Claude Goulet/2003© l Mise à jour + Comment citer ce lexique l Notre mission : Explorer la nébuleuse Psy ! Auteurs
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LABO - LAC - LANGAGE - LAP - LE - LECTURE - LES - LEWIN - LI - LIP - LO - LOFTUS - LOI - LORENZ - LOVAAS - LU - LURIA - LY
Labaree David F. ( ) : Psychopédagogue américain et spécialiste de l'enseignement.
LABAREE, D.F. (1992). Power, knowledge, and the rationalization of teaching : A genealogy of the movement to professionalize teaching. Harvard Educational Review, 62 (2), 123-154.
LABAREE, D.F. (1997). Public goods, privates goods : The American struggle over educztional goals. American Educational Research Journal, 34 (1), 39-81. [PDF]
LABAREE, D.F. (2008). An uneasy relationship : The history of teacher education in the university. In M. Cochran-Smith, S. Feiman Nemser & D.J. McIntyre (Eds.), Handbook of research on teacher education : Enduring issues in changing contexts (pp. 290-306). Washington, DC : Association of Teacher Educators. [PDF]
LABAREE, D.F. (2010). What schools can't do. Zeitschrift für Pädagogische Historiographie, 16 (1), 12-18.
LABAREE, D.F. (2011). The lure of statistics for educational researchers. Educational Theory, 61 (6), 621-631.
Labbé
Cyril Labbé Dominique Labbé
 
Labbé Cyril (1973-) : Mathématicien et informaticien français. Il s'intéresse notamment à la publication d'articles-bidons en science. Collaborateur de Labbé.
LABBÉ, C. & LABBÉ, D. (2001). Inter-textual distance and authorship attribution Corneille and Moliere. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 8 (3), 213-231.
LABBÉ, C., LABBÉ, D. & HUBERT, P. (2004). Automatic segmentation of texts and corpora. Journal of Quantitative Linguistics, 11 (3), 193-213.
LABBÉ, C. & LABBÉ, D. (2005). How to measure the meanings of words ? Amour in Corneille's Work. Language Resources & Evaluation, 39 (4), 335-351.
LABBÉ, C. & LABBÉ, D. (2012). L'ordinateur peut-il écrire ? Communication au Séminaire mathématique et société. Université de Neuchâtel. [PDF]
LABBÉ, C. & LABBÉ, D. (2013). Duplicate and fake publications in the scientific literature : how many SCIgen papers in computer science ? Scientometrics, 94 (1), 379-396. [PDF]
Labbé Dominique ( ) : Politologue français et spécialiste de l'anayse du contenu des discours. Collaborateur de Labbé et Monière.
LABBÉ, D. (2004). Romain Gary et Emile Ajar. Grenoble : Cerat-IEP.
LABBÉ, D. (2007). Experiments on authorship attribution by intertextual distance in english. Journal of Quantitative Linguistic, 14 (1), 33-80. [PDF]
LABBÉ, D. et MONIÈRE, D. (2008). Les mots qui nous gouvernent. Le discours des premiers ministres québécois : 1960-2005. Montréal : Monière-Wollank. [PDF]
ANDOLFATTO, D. & LABBÉ, D. (2009). Toujours moins ! Déclin du syndicalisme à la française. Paris : Gallimard.
LABBÉ, D. (2009). Qui a écrit Tartuffe ? Montréal : Monière-Wollank.
Labelle Réal ( ) : Psychologue québécois et spécialiste de l'étude et du traitement de la dépression et du suicide. Collaborateur de Cohen.
LABELLE, R., ALAIN, M., BASTIEN, É., BOUFFARD, L., DUBÉ, M. et LAPIERRE, S. (2001). Bien-être et détresse psychologique : vers un modèle hiérarchique cognitivo-affectif en santé mentale. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 22 (1), 71-87.
LABELLE, R., GAGNON, A., SÉGUIN, M. et LACHANCE, L. (2003). Caractéristiques cognitives de jeunes suicidants, suicidaires et non suicidaires. Revue Quécoise de Psychologie, 24 (1), 161-177.
LABELLE, R. (2004). La prévention du suicide en milieu scolaire : constats et avenues de recherche. In G. Parent et D.L. Rhéaume (Éds.), La prévention du suicide à l'école (pp. 173-193). Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
GUILÉ, J.M., GREENFIELD, B., BRETON, J.J., COHEN, D. & LABELLE, R. (2005). Is psychotherapy effective for borderline adolescents ? Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 2 (5), 277-282.
DAIGLE, M., LABELLE, R. & CÔTÉ, G. (2006). Further evidence on the validity of the Suicide Risk Assessment Scale for prisoners. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 29, 343-354.
Laberge David (St-Louis 1929-) : Neuropsychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'attention. Collaborateur de Estes.
LABERGE, D. (1973). Attention and the measurement of perceptual learning. Memory & Cognition, 1, 268-276.
LABERGE, D. & BROWN, V. (1986). Variations in size of the visual field in which targets are presented : An attentional range effect. Perception & Psychophysics, 40, 188-200.
LABERGE, D. (1997). Attention, awareness, and the triangular circuit. Consciousness & Cognition, 6, 140-181.
LABERGE, D. (2001). Attention, consciousness, and electrical wave activity within the cortical column. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 43, 5-24.
LABERGE, D. & KASEVICH, R.S. (2007). The apical dendrite theory of consciousness. Neural Networks, 20, 1004-1020.
Laboratoire : Au sens large, désigne tout lieu aménagé dans le but de reproduire les aspects de la réalité que l'on souhaite étudier scientifiquement. Le laboratoire est un lieu artificiel dans lequel on tente de créer un phénomène naturel afin de l'observer et le mesurer avec précision, tout en maintenant constants tous les autres aspects de la réalité susceptibles de l'influencer (variables parasites). Pour parvenir à ce résultat, on utilise la méthode expérimentale et quasi-expérimentale. Ces méthodes sont les seules qui permettent la mise en évidence d'une relation de causalité entre deux phénomènes (validité interne). Pour qu'une recherche en laboratoire soit valide, il faut également que les conditions créées par le chercheur pour vérifier son hypothèse soient équivalentes à celles qui existent en milieu naturel; si tel est le cas, on dira que sa recherche a une validité écologique élevée. En psychologie, deux types de sujets se prêtent à ce genre de recheche : les humains - que l'on nomme participants - et les animaux de laboratoire. De nombreux historiens de sciences considèrent que l'on doit à Wundt la mise sur pied du premier laboratoire de psychologie scientifique, à l'Université de Leipzig, en Allemagne. Laboratoire, contrôle et ethique. = centre de recherche, milieu artificiel contrôlé, captivité contrôlée. /terrain ou conditions naturelles, milieu naturel. Laboratory.
Grands laboratoires
Premiers laboratoires de psychologie Laboratoire de conditionnement du pigeon de Harvard Laboratoire de Zététique
    Labortatoire Haskins
Laboratoire d'étude de la cognition chez les primates Laboratoire de Psychobiologie de Harvard Laboratoire d'Intelligence artificielle
 


