFMANN, S.G. & LITZ, B.T. (2005). The impact of self-construals on social anxiety : a gender-specific interaction. Personality & Individual Differences, 38, 659-672.
TURAN, T. & BESIRL, A. (2008). Impacts of urbanization process on mental health. Anatolian Journal of Psychiatry, 9, 238-243. [PDF]

Impartialité : Pour un scientifique, l'impartialité consiste à fonder ses avis et sa pratique sur les connaissances scientifiques plutôt que sur ses opinions ou sa première impression. Impartialité, neutralité et objectivité scientifique. Impartiality.

  GOLDIN, C. & ROUSE, C. (2000). Orchestrating impartiality : The Impact of ‘blind’ Auditions on Female Musicians,” American Economic Review, 90, 715–741.
Impatience : Voir Patience et Impulsivité.
Impérialisme : Idéologie et politique menée par un pays dont le but est de de s'approprier de nouveaux territoires en vue d'augmenter ses ressources, son pouvoir, généralement au moyen de guerre. EX: La guerre des Malouines menée par le Royaume-un icontre l'Argentine. Par extension, on utilise l'expression "impérialisme économique" pour désigner l'appropriation de nouveux marchés. Imperialism.

  SEMMEL, B. (1960). Imperialism and social reform. English social-imperial thought, 1895-1914. London : Allen & Unwin.
LIPIETZ, A. (1983/84). L'impérialisme, ou la bête de l'apocalypse. Les Temps Modernes, Octobre, 729-766. Imperialism as the beast of the apocalypse. Capital & Class, 22, 45-66. [PDF]
ZAFIROVSKI, M. (2000). The rational choice generalization of neo-classical economics reconsidered : any theoretical legitimation for economic imperialism. Sociological Theory, 18 (3), 448-471.
FINE, B. (2001). Economics imperialism and intellectual progress : the present as history of economic thought ? History of Economics Review, 32 (1), 10-36.
COX, M. (2004). Empire, imperialism and the Bush doctrine. Review of International Studies, 30 (4), 535-608. [PDF]
TIBERGHIEN, G. & BEAUVOIS, J.-L. (2008). Domination et impérialisme en psychologie. Psychologie Française, 53, 135-155.
Voir aussi Guerre, Territoire et Idéologie
Les types d'implication
Implication logique Implication politique Implication sociale
Implication parentale  
 
Implication (logique) : Relation logique entre deux phénomènes.

  HACKING, I. (1963). What is strict implication ? Journal of Symbolic Logic, 28, 51-71.
Implication parentale : Voir Implication parentale et Soins parentaux.
Implication et participation politique : Political involvement.

  JUDD, C.M., KROSNICK, J.A. & MILBURN, M.A. (1981). Political involvement and attitude structure in the general public. American Sociological Review, 46, 660-669.
WINKLER, J.D., JUDD, C.M. & KELMAN, H.C. (1981-1982). Determinants of political participation in a Canadian and a United States city. Political Psychology, 3, 140-161.
WIELHOUWER, P.W. & LOCHERBIE, B. (1994). Party contacting and political participation, 1952-90. American Journal of Political Science, 38 (1), 211-229.
Voir aussi Parti politique
Implication sociale :
Implicite : /explicite.

  WOIKE, B., LAVEZZARY, E. & BARSKY, J. (2001). The influence of implicit motives on memory processes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81 (5), 935-945. [PDF]
Implorer : begging.

 
Importance de l'effet : Voir Effet. Effect size.
Imposture scientifique : Tromperie visant à faire passer pour scientifique une activité ou un procédé qui ne repose pas sur la méthode scientifique. Imposture, affaires et pseudoscience. = imposture intellectuelle.

  DEBRAY-RITZEN, P. (1991). La psyehanalyse celie imposture. Paris: Albin Michel.
SOKAL, A. et BRICMONT, J. (1997). Impostures intellectuelles. Paris : Odile Jacob.
JEANNERET, Y. (1998). L'affaire Sokal ou la querelle des impostures. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Impôt : Somme prélevée par l'état chez toute personne morale et physique (donc obiligatoire) afin de subvenir aux dépenses publiques. Impôt et taxe. Income tax.

  SALKIND, N.J. & HASKINS, R. (1982). Negative income tax : The impact on children from low-income families. Journal of Family Issues, 3 (2), 165-180.
Impressions : Ce que l'on ressent sans être capable de le décrire avec clarté, souvent parce que cette sentation s'estompe rapidement, qu'elle est nouvelle (première impression) ou trop complexe. Sur un continuum, l'impression se situe entre la sensation brute et le raisonnement logique. = vague idée. Impression formation, forming impression.

Impression
Formation d'une impression Mesure/Évaluation des impressions Première impression
 


   
 ASCH, S.E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 41, 258-290. BRITT, L. & HEISE, D. (1992). Impressions of self-directed action. Social Psychology Quarterly, 55, 335-350.
  MCANINCH, C.B., MANOLIS, M.B., MILICH, R. & HARRIS, M.J. (1993). Impression formation in children : Influence of gender and expectancy. Child Development, 64, 1492-1506.
KELLEY, H.H. (1950). The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 78, 431-439. GRANGER, D.A., WHALEN, C.K. & HENKER, B. (1993). Malleability of social impressions of hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 21, 631-647.
HEIDER, F. (1967). On social cognition. American Psychologist, 22, 25-31. EDWARDS, J.A. & WEARY, G. (1993). Depression and the impression-formation continuum : Piecemeal processing despite the availability of category information. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 64, 636-45.
GOLLOB, H. (1968). Impression formation and word combination in sentences. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 10, 341-53. LEYENS J.-P. & FISKE, S.T. (1994). Impression formation : From recitals to symphonie fantastique. In P.G. Devine, D.L. Hamilton & T.M. Ostrom (Eds.) Social cognition: Impact on social psychology (pp. 39-75). San Diego : Academic Press.
HAMID, P.N. (1968). Style of dress as a perceptual cue in impression formation. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 26, 904-906. ZEBROWITZ, L.A. (1995/99). Impression formation. In A. S.R. Manstead and M. Hewstone (Eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (pp. 309-314). Oxford : Blackwell Publishers Ltd.
HAMILTON, D.L. & ZANNA, M.P. (1974). Context effects in impression formation : Changes in connotative meaning. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 29, 649-654. DE BRUIN, E.N.M. & VAN LANGE, P.A.M. (1999). Impression formation and cooperative behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 305-328.
 WEGNER, D.M. & BULDAIN, R.W. (1977). Attribute generality and the inference process in impression formation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 91-94. [PDF]  REYNOLDS, K.J. & OAKES, P.J. (2000). Variability in impression formation : Investigating the role of motivation, capacity and the categorization process. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 355-373.
HEISE, D.R. & SMITH-LOVIN, L. (1981). Impressions of goodness, powerfulness, and liveliness from discerned social events. Social Psychology Quarterly, 44, 93-106. HEISE, D. (2000). Affect control theory and impression formation. In E. Borgatta and M. Borgatta (Eds.), Encyclopedia of sociology (pp. 41-47). New York : Macmillan.
MARTIN, L.L. (1986). Set/reset : Use and disuse of concepts in impression formation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 493-504. YBARRA, O. (2001). When first impressions don't last : The role of isolation and adaptation processes in impression revision. Social Cognition, 19, 491-520.
PARK, B. (1986). A method for studying the development of impressions of real people. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 907-917. HANCOCK J.T. & DUNHAM, P.J. (2001). Impression formation in computer-mediated communication revisted : An analysis of the breadth and intensity of impressions. Communication Research, 8, 325-347.
  THOMAS, S.L., SKITKA, L.J., CHRISTEN, S. & JURGENA, M. (2002). Social facilitation and impression formation. Basic Applied Social Psychology, 24 (1), 67-70. [PDF]
McFARLAND C. & ROSS, M. (1987). The relation between current impressions and memories of self and dating partners. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 13, 228-238. BOLINO, M.C. & TURNLEY, W.H. (2003). More than one way to make an impression : Exploring profiles of impression management. Journal of Management, 29 (2), 141-160. [PDF]
NEUBERG, S.L. & FISKE, S.T. (1987). Motivational influences on impression formation : Outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53 (3), 431-444. CHEN, S., YBARRA, O. & KIEFER, A K. (2004). Power and impression formation : The effects of power on the desire for morality and competence information. Social Cognition, 22, 391-421. [PDF]
  ULEMAN, J.S., BLADER, S.L. & TODOROV, A. (2005). Implicit impressions. In R. Hassin, J. S. Uleman & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp. 362-392). Oxford University Press. [PDF]
HOLTGRAVES, T. & SRULL, T.K. (1989). The effects of positive self descriptions on impressions : General principles and individual differences. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 15 (3), 452-462.  ULEMAN, J.S., BLADER, S. & TODOROV, A. (2005). Implicit impressions. In R. Hassin, J.S. Uleman & J.A. Bargh (Eds.), The new unconscious (pp. 362-392). New York : Oxford University Press.
HEISE, D. & THOMAS, L. (1989). Predicting impressions created by combinations of emotion and social identity. Social Psychology Quarterly, 52 (2), 141-148. [PDF]  DENRELL, J. (2005). Why most people disapprove of me : Experience sampling in impression formation. Psychological Review, 112 (4), 951-978. [PDF]
LENNON, S.J. & DAVIS, L.L. (1989). Categorization in first impressions. Journal of Psychology : Interdisciplinary & Applied, 123 (5), 439-446.  WILLIS, J. & TODOROV, A. (2006). First impressions : Making up your mind after 100 ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science, 17 (7), 592-598. [PDF]
  CURHAN, J.R. & OVERBACK, J.R. (2008). Making a positive impression in a negotiation : Gender differences in response to impression motivation. Negotiation & Conflict Management Research, 1 (2), 179-193. [PDF]
PARK, B. & JUDD, C.M. (1989). Agreement on initial impressions : Differences due to perceivers, trait dimensions, and target behaviors. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 56, 493-505. OLIVOLA, C.Y. & TODOROV, A. (2010). Fooled by first impressions ? Reexamining the diagnostic value of appearance-based inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 315-324. [PDF]
STEELE, K.M. & SMITHWICK, L.E. (1989). First names and first impressions : A fragile relationship. Sex Roles, 21 (7/8), 517-523. [PDF]  HUMA, B. (2010). Gender differences in impression formation. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology & Sociology, 1 (1), 57-72. [PDF]
  MCALEER, P., TODOROV, A. & BELIN, P. (2014). How do you say "Hello" ? Personality impressions from brief novel voices. PLoS ONE, 9 (3): e90779. [PDF]
Voir aussi Visage, Intuition, Habillement, Jugement social, Perception sociale et Première impression
Impression (Fomation d'une...) :

   ASCH, S.E. (1946). Forming impressions of personality. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 41, 258-290.  REYNOLDS, K.J. & OAKES, P.J. (2000). Variability in impression formation : Investigating the role of motivation, capacity and the categorization process. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 355-373.
GOLLOB, H. (1968). Impression formation and word combination in sentences. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 10, 341-53. HEISE, D. (2000). Affect control theory and impression formation. In E. Borgatta and M. Borgatta (Eds.), Encyclopedia of sociology (pp. 41-47). New York : Macmillan.
HAMID, P.N. (1968). Style of dress as a perceptual cue in impression formation. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 26, 904-906.  
HAMILTON, D.L. & ZANNA, M.P. (1974). Context effects in impression formation : Changes in connotative meaning. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 29, 649-654. HANCOCK J.T. & DUNHAM, P.J. (2001). Impression formation in computer-mediated communication revisted : An analysis of the breadth and intensity of impressions. Communication Research, 8, 325-347.
 WEGNER, D.M. & BULDAIN, R.W. (1977). Attribute generality and the inference process in impression formation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 91-94. [PDF] THOMAS, S.L., SKITKA, L.J., CHRISTEN, S. & JURGENA, M. (2002). Social facilitation and impression formation. Basic Applied Social Psychology, 24 (1), 67-70. [PDF]
LINGLE, J. H., GEVA, N., OSTROM, T. M., LEIPPE, M.R. & BAUMGARDNER, M. H. (1979). Thematic effects of person judgments on impression organization. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37(5), 674-687.  
MARTIN, L.L. (1986). Set/reset : Use and disuse of concepts in impression formation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 493-504.  
NEUBERG, S.L. & FISKE, S.T. (1987). Motivational influences on impression formation : Outcome dependency, accuracy-driven attention, and individuating processes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53 (3), 431-444. CHEN, S., YBARRA, O. & KIEFER, A K. (2004). Power and impression formation : The effects of power on the desire for morality and competence information. Social Cognition, 22, 391-421. [PDF]
MCANINCH, C.B., MANOLIS, M.B., MILICH, R. & HARRIS, M.J. (1993). Impression formation in children : Influence of gender and expectancy. Child Development, 64, 1492-1506.  DENRELL, J. (2005). Why most people disapprove of me : Experience sampling in impression formation. Psychological Review, 112 (4), 951-978. [PDF]
EDWARDS, J.A. & WEARY, G. (1993). Depression and the impression-formation continuum : Piecemeal processing despite the availability of category information. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 64, 636-45.  
LEYENS J.-P. & FISKE, S.T. (1994). Impression formation : From recitals to symphonie fantastique. In P.G. Devine, D.L. Hamilton & T.M. Ostrom (Eds.) Social cognition: Impact on social psychology (pp. 39-75). San Diego: Academic Press.  HUMA, B. (2010). Gender differences in impression formation. Journal of Comparative Research in Anthropology & Sociology, 1 (1), 57-72. [PDF]
ZEBROWITZ, L.A. (1995/99). Impression formation. In A. S.R. Manstead and M. Hewstone (Eds.). The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Social Psychology (pp. 309-314). Oxford : Blackwell Publishers Ltd. MCALEER, P., TODOROV, A. & BELIN, P. (2014). How do you say "Hello" ? Personality impressions from brief novel voices. PLoS ONE, 9 (3): e90779. [PDF]
DE BRUIN, E.N.M. & VAN LANGE, P.A.M. (1999). Impression formation and cooperative behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 305-328. MATTAROZZI, K., TODOROV, A., MARZOCCHI, M., VICARI, A. & RUSSO, P.M. (2015). Effects of gender and personality on first impression. PLoS ONE, 10 (9), 1-13. e0135529. [LIRE]
Voir aussi Visage, Intuition, Habillement, Jugement social, Perception sociale et Première impression
Impression (Mesure et évaluation de l'...) : Ensemble des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer les impressions.

   GRONIER, G. (2016). Measuring the first impression: testing the validity of the 5 second test. Journal of Usability Studies, 12 (1), 8-25
 
Voir aussi Impression
Impression (Première) : Évaluation sommaire (peu d'informations) et rapide (peu de temps) d'autrui (ou d'un objet), qui influence notre jugement et qui, parfois, persiste en dépit des informations qui en nient la pertinence ou la valeur. = estimation rapide. First impression, first look.