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FUREDY, J.J. (1975). An integrative progress report on informational control in humans : Some laboratory findings and methodological claims. Australian Journal of Psychology, 27, 61-83. MITCHELL, G. (2002). Revisiting truth or triviality : The external validity of research in the psychological laboratory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7 (2), 109-117. [PDF]
EBBESEN, E.B., PARKER, S. & KONECNI, V.J. (1977). Laboratory and field analyses of decisions involving risk. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 3, 576-589. SHARP, J.L., ZAMMIT, T.G., AZAR, T. A. & LAWSON, D.M. (2002). Stress-like responses to common procedures in male rats housed alone or with other rats. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 41 (4), 8-14. [PDF]
ABRAMSON, L.Y. & SELIGMAN, M.E.P. (1977). Modeling psychopathology in the laboratory : History and rationale. In J. Maser and M.E.P. Seligman (Eds.), Psychopathology : Experimental models. San Francisco : Freeman NERSESSIAN, N.J., KURZ-MILCKE, E., NEWSTETTER, W. & DAVIES, J. (2003). Research laboratories as evolving distributed cognitive systems. In D. Alterman & D. Kirsch (Eds.), Proceedings of the cognitive science society 25 (pp. 857-862). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
NOVAK, J.D. (1979). Applying psychology and philosophy to the improvement of laboratory teaching. The American Biology Teacher, 41 (8), 466-474. BALCOMBE, J.P., BARNARD, N. & SANDUSKY, C. (2004). Laboratory routines cause animal stress. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 43 (6), 42-51. [PDF]
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CULLEN, C. (1981). The flight to the laboratory. Behavior Analysis, 23, 3- 6. [PDF] NOVAK, J.D. (1979). Applying psychology and philosophy to the improvement of laboratory teaching. The American Biology Teacher, 41 (8), 466-474.
WILDE, L. (1981). On the use of laboratory experiments in economics. In Joseph Pitt, (Ed.), The philosophy of economics. (pp. 137-143.). Dordrecht : Reidel. BALCOMBE, J.P. (2006). Laboratory environments and rodents' behavioral needs : A review. Laboratory Animals, 40, 217-235. [PDF]
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MELLGREN, R.L. (1982). Foraging in simulated natural environment : There's a rat loose in the lab. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38 (1), 93-100. [PDF] WEATHERLY, J.N. & PHELPS, B.J. (2006). The pitfalls of studying gambling behaviour in a laboratory situation. In P.M. Ghezzi, C.A. Lyons, M.R. Dixon & G.A. Wilson (Eds.), Gambling : Behavior theory, research, and application (pp. 105-125). Reno, NV : Context Press.
HOFSTEIN, A. & LUNETTA, V. (1982). The role of the laboratory in science teaching : Neglected aspects of research. Review of Educational Research, 52, 201-217. NERSESSIAN, N.J. (2006).The cognitive-cultural systems of the research laboratory. Organization Studies, 27, 125-145. [PDF]
GREENWOOD, J.D. (1982). On the relation between laboratory experiments and social behaviour : Causal explanation and generalization. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 12 (3), 225-250. BRANCH, M.N. (2006). Reactions of a laboratory behavioral scientist to a “Thinktank“ on metacontingencies and cultural analysis. Behavior & Social Issues, 15, 6-10. [PDF]
  LEVITT, S.D. & LIST, J.A. (2007). What do laboratory experiments measuring social preferences reveal about the real world ? Journal of Economic Perspectives, 21 (2), 153-174. [PDF] + [PDF]
WILCOX, S. & KATZ, S. (1984). Can indirect realism be demonstrated in the psychological laboratory ? Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 14, 149-157. ANDERSON, C.A., BUCKLEY, K.E. & CARNAGEY, N.L. (2008). Creating your own hostile environment : A laboratory examination of trait aggressiveness and the violence escalation cycle. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 462-473. [PDF]
  RONDEAU, D. & LIST, J.A. (2007). Matching and challenge gifts to charity : evidence from laboratory and natural field experiments. Experimental Economics, 11 (3), 253-267. [PDF]
  LIST, J.A. (2008). Field experiments : A bridge between lab and naturally occurring data. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, 6 (2), 1-45. [PDF]
SEARS, D.O. (1986). College sophomores in the Laboratory : Influences of a narrow data base on social psychology's view of hum an nature. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51 (3), 515-530. [PDF] HENRY, P.J. (2009). College sophomores in the laboratory redux: Influences of a narrow data base on social psychology's view of the nature of prejudice. Psychological Inquiry, 19, 49-71.
BRECHNER, K.C., POULOS, L., GUENTHER, E. & COULTER, T.J. (1987). Laboratory ethology : A new approach in animal research. Humane Innovations & Alternatives in Animal Experimentation, 1, 23-24. KANGAS, B.D. & HACKENBERG, T.D. (2009). On reinforcing human behavior in the laboratory : A brief review and some recommendations. Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Bulletin, 27, 21-26. [PDF]
HACKING, I. (1988). On the stability of the laboratory sciences. The Journal of Philosophy, 85 (10), 507-514. WILSON, T.D., ARONSON, E. & CARLSMITH, K. (2010). The art of laboratory experimentation. In S.T. Fiske, D.T. Gilbert & G. Lindzey (Eds.), Handbook of social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 51-81). Hoboken, NJ : Wiley.
PERONE, M. (1988). Laboratory lore and research practices in the experimental analysis of human behavior : Use and abuse of subjects' verbal reports. The Behavior Analyst, 11, 71-77. [PDF] NICHOLSON, I. (2011). "Torture at Yale": Experimental subjects, laboratory torment and the "rehabilitation" of Milgram's "Obedience to authority". Theory & Psychology, 21 (6), 737-761.
OVERMIER, J.B. (1988). Enriching interplay between the animal laboratory and the clinic. Minnesota Psychologist, 37(4), 3-4. NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (2011). Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Washington : The National Acadames Press. [PDF]
HACKING, I. (1988). The participant irrealist at large in the laboratory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 39, 277-294 RAZ, A. (2012). Translational attention: From experiments in the lab to helping the symptoms of individuals with Tourette's syndrome. Consciousness & Cognition 21, 1591-1594. [PDF]
SALZINGER, K. (1988). After the flight from the laboratory. Behavior Analysis, 23, 3- 6. CIRINO, S.D., MIRANDA, R.L. & DE SOUZA, E.J. (2012). The laboratory of experimental psychology : Establishing a psychological community at a Brazilian university. Revista Interamericana de Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 46 (1), 135-142. [PDF]
GALIZIO, M. & BUSKIST, W.F. (1988). Laboratory lore and research practices in the experimental analysis of human behavior: Selecting reinforcers and arranging contingencies. The Behavior Analyst, 11, 65-69. [PDF] MITCHELL, G. (2012). Revisiting truth or triviality : The external validity of research in the psychological laboratory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7 (2), 109-117. [PDF]
WINDHOLZ, G. (1989). The discovery of the principles of reinforcement, extinction, generalization, and differentiation of conditional reflexes in Pavlov's laboratories. Pavlovian Journal of Biological Science, 23, 35-42. FRANKLIN, J.C., PUZIA, M.E., LEE, K.M., LEE, G.E., HANNA, E.K., SPRING, V. L. & PRINSTEIN, M.J. (2013). The nature of pain offset relief in nonsuicidal self-injury : A laboratory study. Clinical Psychological Science, 1 (2), 110-119. [PDF]
Voir aussi Validité d'une recherche, Instrument de mesure, Reproductibilité et Recherche expérimentale.
Laboratoires (Les premiers... de psychologie) : Premiers laboratoires de psychologie.

Premiers laboratoires de psychologie
Qui ? Où ? Quand ?
Wundt Université de Leipzig 1879
Hall Université Johns Hopkins 1883
James Université Harvard 1889
Beaunis Université de la Sorbonne 1889
Baldwin Université de Toronto 1891
Cattel Université de Columbia 1892
Titchener Université Cornell 1892
Delabarre Université Brown 1892
Stumpf et Ebbinghaus Université de Berlin 1894
? Université de Tokyo 1903
 
Laboratoire d'Étude de la Cognition chez les Primates : Centre de recherche sur l'étude de la cognition chez les primates, notamment chez le macaque, mis sur pied par Terrace en... Primate cognition lab.
 
Laboratoire de Conditionnement du Pigeon de Harvard : Centre de recherche sur l'étude du comportement des pigeons mis sur pied par Skinner en... Ce centre utilise un dispositif expérimental inventé par Skinner quelques années plus tôt (au tout début des années 1930, à l'époque où Skinner étudiait à Harvard). Harvard pigeon lab.

 
STEVENS, S. & BORING, E.G. (1947). The new Harvard Psychological Laboratories. American Psychologist, 2, 239-243.
CATANIA, A.C. (2002). The watershed years of 1958-1962 in the Harvard pigeon lab. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77 (3), 327-345. [PDF]
BAUM, W.M. (2002). The Harvard pigeon lab under Herrnstein. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77 (3), 347-355. [PDF]
GOLLUB, L.R. (2002). Between the waves : Harvard pigeon lab 1955-1960. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77 (3), 319-326. [PDF]
LINDSLEY, O.R. (2002). Our Harvard pigeon, rat, dog, and human lab. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77 (3), 385-387.
LOGUE, A.W. (2002). the living legacy of the harvard pigeon lab : quantitative analysis in the wide world. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77 (3), 357-366. [PDF]
HINELINE, P.N. (2002). The Harvard pigeon lab in context. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77 (3), 383-385. [PDF]
Laboratoire de Psychobiologie de Harvard : ( ): Barrett, Dews, Katz, Kelleher, Morse. Psychobiology Laboratory at Harvard Medical.