     WILLIS, J. & TODOROV, A. (2006). First impressions : Making up your mind after 100 ms exposure to a face. Psychological Science, 17, 592-598.
KELLEY, H.H. (1950). The warm-cold variable in first impressions of persons. Journal of Personality, 18, 431-439. NORTON, M., FROST, J. & ARIELY, D. (2007). Less is more : The lure of ambiguity, or why familiarity breeds contempt. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 92 (1), 97-105. [PDF]
CONNORS, B.H., PETERS, K. & NAGASAWA, R.H. (1975). Person and costume : Effects on the formation of first impressions. Home Economics Research Journal, 4 (1), 32-41. BARELDS, D.P.H. & BARELDS-DIJKSTRA, P. (2007). Love at first sight or friends first ? Ties among partner personality trait similarity, relationship onset, relationship quality, and love. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 24, 479-496. [PDF]
HAMILTON, D.L., KATZ, L.B. & LEIRER VON, O. (1980). Cognitive representation of personality impressions : organizational processes in first impression formation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 39 (6), 1050-1063. CARNEY, D.R., COLVIN, C.R. & HALL, J.A. (2007). A thin slice perspective on the accuracy of first impressions. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 1054-1072.
PARK, B. (1986). A method for studying the development of impressions of real people. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 907-917. GOSLING, S.D., GADDIS, S. & VAZIRE, S. (2008). First impressions based on the environments we create and inhabit. In N. Ambady & J.J. Skowronski (Eds.), First Impressions (pp. 334-356). New York : Guilford.
STEELE, K.M. & SMITHWICK, L.E. (1989). First names and first impressions : A fragile relationship. Sex Roles, 21 (7/8), 517-523. [PDF]  
LENNON, S.J. & DAVIS, L.L. (1989). Categorization in first impressions. Journal of Psychology : Interdisciplinary & Applied, 123 (5), 439-446. ZEBROWITZ, L.A. & MONTEPARE, J.M. (2008). First impressions from facial appearance cues. In N. Ambady & J. Skowronski (Eds.), First impressions (pp. 171-204). New York : Guilford Publications.
PARK, B. & JUDD, C.M. (1989). Agreement on initial impressions : Differences due to perceivers, trait dimensions, and target behaviors. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 56, 493-505. GOSLING, S.D., GADDIS, S. & VAZIRE, S., . (2008). First impressions from the environments that we create and inhabit. In J. Skowronski & N. Ambady (Eds.), First impressions (pp. 334-356). New York : Guilford. [PDF]
 YZERBYT, V. Y. & LEYENS, J. P. (1991). Requesting information to form an impression : The influence of valence and confirmatory status. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 337-356. SCHOLLER, N., FREEMAN, J.B., FREEMAN, J.P., ULEMAN, J.S. & PHELPS, E.A. (2009). A neural mechanism of first impressions. Nature Neuroscience, 12 (4), 508-514. [PDF]
SATRAPA, A., MELHADO, M.B., CURADO-COELHO, M.M. & OTTA, E. (1992). Influence of style of dress on formation of first impressions. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 74 (1), 159-162. [PDF]  OLIVOLA, C.Y. & TODOROV, A. (2010). Fooled by first impressions ? Re-examining the diagnostic value of appearance-based inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46 (2), 315-324. [PDF]
RABIN, M. & SCHRAG, J.L. (1999). First impression matter : A model of confirmatory biais. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 114 (1), 37-82. [PDF] WAROQUIER, L., MARCHIORI, D., KLEIN, O. & CLEEREMANS, A. (2010). Is it better to think unconsciously or to trust your first impression ? A reassessment of unconscious thought theory. Social Psychological & Personality Science, 1 (2), 111-118.
CHAPLIN, W.F., PHILLIPS, J.B., BROWN, J.D., CLANTON, N.R. & STEIN, J. L. (2000). Handshaking, gender, personality, and first impressions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 79, 110-117. [PDF] RULE, N.O., MORAN, J.M., FREEMAN, J.B., WHITFIELD-GABRIELI, S., GABRIELI, J.D.E. & AMBRADY, N. (2011). Face value : Amygdala response reflects the validity of first impressions. NeuroImage, 54 (1), 734-741. [PDF]
YBARRA, O. (2001). When first impressions don't last : The role of isolation and adaptation processes in impression revision. Social Cognition, 19, 491-520. RICHETIN, J., HOGUET, P. & CROIZE, J.C. (2007). Le rôle des cosmétiques dans les premières impressions: Le cas particulier du maquillage. L'Année Psychologique, 107, 65-86. [PDF]
Voir aussi Jugement social, Perception sociale, Apparence et Impression
 
Imprévisible : Que l'on ne peut prévoir avec certitude. Selon Crozier, qualifie le comportement d'un acteur qui ne joue pas parfaitement son rôle, et dont on ne peut prédire avec certitude la façon d'agir. L'individu imprévisible est plus difficle à contrôler; il échappe ainsi au pouvoir d'autrui. .= sortir de son texte, se comporter de façon inattendue. /prévisible.

  CROZIER, M. et FRIEDBERG, E. (1977). L'acteur et le système. Paris : Seuil.
Types d'impuissance
Impuissance sociale Impuissance sexuelle Impuissance apprise
 
Impuissance (sociale) : Chez un individu ou un groupe, absence ou manque de pouvoir qui se traduit par une incapacité d'agir, de se développer. /émancipation collective. Powerlessness.

  LIPS, H.M. (2002). Female powerlessness : Still a case of "cultural preparedness" ? In A.E. Hunte & C. Forden (Eds.), Readings in the psychology of gender : Exploring our differences and commonalities (pp. 19-37). Needham Heights, MA : Allyn & Bacon.
Impuissance (sexuelle) : Incapacité sexuelle masculine qui se traduit essentiellement par une absence d'érection. En l'absence de causes organiques ou neuro-hormonales, on attribue souvent cette impuissance à des inhibitions psychiques ou à une dépression. Erectile disorder, erectile failure.

  ROSEN R.C. & LEIBLUM, S.R. (Eds) (1992). Erectile disorders, assessment and treatment. New York : The Guilford Press.
LOPICOLLO, J. (1999). Psychological evaluation of erectile failure. In C.C. Carson, R.S. Kirby & I. Goldstein (Eds.), Textbook of male erectile dysfunction. Oxford, England : Isis Media Ltd.
ALTHOF, S. (2000). Erectile dysfunction : treatment of men and couples. In S. Lieblum & R. Rosen R (Eds.), Principles and practices of sex therapy (pp 242-275). Guilford Press : New York.
Impuissance apprise : Voir Résignation acquise. = impuissance acquise. Learned helplessness.
Impulsivité/Impulsion/Impulsif : Tendance à agir sans réfléchir, sans mesurer les conséquences de ses comportements. Ces comportements, émis en l'absence de raisonnement ou de réflexion préalable, échappe au contrôle de l'individu. /contrôle de soi. Impulsivity, impulsiveness.

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WHITE, J.L., MOFFITT, T.E., CASPI, A., BARTUSCH, D.J., NEEDLES, D.J. & STOUTHAMER-LOEBER, M. (1994). Measuring impulsivity and examining its relationship to delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 192-205. FERGUSON, C.J., AVERILL, P.M., RHOADES, H., ROCHA, D., GRUBER, N. & GUMMATTIRA, P. (2005). Social isolation, impulsivity and depression as predictors of aggression in a psychiatric inpatient population. Psychiatric Quarterly, 76 (2), 123-137. [PDF]
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KINDLON, D., MEZZACAPPA, E. & EARLS, F. (1995). Psychometric properties of impulsivity measures : Temporal stability, validity and factor structure. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 36, 645-661. ZOUK, H., TOUSIGNANT, M., SÉGUIN, M., LESAGE, A. & TURECKI, G. (2006). Characterization of impulsivity in suicide completers : Clinical, behavioral and psychosocial dimensions. Journal of Affective Disorders, 92 (2-3), 195-204.
  EVANS, T. & BERAN, M. (2007). Chimpanzees use self-distraction to cope with impulsivity. Biology Letters, 3 (5), 599-602. [PDF]
  ENGEL, S.G., BOSECK, J.J., CROSBY, R.D., WONDERLICH, S.A., MITCHELL, E., SMYTH, J., MILTENBERGER, R.G. & STEIGER, S. (2007). The relationship of momentary anger and impulsivity to bulimic behavior. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 45, 437-447. [PDF]
  BILLIEUX, J., VAN DER LINDEN, M., D'ACREMONT, M., CESCHI, G. & ZERMATTEN, A. (2007). Does impulsivity relate to perceived dependence on and actual use of the mobile phone ? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21 (4), 527-537.
  FRANK, M.J., SAMANTA, J., MOUSTAFA, A.A. & SHERMAN, S.J. (2007). Hold your horses : Impulsivity, deep brain stimulation, and medication in parkinsonism. Science, 318, (5854), 1309-1312.
  SMITH, A.R., WITTE, T.K., TEALE, N.E., KING, S.L., BENDER, T.W. & JOINER, T.E. (2008). Revisiting impulsivity in suicide implications for civil liability of third parties. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 26 (6), 779-797. [PDF]
ZLOTNICK, C., SHEA, M.T., PEARLSTEIN, T., SIMPSON, E., COSTELLO, E. & BEGIN, A. (1996). The relationship between dissociative symptoms, alexithymia, impulsivity, sexual abuse, and self-mutilation. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 37, 12-16. FRIESE, M., HOFMANN, W. & WÄNKE, M. (2008). When impulses take over : Moderated predictive validity of explicit and implicit attitude measures in predicting food choice and consumption behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 397-419. [PDF]
REVELLE, W. (1997). Extraversion and impulsivity : The lost dimension. In Nyborg, H. (Ed.), The scientific study of human nature : Tribute to Hans J. Eysenck at eighty (pp. 189-212). Elsevier Science Press. [PDF] HOFMANN, W., FRIESE, M. & WIERS, R.W. (2008). Impulsive versus reflective influences onhealth behavior : A theoretical framework and empirical review. Health Psychology Review, 2, 111-137. [PDF]
  BELIN, D., MAR, A.C., DALLEY, J.W., ROBBINS, T.W. & EVERITT, B.J. (2008). High impulsivity predicts the switch to compulsive cocaine-taking. Science, 320, 1352–1355. [PDF]
  BILLIEUX, J. et VAN DER LINDEN, M. (2008). Impulsivité et dépendances : une approche cognitive et motivationnelle à la lumière du modèle UPPS de Whiteside et Lynam. Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive, 13 (3), 12-24.
  BILLIEUX, J. & VAN DER LINDEN, M. & ROCHAT, L. (2008). The role of impulsivity in actual and problematic use of mobile phone. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 22, 1195-1210. [PDF]
MADDEN, G.J., PETRY, N., BADGER, G.J. & BICKEL, W.K. (1997). Impulsive and self- control choices in opiate-dependent patients and non-drug-using control participants : Drug and monetary rewards. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 5, 256-262. BREWER, J.A. & POTENZA, M.N. (2008). The neurobiology and genetics of impulse control disorders : Relationships to drug addictions. Biochemical Pharmacology, 75 (1), 63-75. [PDF]
HARMON-JONES, E. BARRATT, E.S. & WIGG, C. (1997). Impulsiveness, aggression, reading, and the P300 of the event-related potential. Personality & Individual Differences, 22, 439-445. [PDF] SWANN, A.C., LIJFFIJT, M., LANE, S.D., STEINBERG, J.L. & MOELLER, F.G. (2009). Trait impulsivity and response inhibition in antisocial personality disorder. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43, 1057-1063. [PDF]
  LEDGERWOOD, D.M., ALESSI, S.M., PHOENIX, N. & PETRY, N.M. (2009). Behavioral assessment of impulsivity in pathological gamblers with and without substance use disorder histories versus healthy controls. Drug Alcohol Depend, 105 (1-2), 89-96. [PDF]
  RAY, J.V., POYTHRESS, N.G., WEIR, J.M. & RICKELM, A. (2009). Relationships between psychopathy and impulsivity in the domain of self-reported personality traits. Personality & Individual Differences, 46, 83-87.
LOGAN, G.D., SCHACHAR. R.J. & TANNOCK, R. (1997). Impulsivity and inhibitory control. Psychological Science, 8, 60-64. POTENZA, M.N., KORAN, L.M. & POLLANTI, S. (2009). The relationship between impulse control disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorder : a current understanding and future research directions. Psychiatry Research, 170 (1), 22-31. [PDF]
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ALLEN, T.J., MOELLER, F.G., RHOADES, H.M. & CHEREK, D.R. (1998). Impulsivity and history of drug dependence. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 50,137-145. ANDERMAN, E.M., CUOPP, P.K. & LANE, D.R. (2010). Impulsivity and academic cheating. Journal of Experimental Education, 78, 135-150.
  MADDEN G.J. & BICKEL, W.K. (Eds.) (2010). Impulsivity : The behavioral and neurological science of discounting. Washington, D.C. : American Psychological Association.
BICKEL, W.K, ODUM, A.L, MADDEN, G.J. (1999). Impulsivity and cigarette smoking: delay discounting in current, never, and ex-smokers. Psychopharmacology, 146 (4), 447-454. KLONSKY, E.D. & MAY, A. (2010). Rethinking impulsivity in suicide. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 40, 612-619. [PDF]
VITARO, F., ARSENAULT, L. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (1999). Impulsivity predicts gambling in low SES adolescent males. Addiction, 94, 565-575. WEAFER, J., MILICH, R., FILLMORE, M.T. (2011). Behavioral components of impulsivity predict alcohol consumption in adults with ADHD and healthy controls. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 113 (2-3), 139-146. [PDF]
 AINSLIE, G.W. & MONTEROSSO, J. (1999). Beyond discounting : Possible experimental models of impulse control. Psychopharmacology, 146, 339-347. [PDF] HOFMANN, W., FRIESE, M. & WIERS, R.W. (2011). Impulsive processes in the self-regulation ofhealth behaviour : Theoretical and methodological considerations in response to commentaries. Health Psychology Review, 5 (2), 162-171. [PDF]
OLSON, S.L., SCHILLING, E.M. & BATES, J.E. (1999). Measurement of impulsivity : Construct coherence, longitudinal stability, and relationship with externalizing problems in middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 27, 151-165. VELING, H. & AARTS, H. (2011). Stopping impulsive behavior by changing impulsive determinants of behavior. Health Psychology Review, 5, 150-153.
POSAVAC, H.D., SHERIDAN, S.M. & POSAVAC, S.S. (1999). A cueing procedure to control impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Behavior Modification, 23 (2), 234-253. GENTILE, D.A., SWING, E.L., KHOO, S. & LIM, C.G. (2012). (2012). Video game playing, attention problems, and impulsiveness : Evidence of bidirectional causality. Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 1 (1), 62-70. [PDF]
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VOLLMER, T.R., BORREO, J.C., LALLI, J.S. & DANIEL, D. (1999). Evaluating self-control and impulsivity in children with severe behavior disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 451-466. [PDF] JASINSKA, A.J., YASUDA, M., BURANT, C.F., GREGOR, N., KHATRI, S. SWEET, M. & FALK, E.B. (2012). Impulsivity and inhibitory control deficits are associated with unhealthy eating in young adults. Appetite, 59, 738-747. [PDF]
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  MALESZA, M. & OSTASZEWSKI, P . (2016). Dark side of impulsivity — Associations between the Dark Triad, self-report and behavioral measures of impulsivity. Personality & Individual Differences, 88, 197-201.
  MAY, A. & KLONSKY, E.D. (2016). "Impulsive" suicide attempts : What do we really mean ? Personality Disorders, 7 (3), 293-302. [PDF]
  ROCHAT, L., BILLIEUX, J., GAGNON, J. & VAN DER LINDEN, M. (2018). A multifactorial and integrative approach to impulsivity in neuropsychology : Insights from the UPPS model of impulsivity. Journal of Clinical & Experimental Neuropsychology, 40 (1), 45-61.
Voir auss TDAH et Contrôle de soi
Impulsivité (Mesure et évaluation de l'...) : Ensemble des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer l'impulsivité. Measuring gambling outcomes.

  WHITE, J.L., MOFFITT, T.E., CASPI, A., BARTUSCH, D.J., NEEDLES, D.J. & STOUTHAMER-LOEBER, M. (1994). Measuring impulsivity and examining its relationship to delinquency. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 192-205.
WHITESIDE, S. & LYNAM, D. (2001). Whiteside, S. P., & Lynam, D. R. (2003). Understanding the role of impulsivity and externalizing psychopathology in alcohol abuse: Application of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 11, 210-217.
Imputabilité : Qui doit rendre compte de ses activités, de son travail, de ses résultats, généralement à un comité ou à un individu en mesure de les apprécier, en vertu de standards ou d'objectifs déterminés au préalable. Accountability.

  PENNYPACKER, H.S. (1976). Measurement, accountability, and the economics of a complex instructional system. In E.A. Vargas & L. Fraley (Eds.), Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Behavior Research & Technology in Higher Education (pp. 311-320). Gainesville, FL : Society for Behavior Technology and Engineering.
TETLOCK, P.E. (1985). Accountability : The neglected social context of judgment and choice. Research in Organizational Behavior, 7, 297-332.
LINN, R.L. (2000). Assessments and accountability. Educational Researcher, 29, 4-16.
ALEXANDER, F.K. (2000). The changing face of accountability : Monitoring and assessing institutional performance in higher education. The Journal of Higher Education, 71, 411-431.
INCERTITUDE - INCESTE - INCOMMENSURABLE - INCONSCIENT - INDICATEUR - INDICE - INDIVIDUALISME - INDUSTRIE - INE
In : Préfixe qui signifie «non, ne pas, absence de».

In-
Inapte à subir son procès Indémontrable Inobservable/Inobservabilité
Inattention Indépendance Inquiétude
Incertitude Inégalité Insatiable
Incohérence Inéquité Insatisfaction
Incommensurable Inexpertise Insolubilité scientifique
Incommunabilité Infaillible/Infaillibilité Insomnie
Incompétence Infalsifiable Insouciance
Incongruence Infertilité Irréversible
Inconscient infidélité Insuffisance cardiovasculaire
Incontinence Injustice Insuffisance respiratoire
    invérifiable
 
In-
In situ In vitro In vivo
In virtuo    
 
In situ : = conditions naturelles. In situ.