 
Laboratoire de Zététique : Centre de recherche et d'information sur les phénomènes dits "paranormaux" fondé par Broch en 1998. Zététique, sceptique et pseudosciences.
  LOXTON, D. (2013). Why Is there a skeptical movement ? The Skeptics Society, 1-79. [PDF]
Laboratoire d'Intelligence Artificielle : Fondé en 1959 par Minsky et McCarthy au Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Artificial Intelligence Laboratory.
  PAPERT, S. (1973). Uses of technology to enhance education. Logo Memo 8. Cambridge : Artificial Intelligence Laboratory : Massachusetts Institute of Technology .
Laboratoire Haskins : Laboratoire de linguistique fondé par Haskins en 1935 pour étudier la production et la percetion du langage parlé (speech). Haskins Laboratories. ( ): Bentin, Cooper, Delattre, Katz, Liberman, Liberman, Mattingly, Pugh, Shankweiler, Studder-Keneedy.
   
Laboratory Animals : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages au bien-être animal. Éditeur : Colin Dunn.
BALCOMBE, J.P. (2006). Laboratory environments and rodents' behavioral needs : A review. Laboratory Animals, 40, 217-235.

Laborit Henri (Hanoi 1914-1995) : Biologiste et philosophe français. Il s'est notamment intéressé à l'agressivité et à son inhibition.
LABORIT, H. (1976). Éloge de la fuite. Paris : Gallimard.
LABORIT, H. (1986). L'inhibition de l'action. Biologie comportementale et physio-pathologie. Éditions Masson.
LABORIT, H. (1994). L'agressivité détournée. Éditions UGE 10-18.
LABORIT, H. (1994). La légende des comportements. Paris : Éditions Flammarion.
LABORIT, H. (1995). La nouvelle grille. Paris : Édition Laffont/Folio.
Labyrinthe : Dispositif expérimental utilisé dans les laboratoires de conditionnement instrumental, fait de couloirs inextricables menant la plupart du temps à un récompense/renforcement sous forme de bouffe. On y place un animal, souvent un rat ou un hamster, afin d'observer combien d'erreurs il fera avant de trouver sa nourriture (rarement un fromage). On mesure également le temps de parcours. On peut également parcourir un labyrinthe-papier avec un stylo. N.D.L.R. Aussi utilisé - à d'autres fins - avec les humains dans le film Shining de Stanley Kubrick. Maze, t-maze, eight-arm maze, radila maze, hierarchical maze, radial arm maze, Y-maze, choice-maze.
Quelques types de labyrinthe
Labyrinthe (en général) Labyrinthe papier-crayon Labyrinthe sous l'eau
Labyrinthe en T Labyrinthe radial  
 

 
SMALL, W.S. (1900). Experimental study of the mental processes of the rat I. American Journal of Psychology, 11, 133-165.  
SMALL, W.S. (1901). Experimental study of the mental processes of the rat II. American Journal of Psychology, 12, 206-239. CALDWELL, W.E. & JONES, H.B. (1954). Somes positive results on the modified Tolman and Honzik insight maze. Journal of Comparative & Psysiological Psychology, 47, 416-418
STONE, C.P. & STURMAN-HULBE, M. (1927). Food vs. sex as incentives for male rats on the maze-learning problem. American Journal of Psychology, 38, 403-408. OLDS, J. (1956). Runway and maze behavior controlled by basomedial forebrain stimulation in the rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 49, 507-512.
BLODGETT, H.C. (1929). The effect of the introduction of reward upon the maze performance of rats. University of California Publications in Psychology, 4, 113-134. RESTLE, F. (1957). Discrimination of cues in mazes : a resolution of the "place-vs-response" question. Psychological Review, 65, 77-91
SKINNER, B.F. (1930). On the inheritance of maze behavior. Journal of General Psychology, 4, 342-346. FANTINO, E., HOPKINS, D. & COLE, M. (1968). Proactive interference for maze habits in the rat. Psychonomic Science, 10, 365-366.
HULL, C.L. (1932). The goal gradient hypothesis and maze learning. Psychology Review, 39, 25-43. OLTON, D.S., COLLISON, C. & WERZ, M.A. (1977). Spatial memory and radial arm maze performance of rats. Learning & Motivation 8 (3), 289-314.
HULL, C.L. (1934). The concept of the habit-family hierarchy and maze learning : Part I. Psychological Review, 41, 33-54. OLTON, D.S. (1979). Mazes, maps, and memory. American Psychologist, 34, 583-596.
SACKETT, R.S. (1934). The influences of symbolic rehearsal upon the retention of a maze habit. Journal of General Psychology, 10, 376-395. ROBERTS, W.A. (1979). Spatial memory in the rat on a hierarchical maze. Learning & Motivation 10 (2), 117-140.
SACKETT, R.S. (1935). The relationship between amount of symbolic rehearsal and retention of a maze habit. Journal of General Psychology, 13, 113 - 128. VAUCLAIR, J. (1980). Le rôle de la propriomotricité dans l'apprentissage d'un labyrinthe chez le hamster doré. L'Année Psychologique, 2, 331-351.
HERON, W.T. (1935). The inheritance of maze-learning ability in the rat. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 19, 77-89. SUZUKI, S., AUGERINOS, G. & BLACK, A.H. (1980). Stimulus control of spatial behavior on the eight-arm maze in rats. Learning & Motivation, 11 (1), 1-18.
HERON, W.T. & SKINNER, B.F. (1939). Rate of extinction in maze-bright and maze-dull rats. Psychological Bulletin, 36, 520. CHAMIZO, V.D. & MACKINTOSH, N.J. (1989). Latent learning and latent inhibition in maze discriminations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 41B, 21-31.
HERON, W.T. & SKINNER, B.F. (1940). The rate of extinction in maze-bright and maze-dull rats. The Psychological Record, 4, 11-18. TROBALON, J.B., SANSA, J., CHAMIZO, V.D. & MACKINTOSH, N.J. (1991). Perceptual learning in maze discriminations. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 43B, 389-402.
SILVERMAN, W. SHAPIRO, F. & HERON, W.T. (1940). Brain weight and maze learning in rats. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 30 (2), 279-282. LENCK-SANTINI, P.P., SAVE, E. & POUCET, B. (2001). Place-cell firing does not depend on the direction of turn in a Y-maze alternation task. European Journal of Neuroscience, 13 (5),1055-1058.
TRYON, R.C. (1940). Genetic differences in maze learning ability in rats. Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 39 (1), 111-119. SHORE, D.I., STANFORD, L., MACINNES, J.W., KLEIN, R.M., BROWN, R.E. (2001). Of mice and men : virtual Hebb-Williams mazes permit comparison of spatial learning across species. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 1, 83-89.
BERNARD, J. & GILBERT, R. W.(1941). The specificity of the effect of shock for error in maze learning with human subjects. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 28, 178-186. TIMBERLAKE, W. (2002). Niche-related learning in laboratory paradigms : The case of maze behavior in Norway rats. Behavioural Brain Research, 134, 355-374.
HERON, W.T. (1941). The inheritance of brightness and dullness in maze learning ability in the rat. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 59, 41-49. DE LA CASA, L.G. & TIMBERLAKE, W. (2006). Effects of pre-exposure and retention interval on latent inhibition and perceptual learning in a choice-maze discrimination task. Learning & Behavior, 34, 193-201. [PDF]
MEEHL, P.E. & MacCORQUODALE, K.B. (1948). A further study of latent learning in the T-maze. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 41, 372-396. YOUNG, M.E., CLARK, M.H., GOFFUS, A. & HOANE, M.R. (2009). Mixed effects modeling of Morris water maze data : Advantages and cautionary notes. Learning & Motivation, 40 (2), 160-177.
SEARLE, L.V. (1949). The organization of hereditary maze brightness and maze dullness. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 39, 279-325.  
Voir aussi Rat, Labyrinthe et Laboratoire
Labyrinthe en T : Labyrinthe en forme de T. T-maze.

  MEEHL, P.E. & MacCORQUODALE, K.B. (1948). A further study of latent learning in the T-maze. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 41, 372-396. ZANGROSSI, H. JR., VIANA, M.B., ZANOVELI, J., BUENO, C., NOGUEIRA, R.L. & GRAEFF, F.G. (2001). Serotonergic regulation of inhibitory avoidance and one-way escape in the rat elevated T-maze. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 25, 637-645.
  Voir aussi Rat, Labyrinthe et Laboratoire
Labyrinthe papier-crayon : Labyrinthe en papier que l'on parcourt avec un crayon, plutôt que physiquement. Stylus-maze, tactual maze. .

  WARDEN, C.J. (1924). The relative economy of various modes of attack in the mastery of a stylus maze. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 7 (4), 243-275.  
WARDEN, C.J. (1925). Judgments of certain space relations based upon the learning of a stylus maze. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 8 (6), 399-407. AXELROD, H.S., COWEN, E.L. & HEILIZER, F. (1956). The correlates of manifest anxiety in stylus maze learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51 (2), 131-138.
MILES, W. (1927). The two-story duplicate maze : Tracing the stylus maze with a maximum of indirect visual guidance. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10 (5), 365-377. DASTON, P.G. (1958). Stylus maze performance of chronic schizophrenics taking chlorpromazine. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 22 (5), 384.
MAYS, L.L. (1931). Continuity of movement and error elimination in the stylus maze. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 12 (3), 279-288. CORKIN, S. (1965). Tactually-guided maze learning in man : Effects of unilateral cortical excisions and bilateral hippocampal lesions. Neuropsychologia, 3, 339-351.
WATERS, R.H. & POOLE, G.B. (1933). The relative retention values of stylus and mental maze habits. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 16 (3), 429-434.  
McGEOCH, J.A. & PETERS, H.N. (1933). An all-or-none characteristic in the elimination of errors during the learning of a stylus maze. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 16 (4), 504-523. CANAVAN, A.G. (1983). Stylus-maze performance in patients with frontal-lobe lesions : effects of signal valency and relationship to verbal and spatial abilities. Neuropsychologia, 21 (4), 375-382.
PETERS, H.N. & McGEOCH, J.A. (1935). The relationship between time spent in the culs-de-sac of a stylus maze and speed of elimination. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18 (4), 414-430.  
PETERS, H.N. & McLEAN, L. (1935). An experiment on orientation in stylus maze learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 18( 5), 633-637.  
BUNCH, M.E. (1935). Certain effects of electric shock in learning a stylus maze. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 20 (2), 211-242.  
JONES, H.E. & YOSHIOKA, J.G. (1938). Differential errors in children's learning on a stylus maze. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 25 (3), 463-480.  
  Voir aussi Laboratoire
Labyrinthe radial : Labyrinthe circulaire en forme de soleil inventé par Olton pour étudier la mémoire spatiale des rongeurs. Chaque rayon du soleil est un bras que l'animal peut chosir d'emprunter. Radial maze, radial arm maze, olton maze, eight-arm maze.