  DAWKINS, M.S., COOK, P.A., WHITTINGHAM, M.J., MANSELL, K.A. & HARPER, A. (2003). What makes free-range broilers range ? In situ measurement of habitat preference. Animal Behaviour, 66, 151-160.
EGEMO-HELM, K.R., MILTENBERGER, R.G., KNUDSON, P., FINSTROM, N., JOSTAD, C. & JOHNSTON, B. (2007). An evaluation of in situ training to teach sexual abuse prevention skills to women with mental retardation. Behavioral Interventions, 22, 99-119.
BECK, K. & MILTENBERGER, R.G. (2009). Evaluation of a commercially-available abduction prevention program and in situ training by parents to teach abduction prevention skills to children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42 (4), 761-772. [PDF]
Voir aussi Conditions naturelles
In treatement : Série télévisée américaine qui dépeint les relations entre un psychologue clinicien (Paul Weston) et ses clients.
 
Inaccessible/Inacessibilité : Voir Inobservabilité méthodologique.
In virtuo : = Dans un monde simulé, situation reproduite par un ordinateur. In virtuo.

 
In vitro : = Signifie dans une situation artificielle ou en imagination. = en éprouvette. /in vivo. In vitro.

 
In vivo : Signifie sur le terrain, dans la réalité, la situation réelle ou naturelle. = condition naturelle. /in vitro. In vivo.

  WEISS, P.A. (1934). In vitro experiments on the factors determining the course of the outgrowing nerve fiber. Journal of Experimental Zoology, 68, 393-448.
NEEF, N.A., IWATA, B.A. & PAGE, T. J. (1978). Public transportation training : In vivo versus classroom instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11 (3), 331-344. [PDF]
NALDINI, L., BLÖMER, U., GALLAY, P., ORY, D., MULLIGAN, R.C. & GAGE, F.H. (1996). In vivo delivery and stable transduction of nondividing cells by a lentiviral vector. Science, 272 (5259), 263-267.
CHARLOP, M.H., LE, L. & FREEMAN, K.A. (2000). A comparison of video modeling with in vivo modeling for teaching children with autism. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 30 (6), 537-552. [PDF]
Voir aussi In vitro et Condition naturelle
Inapte à subir son procès : Expression utilisée en droit pour désigner l'état mental (folie passagère ou non) d'un accusé (souvent de meurtre) qui, par suite d'une évaluation psychiatriqu,e est déclaré incapable de suivre le déroulement de son propre procès et de comprendre le bien-fondé des accusations qui sont portées contre lui. = plaider la folie. Inapte à subir son procès et crimellement non-responsable de ses actes. Not guilty by reason of insanity.

  McCUTCHEON, L.E. & McCUTCHEON, L.E. (1994). Not guilty by reason of insanity : Getting it right or perpetuating the myths ? Psychological Reports, 74, 764-766.
Voir aussi Criminellement non-responsable de ses actes
Inattention : Absence d'attention qui nuit à l'exécution d'une tâche ou à la compréhension d'une consigne. Inattention et trouble d'attention

  MILLER, A., KOPLEWICZ, H.S. & KLEIN, R.G. (1997). Teacher ratings of hyperactivity, inattention, and conduct problems in preschoolers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25, 113-119.
Incertitude : État d'un phénomène dont l'apparition ou l'existence est peu probable ou dont la certitude n'est pas absolue. Incertitude, risque et décision. /certitude. Uncertainty.

  ALCHIAN, A.A. (1950). Uncertainty, evolution, and economic theory. The Journal of Political Economy, 58 (3), 211-221. MILLIKEN, F.J. (1987). Three types of perceived uncertainty about the environment : State, effect, and response uncertainty. Academy of Management Review, 12 (1), 133-143.
  MACHINA, M.J. (1987). Choice under uncertainty : Problems solved and unsolved. Economic Perspectives, 1, 121-54.
  MORAWSKI, J.G. (2001). The dynamics of uncertainty. History & Theory, 40, 401-418.
GARNER, W. (1962). Uncertainty and stucture as psychological concepts. New York : Wiley. BERTHELOT, J.-M. (1996/2004). Les vertus de l'incertitude. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
FISCHHOFF, B. (1975). Hindsight 61⁄4 foresight : The effect of outcome knowledge on judgment under uncertainty. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 1, 288-299. [PDF] HALPERN, J.Y. (2003). Reasoning about uncertainty. Cambridge : MIT Press.
KAHNEMAN, D. & TVERSKY, A (1982). Variants of uncertainty. Cognition, 11, 143-157. MAZUR, J.E. (2004). Risky choice : Selecting between certain and uncertain outcomes. Behavior Analysis Today, 5, 190-203.
  HOGG, M.A. (2005). Uncertainty, social identity and ideology. Advances in Group Processes, 22, 203-230.
KAHNEMAN, D., SLOVIC, P. & TVERSKY, A. (Eds.) (1982). Judgement under uncertainty : Heuristics and biases. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. AINSLIE, G.W. (2005). Uncertainty as wealth. Behavioural Processes, 64, 369-385. [PDF]
  WRIGHT, R. (2010). Self-uncertainty and its cousins. In R. Arkin, K.C. Oleson & P.J. Carroll (Eds.), Handbook of the uncertain self (pp. 421-443). New York : Psychology Press.
Voir aussi Doute, Risque et Décision
Inceste : Relation ou attouchements sexuels entre proches parents. Selon Freud, le tabou de l'inceste serait à l'origine de la formation des groupes en société en imposant l'exogamie c-à-d l'obligation sociale et morale de choisir ses partenaires sexuelles à l'extérieur de sa famille ou de son lignage. Inceste et famille. Incest.

  DURKHEIM, É. (1896-1897/1969). La prohibition de l'inceste et ses origines. L'Année Sociologique, 1, 1-70. RICHARD-BESSETTE, S. (1991). L'inceste. In H. Cohen (Dir.), L'agression sexuelle : perspectives contemporaines (p. 107-144). Montréal : Méridien.
FREUD, S. (1913/2004). Totem et tabou. Paris : Payot. SIMON, B. (1992). "Incest-see under Oedipus complex" : The history of an error in psychoanalysis. Journal of American Psychoanalysis Association, 40 (4), 955-988.
LEVI-STRAUSS, C. (1949/67). Les structures élémentaires de la parenté. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France/La Haye-Paris : Mouton et Cie. HÉRITIER, F. (1994). Les deux soeurs et leur mère : anthropologie de l'inceste. Paris : Éditions Odile Jacob.
QUINSEY, V.L., CHAPLIN, T.C. & CARRIGNAN, W.F. (1979). Sexual preferences among incestuous and non-incestuous child molesters. Behavior Therapy, 10, 562-565. GABBARD, G.O. & TWEMLOW, S.W. (1994). The role of mother-son incest in the pathogenesis of narcissistic personality disorder. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 42 (1), 59-177.
SAUCIER, J.F. (1985). Prévention de l'inceste : enfin des moyens. Santé Mentale au Québec, 10 (1), 5-7. CAMERON, P. & CAMERON, K. (1995). Does incest cause homosexuality ? Psychological Reports, 76, 611-621.
PIERCE, L.H. & PIERCE, R.L. (1987). Incestuous victimization by juvenile sex offenders. Journal of Family Violence, 2 (4), 351-364. ALEXANDER, P. (1995). Une conceptualisation systémique de l'inceste. Thérapie Familiale, 16 (4), 403-414.
ARMSWORTH, M.W. (1989). Therapy of incest survivors : Abuse or support ? Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 549-562. GODBEY, J.K. & HUTCHINSON, S.A. (1996). Healing from incest : Resurrecting the buried self. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 10, 304-310.
  FESSLER, D.M.T. & NAVARRETE, C.D. (2004). Third-party attitudes towards sibling incest : Evidence for the Westermark hypothesis. Evolution & Human Behavior, 25 (5), 277- 294.
DIAMOND, D. (1989). Father-daughter incest: Unconscious fantasy and social fact. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 6, 421-437. TURNER, J.H. & MARYANSKI, A. (2005). Incest : Origins of the taboo. Boulder, CO, USA : Paradigm.
  ASTUTI, R. & BLOCH, M. (2015). The causal cognition of wrong doing: incest, intentionality, and morality. Frontiers in Psychology, 6 [136], 1-7. [PDF]
Voir aussi Tabou de l'inceste
Inceste (Tabou de l'...) : Interdiction à caractère sexuel qui exclut les relations sexuelles au sein de la famille élargie. Selon Freud, le tabou de l'inceste serait à l'origine de la formation de groupes en société en imposant l'exogamie c-à-d la pratique des activités sexuelles à l'extérieur du groupe d'appartenance. Tabou de l'inceste, tabou et inceste. Incest taboo.

  DURKHEIM, É. (1896-1897/1969). La prohibition de l'inceste et ses origines. L'Année Sociologique, 1, 1-70.
FREUD, S. (1972). Totem et tabou. Paris : Payot.
LEVI-STRAUSS, C. (1949/67). Les structures élémentaires de la parenté. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France/La Haye-Paris : Mouton et Cie.
McMULLEN, R.J. (1990). Male rape : Breaking the silence on the last taboo. London : GMP Publishers Ltd.
TURNER, J.H. & MARYANSKI, A. (2005). Incest : Origins of the taboo. Boulder, CO, USA: Paradigm.
FRALEY, R.C. & MAKS, M.J. (2010). Westermarck, Freud, and the incest taboo : Does familial resemblance activate sexual attraction ? Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 1202-1212. [PDF]
Voir aussi Tabou et Inceste
Incidence : Ce terme a au moins deux acceptions : a) En épidémiologie, mesure de l'état de santé physique ou mentale d'une population à un moment donné de leur histoire. Pour une pathologie donnée, cette mesure le nombre de nouveaux cas de cette pathologie observés pendant une période et pour une population déterminées. b) Synonyme d'effet, de conséquence ou d'influence. *prévalence. Incidence.

  JOHNSON, W.L. & DAY, R.M. (1992). The incidence and prevalence of self-injurious behavior. In J.K. Luiseli, J.L. Matson & N.N. Singh (Eds.), Self-injurious behavior : Analysis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 21-56). New York : Springer.
WILIAMS, K., MELLIS, C. & PEAT, J.K. (2005). Incidence and prevalence of autism. Advances in Speech-Language Pathology, 7, 31-40.
Formes d'inclusion
Inclusion logique Inclusion scolaire Inclusion sociale
 
Inclusion (logique) : Opération cognitive qui consiste à former des catégories d'éléments par abstraction. EX: L'existentialisme (élément inclu) est un humanisme (catégorie), mais les humanistes ne sont pas tous des existentialistes (élément exclu). Inclusion, class inclusion, class inclusion task.

  KOHNSTAMM, G.A. (1967). Piaget's analysis of class inclusion : riht or wrong ? The Hague: Mouton. STEFFE, L.P., HISTEIN, J. & SPIKES, C. (1976). Quantitative comparison and class inclusion as readiness variables for learning first grade arithmetic content (Technical Report No. 9.) ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED144808. Project for Mathematical Development of Children, Tallahassee, FL.
  WILKINSON, A. (1976). Counting strategies and semantic analysis as applied to class inclusion. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 64-85.
WOHWILL, J.F. (1968). Responses to class inclusion questions for verbaly and pictorially presented items. Child Development, 39, 449-465. WINER, G.A. (1978). Enhancement of class-inclusion reasoning through verbal context. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 132, 299-306
  SIEGEL, L.S., MCCABE, A.E., BRAND, J. & MATTHEWS, J. (1978). Evidence for the understanding of class inclusion in preschool children : linguistic factors and training effects. Child Development, 49,688-693.
  TRABASSO, T., ISEN, A.M., DOLECKI, P., MCLANAHAN, A.G., RILEY C.A. & TUCKER, T. (1978). How do children solve class-inclusion problems ? In R.S. Siegler (Ed.), Children's thinking : what develops ? (pp., 151-180). Lawrence Erlbaum : Hillsdale.
AHR, P.R. & YOUNISS, J. (1970). Reasons for failure on the class inclusion problem. Child Development, 41, 131-143 SHIPLEY, E.F. (1979). The class-inclusion task: question form and distributive comparisons. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 8 (4), 301-331.
YOUNISS, J. (1971). Classificatory schemes in relation to class inclusion before and after training. Human Development, 14, 171-183 WINER, G.A. (1980). Class-inclusion reasoning in children. A review of the empirical literature. Child Development, 51, 309-328
KLAHR, D. & WALLACE, J.G. (1971). Class inclusion proceses. In S. Farnham-Dogory (Ed.), Information processing in children. New York : Academic Press. SMITH, L. (1982) Class inclusion and conclusions about Piaget's theory. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 267-276.
WINER, G.A. (1974). An analysis of verbal facilitation of class-inclusion reasoning. Child Deveopment, 45, 224-227. WINER, G.A. & FALKNER, R.A. (1984). The effects of linguistic factors on class-inclusion performance in adults and children. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 145, 251-265.
TATARSKI, J.H. (1974) The in uence of dimensional manipulations on class-inclusion performance. Child Development, 45, 1173-1175. THOMAS, H. & HORTON, J.J. 1997) Competency criteria and the class inclusion task: modeling judgments and justifications. Developmental Psychology, 33, 1060-1073.
WINER, G.A. & KRONBERG, D.D. (1974). Children's responses to verbally and pictorially presented class-inclusion items and to a task of number conservation. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 125, 141-152. BORST, G., POIREL, N., PINEAU, A., CASSOTTI, M. & HOUDÉ, O. (2012). Inhibitory control in number conservation and class inclusion tasks: a neo-Piagetian inter-tasks priming study. Cognitive Development, 27, 283-298.
SHIPLEY, E.F. (1974). The piagetian clas-inclusion task : An alternative explanation (Technical Report No. 19). National Institut of Mental Health (DHEN), Bethesda. [PDF] POLITZER, G. (2016). The class inclusion question : a case study in applying pragmatics to the experimental study of cognition. Springerplus, 5 [1133], 1-20. [PDF]
Inclusion scolaire : Principe pédagogique selon lequel il faut intégrer dans les classes régulières les élèves/étudiants qui ont des handicaps physiques (aveugle, sourds, etc) ou psycholgiques légers (autisme, déficient intellectuel léger, etc.) ou qui éprouvent des difficultés sur le plan des apprentissages (dyslexie, dysorthographie, troule d'attention). Inclusion scolaire et pédagogie universelle et différenciée.

  FUCHS, D. & FUCHS, L.S. (1994). Inclusive schools movement and the radicalization of special education reform. Exceptional Children, 60 (4), 294-309. ROUSSEAU, N., DIONNE, C. et DESLANDES, R. (2006). La pratique de l'inclusion scolaire. Dans L. Massé, N. Desbiens et C. Lanaris (Dir.), Les troubles du comportement à l'école (p. 309-317). Montréal : Gaëtan Morin éditeur.
SAPON-SHEVIN, M. (1994/95). Can inclusion work? An interview with Jim Kauffman and Mara Sapon-Shevin. [Interview by John O'Neill]. (4), 7-11.  
SAPON-SHEVIN, M. (1994/95). Why gifted students belong in inclusive schools. Educational Leadership, 52 (4), 64-71.  
SAPON-SHEVIN, M. (1996). Full inclusion as disclosing tablet: Revealing the flaws in our general education system. Theory into Practice, 35 (1), 35-41. KURTTS, S.A. (2006). Universal design for learning in inclusive classrooms. Electronic Journal of Inclusive Education, 1 (10), 1-16. [PDF]
STAINBACK, S. & W. STAINBACK (1996). Inclusion : A Guide for Educator. Baltimore, Paul H. Brookes Publishing VIENNEAU, R. (2006). De l'intégration scolaire à une véritable pédagogie de l'inclusion. Dans C. Dionne et N. Rousseau (Dir.), Transformation des pratiques éducatives : la recherche sur l'inclusion scolaire (p. 7-32). Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
KING-SEARS, M.E. & CUMMINGS, C.S. (1996). Inclusive practices of classroom teachers. Remedial & Special Education, 17, 217-225. MORAN, A. (2007). Embracing inclusive teacher education. European Journal of Teacher Education, 30 (2), 119-134.
KATZ, J. & MIRENDA, P. (2002). Including students with developmental disabilities in general education classrooms : educational benefits. International Journal of Special Education, 17 (2), 14-24. THOMAZET, S. (2008). L'intégration a des limites, pas l'école inclusive ! Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 24 (1), 23-140.
VIENNEAU, R. (2002). Pédagogie de l'inclusion : fondements, définition, défis et perspectives. Éducation et Francophonie, 30 (2), 257-286. DUCHARME, D. (2008). L'inclusion en classe ordinaire des élèves à besoins éducatifs particuliers. Montréal : Éditions Marcel Didier.
SAPON-SHEVIN, M. (2002). Making inclusion visible: Honoring the process and the struggle. Democracy & Education, 14 (1), 24-27. ACEDO, C. (2008). Éducation pour l'inclusion : repousser les limites. Perspective : Revue Trimestrielle d'É´ducation Comparée, 145 (1), 6-15.
CULHAM, A. & NIND, M. (2003). Deconstructing normalisation : clearing the way for inclusion, Journal of intellectual & developmental disability, 28 (1), 65-78. AINSCOW, M. et S. MILES (2008). Vers une éducation pour l'inclusion pour tous : prochaine étape ? Perspective : Revue Trimestrielle d'Éducation Comparée, 145 (1), 17-44.
ROUSSEAU, N. et BÉLANGER, S. (Dir.) (2004). La pédagogie de l'inclusion scolaire. Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec. GROSSMAN, D.L. (2008). Démocratie, éducation à la citoyenneté et inclusion : une approche multidimensionnelle. Perspective : Revue Trimestrielle d'Éducation Comparée, 145 (1), 45-60.
  BOUTIN, G. et BESSETTE, L. (2009). Inclusion ou illusion ? Élèves en difficulté en classe ordinaire : défis, limites, modalités. Montréal : Éditions Nouvelles.
  AUCOIN, A. et VIENNEAU, R. (2010). Inclusion scolaire et dénormalisation. Dans Nadia Rousseau (Dirs.), La pédagogie de l'inclusion scolaire : pistes d'action pour apprendre tous ensemble (p. 63-86). Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
VIENNEAU, R. (2004). Impacts de l'inclusion scolaire sur l'apprentissage et sur le développement social. Dans N. Rousseau & S. Bélanger (Dir.), La pédagogie de l'inclusion scolaire (p. 125-152). Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec. VIENNEAU, R. (2010). Les effets de l'inclusion scolaire : une recension des écrits (2000 à 2009). Dans N. Rousseau (Dir.), La pédagogie de l'inclusion scolaire : pistes d'action pour apprendre tous ensemble (p. 237-264). Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
  BERGERON, L., ROUSSEAU, N. et LECLERC, M. (2011). La pédagogie universelle : au coeur de la planification de l'inclusion scolaire. Éducation et Francophonie, 39 (2), 87-104. [PDF]
  SAPON-SHEVIN, M (2012). Inclusive Education. In J. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity education. Los Angeles: Safe Reference.
  Voir aussi Pédagogie universelle et différenciée
Inclusion sociale : /exclusion sociale. Social inclusion.

  PETTIGREW, T.F. & MARTIN, J. (1987). Shaping the organizational context for Black American inclusion. Journal of Social Issues, 43, (1), 41-78.
DOVIDIO, J.F., GAERTNER, S.L., HODSON, G., HOULETTE, M. & JOHNSON, K.M. (2005). Social inclusion and exclusion : Recategorization and the perception of intergroup boundaries. In D. Abrams, J.M. Marques & M.A. Hogg (Eds.), The social psychology of inclusion and exclusion (pp. 246-264). Philadelphia : Psychology Press.
Incohérence : Absence de cohérence. = contradiction interne.

 
Inconvénient : événement ou situation qu'un individu juge désavantageux. = coût. /avantage, bénéfice.

 
Incommensurable/Incommensurabilité : Pour Kuhn, qualifie un paradigme qui ne peut être comparé à d'autres (normalement le paradigme auquel il succède), car, par définition, le paradigme définit ses propres critères de vérité et ses propres conditions de mise à l'épreuve. = qui ne peut être comparer. Incommensurability.

  WISDOM, J.O. (1974). The incommensurability thesis. Philosophical Studies, 25, 299-301. SANKEY, H. (1993). Kuhn's changing concept of incommensurability. British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 44, 759-774.
PHILLIPS, D.L. (1975). Paradigms and incommensurability. Theory & Society, 2, 37-61. SANKEY, H. (1994). The incommensurability thesis. Aldershot : Avebury.
DEVITT, M. (1979). Against incommensurability. Australasian Journal of Philosophy 57, 29-50. LACEY, H. (2001). Incommensurability and "multicultural science". In P. Hoyningen-Huene & H. Sankey (Eds.), Incommensurability and related matters (pp. 225-239). Dordrecht, Holland : Kluwer.
SIEGEL, H. (1980). Objectivity, rationality, incommensurability and more. British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 31, 359-384. CHARLAND, M. (2003). The incommensurability thesis and the status of knowledge/La thèse de l'incommensurabilité et le statut de la connaissance. Philosophy & Rhetoric, 36 (3), 248-263.
PEARCE, D. (1987). Roads to commensurability. Dordrecht : Reidel.  PSILLOS, S. (2008). Carnap and incommensurability. Philosophical Inquiry, 30 (1-2), 135-156.
Voir aussi Paradigme
Incommunicabilité : Difficulté à communiquer avec autrui résultant, non pas d'un manque d'habileté ou de l'absence de sociabilité, mais de la multiplicité des sources d'information actuellement disponibles, de l'absence de repères communs. EX: Difficulté de discuter avec des collègues car personne n'a lu les mêmes articles/livres sur un thème donné ou impossibilité de discuter littérature avec des amis car personne n'a lu le même auteur/roman.

 
Incompentence : Voir Compétence.
Incongruence : Chez Rogers, état qui caractérise l'individu en désaccord avec lui-même. = conflit, désaccord. Incongruence.

 
Inconscient : Au sens large, processus psychique ou cognitif se déroulant hors du champ de la conscience et auquel l'individu n'a pas accès (volontairement du moins). Chez Freud, l'inconscient désigne une force hypothétique qui pousse les individus à agir à leur insu ou contre leur volonté. Cet inconscient se forme à partir d'expériences conscientes refoulées dans la prime enfance. L'inconscient est une propriété du ça, du surmoi et des mécanismes de défense du moi. Inconscient et pulsion = absence de conscience, esprit inconscient. *inconscience, subconscient. /conscient. Unconscious, unconscious processes.
  CARUS C.G. (1846). Psyche. LACOSTE, P. (1996). La syntaxe de l'inconscient. Science et Avenir Hors-Série Le Rêve, 109. [LIRE]
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FREUD, S. (1904). Psychopathologie de la vie quotidienne. Paris : Payot. BANAJI, M.R., BLAIR, I.V. & GLASDER, J. (1997). Environments and unconscious processes. In R.S. Wyer (Ed.), Advances in social cognition (Vol. 10, pp. 63-74). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. [PDF]
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  KIHLSTORM, J.F. (1999). Conscious and unconscious cognition. In R.J. Sternberg (Ed.), The nature of cognition (pp. 173-204). Cambridge, Ma. : MIT Press.
SCHMIDEBERG, M. (1933). Some unconscious mechanisms in pathological sexuality and their relation to normal sexuality. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 14, 225-260. GRÜNNBAUM, A. (2001). L'inconscient à l'épreuve. Sciences et Avenir (July/August), 42-49.
BRUGMANS, H.J.F.W. (1939). The psychic unconscious and the psychological unconscious. Acta Psychologica, 4, 241-274. BARGH, J.A., GOLLWITZER, P.M., LEE-CHAI, A., BARNDOLLAR, K. & TROET-SCHEL, R. (2001). The automated will : Unconscious activation and pursuit of behavioral goals. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81, 1004-1027. [PDF]
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ANZIEU, D. (1975). Le groupe et l'inconscient. Paris : Dunod. LÉGAL, J.-P. (2005). Effets non conscients des stéréotypes sur les comportements et les performances. Préjugé et Stéréotypes, 1-5. [PDF]
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 WAKEFIELD, J.C. (1990). Why instinctual impulses can't be unconscious : An exploration of Freud's cognitivism. Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought, 13, 265-288.  DIJKTERHUIS, A. & NORDREN, F. (2006). A theory of unconscious thought. Perspectives on Psychological Sciences, 1 (2), 95-109. [PDF]
 WAKEFIELD, J.C. (1991). Why emotions can't be unconscious : An exploration of Freud's essentialism. Psychoanalysis & Contemporary Thought, 14, 29-67. BARG, J.A. & MORSELLA, E. (2007). The unconscious mind. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3 (1), 73-79. [PDF]
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Voir aussi Traitement automatique et Comportement automatique
Inconscient collectif : Terme utilisé par Jung pour désigner les images et les symboles qui, selon lui, ne résultent par de l'expérience d'un individu (= inconscient individuel), mais pluôt de l'histoire de l'espèce humaine (phylogénèse). N.D.L.R. Il convient de préciser que l'on a jamais montré l'existence de ce phénomène.

 
Incontinence : Qui ne peut se contenir (joie, urine, etc.). Incontinence, fecal incontinence, urinary incontinence.

  WALD, A. (1981). Biofeedback therapy for fecal incontinence. Annals of lnternal Medicine, 95, 146-149.
WALD, A. (1981). Use of biofeedback in treatment of fecal incontinence in patients with meningomyelocele. Pediatrics, 68, 45-49
WHITEHEAD,W.E., PARKER, L., BOSMAJIAN, L., E., MERRILL-CORHIN, D., MIDDAUGH, S., GARWOOD, M., CATALDO, M.F. & FREEMAN, J. (1986). Treatment of Fecal Incontinence in Children With Spina Bifida: Comparison of Biofeedback and Behavior Modification. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitatio, 67, 218-223. [PDF]
LANCASTER, M.M. (1990). Urinary incontinence : Aids for management. In R.C. Hanby, J.M. Turnball, L.D. Norman & M.M. Lancaster (Eds.), Alzheimer's disease : A handbook for caregivers (pp. 108-115). St. Louis : Mosby.
TARBOX, R.S.F., WILLIAMS, W.L. & FRIMAN, P.C. (2004). Extended diaper wearing : effects on continence in and out of the diaper. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37 (1), 97-100. [PDF]
LEBLANC, L.A., CARR, J.E., CROSSETT, S.E., BENNETT, C.M. & DETWELILER, D.D. (2005). Intensive outpatient behavioral treatment of primary urinary incontinence of children with autism. Focus on Autism & other Developmental Disabilities, 20 (2), 98-105. [PDF]
Incorporation : Processus, plus ou moins fantasmatique, par lequel un sujet fait pénétrer et garde un objet à l'intérieur de son corps. /Introjection. Incorporation.

  BARTHÉLÉMY, S. (2014). Perdre et garder au-dedans : incorporation ou introjection ? Santé Mentale, 187, 12. [PDF]
Incrédulité/Crédulité : Voir croyance. Incredulity.

  LEHMAN, H.C. & WITTY, P.A. (1928). Sex differences in credulity. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 23, 356-368.
 
Voir aussi Croyance et Superstition
Indémontrable : Se dit d'un énoncé (ou d'une proposition) que l'on ne peut confronter aux faits, soit : 1) parce qu'il est flou ou imprécis; 2) soit parce qu'il a un caractère général ou universel et joue, de ce fait, un rôle essentiel (axiome) au sein d'une théorie.

 
Indépendance : État d'une personne ou d'un organisme (science, la presse, etc. ) qui agit selon ses propres règles et principes, donc à l'abri des influences indues d'autrui.

Formes d'indépendance
Indépendance psychologique Indépendance de la recherche Indépendance politique
Indépendance de la presse    
 
Indépendance (sur le plan psychologique) : Qui n'est pas dépendant d'autrui, est donc en mesure d'accomplir seul les tâches du quotidien, de ses études, de son travail, etc. = autonomie. /dépendance. *Isolement. Independence.

  TURNBULL, A.P. & TURNBULL, H.R. (1985). Developing independence. Journal of Adolescent Health Care, 6, 108-119.
Indépendance de la presse : Voir Presse.
Indépendance de la recherche/des études : Voir Étude indépendante et critères de Scientificité.
Indépendance politique :

  COURTOIS, C.-P., MAROIS, G., ROUSSEAU, G. & SABOURIN, P. (2014). Indépendance : Les conditions du renouveau. Montréal : VLB.
Voir aussi Québec et Souveraineté
Indes/Indien : Culture. India.

  TIDRICK, K. (1973). Skin shade and need for achievement in a multiracial society : Jamaica, Indies. Journal of Social Psychology, 89 (1), 25-33.  SING, K. & AGRAWAL, P. (2007). Masculinity and femininity among working women in Indian urban culture. Journal of Human Ecology, 21 (2), 135-138. [PDF]
O'FLAHERTY, W. & DERRETT, J. (Eds.). (1978). The concept of duty in South Asia. Delhi, India : Vikas. SAVANI, K., MARKUS, H.R. & CONNER, A.L. (2008). Let your preference be your guide ? Preferences and choices are more tightly linked for North Americans than for Indians. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 95, 861-876. [PDF]
ADAIR, J.G., PUHAN, B.N. & VOHRA, N. (1993). Indigenization of psychology : Empirical assessment of progress in Indian research. International Journal of Psychology, 28, 149-169. SUEDFELD, P. & JHANGIANI, R. (2009). Cognitive management in an enduring international rivalry : The case of India and Pakistan. Political Psychology, 30, 937-951.
VAN WESSEL, M. (2004). Talking about consumption : How an Indian middle class dissociates from middle-class life. Cultural Dynamics, 16, 93-116. RAMAM, R.S. (2013). An exploration of androgyny in Indian women entrepreneurs. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 133, 304-309. [PDF]
Voir aussi Culture
Index : Voir Index des auteurs de ce cite ou Index des revues scientifiques de ce site ou Index de citation scientifique.
Index de masse corporelle : IMC et obésité. Body mass index.

  KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A., KARLSSON, P., STOLT, M. & RÖSSNER, S. (1989). The predictive validity of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 441-453.
KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A. BOSTRÖM, G. & RÖSSNER, S. (1990). Influence of body image on estimation of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice, 10 (S), 155-158.
Indexer : Se dit d'une mémoire dans laquelle l'information est stockée selon un ordre temporel et spatial (mémoire épisodique). EX: La plupart des gens se souviennent du lieu et du moment de leur première relation sexuelle. = indexation. Indexical, indexicality.

  PERRY, J. (1979). The problem of the essential indexical. Nous, 13, 3-21.
DUTTA, A. & NAIRNE, J.S. (1993). The separability of space and time : dimensional interaction in the memory trace. Memory & Cognition, 21, 440-448. [PDF]
CHALMERS, D.J. (2004). Imagination, indexicality, and intensions. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 68, 182-90, 2004.
Indexicalité : En ethnométhodologie, désigne la propriété d'un mot, d'une expression ou d'un texte qui n'a de sens que dans le contexte où il a été produit.

 
Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology : Revue scientifiquede psychologie. = Indian J Clin Psychol.
WHITEBREAD, J. & McGOWN, A. (1994). The treatment of bulimia nervosa what is effective : A meta-analysis. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 21, 32-44.

Indian Journal of Psychology : Revue scientifique de psychologie.
BHATNAGAR, M. & SEN, A. (1973). The effect of the Von-Restorff phenomenon on different temporal positions in serial learning. Indian Journal of Psychology, 48 (4), 44-52.

Indicateur : Ce que l'on peut observer et mesurer, et qui permet de ce fait de décomposer et d'opérationnaliser la variable dépendante (Y) d'une recherche. En psychologie, les indicateurs sont souvent des comportements, des réponses à un test ou à un questionnaire ou des réponses physiologiques du sujet. EX: mordre est un indicateur de la variable "agressivité"; donner un coup de poing en est un autre. Indicateur, opérationnaliser et paramètre ( ): indicateur principal, indicateur secondaire. Indicator.

Exemples Indicateurs Paramètres
Pleurer Fréquence
Comportement d'aide Durée

  BELIN, E. & MONTEIL, J.M. (1999). Functional proximity as an indicator of interpersonal attraction : Pilot studies. International Review of Social Psychology, 12, 7-24.
TARDIF, J. (2004). Un passage obligé dans la planification de l'évaluation des compétences : déterminer des indicateurs progressifs et terminaux de développement (1ère et 2e partie). Pédagogie Collégiale, 18 (1), 13-27. [PDF]
MORELLET, N., GAILLARD, J.M., HEWISON, A.J.M., BALLON, P., BOSCARDI, Y., DUNCAN. P., KLEIN, F. & MAILLARD, D. (2007). Indicators of ecological change : new tools for managing populations of large herbivores. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44, 634-643. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variable dépendante et Opérationnaliser
Indicateur principal : Indicateur qui permet d'évaluer ou de mesurer la variable dépendante d'une recherche (Y). Dans une recherche, il peut y avoir plusieurs indicateurs principaux. EX : mordre est un indicateur de la variable agressivité; donner un coup de poing en est un autre. = Y principal.