  OLTON, D.S. & SAMUELSON, R.J. (1976). Remembrance of places passed : Spatial memory in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes 2 (2), 97–116. ZILLES, K., WU, J., CRUSIO, W.E., AND SCHWEGLER, H. (2000). Water maze and radial maze learning and the density of binding sites of glutamate, GABA, and serotonin receptors in the hippocampus of inbred mouse strains. Hippocampus 10, 213-225.
OLTON, D.S., COLLISON, C. & WERZ, M.A. (1977). Spatial memory and radial arm maze performance of rats. Learning & Motivation 8 (3), 289-314. LIPP, H.P., PLESKACHEVA, M.G., GOSSWEILER, H., RICCERI, L., SIRNOV, A.A. GARIN N.N., PEREPIOKINA, O.P., VORONKOV, D.N., KUPTOV, P.A. & DELL'OMO, G. (2001). Review A large outdoor radial maze for comparative studies in birds and mammals. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 83-99. [PDF]
SUZUKI, S., AUGERINOS, G. & BLACK, A.H. (1980). Stimulus control of spatial behavior on the eight-arm maze in rats. Learning & Motivation, 11 (1), 1-18. ORMEROD, B.K. & BENINGER, R.J. (2002). Water maze versus radial maze : differential performance of rats in a spatial delayed match-to-position task and response to scopolamine. Behavioural Brain Research, 128, 139-152. [PDF]
YOERG, S.I. & KAMIL, A.C. (1982). Response strategies in the radial arm maze: Running around in circles. Animal Learning & Behavior, 10 (4), 530-534. [PDF] BROWN, M.F. & GUIMETTI, G.W. (2006). Spatial pattern learning in the radial arm maze. Learning & Behavior 34 (1), 102-108.
WIRSCHING, B.A., BENINGER, R.J., JHAMANDAS, K., BOEGMAN, R.J. & EL-DEFRAWY, S.R. (1984). Differential Effects of scopolamine on working and reference Memory of Rats in the Radial Maze. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 20, 659-662. [PDF] MANDOLESI, L., ADDONA, F., FOTI, F., MENGHINI, F., PETROSINI, L. & VICARI, S. (2009). Spatial competences in Williams syndrome : a radial arm maze study. International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience, 27 (3), 205-213.
BERNSTEIN, D., OLTON, D.S., INGRAM, D.K., WALLER, S.B., REYNOLDS, M.A. & LONDON, E.D. (1985). Radial maze performance in young and aged mice : Neurochemical correlates. harmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 22 (2), 301-307. MacPHERSON, K. & ROBERTS, W.A. (2010). Spatial memory in dogs (Canis familiaris) on a radial maze. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124 (1), 47-56. [PDF]
HODGES, H. (1995). Maze procedures : the radial-arm and water maze compared. Cognitive Brain Research, 3 (3-4), 167-181. TONNEAU, F., ORTIZ, R. & CABRERA, F. (2012). Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog : the role of spatial versus olfactory cues. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126 (1), 82-86.
Voir aussi Rat, Labyrinthe et Laboratoire
Labyrinthe sous-marin/aquatique : Labyrinthe submergé ou qui comporte des sections sous l'eau. Labyrinthe aquatique, cylindre aquatique et tâche de Morris. Watermaze, Morris swimming pool, swimming pool navigation tasks.
  MORRIS, R.G.M. (1981). Spatial localisation does not depend on the presence of local cues. Learning & Motivation, 12, 239-260. [PDF] PRADOS, J. & TROBALON, J.B. (1998). Locating an invisible goal in a water maze requires at least two landmarks. Psychobiology, 26, 42-48.
WHISHAW, I.Q. & MITTLEMAN, G. (1986). Visits to starts, routes and places by rats (Rattus norvegicus) in swimming pool navigation tasks. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100, 422-431. ROBERTS, A.D.L. & PEARCE, J.M. (1999). Blocking in the Morris swimming pool. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 25, 225-235.
  ZILLES, K., WU, J., CRUSIO, W.E., AND SCHWEGLER, H. (2000). Water maze and radial maze learning and the density of binding sites of glutamate, GABA, and serotonin receptors in the hippocampus of inbred mouse strains. Hippocampus 10, 213-225.
LEE, R.K. & MAIER, S.F. (1988). Inescapable shock and attention to internal versus external cues in a water discrimination escape task.Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 14 (3), 302-310. WHISHAW, I.Q. & PAZSTOR, T.J. (2000). Rats alternate on a dry-land but not a swimming-pool (Morris task) place task : implications for spatial processing. Behavioral Neuroscience, 114, 442-446.
MORRIS, R.G.M. & SPOONER, R.I.W. (1990). Watermaze [Computer software]. Edinburgh : WaterMaze Software. REDHEAD, E.S., PRADOS, J. & PEARCE, J.M. (2001). The effects of pre-exposure on escape from a Morris pool. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 54B, 353-367.
WHISHAW, I.Q. (1995). A comparison of rats and mice in a swimming pool place task and matching to place task : some surprising differences. Physiology & Behavior, 58, 687-693. D'HOOGE, R. & De DEYN, P.P. (2001). Applications of the Morris water maze in the study of learning and memory. Brain Research Reviews, 36, 60-90.
  ORMEROD, B.K. & BENINGER, R.J. (2002). Water maze versus radial maze : differential performance of rats in a spatial delayed match-to-position task and response to scopolamine. Behavioural Brain Research, 128, 139-152. [PDF]
REDHEAD, E.S., ROBERTS, A.D.L., GOOD, M. & PEARCE, J. (1997). Interaction between piloting and beacon homing by rats in a swimming pool. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 23, 340-350. TIMBERLAKE, W., SINNING, S. & LEFFEL, J. (2007). Beacon training in a water maze can facilitate as well as interfere with subsequent room cue learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 33, 225-243. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Labyrinthe, Tâche de Morris et Laboratoire
LACOUTURE - LADOUCEUR - LAFORGUE - LAGACHE - LAING - LAKATOS - LAMARCK - LANGAGE - LANGER - LANGONE - LANGUE - LAP
Lacan Jacques-Marie Émile (Paris 1901-1989 Paris) : Psychanalyste français. Il a poursuivit l'oeuvre de Freud en développant une théorie de l'inconscient basée sur le langage naturelle. Analysé par Loewenstein. Analyste de Laplanche, Mannoni, Olivier et Pontalis. Professeur d'Anzieu et de Wilden.
LACAN, J. (1953/1966). Fonction et champs de la parole et du langage en psychanalyse : dans Écrits. Paris : Le Seuil.
LACAN, J. (1955-1956/1981). Les psychoses. Paris : Le Seuil.
LACAN, J. (1957-1958/1998). Les formations de l'inconscient. Paris : Le Seuil.
LACAN, J. (1960-61/2001). Le transfert. Paris : Le Seuil.
LACAN, J. (1966). Les écrits. Paris : Seuil.
 