Exemples Variable Y Indicateur principal
Réaction à l'envahissement du territoire Rapprocher ses efftes personnels
Attraction Sourire

  Voir aussi Indicateur et Opérationnaliser
Indicateur secondaire : Indicateur noté par le chercheur, mais qui n'est pas destiné à évaluer ou à mesurer sa variable dépendante (Y), mais qui peut néanmoins faire l'objet d'un examen. EX : L'hésitation des sujets dans une recherche visant à montrer l'effet du sexe sur le conformisme. Il s'agit de comportements dit "concomitants" qui sont souvent associés à la variable dépendante. Même s'ils sont moins importants que les indicateurs principaux, ces indicateurs doivent cependant faire l'objet d'une analyse statistique secondaire, analyse qui mène parfois à une découverte. Indicateur secondaire et analyse statistique secondaire. = Y secondaire.

Exemples Variable Y Indicateur secondaire
Conformisme Hésitation
COmportement d'aide Sourire

  Voir aussi Indicateur et Opérationnaliser
Indice : Le mot a trois acceptions voisines : a) Signe ou stimulus observable qui indique ou annonce avec une probabilité x l'apparition d'un phénomène observable ou inobservable. Le symptôme est un indice qui indique ou annonce l'apparition d'une maladie physique ou mentale . En conditionnement opérant, le stimulus discrimatif joue le rôle d'indice en signalant au sujet la contingence. Il en va de même du stimulus conditionnel en conditionnement répondant, qui annonce l'apparition probable du stimulus inconditionnel. EX: L'arrivée des hirondelles est un indice du printemps. Un signe ne peut jouer le rôle d'indice que s'il est fortement associé à un phénomème donné. = signe avant-coureur, prédicteur, signal. b) En cognition, l'indice est un stimulus qui favorise le rappel. = indice de rappel. Cue. c) Dans les sciences sociales, mais surtout en économie, l'indice est un score globale qui intègre plusieurs indicateurs. EX: Indice des prix à la consommation. Cue.

Types d'indice
Indice d Indices d'influence scientifique Indice des prix à la consommation
Indices binoculaires de profondeur Indice de rappel Indices monoculaires de profondeur
 

  a
SPIVEY, M., RIDCHARSON, D. & FITVENA, S. (2004). Thinking outside the brain : Spatial inidices to visual and linguistic information. In J. Henderson &. F. Ferreira. (Eds.), The interface of vision language and action. New York : Psychology Press.
Voir aussi Symptôme
b
Voir aussi Indice de rappel
c
 
Voir aussi Indicateur
Indice d : Voir Degré de l'effet.

Indice d Interprétation
< 0.10 % Pas de différence
< 0.11 d 0.35 % Petite différence
< 0.36 d 0.65 % Différence moyenne
< 0.66 d 1.00 % Grande différence
> 1.00 % Très grande différence
 

 

Indices binoculaires de profondeur : Ensemble d'indices que le système perceptif utile pour évaluer les distances.

 
Indice de rappel : Voir Rappel. Cued recall.
Indices d'influence scientifique : Mesure de la valeur d'une revue scientifique, et partant de la qualité des chercheurs qui publient leurs articles dans ces revues. Cet indice, inventé par Garfield, est calculé chaque année par l'Institute for Scientific Information pour chaque revue qui fait l'objet d'une évaluation. Le classement des revues qui en résulte est publié dans le Journal Citation Report. Ce classement a une grande importance en science car il sert souvent de critères d'évaluation pour déterminer l'octroi des subventions de recherche, les promotions au sein du corps professoral, les prix et les bourses (et même les Prix Nobel). L'indice est calculé sur une période de deux ans. Par exemple, l'indice 2008 pour une revue donnée est calculé selon l'équation suivante A/B, où A équivaut au nombre de fois que des articles publiés durant la période 2006-2007 sont cités en références dans l'ensemble des revues indexées durant l'année 2008, tandis que B équivaut au nombre d'articles publiés dans la période 2006-2007. Indice d'influuence, revue scientifique et Journal Citation Report. = indice de la valeur des revues scientifiques, indice de citation. Science Citation Index, Impact factor, IF.
  GARFIELD, E. (1955). Citation indexes for science : A new dimension in documentation through association of ideas. Science, 122 (3159), 108-111. [PDF] LOWY, C. (1997). Impact factor limits funding. Lancet, 350 (9083), 1035.
GARFIELD, E. (1972). Citation analysis as a tool in journal evaluation. Science, 178 (4060), 471-479. [PDF] GARFIELD, E. (1998). Long-term vs. short-term journal impact : Does it matter ? The Scientist 12 (3), 10-20. [PDF]
GARFIELD, E. (1989). Delayed recognition in scientific discovery: citation frequency analysis aids the search for case histories. Current Contents, 23, 3-9. GARFIELD, E. (1998) From Citation Indexes to Informetrics : Is the tail now wagging the dog ? International Journal of Libraries & Information Studies, 48 (2), 67-80.
GARFIELD, E. (1990). How ISI selects journals for coverage : quantitative and qualita-tive considerations. In: Essays of an information scientist.(Vol 13, pp. 185-193). Philadelphia : ISI Press. GARFIELD, E. (1999). Journal impact factor : a brief review. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 161 (8), 979-980.
HANSSON, S. (1995). Impact factor as a misleading tool in evaluation of medical journals. Lancet, 346 (8979), 906. WHITEHOUSE, G.H. (2001). Impact factors : Facts and myths. European Radiology, 12, 715-717.
GARFIELD, E. (1996). How can impact factors be improved ? British Medical Journal, 313 (7054), 411-413. [PDF] SAHA, S. SAINT, S. & CHRISTAKIS, D.A. (2003). Impact factor : a valid measure of journal quality ? Journal of the Medical Library Association, 91 (1), 42-46.
   LEYDESDORFF, L. & BORNMANN, L. (2011). How fractional counting of citations affects the impact factor: Normalization in terms of differences in citation potentials among fields of science. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 62 (2), 217-229.
SEGLEN, P.O. (1997). Why the impact factor of journals should not be used for evaluating research. British Medical Journal, 314 (7079), 498-502. SONUGA-BARKE, E.J.S. (2012). Editorial. "holy grail" or"siren's song" ? : the dangers for the field of child psychology and psychiatry of over-focusing on the journal impact factor. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 53 (9), 915-917.
Voir aussi Scientométrie, Revue scientifique et Journal Citation Report
Indices des prix à la consommation :

 
Indices monoculaires de profondeur :
Indien : Voir Indes ou Autochtone/Amérindien.
Indigence : État général de manque, tant sur le plan psychologique (besoins) que sur le plan économique. Indigence, besoin physiologiques et pauvreté.

 
Individu : Organisme humain ou animal. Contrairement au mot personne, ce terme désigne aussi bien un animal qu'un humain. = specimen. *personne ( ): Voir tableau ci-bas. Individual.

Types d'individu
Individu-cible Individu rejeté Individu vedette
 
 

  LUCHINS, A.S. & LUCHINS, E.H. (1999). Somme approaches to studying the individual. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 5 (1), 82-90.
Voir aussi Différences individuelles
Individu(s) (Différence entre les...) : Dans une population donnée, ensemble des caractéristiques qui distinguent les individus, tant sur le plan physique que psychologique. Différence entre les individus et personnalité. = Différences individuelles. Individual differences.

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LUSCH, R.F. & SERPKENCI, R.R. (1990). Personal differences, job tension, job outcomes, and store performance : A study of retail managers. Journal of Marketing, 54 (1), 85-101. NAVARRO, D.J., GRIFFITHS, T.L., STEYVERS, M. & LEE, M.D. (2006). Modeling individual differences using Dirichlet processes. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 50, 101-122. [PDF]
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SIMPSON, J.A. & GANGESTAD, S.W. (1991). Individual differences in sociosexuality : Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 60, 870-883. [PDF]  MUNDY, P., BLOCK, J., VAUGHAN VAN HECKE, A., DELGADO, C., PARLADE, M. & POMERAS, Y. (2007). Individual differences in the development of joint attention in infancy. Child Development, 78, 938-954.
GALE, A. & EYSENCK, M.W. (Eds.). (1992). Handbook of individual differences : Biological perspectives. Chichester : Wiley UZIEL, L. (2007). Individual differences in the social facilitation effect : A review and meta-analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 579-601. [PDF]
ENGLE, R.W., CANTOR, J. & CARULLO, J.J. (1992). Individual differences in WM and comprehension : A test of four hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 18 (5), 972-992. [PDF] UNSWORTH, N. & ENGLE, R.W. (2007). The nature of individual differences in working memory capacity : Active maintenance in primary memory and controlled search from secondary memory. Psychological Review, 114 (1), 104-132. [PDF]
LUBINSKI, D. & THOMPSON, T. (1993). Species and individual differences in communication based on private states. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 16, 627-642 COLFLESH, G.J.H. & CONWAY, A.R.A (2007). Individual differences in working memory capacity and divided attention in dichotic listening. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 699-703. [PDF]
BUNCE, S.C., LARSEN, R.J. & CRUZ, M. (1993). Individual differences in the excitation transfer effect. Personality & Individual Differences, 15 (5), 507-514. [PDF] FRIEDMAN, N.P., MIYAKE, A., YOUNG, S.E., DEFRIES, J.C., CORLEY, R.P. & HEWITT, J.K. (2008). Individual differences in executive functions are almost entirely genetic in origin. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 137 (2), 201-225. [PDF]
CANTOR, J. & ENGLE, R.W. (1993). Working-memory capacity as long-term memory activation : An individual-differences approach. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19 (5), 1101-1114. [PDF] SHAMOSH, N.A., DEYOUNG, C.G., GREEN, A.E., REIS, D.L., JOHSON, M.R., CONWAY, A.R.A., ENGLE, R.W., BRAVER, T.S. & GRAY, J.R. (2008). Individual differences in delay discounting : Relation to intelligence, working memory, and anterior prefrontal cortex. Psychological Science, 9, 904-911. [PDF]
WILSON, C.E. & SMITH, E.O. (1993). Behavioral differences in yellow baboon males during intergroup encounters. American Journal of Physical Anthropology Supplement, 16, 209. DECARO, M.S., THOMAS, R. & BEILOCK, S.L. (2008). Individual differences in category learning : Sometimes less working memory capacity is better than more. Cognition, 107, 284-294. [PDF]
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BARTHOLOMEW, K. (1994). The assessment of individual differences in adult attachment. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 23-27. DE SMEDT, B., JANSENN, R., BOUWENS, K., VERSCHAFFEL, L., BOETS, B. & GHESQIÈRE, P. (2009). Working memory and individual differences in mathematics achievement : A longitudinal study from first grade to second grade. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology 103, 186-201. [PDF]
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JURDEN, F. H. (1995). Individual differences in working memory and complex cognition. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 93-102.  
KUIPER, N.A., MCKENZIE, S.D. & BELANGER, K.A. (1995). Cognitive appraisals and individual differences in sense of humor : Motivational and affective implications. Personality & Individual Differences, 19, 359-372.  SALTHOUSE, T.A. (2010). Is flanker-based inhibition related to age? Identifying specific influences of individual differences on neurocognitive variables. Brain & Cognition, 73, 51-61. [PDF]
LUBINSKI, D. & BENBOW, C.P. (1995). Optimal development of talent : Respond educationally to individual differences in personality. Educational Forum, 59, 381-392. RAGHUBAR, K.P., BARNES, M.A. & HECHT, S.A. (2010). Working memory and mathematics : A review of developmental, individual difference, and cognitive approaches. Learning & Individual Differences, 20, 110-122. [PDF]
CASEY, M.B. (1996). Understanding individual differences in spatial ability within females: A nature/ nurture interactionist framework. Developmental Review, 16, 241-260. WATKINS, C.D., JONES, B.C. & DeBRUINE, L.M. (2010). Individual differences in dominance perception : Dominant men are less sensitive to facial cues of male dominance. Personality & Individual Differences, 49 (8), 967-971
CONWAY, A.R.A. & ENGLE, R.W. (1996). Individual differences in working memory capacity : More evidence for a general capacity theory. Memory, 4 (6), 577-590. [PDF] ZHU, B., CHEN, C., LOFTUS, E.F., LIN, C., HE, Q., CHEN, C., LI, H., MOYSZIS, R., LESSARD, J. & DONG, Q. (2010). Individual differences in false memory from misinformation : Personality characteristics and their interactions with cognitivie abilities. Personality & Individual Difference, 48, 889-894. [PDF]
STANKOV, L. & CRAWFORD, J.D. (1996). Confidence judgments in studies of individual differences. Personality & Individual Differences, 21, 971-976. PENKE, L. (2010). Bridging the gap between modern evolutionary psychology and the study of individual differences. In D.M. Buss & P.H. Hawley (Eds.), The evolution of personality and individual differences (pp. 243-279). New York, NY : Oxford University Press.
LUBINSKI, D. (1996). Applied individual differences research and its quantitative methods. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 2, 187-203. [PDF] ZHU, B., CHEN, C., LOFTUS, E.F., LIN, C., HE, Q., CHEN, C., LI, H., XUE, G., LU, Z. & DONG, Q. (2010). Individual differences in false memory from misinformation : cognitive factors. Memory, 8 (5), 543-550. [PDF]
EINON, D. (1997). Individual differences in age preferences in mates : taking a closer look. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 20, 137-138. HALLETT, D., NUNES, T. & BRYANT, P. (2010). Individual differences in conceptual and procedural knowledge when learning fractions. Journal of Educational Psychology 102, 395-406.
ANDERSON, K., COOPER, H.M. & KAMURA, L. (1997). Individual differences and attitudes toward rape : A meta- analytic review. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 295-315. BOAG, S. & TILIOPOULOS, N. (Eds.) (2011). Personality and individual differences : Theory, assessment and application. New York : Nova.
HENDERSON-KING, E. & HENDERSON-KING, D. (1997). Media effects on women's body esteem : Social and individual difference factors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 (5), 399-417. YOUNG, L. & SAXE, R. (2011). Moral universals and individual differences. Emotion Review, 3 (3), 323-324. [PDF]
STORMO, K.J., LANG, A.R. & STRIZKE, W.G.K. (1997). Attributions about acquaintance rape : The role of alcohol and individual differences. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27, 279-305. LIDSTONE, J., MEINS, E. & FERNYHOUGH, C. (2011). Individual differences in children's private speech : Consistency across tasks, timepoints, and contexts. Cognitive Development, 26, 203-213. [PDF]
BOUCHARD, T.J., LYKKEN, D.T., McGUE, M., SEGAL, N.L. & TEELLEGEN, A. (1998). Sources of human psychological differences : the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart. Science, 250, 223-228. WANG, W.-C. & YONELINAS, A.P. (2012). Familiarity is related to conceptual implicit memory : An examination of individual differences. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 19, 1154-1164. [PDF]
ZINBARG, R.E. & MOHLMAN, J. (1998). Individual differences in the acquisition of affectively-valenced associations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 1024-1040. BREWER, G.A. & UNSWORTH, N. (2012). Individual differences in the effects of retrieval from long-term memory. Journal of Memory & Language, 66, 407-415. [PDF]
WILSON, D.S., NEAR, D.C. & MILLER, R.R. (1998). Individual differences in machiavellianism as a mix of cooperative and exploitative strategies. Evolution & Human Behavior, 19, 203-212. MARTIN, J.G.A., FESTA-BIANCHET, M., CÔTé, S.D. & BLUMSTEIN, D.T. (2013). Detecting between-individual differences in hind-foot length in populations of wild mammals. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 91, 118-123. [PDF]
GREENWALD, A.G., McGHEE, D.E. & SCHWARTZ, J.K.L. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition : The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 1464-1480. UNSWORTH, N. & McMILLAN, B.D., BREWER, G.A. & SPILLERS, G.J. (2013). Individual differences in everyday retrospective memory failures. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 2, 7-13. [PDF]
HUGHES, C. & CUTTING, A. (1999). Nature, nurture and individual differences in early understanding of mind. Psychological Science, 10, 429-432. LEE, J.J. & CHABRIS, C.F. (2013). General cognitive ability and the psychological refractory period : Individual differences in the mind's bottleneck. Psychological Science, 24 (7), 1226-1233. [PDF]
CONWAY, A.R.A., TUHOLSKI, S.W., SHISLER, R. & ENGLE, R.W. (1999). The effect of memory load on negative priming : An individual differences investigation. Memory & Cognition, 27, 1042-1050. [PDF]  
AVERILL, J.R. (1999). Individual differences in emotional creativity : Structure and correlates. Journal of Personality, 67, 331-371.  
ROZIN, P., HAIDT, J., MCCAULEY, C., DUNLOP, L. & ASHMORE, M. (1999). Individual differences in disgust sensitivity : comparisons and evaluations of paper-and-pencil versus behavioral measures. Journal of Research in Personality, 33 (3), 330-351.  
GIBBONS, F.X. & BUUNK, B.P. (1999). Individual differences in social comparison : development of a scale of social comparison orientation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 76 (1), 129-142. [PDF] PUGH, K.R., FROST, S.J., ROTHMAN, D.L., HOEFT, F., DEL TUFO, S.N., MASON G.F., MOLFESE, P.J., MENCL, W.E., GRIGORENKO, E.L., LANDI, N., PRESTON J.L., JACOBSEN, L., SEIDENBERG, M.S. & FULBRIGHT, R.K. (2014). Glutamate and choline levels predict individual differences in reading ability in emergent readers. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (11), 4082-4089. [PDF]
Voir aussi Interaction gène-environnement, Personnalité et Différences
 
   
Individu-cible : Expression qui sert à désigner l'individu qui fait l'objet d'une étude, d'une observation (la cible), et qui constitue le point de référence de ce que l'on cherche à expliquer. Cette expression est commode car elle permet de distinguer l'individu dont on cherche à analyser le comportement, des autres individus susceptibles d'influencer l'objet d'étude. On dit aussi groupe-cible. = participant ou sujet d'une recherche.

  Voir aussi Individu
Individu rejeté : Dans un groupe, individu mis à l'écart, qui reçoit donc peu d'attention ou qui est l'objet de nombreux comportements agressifs (harcèlement) de la part des pairs. Individu rejeté, ostrascime et isolement social. = tête de turc, bouc émissaire, mouton noir. Peer reject, peer neglect, unpopular children, controversial children.

  TYNE, T.F. & GEARY, W. (1980). Patterns of acceptance-rejection among elementary school students. Journal of Child Study, 10, 179-187. PARKER, J.G. & ASHER, S.R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment : are low-accepted children at risk. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357-389.
VOSK, B., FOREHAND, R., PARKER, J. & RICKARD, K. (1982). A multimethod comparison of popular and unpopular children. Developmental Psychology, 18, 571-575. CAIRNS, R.B., CAIRNS, B.D., NECKERMANN, H.J., GUEST, S. & GARIÉPY, J.-L. (1988). Social networks and aggressive behavior : Peer support or peer rejection. Developmental Psychology, 24, 815-823.
VIRTUE, M.S. & FRENCH, D.C. (1984). Peer and teacher ratings of socially neglected and rejected fourth and fifth grade boys. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5, 13-22. WENTZEL, K.R. & ASHER, S.R. (1995). Academic lives of neglected, rejected, popular, and controversial children. Child Development, 66, 754-763.
  SMART-RICHMAN, L. & LEARY, M.R. (2009). Reactions to discrimination, stigmatization, ostracism, and other forms of interpersonal rejection : A multimotive model. Psychological Review, 116 (2), 365-383. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pairs, Individu et Influence des pairs
 
Individu vedette : Dans un groupe, individu qui reçoit beaucoup d'attention ou qui est l'objet de peu de comportements agressifs de la part des autres individus du groupe (pairs). = individu populaire, vedette sociométrique, chou-chou du prof, préféré de la maîtresse. Peer support, popular children.

  VOSK, B., FOREHAND, R., PARKER, J. & RICKARD, K. (1982). A multimethod comparison of popular and unpopular children. Developmental Psychology, 18, 571-575.
CAIRNS, R.B., CAIRNS, B.D., NECKERMANN, H.J., GUEST, S. & GARIÉPY, J.-L. (1988). Social networks and aggressive behavior : Peer support or peer rejection. Developmental Psychology, 24, 815-823.
TOWNSEND, M.A.R., McCRACKEN, H.E. & WILTON, K.M. (1988). Popularity and intimacy as determinants of psychological well-being in adolescent friendships. Journal of Early Adolescence, 8, 42-436.
WENTZEL, K.R. & ASHER, S.R. (1995). Academic lives of neglected, rejected, popular, and controversial children. Child Development, 66, 754-763.
RODKIN, P.C., FARMER, T.W., PEARL, R. & VAN ACKER, R. (2000). Heterogeneity of popular boys : antisocial and prosocial configurations. Development Psychology, 36 (1), 14-24.
Voir aussi Attention sociale
Formes d'individualsme
Individualisme philosophoque Individualisme sociale Individualisme méthodologique
 
Individualisme (philosophique) : Doctrine philosophique qui soutient que le monde mental (l'esprit et son contenu) est entièrement déterminé par le monde physique. L'individualisme est un matérialiste. Individualism.

  BURGE, T. (1979). Individualism and the mental. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 4, 73-122.
CIALDINI, R.B., WOSINKA, W., BARRETT, D.W., BUTNER, J. & GORNIK-DUROSE, M. (1999). Compliance with a request in two cultures : The differential influence of social proof and commitment/consistency on collectivists and individualists. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 25, 1242-1253.
BUNGE, M. (2000). Ten modes of individualism - none of which works - and their alternatives. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 30, 384-406.
SIERRA-SIEGERT, T.M. & DAVID, A.S. (2007). Depersonalization and individualism : the effect of culture on symptom profiles in panic disorder. The Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 195, 989-995.
Individualisme (sociale) : Type de société/culture ou de groupe dont les valeurs reposent davantage sur la compétition et l'accumulation des biens (que sur la coopération, l'altruisme et le partage + équitable des ressources) et sur les droits individuels (que sur les droits collectifs). Sur le plan individuel, le mot désigne l'attitude égoïste d'un certain nombre d'individus, qui préfèrent vivre pour soi plutôt qu'en vertu des valeurs du groupe (famille, religion, état, etc.). /anti-individualisme, collectivisme. Individualism.

  BJORK, D.W. (1979). The Victorian flight : Russell Conwell and the crisis of American individualism. Washington, DC: University Press of America. GOUVEIA, V.V. & ROS, M. (2000). Hofstede and Schwartz's models for classifying individualism at the cultural level : their relation to macro-social and macro-economic variables. Psicothema, 12 (S), 25-33. [PDF]
DUMONT, L. (1983). Essais sur l'individualisme : Une perspective anthropologique sur l'idéologie moderne. Paris : Le Seuil. MESQUITA, B. (2001). Emotions in collectivist and individualist contexts. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 68-74. [PDF]
SPENCE, J.T. (1985). Achievement american style : The rewards and costs of individualism. American Psychologist, 40, 1285-1295. TAFARODI, R.W. & SMITH, A.J. (2001). Individualism-collectivism and depressive sensitivity to life events : the case of Malaysian sojourners. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 25, 73-88.
WAGNER, J.A. & MOCH, M.K. (1986). Individualism-collectivism : Concepts and measure. Group & Organization Studies, 11, 280-303. KIRSH, G.A. & KUIPER, N.A. (2002). Individualism and relatedness themes in the context of depression, gender, and a self-schema model of emotion. Canadian Psychology, 43, 76-90.
BURGE, T. (1986). Individualism and psychology. Philosophical Review, 95, 3-45. CHEN, C.C., PENG, M.W. & SAPARITO, P.A. (2002). Individualism, collectivism, and opportunism : A cultural perspective on transaction cost economics. Journal of Management, 28 (4), 567-583. [PDF]
HUI, C.H. (1988). Measurement of individualism-collectivism. Journal of Research in Personality, 22, 17-36. OYSERMAN, D., COON, H.M. & KEMMELMEIRER, M. (2002). Rethinking individualism and collectivism : Evaluation of theoretical assumptions and meta-analyses. Psychological Bulletin, 128 (1), 3-72. [PDF]
SCHWARTZ, S.H. (1990). Individualism-collectivism : Critique and proposed refinements. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 21, 139-157. TJOSVOLD, D., LAW, K.S. & SUN, H. (2003). Collectivistic and individualistic values : Their effects on group dynamics and productivity in China. Group Decision & Negotiation, 12, 243-263.
EGAN, F. (1991). Must psychology be individualistic. The Philosophical Review, 100 (2), 179-203. [PDF]  
SHAPIRO, L.A. (1993). Content, kinds, and individualism in Marr's theory of vision. The Philosophical Review, 102 (4), 489-513. [PDF] DUBOIS, N. & BEAUVOIS, J.-L. (2005). Normativeness and individualism. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 123-146.
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KIM, U. (1994). Individualism and collectivism : Conceptual clarification and elaboration. In U. Kim, H. C. Triandis, Ç. Kagitçibasi, S.-C. Choi & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism : Theory, method, and applications (pp. 19-40). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications. NESDALE, D. & NAITO, M. (2005). Individualism-collectivism and the attitudes to school bullying of Japanese & Australian students. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 36, 1-20.
SCHWARTZ, S.H. (1994). Beyond individualism/collectivism : New cultural dimensions of values. In U. Kim, H.C. Triandis, C. Kagitcibasi, S.-C. Choi & G. Yoon (Eds.), Individualism and collectivism : Theory, method and applications (pp. 85-119). Newbury Park, CA : Sage. PROBST, T. & LAWLER, J. (2006). Cultural values as moderators of the outcomes of job insecurity : The role of individualism and collectivism. Applied Psychology : An International Review, 55, 234-254.
TRIANDIS, H.C. (1995). Individualism and collectivism. Boulder, CO : Westview Press.  
MOORMAN, R.H. & BLAKELY, G.L. (1995). Individualism-collectivism as an individual difference predictor of organizational citizenship behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16 (2), 127-142. [PDF] BREWER, M.B. & CHEN, Y-R. (2007). Where (who) are collectives in collectivism ? Toward conceptual clarification of individualism and collectivism. Psychological Review, 114 (1), 133-151. [PDF]
WAGNER, J.A. (1995). Studies of individualism-collectivism : Effects on cooperation in groups. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 152-172. OYSERMAN, D. & LEE, S. (2008). Does culture influence what and how we think ? Effects of priming individualism and collectivism. Psychological Bulletin, 134, 311-342. [PDF]
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SCHWARTZ, S.H. & ROS, M. (1995). Values in the West : A theoretical and empirical challenge to the individualism-collectivism cultural dimension. World Psychology, 1, 99-122. TJOSVOLD, D., WU, P. & CHEN, Y.F. (2010). The effects of collectivist and individualistic values on conflict and decision-making : An Experiment in China. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 40 (11), 2904-2926.
WAGNER, J.A. (1995). Studies of individualism-collectivism : Effects on co-operation in groups. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 152-172.  KOBAYASKI, E., KERBO, H. & SHARP, S.F. (2010). Differences in individualistic and collectivistic tendencies among college students in Japan and the United States. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 51 (1-2), 59-84. [PDF]
TRIANDIS, H.C. & SINGELIS, T.M. (1998). Training to Recognize Individual Differences in Collectivism and Individualism within Culture. International Journal of Intercultural Relations 22, 35-47.  
CHEN, C.C., CHEN, X.P. & MEINDL, J.R. (1998). How can co-operation be fostered? The cultural effects of individualism and collectivism. Academy of Management Review, 23 (2), 285-304. [PDF] CHIAO, J.Y. & BLIZINSKY, K.D. (2010). Culture-gene coevolu- tion of individualism-collectivism and the serotonin transporter gene. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 277, 529-537.
TRIANDIS, H.C. & GELFAND, M.J. (1998). Converging measurement of horizontal and vertical individualism and collectivism. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 118-128.  
INFANTINO, L. (1998). Individualism in modern thought. from Adam Smith to Hayek. London : Routledge EISENBERG, D.T.A. & HAYES, M.G. (2010). Testing the null hypothesis : comments on "Culture-gene coevolution of individualism-collectivism and the serotonin transporter gene". Proceedings of the Royal Society B, doi:10.1098. [PDF]
CIALDINI, R.B., WOSINKA, W., BARRETT, D.W., BUTNER, J. & GORNIK-DUROSE, M. (1999). Compliance with a request in two cultures : The differential influence of social proof and commitment/consistency on collectivists and individualists. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 1242-1253.  
DOISE, W. (1999). L'individualisme comme représentation collective, In J.-C. Deschamps, J.-F. Morales, D. Paez et S. Worchel (Eds.), L'identité sociale. (pp. 195-212). Grenoble : Presses universitaires de Grenoble.  
Voir aussi Compétition, Coopération et Collectivisme
Individualisme méthodologique : Doctrine philosophique qui considère que l'explication ultime des phénomènes sociaux réside dans l'effet de composition des comportements individuels : les phénomènes sociaux sont donc la conséquence des comportements individuels, de leur aggrégation. = actionnisme, praxéologie. /holisme. ( ): Boudon, Skinner. Methodological individualism.

  WATKINS J.W. (1952). The principle of methodological individualism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 3 (2), 186-189. JONES, T. (1996). Methodological individualism in proper perspective. Behavior & Philosophy, 24, 119-128.
WATKINS, J.W.N. (1955). Methodological individualism : a reply. Philosophy of Science, 22, 58-62. WALSH, A. (1997). Methodological individualism and vertical integration in the social sciences. Behavior & Philosophy, 25 (2), 121-136. [PDF]
WATKINS J.W.N. (1959). The two theses of methodological individualism. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 9, 319-320. UDEHN, L. (2001). Methodological individualism : Background, history and meaning. London and New York : Routledge. [PDF]
AGASSI, J. (1960). Methodological individualism. British Journal of Sociology, 11 (3), 244-270. UDEHN, L. (2002). The changing face of methodological individualism. Annual Review of Sociology, 28, 479-507. [PDF]
LUKES, S. (1968). Methodological individualism reconsidered. British Journal of Sociology, 19 (2), 119-129. [PDF] CRAMER, C. (2002). Homo economicus goes to war : Methodological individualism, rational choice and the political economy of war. World Development, 30 (11), 1845-1864. [PDF]
BOUDON, R. (1977). Effet pervers et ordre social. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.  
UDÉHN, L. (1987). Methodological individualism : A critical appraisal. Uppsala : Diss. HODGSON, G.M. (2007). Meanings of methodological individualism. Journal of Economic Methodology, 14 (2), 211-226. [PDF]
SENSAT, J. (1988). Methodological individualism and marxism. Economics & Philosophy, 4, 189-219 KRUEGER, J.I. (2008). Methodological individualism in experimental games : not so easily dismissed. Acta Psychologica, 128, 398-401.
ANSART, P. (1990). Les sociologies contemporaines. Paris : Seuil.  
ARROW, K. (1994). Methodological individualism and social knowledge. American Economic Review, 84 (2), 1-9. [PDF]  
LAURENT, A. (1994). L'individualisme méthodologique. Paris : Que sais-je?/Presses Universitaires de France.  
Voir aussi Holisme et Doctrine
Individuation : Le mot a deux sens voisins : a) Chez Jung, processus de formation de l'individu comme être distinct de l'inconscient collectif. b). Processsus d'acquisition de l'identité. = être soi, se distinguer des autres.

  a
Voir aussi Jung
b
HANCOCK, P.A. (2003). Individuation : Not merely human-centered but person-specific design. Proceedings of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, 47, 1085-1086.
HANCOCK, P.A., HANCOCK, G.M. & WARM, J.S. (2009). Individuation : the N = 1 revolution Theoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science, 10 (5), 481-488. [PDF]
Voir aussi Déindividualisation
Individuel : Voir Individu (Différence).
Indolence sociale : Qui ne fait aucun effort physique ou intellectuel pour faire ce qu'il a à faire (tâches, travail, devoirs, etc.) ou entreprendre de nouvelles activités (absence d'initiative), et ce malgré la présence d'un modèle facilitateur. Indolence et facilitation sociale. = paresse, nonchalance. Social loafing.
  HUGHSON, T.L., FICHMAN, M. & MORELAND, R.L. (1989). Social loafing and social facilitation : An empirical test of a cognitive-motivational model of performance. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 10, 253-271.
KARAU, S.J. & WILLIAMS, K.D. (1993). Social Loafing : A meta-analytic review and theoretical integration. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 681-706.
Voir aussi Facilitation sociale
Induction : Voir Raisonnement inductif.
Industrial & Organizational Psychology (The...) : Voir TIP : The Industrial and Organizational Psychology
Industrie : Ensemble d'entreprises d'un secteur de production de biens et services.