EIGEN, M. (1981). The area of faith in Winnicott, Lacan and Bion. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 62, 413-433.
GROSZ, E. (1990). Jacques Lacan : A feminist introduction. New York : Routledge.
VANIER, A. (1998/2000). Lacan. New York : Other Press.
VANIER, A. (2001). Some remarks on adolescence with particular reference to Winnicott and Lacan. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 70, 579-597. [PDF]
Lacey Hugh ( ) : Philosophe et épistémologue américain. Il s'intéresse notamment au béhaviorisme. Collaborateur de Rachlin et Schwartz.
LACEY, H. (1980). Psychological conflict and human nature : The case of behaviorism and cognition. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 10, 131-155.
LACEY, H. & SCHWARTZ, B. (1986). Behaviorism, intentionality, and sociohistorical structure. Behaviorism, 14, 193-210. [PDF]
LACEY, H. (1998). On the limits of radical behaviorism : a reply to Leigland's reply. Behavior & Philosophy, 26, 63-71.
LACEY, H. (2002). Teleological behaviorism and altruism. The Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 25, 266-267.
LACEY, H. (2003). The behavioral scientist qua scientist makes value judgements. Behavior & Philosophy, 31, 209-223. [PDF]
 
LECHOPIER, N. (2011). Sciences, valeurs et pluralisme chez Hugh Lacey. Dans J.-P. Pierron et M.-H. Parizeau (Dirs.), Nature, technologie, éthique. Dialogue Europe, Asie, Amériques. Québec : Les Presses de l'Université Laval. [PDF]
Lachapelle Guy ( ) : Politologue québécois et professeur à l'Université Concordia.
LACHAPELLE, G., BERNIER, L. et TREMBLAY, P.P. (1999). Le processus budgétaire au Québec. Montréal : Presses Universitaires du Québec.
LACHAPELLE, G., TREMBLAY, P.P. et TRENT, J. (Dirs.) (2005). L'impact référendaire. Montréal : Presses Universitaires du Québec.
LACHAPELLE, G. et PAQUIN, S. (Dir.) (2005). Mondialisation, gouvernance et nouvelle stratégies subétatiques. Québec : Presses de l'Université Laval.
LACHAPELLE, G. (2005). Claude Ryan et la violence du pouvoir : Le Devoir et la Crise d'octobre 1970 ou le combat de jounalistes démocrates. Québec : Presses de l'Université Laval.
LACHAPELLE, G. (2005). Globalization and governance : Aspiring to a fairer globalization. Development, 48 (1), 52-60.
Lâcher-prise : Décision consciente d'éviter ou d'échapper à une situation aversive ou à un problème difficile que l'on a en vain tenté de résoudre. = résignation. /confrontation.

  LACHAUX, J.-P. (2011). Le cerveau attentif : Contrôle, maîtrise et lâcher-prise. Paris : Odile Jacob.
Lack David Lambert (1910-1973 Oxford) : Biologiste anglais, écologiste avant la lettre et spécialiste de l'étude des oiseaux (ornithologie).
LACK, D. (1940). Evolution of the Galapagos finches. Nature, 146, 324-327.
LACK, D. (1949). The significance of reproductive isolation. In G. Jepsen, E. Mayr & G.G. Simpson (Eds), Genetics, paleontology and evolution. Princeton.
LACK, D. (1954). The evolution of reproductive rates. In J. Huxley, A.C. Hardy & E.B. Ford (Eds), Evolution as a process. London : Allen & Unwin.
LACK, D. (1968). Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. London : Methuen.
LACK, D. (1973). The numbers of species of hummingbirds in the West Indies. Evolution, 27, 326-337.
Lacoursière Jacques (Shawinigan 1932-) : Historien et vulgarisateur québécois, spécialiste de l'histoire du Québec. Collaborateur de Vaugeois.