  Voir aussi Entreprise
Industrie pharmaceutique : Voir Pharmaceutique.
Industrial Psychiatry Journal : Revue scientifique de psychiatrie. Éditeur : Wolters Kluwer.
PRIYAMVADA, R., KUMARI, S., PRAKASH, J. & CHAUDHURY, S. (2009). Cognitive behaviorale therapy in the treatment of social phobia. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 18 (1), 60-64. [PDF]

INFECTION (ITS) - INFÉRER - INFIDéLITé - INFIRMER - INFLUENCE - INFLUX - INFORMATION - INHELDER - INHIBITEUR - INHIBITION - INI
Inégalité : Asymétrie entre deux choses, deux individus. Inequality.

Formes d'inégalité
Inégalités des chances    
Inégalité sociale et économique Inégalité entre les sexes Inégalité ethnique/raciale
 
Inégalité (sociale et économique) : État d'une dyade, d'un groupe, d'une société qui se caractérise par une distribution inégale ou asymétrique des pouvoirs et des ressources, et notamment des revenus. = inégalité sociale, asymétrie sociale, stratification sociale. Social inequality.

  RUNCIMAN, W.G. (1966). Relative deprivation and social justice : a study of attitudes to social inequality in twentieth-century England. London : Routledge & Kegan Paul. CRAHAY, M. (2000). L'école peut-elle être juste et efficace ? De l'égalité des chances à l'égalité des acquis. Bruxelles : De Boeck université.
COLEMAN, J.S., CAMBELL, E.Q., HOBSON, C.J., McPARTLAND, J., MOOD, A.M., WEINFIELD, F.D. & YORK, R.L. (1966). Equality of educational opportunity. Washington, DC : US Office of education. PACKER, C., PUSEY, A.E. & EBERLY, L.E. (2001). Egalitarianism in female African lions. Science, 293, 690-693. [PDF]
JENKS, C. (1972). Inequality : A reassessment of the effect of family and schooling in America. New York : Basic Books. GRUSKY, D.B. (2001). The past, present and future of social inequality. Social stratification : Class, race, and gender. Colorado : Westview Press.
BOUDON, R. (1973). L'inégalité des chances : la mobilité sociale dans les sociétés industrielles. Paris : Armand Collin.  
BLOCK, N.J. & DWORKIN, G. (1976). IQ, heritability, and inequality. In N. J. Block & G. Dworkin (Eds.), The IQ controversy (pp. 410-540). New York : Pantheon Books. ALDERSON, A.S. & NIELSEN, F. (2002). Globalization and the great u-turn : Income inequality Trends in 16 OECD countries. American Journal of Sociology, 107, 1244-1299.
CONABLE, C.W. (1977). Women at Cornell, the myth of equal education. Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press. WEINSTEIN, R.S. (2002). Overcoming inequality in schooling : A call to action for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 30, 21-42.
CURTIS, R. & JACKSON, E. (1977). Inequality and American communities. New York : Academic Press. GRABB, E. (2002). Theories of social inequality : Classical and contemporary perspectives. Toronto : Nelson Thomson.
OAKES, J. (1985). Keeping track. How schools structure inequality. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press. BOBO, L. (2004). Inequalities that endure ?: Racial ideology, American politics, and the peculiar role of social science. In M. Krysan, A. Lewis & T. Forman (Eds.), Changing terrain of race and ethnicity (pp. 13-42). New York : Russell Sage Foundation.
 LAFORTUNE, L. (1985). L'égalité des chances dans l'enseignement... mais pourquoi pas ? Les Cahiers de la Femme, 6 (4), 88-90. BLACK, S.E. & BRAINERD, E. (2004). Importing equality ? The impact of globalization on gender discrimination. Industrial & Labor Relations Review, 57 (4), 540-559. [PDF]
OAKES, J. (1986). Tracking, inequality, and the rhetoric of reform : Why schools don't change. Journal of Education, 168, 60-80. PIKETTY, T. (2004). L'économie des inégalités. Paris : La Découverte.
KLUEGEL, J.R. & SMITH, E.R. (1986). Beliefs about inequality : Americans' views of what is and what ought to be. Hawthorne, NY : Aldine de Gruyter. GOTTFREDSON, L.S. (2004). Intelligence : Is It the epidemiologists' elusive "fundamental cause" of social class inequalities in health ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 86 (1), 174-199. [PDF]
EDNEY, J.J. & BELL. P.A. (1987). Freedom and equality in a simulated commons. Political Psychology, 8, 229-243. FIREBAUGH, G. & GOESLING, B. (2004). Accounting for the Recent Decline in Global Income Inequality. American Journal of Sociology, 124 (1), 283-312
  ALDERSON, A.S. BECKFIELD, J. & & NIELSEN, F. (2005). Exactly how has income inequality changed ? Patterns of distributional change in core societies. International Journal of Comparative Sociology, 46, 405-424.
CURTIS, J., GRABB, E., GUPPY, N. & GILBERT, S. (Eds.) (1988/2004). Social inequality in Canada : Patterns, problems, and policies. Prentice-Hall. SANCHEZ-MAZAS, M. & CASINI, A. (2005). égalité formelle et obstacles informels à l'ascension professionnelle : les femmes et l'effet "plafond de verre". Social Science Information/sur les Sciences Sociales, 44 (1), 141-173.
RAWLS, J. (1991). Une conception kantienne de l'égalité. Dans J. Rajchman et C. West (Dirs.), La pensée américaine contemporaine (p. 309-315). Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. HUBER, E., NIELSEN, F., PRIBBLE, J. & STEPHENS, J.D. (2006). Income inequality and the welfare state in contemporary Latin America. American Sociological Review, 71 (6), 943-963.
KOZOL, J. (1991). Savage inequalities. New York : Crown. NIELSEN, F. (2007). Income inequality in the global economy : The myth of rising world inequality. Harvard College Economics Review, 1 (2), 23-26.
NIELSEN, F. (1994). Income inequality and industrial development : Dualism revisited. American Sociological Review, 59, 654-677. MARSHALL, A.W., OLKIN, I. & BARRY, A. (2010). Inequalities : Theory of majorization and its applications. New York : Springer-Verlag.
COHEN, E.G. & LOTAN, R.A. (1995). Producing equal-status interaction in the heterogeneous classroom. American Educational Research Journal, 32 (1), 99-120. OISHI, S., KESEBIR, S. & DIENER, E. (2011). Income inequality and happiness. Psychological Science, 22 (9), 1095-1100. [PDF]
NIELSEN, F. (1995). Meritocratic and monopoly inequality: A computer simulation of income distribution. Journal of Mathematical Sociology, 20, 319-350. TRACY, J.L. (2011). Emotions of inequality. Science, 333, 289-290
SEN, A. (1995). Inequality reexamined. New York : Russell Sage. BROOKS, R., SCOTT, I.M., MAKLAKOV, A.A., KASUMOVIC, M.M., CLARK A.P. & PENTON-VOAK, I.S. (2011). National income inequality predicts women's preferences for masculinized faces better than health does. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 278, 810-812. [PDF]
ROSANVALLON, P. et FITOUSSI, J.-P. (1996). Le nouvel âge des inégalités. Paris : Le Seuil. SAGUY, T., TAUSCH, N., DOVIDIO, J.F. & PRATTO, F. (2013). The irony of harmony : Intergroup contact can produce false expectations for equality. Psychological Science, 20 (1), 114-121. [PDF]
NIELSEN, F. & WARREN, C.S. (1998). Patterns of income inequality in North Carolina, 1980. Sociological Analysis, 1 (3), 87-112.  
BÉLANGER, F. (1998). L'égalité en emploi dans les commissions scolaires : le portrait d'un secteur traditionnellement féminin. Recherches féministes, 11 (1), 243-251. CARUSO, E.M., VOHS, K.D., BAXTER, B. & WAYTZ, A. (2013). Mere exposure to money increases endorsement of free- market systems and social inequality. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 142 (2), 301-306.
ALDERSON, A.S. & NIELSEN, F. (1999). Inequality, development, and dependence : A reconsideration. American Sociological Review, 64, 606-631. ALDERSON, A.S. & KATZ-GERRO, T. (2016). Compared to whom ? Inequality, social comparison, and happiness in the United States. Social Forces, 95,25-53.
VINSONNEAU, G. (1999). Inégalités sociales et procédés identitaires. Paris : A. Colin. NIELSEN, F. (1994). Inequality and inequity.Social Science Research, 62, 29-35.
Voir aussi Pauvreté, Déterminant socio-économique Salaire, Revenu et Milieu défavorisé
 
Inégalité des chances :

  ROSENFELD, R.A. & NIELSEN, F. (1984). Inequality and careers : A dynamic model of socioeconomic achievement. Sociological Methods & Research, 12, 279-321.
Inégalité des sexes : État d'une dyade, d'un couple, d'un groupe ou d'une société caractérisé par une distribution inégale ou asymétrique des pouvoirs et des ressources entre les hommes et les femmes. Inégalité, genre et double standard. = inégalité sociale, asymétrie. /égalité des sexes. Gender inequality.

  CONABLE, C.W. (1977). Women at Cornell, the myth of equal education. Ithaca, NY : Cornell University Press. HUBER, J. (2007). On the origins of gender inequality. Boulder, CO, USA : Paradigm.
KAHN, A.E., O'LEARY, V.E., KRUELEWITZ, J.E. & LAMM, H. (1980). Equity and equality : Male and female means to a just end. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 1 (2), 173-197. LIPS, H.M. (2007). The gender wage gap : Concrete indicator of women's progress toward equality. In J.W. White (Ed.), Taking sides : Clashing views in gender (pp. 213-219). Dubuque, IA : McGraw-Hill.
EAGLY, A.H., MLADINIC, A. & OTTO, S. (1991). Are women evaluated more favorably than men. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 203-216. BOWLES, H.R. & MCGINN, K.L. (2008). Untapped potential in the study of negotiation and gender inequality in organizations. The Academy of Management Annals, 2 (1), 99-132. [PDF]
  PLAMONDON, G., DESAULNIERS, A. et ROY, N. (2008). Le sexe dans les médias : obstacle aux rapports égalitaires. QUébec : Conseil du Statut de la Femme. [PDF]
TABET, P. (1998). La construction sociale de l'inégalité des sexes. Des outils et des corps. Paris : L'Harmattan/Bibliothèque du féminisme. CHERNEY, I.D. (2009). Égalité dans le monde des sciences : réalité ou fiction ? In G. Galli Carminati (Ed.), La femme guerrière. Le troisième pôle de l'archétype féminin. (pp. 101-125). Florence, IT : Maremmi Editore.
NOSEK, B., BANAJI, M.R. & GREENWALD, A.G. (2002). Math = Male, Me = Female, therefore Math is not equal to me. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83 (1), 44-59. ALLISON, R. & RISMAN, B.J. (2013). A double standard for "Hooking up" : How far have we come toward gender equality ? Social Science Research, 42, 1191-1206. [PDF]
Voir aussi Double standard et Sexisme
Inégalité entre les ethnies/races/pays : état d'un groupe ou d'une société caractérisé par une distribution inégale ou asymétrique des pouvoirs et des ressources entre le différentes ethnies/races. /équité. Inequity.

  BOBO, L.D. & MASSAGLI, M.P. (2004). Stereotypes and Urban Inequality. In A. O'Connor, C. Tilly & L.D. Bobo (Eds.), Urban inequality : Evidence from four cities (pp. 89-162). New York : Russell Sage Foundation.
BOBO, L.D. (2004). Inequalities that endure ? : Racial ideology, American politics, and the peculiar role of social science. In M. Krysan, A. Lewis & T. Forman (Eds.), Changing terrain of race and ethnicity (pp. 13-42). New York : Russell Sage Foundation.
BRODISH, A.B., BRAZY, P.C. & DEVINE, P.G. (2008). More eyes on the prize : Variability in White Americans' perception of progress toward racial equality. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 513-527. [PDF]
SAGUY, T., TAUSCH, N., DOVIDIO, J.F. & PRATTO, F. (2013). The irony of harmony : Intergroup contact can produce false expectations for equality. Psychological Science, 20 (1), 114-121. [PDF]
Voir aussi Racisme
Inéquité : /équité. Inequity.

  ADAMS, J.S. (1963). Toward an understanding of inequity. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 67, 422-436.
ADAMS, J.S. (1965). Inequity in social exchange. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 267-299). New York : Academic Press.
AUSTIN, W. & WALSTER, E. (1974). Reactions to confirmations and disconfirmations of expectancies of equity and inequity. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 30 (2), 108-116. [PDF]
BROSNAN, S.F. & DE WAAL, F. (2003). Monkeys reject unequal pay. Nature, 425, 297-299.
BROSNAN, S.F., SCHIFF, H.C. & DE WAAL, F. (2005). Tolerance for inequity may increase with social closeness in chimpanzees. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B : Biological, 272 (1560), 253-258. [PDF]
BRÄUER, J., CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (2006). Are apes really inequity averse ? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B : Biological, 273, 3123–3128. [PDF]
OLSON, K.R., DWECK, C.S., SPELKE, E.S. & BANAJI, M.R. (2011). Children's responses to group-based inequalities : Perpetuation and rectification. Social Cognition, 29 (3), 270-287. [PDF]
Voir aussi Inégalité
Inertie/Inertiel : Emprunté à la physique, ce concept a en sciences humaines une valeur plus descriptive qu'explicative. De fait, l'inertie décrit une absence de changement chez un individu ou au sein d'un groupe. Il présuppose également que ce changement (d'idée, d'attitude, de comportement, de stratégie, etc.) est tellement coûteux ou désavantageux sur le plan individuel ou collectif qu'il est préférable de continuer à faire ce que l'on a toujours fait (d'où le mot inertie). Il va de soi que l'absence de changement n'est pas produite par l'inertie - qui est une propriété de la matière - mais bien a une foule de facteurs qui se conjugent pour empêcher le changement ou nuire à son implantation. On utilise le terme résistance au changement lorsque ces facteurs n'ont pas été clairement identifiés par celui qui souhaite et planifie le changemement ou lorsque l'individu concerné par le changement dissimule volontairement ses motifs ou ne parvient pas à les mettre clairement en évidence. En sciences humaines, l'inertie n'a donc pas le statut d'une cause ou d'une explication. Inertie et résistance au changement. = vieilles habitudes, indécrottable, vieille tête de mûle. /changement. Inertia, Social inertia.

  GUHL, A.M. (1968). Social inertia and social stability in chickens. Animal Behaviour, 16, 219-232.
PILIAVIN, J.A. (1991). Is the road to helping paved with good intentions ? Or inertia based on habit ? In J. Howard & P.L. Callero (Eds.) The self-society interface : Cognition, emotion, and action (pp. 259-280). Cambridge : Cambridge University Pess.
NEVIN, J.A. (2005). The inertia of affluence. Behavior & Social Issues, 14, 7-20.
Inexpertise : Ce que les savants, les professeurs, les experts, les entreprises et les gouvernements devraient savoir, mais ignorent, de fait, ou refusent de connaître. EX: Beaucoup d'individus conçoivent des questionnaires-bidon qui mesurent n'importe quoi et son contraire, ou encore utilisent des statistiques pour tirer des conclusions sans procéder à des analyses inférentielles, etc, alors que l'on sait comment rédiger un bon questionnaire et analyser les données produites par cet outil. = pseudo-expert, savant ignare, incompétent diplômé, patron incompétent. /expertise.

  ARKES, H.R. (2003). The non-use of psychological research at two federal agencies. Psychological Science, 14, 1-6.
Infaillible/Infaillibilité : Qui ne peut se tromper ou commettre des ereurs. N.D.L.R. On dit que le pape est infaillible. Si c'est le cas, je suggère de modifier la définition de ce concept...

 
Infalsibiable : Qualifie une théorie ou une hypothèse qui ne peut êtres falsifiée. Infalsifiable, hypothèse falsifiableet Popper.

  Voir aussi Popper et Hypothèse falsifiable
Infancy : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui se consacre à l'étude des enfants. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
LEJEUNE, L., ANDERSON, D.I., CAMPOS, J.J., WITHERINGTON, D.C., UCHIAYAMA, I. & BARBU-ROTH, M. (2005). Avoidance of heights on the visual cliff in newly walking infants. Infancy, 7 (3), 285-298.

Infanticide : Mot forgé par la fusion d'enfant et d'homicide. Meurtre d'un enfant (généralement le sien). Infanticide.

  THOMPSON, N.S. (1967). Primate infanticide. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 6 (3), 18-19. HAUSFATER, G. & HRDY, S. (Eds.) (1984). Infanticide comparative and evolutionary perspectives. New York : Aldine Publishing Co.
TOOLEY, M. (1972). Abortion and infanticide. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 2, 37-65.  SILK, J.B. & STANFORD, C.B. (1999). Infanticide article disputed. Anthropology News, 40, 27-29. [PDF]
SHERMAN, P.W. (1982). Infanticide in ground squirrels. Animal Behaviour, 30, 938-939. PACKER, C. (2001). Infanticide is no fallacy. American Anthropology, 102 (4), 829-831. [PDF]
PACKER, C. & PUSEY, A.E. (1983). Adaptation of female lions to infanticide by incoming males. The American Naturalist, 121 (5), 716-728. [PDF] WATTS, D.P. & MITANI, J. & Sherrow, H. (2002). New cases of inter- community infanticide by male chimpanzees at Ngogo, Kibale National Park, Uganda. Primates, 43, 263-270.
PACKER, C. & PUSEY, A.E. (1984). Infanticide in carnivores. In G. Hausfater & S.B. Blaffer-Hrdy (Eds.), Infanticide in animals and man (pp. 31-42). New York : Aldine.  
Voir aussi Meurtre
Infant & Child Development : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'étude des enfants. Éditeur : Wiley.
ROBERT, M. & HEROUX, G. (2004). Visuo-spatial play experience : Forerunner of visuo-spatial achievement in preadolescent and adolescent boys and girls ? Infant & Child Development, 13, 49-78.

Infant Behavior & Development : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'étude des enfants. Éditeur : Elsevier.
PASCALIS, O., DE SCHONEN, S., MORTON, J., DERUELLE, C. & FABRE-GRENET, M. (1995). Mother's face recognition by neonates : a replication and an extension. Infant Behavior & Development, 18 (1), 79-85. [PDF]

Infarctus du myocarde : Infarctus, maladie cardio-vasculaire et type A et B. Coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction.

  ROSENHAM, R.H., FRIEDMAN, M., STRAUS, R., WURM, M., KOSITCHEK, R., HAHN, W. & WERTHESSEN, N.T. (1964). A predictive study of coronary heart disease. Journal of American Medical Association, 189 (1), 15-22.
BLUMENTHAL, J.A., WILLIAMS, R.B., KONG, Y., SCHANBERG, S. & THOMPSON, L. (1978). Type A behavior pattern and coronary atherosclerosis. Circulation, 58, 634-639.
PAULI, P., MARQUARDT, C., HARTL, L., NUTZINGER, D.O., HÖLZL, R. & STRIAN, F. (1991). Anxiety induced by cardiac perceptions in patients with panic attacks : A field study. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 29 (2), 137-145. [PDF]
PETERS, R.J.G. & BEOKHOLDT, S.M. (2002). Gene polymorphisms and the risk of myocardial infarction - an emerging relation. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 1963-1965.
BARRETT, A.M., BUXBAUM, L.J., COSLETT, H.B., EDWARDS, E., HEILMAN5, K.M., HILLIS, A.E., MILBERG, W.P. & ROBERTSON, I.H. (2006). Cognitive rehabilitation interventions for neglect and related disorders : Moving from bench to bedside in stroke patients. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18 (7), 1223-1236. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Coeur et Maladie cardiovsculaire
Infection transmissible sexuellement (ITS) : Nouveau terme utilisé pour désigner les MTS (maladies transmises sexuellement). L'acronyme ITSS renvoie, lui, aux infections transmissibles sexuellement et par le sang. ( ): Voir tableau ci-bas. Sexually transmitted diseases.
Types d'infection transmissible sexuellement
Chlamydia Lymphogranulome vénérien VIH/sida
Gonorrhée Syphilis Virus du papillome (HPV)
Herpès génital Vestibulite  
 

  JENNY, C., HOOTON, T.M., BOWER, A, COPASS, M.K., KRIEGER, J.N., HILLIER, S.L., KIVIAT, N., COREY, L., STAMM, W.E. & HOLMES, K.K. (1990). Sexually transmitted diseases in victims of rape. New England Journal of Medicine, 322 (11), 713-716.
ESTREICH, S., FORSTER, G.E. & ROBINSON, A. (1990). Sexually transmitted diseases in rape victims. Genitourinary Medicine, 66 (6), 433-438.
NYIRJESY, P., SOBEL, J.D., WEITZ, M.V., LEAMAN, D.J., SMALL, M.J. & GELONE, S.P. (2001). Cromolyn cream for recalcitrant idiopathic vulvar vestibulitis : results of a placebo controlled study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 77 (1), 53-57.
YOUNG, S.D., NUSSBAUM, A.D. & MONIN, B. (2007). Potential moral stigma and reactions to sexually transmitted diseases : Evidence for a disjunction fallacy. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 789-799.
Voir aussi Maladie
Inférer : En science, raisonnement qui consiste à postuler l'existence d'un phénomène (ou d'une cause) que l'on ne peut directement observer. L'inférence clôture ce processus. Elle doit se faire à partir d'une théorie scientifique ou d'un certains nombres de faits récurrents. EX: En psychologie, la pensée, les attitudes, les processus cognitifs et l'inconscient sont tous des inférences. À défaut d'être directement observés, les phénomènes inférés doivent pouvoir être observés indirectement, c-à-d correspondre à des signes visibles ou des indices bien précis (comportements, réactions physiologiques, symptômes). EX: On dira que la réponse qu'un individu fourni à une multiplication est une observation indirecte de sa capacité cognitive de calcul ou qu'oublier son parapluie chez sa psychologue est un indice de l'existence de l'inconscient. Malheureusement, chez certains psychologues, la frontière entre l'inférence et l'hallucination ou l'acte de foi est quasi-inexistente. Inférer et processus inféré. = construit hypothétique, imaginer, l'existence de, supposer l'existence de. /avéré, observé. Inference.

  KIM, J. (1964). Inference, explanation, and prediction. Journal of Philosophy, 61, 360-368. POLDRACK, R.A. (2006). Can cognitive processes be inferred from neuroimaging data ? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 59-63. [PDF]
PLATT, J.R. (1964). Strong inference. Science, 146 (3642), 347-353. [PDF]  
ZAJONC, R.B. (1980). Feeling and thinking : Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151-175. [PDF]  
JONHSON-LAIRD, P.N. (1983). Mental models : Towards a cognitive science of language, inference, and consciousness. Cambridge : Harvard University Press.  
HOLLAND, P.W. (1986). Statistics and causal inference (with discussion). Journal of the American Statistical Association, 81, 945-970. [PDF] ENOCH, D. & SCHECTER, J. (2008). How are basic belief-forming methods justified ? Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 76 (3), 547-579. [PDF]
HOLLAND, J.H., HOLYOAK, K.J., NISBETT, R.E. & THAGARD, P.R. (1986). Processes of inference, learning, and discovery. Cambridge, MA / London : Computational models of cognition and perception series/MIT Press.  
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Inférence : Le terme a quatre acceptions voisines : a) comme adjectif, il qualifie les phénomènes dont on postule l'existence même si on ne peut les observer directement ou entièrement. Inférence et inobservabilité. = qui existe mais que l'on ne peut voir, qui existe mais que l'on ne peut décrire complètement; b) Il désigne la proposition qui clôture un raisonnement scientifique. = explication; c) En statistique, il renvoie au raisonnement qui permet au chercheur de généraliser les résultats de sa recherche, portant sur un échantillon, à l'ensemble de la population à l'étude. = inférence statistique, qui existe mais que l'on ne peut complètement. Statistical inference. d) Finalement, en psychologie, il désigne une affirmation que l'on fait pour expliquer nos propres comportements et ceux des autres, ou tout autre événement que l'on cherche à comprendre. Il convient de préciser que ce type d'inférence ne repose pas toujours sur un raisonnement cohérent, qui se fonde sur des faits. On peut inférer chez autrui des traits, des émotions, des intentions, etc. = attribution.

Formes d'inférence
Inférence forte Inférence chez les animaux Inférence scientifique Inférence statistique
 

  a
   
Voir aussi Inobservabilité
b
PEIRCE, C.S. (1883). A theory of probable inference. Studies in Logic, 126-181 BARNES, E. (1995). Inference to the loveliest explanation. Synthese, 103, 251-277.
BRYANT, P.E. & TRABASSO, T. (1971) Transitive inferences and memory in young children. Nature, 232, 456-458. HIGGINS, E.T. (1998). The aboutness principle : A pervasive influence on human inference. Social Cognition, 16, 173-198.
ROZEBOOM, W.W. (1972). Scientific inference : The myth and the reality. In R.S. Brown & D.J. Brenner (Eds.), Science, psychology, and communication : Essays honoring William Stephenson. New York : Teachers College Press.  
TRUSTED, J. (1979). The logic of scientific inference : An introduction. London : The Macmillan Press, Ltd. SCHLINGER, H.D. (1998). Of planets and cognitions : The use of deductive inference in the natural sciences and psychology. The Skeptical Inquirer, 22, 49-51. [PDF]
EINCHORN, H.J. & HOGARTH, R.M. (1986). Ambiguity and uncertainty in probabilistic inference. Psychological Review, 92 (4), 433-461. SCHMALHOFER, F., MCDANIEL, M.A. & KEEFE, D. (2002). A unified model for predictive and bridging inferences. Discourse Processes, 33, 105-132.
ACHINSTEIN, P. (1992). Inference to the best explanation : or, Who Won the Mill-Whewell Debate ? Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 24, 349-364. HASSIN, R., BARGH, J.A. & ULEMAN, J.S. (2002). Spontaneous causal inferences. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 515-522. [PDF]
BARWISE, J. (1993). Everyday reasoning and logical inference. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 16, 337-338. THAGARD, P. (2004). Causal inference in legal decision making: Explanatory coherence vs. Bayesian networks. Applied Artificial Intelligence, 18, 231-249. [PDF]
DAY, T. & KINCAID, H. (1994). Putting inference to the best explanation in its place. Synthese, 98, 271-295.  
JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. & SAVARY, F. (1996). Illusory inferences about probabilities. Acta Psychologica, 93, 69-90. BIRD, A. (2007). Inference to the only explanation. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 74, 424-432.
Voir aussi Explication
c
NEYMAN, J. & PEARSON, S.E. (1928). On the use and interpretation of certain test criteria for purposes of statistical inference. Biometrika, 175-240/263-294. [PDF] RUBIN, D.B. (1976). Inference and missing data. Biometrika, 63 (3), 581-592. [PDF]
FISHER, R.A. (1935). The Logic of Inductive Inference. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 98 (1), 39-82. SMITH, C.A.B. (1977). The analogy between decision and inference. Synthese, 36, 71-85.
FISHER, R.A. (1936). Uncertain inference. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 71, 245-258. WILCOX, R.R. (1991). Bootstrap inferences about the correlation and variances of paired data. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 44, 379-382.
NEYMAN, J. (1937). Outline of a theory of statistical estimation based on the classical theory of probability. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A. 236, 333-380. FINCH, S., CUMMING, G., WILLIAMS, J., PALMER, L., GRIFFITH, E., ALDERS, C., ANDERSON, J. & GOODMAN, O. (2004). Reform of statistical inference in psychology : The case of Memory & Cognition. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36 (2), 312-324. [PDF]
BARNARD, G.A. (1949). Statistical Inference. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series B 11, 115-149. ALDRICH, J. (2006). When are inferences too fragile to be believed ? Journal of Economic Methodology, 13 (2), 161-177. [PDF]
COX, D.R. (1958). Some problems connected with statistical inference. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 29, 357-372. [PDF] WILCOX, R.R. (2010). Inferences about the population mean : Empirical likelihood versus bootstrap-t. Journal of Modern & Applied Statistics, 9, 9-14. [PDF]
Voir Inférence statistique
d
MASSANGKAY, Z.Z., MCCLUSKEY, K., MCINTYRE, C.W., SIMS-KNIGHT, J., VAUGHN, B.E. & FLAVELL, J.H. (1974). The early development of inference about the visual percepts of others. Child Development, 45, 357-366. YAMAUCHI, T. & MARKMAN, A.B. (2000). Learning categories composed of varying instances : The effect of classification, inference, and structural alignment. Memory & Cognition, 28 (1), 64-78.
 WEGNER, D.M. & BULDAIN, R.W. (1977). Attribute generality and the inference process in impression formation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 3, 91-94. [PDF] COGBURN, J. (2004). Inferentialism and tacit knowledge. Behavior & Philosophy, 32, 503-524. [PDF]
WORKMAN, J.E. (1988). Trait inferences based on perceived ownership of designer, brand name, or store brand jeans. Clothing & Textiles Research Journal, 6 (2), 23-29.  
PEARS, R. & BRYANT, P.E. (1990). Transitive inferences by young children about spatial position. British Journal of Psychology, 81, 497-510.  
McKOON, G. & RATCLIFF, R. (1990). Dimensions of inference. In A. Graesser and G. Bower, (Eds.), The Psychology of Learning and Motivation : Inferences and text comprehension (Vol. 25, pp. 313-328). New York : Academic Press. TODOROV, A., MANDISODZA, A.N., GOREN, A. & HALL C.C. (2005). Inferences of competence from faces predict election outcomes. Science, 308, 1623-1626. [PDF]
 HAMM, V. & HASHER, L. (1992). Age and the availability of inferences. Psychology & Aging, 7 (1), 56-64. [PDF] POLDRACK, R.A. (2006). Can cognitive processes be inferred from neuroimaging data ? Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 59-63. [PDF]
McKOON, G. & RATCLIFF, R. (1992). Inference during reading. Psychological Review, 99, 440-466. [PDF] CONLIN, J.A. & GATHERCOLE, S.E. (2006). Lexicality and inference in working memory in children and adults. Journal of Memory & Language, 55, 363-380.
 ZACKS, R.T. & HASHER, L. (1988). Capacity theory and the processing of inferences. In L. Light & D. Burke (Eds.), Language, Memory, and Aging (pp. 154-170). New York : Cambridge University Press. [PDF] PRENTICE, D.A. & MILLER, D.T. (2006). Inferences about differences that cross social category boundaries. Psychological Science, 17, 129-135.
BOWER, G.H., THOMPSON-SHILL, S. & TULVING, E. (1994). Reducing retroactive interference : An interference analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 20 (1), 51-66. [PDF] WEAVER, K., GARCIA, S.M., SCHWART, N. & MILLER, D.T. (2007). Inferring the popularity of an opinion from its familiarity : A repetitive voice can sound like a chorus. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 92, 821-833.
HIGGINS, E.T. (1998). The aboutness principle : A pervasive influence on human inference. Social Cognition, 16, 173-198. ENOCH, D. & SCHECTER, J. (2008). How are basic belief-forming methods justified ? Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 76 (3), 547-579. [PDF]
Vor aussi Attribution
Inférence (Chez les animaux) : inference.
  FERSEN, L., WYNNE, C.D.L., DELIUS J. D. & STADDON, J.E.R. (1991). Transitive inference formation in pigeons. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 17, 334- 341.
WYNNE, C.D.L. (1995). Reinforcement accounts for transitive inference performance. Animal Learning & Behavior, 23, 207-217. [PDF]
WEAVER, J., STEIRN, J.N. & ZENTALL, T.R. (1997). Transitive inference in pigeons : Control for differential value transfer. ?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4 (1), 113-117. [PDF]
Voir aussi Transitivité
Inférence forte : Strong inference.
  PLATT, J.R. (1964). Science, strong inference : Proper scientific method (The New Baconians). Science Magazine, 146 (3642), 347-353. [PDF]
WILTON, R.N. & CLEMENTS, R.O. (1971). The role of information in the emission of observing responses : a test of two hypotheses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 16 (2), 161-166. [PDF]
CHEBAT, J.-C. & MICHON, R. (2003). Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers' emotions, cognition, and spending A test of competitive causal theories. Journal of Business Research, 56, 529-539. [PDF]
DAVIS, R.H. (2006). Strong inference : rationale or inspiration ? Perspectives in Biology & Medicine, 49 (2), 238-250.
Inférence scientifique : Voir Formulation d'une hypothèse.
Inférence statistique : Raisonnement qui permet au chercheur de généraliser les résultats de sa recherche, portant sur un échantillon, à l'ensemble de la population à l'étude. Inférence statistique, estimer et test d'hypothèse. Statistical inference.