Gracieuseté de Suzanne Marchand
LACOURSIÈRE, J. & VAUGEOIS, D. (1969). Les troubles de 1837-1838. Montréal : Fides.
LACOURSIÈRE, J. (1972). Alarme citoyens ! L'affaire Cross-Laporte, du connu à l'inconnu. Montréal : Éditions La Presse.
LACOURSIÈRE, J. (2001). Shawinigan, 100 ans d'histoire. De l'effervescence au renouveau. Shawinigan : Éditions des Glanures.
LACOURSIÈRE, J. (2008). Québec et sa région. Montréal : Éditions de l'Homme.
LACOURSIÈRE, J., PROVENCHER, J. & VAUGEOIS, D. (2011). Canada-Québec : Canada-Québec 1534-2010. Sillery : Septentrion.
Lacouture Yves ( ) : Psychologue connexioniste québécois et professeur à l'Université Laval. Il étudie les processus perceptifs dans le cadre de la théorie du traitement de l'information (modèles connexionistes). Étudiant de Marley. Collaborateur de Cousineau.
LACOUTURE, Y. & LACERTE, D. (1997). Stimulus modality and stimulus-resonse compatibility in absolute identification. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale, 51 (2), 165-170.
LACOUTURE, Y., LI, S.-C. & MARLEY, A.A.J. (1998). The roles of stimulus and response set size in the identification and categorisation of unidimensional stimuli. Australian Journal of Psychology, 50 (3), 165-174
LACOUTURE, Y., GRONDIN, S. & MORI, S. (2001). Absolute identification of temporal intervals : Preliminary data. In E. Sommerfeld, R. Kompass & T. Lachmann (Eds.), Fechner day 2001. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Meeting of the International Society for Psychophysics (pp. 493-498). Leipzig : The International Society for Psychophysics.
LACOUTURE, Y. & MARLEY, A.A.J. (2004). Choice and response time processes in the identification and categorization of unidimensional stimuli. Perception & Psychophysics, 66 (7), 1206-1226. [PDF]
LAFOND, D., LACOUTURE, Y. & COHEN, A.L. (2009). Decision-tree models of categorization response tmes, choice proportions, and typicality judgments. Psychological Review, 116 (4), 833-855.
Lacroix Guy L. ( ) : Psychologue connexioniste québécois et professeur à l'Université de Carlton. Collaborateur de Cousineau et Hélie.
SHARPE, D. & LACROIX, G.L. (1999). Reasoning about apparent contradictions : resolution strategies and positive-negative asymmetries. Journal of Child Language, 26, 477-490
COUSINEAU, D., LACROIX, G.L. & HÉLIE, S. (2003). Redefining the rules : Providing race models with a connectionist learning rule. Connection Science, 15, 27-43.
LACROIX, G.L., CONSTANTINESCU, I., COUSINEAU, D., ALMEIDA, R.G., SEGALOWITZ, N. & VON GRUNAÜ, M. (2004). Attentional blink differences between adolescent dyslexic and normal readers. Brain & Cognition, 57, 115-119.
LACROIX, G.L., GIGUÈRE, G. & LAROCHELLE, S. (2005). The origin of exemplar effects in rule-driven categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31, 272-288.
LACROIX, G.L. & GIGUÈRE, G. (2010). Concepts fondamentaux de l'attention, 2ème partie : Le contrôle cognitif et la conscience. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 31, 39-66.
Lacune (théorique) : Voir Faille théorique.
Ladd
Gary W. Ladd George Trumbell Ladd
Ladd Gary W. ( ) : Psychologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'amitié et des enfants rejetés par les pairs.
LADD, G.W. & ODEN, S.L. (1979). The relationship between peer acceptance and children's ideas about helpfulness. Child Development, 50, 402-408.
LADD, G.W. (1990). Having friends, Keeping friends, making friends, and being liked by peers in the classroom : Predictors of children's early school adjustment ? Child Development, 61, 1081-1100.
LADD, G.W., KOCHENDERFER, B.J. & COLEMAN, C.C. (1996). Friendship quality as a predictor of young children's early school adjustment. Child Development, 67, 1103-1118.
LADD, G.W. (1999). Peer relationships and social competence during early and middle childhood. Annual Review of Psychology (Vol. 50, pp. 333-359). Palo Alto, CA : Annual Reviews Inc. [PDF]
LADD, G.W., HERALD-BROWN, S.L. & REISER, M. (2008). Does chronic classroom peer rejection predict the development of children's classroom participation during the grade school years? Child Development, 79, 1001-1015.
Ladd Trumbull George (Painesville 1842-1921) : Psychologue et philosophe américain. Membre fondateur et deuxième président de l'APA en 1893. Il est également le fondateur du laboratoire de psychologie expérimentale de l'Université Yale. Il a aussi publié le premier manuel (text book) consacré à la psychologie. Collaborateur de Woodworth.
LADD, G.T. (1887). Elements of physiological psychology.
LADD, G.T. (1891). Philosophy of the mind.
LADD, G.T. (1894). Primer of psychology.
LADD, G.T. (1894). Psychology, descriptive and explanatory.
LADD, G.T. & WOODWORTH, R.S. (1911). Elements of physiological psychology. NY : Charles Scribner's Sons.
 
HALL, G.S. (1887). Review of G. T. Ladd, Elements of physiological psychology. American Journal of Psychology, 1, 149.
HALL, G.S. (1895). Review of G. T. Ladd, Psychology, descriptive and explanatory. American Journal of Psychology, 6, 477.
Lader Malcom H. (1936-) : Biochimiste et psychiatre anglais. Il s'intéresse notamment à la dépendance et aux effets secondaires des psychotropes, notamment des benzodiazépines. Collaborateur de Marks, Öhman et Wing.
LADER, M.H. & WING, L. (1964). Habituation of the psycho-galvanic reflex in patients with anxiety states and in normal subjects. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 27, 210-218.
LADER, M.H. (1978). Benzodiazpines : The opium of the masses ? The Neuroscience, 3, 159-165.
LADER, M.H. (1982). Psychological effects of buspirone. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 43, 62–67.
LADER, M.H. & PETURSSON (1983). Long term effects of benzodiazepines. Neuropharmacology, 22 (4), 527-533.
LADER, M.H. (1991). History of benzodiazepine dependence. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 8, 53-59. [PDF]
 
 
Ladouceur Richard ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste québécois et professeur à l'Université Laval, spécialisé dans l'étude du jeu complusif. Collaborateur de Blaszczynski, Cottraux, Dugas, Freeston, Granger, Petry, Potenza, Tremblay, Vitaro et Walker.
LADOUCEUR, R., BLAIS, F., FREESTON, M.H. & DUGAS, M.J. (1998). Problem solving and problem orientation in generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 12, 139–152.
LADOUCEUR, R., SYLVAIN, C., LETARTE, H., GIROUX, I., JACQUES, C. (1998). Cognitive treatment of pathological gamblers. Behavior Research Therapy, 36, 1111-1120.
LADOUCEUR, R. & SÉVIGNY, S. (2002). Symbols presentation modality as a determinant of gambling behavior. Journal of Psychology, 136 (4), 443-448.
LADOUCEUR, R. (2004). Gambling : The hidden addiction. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 501-503.
LADOUCEUR, R. (2005). Controlled gambling for pathological gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 49-59.
Lafargue Paul (Santiago 1842-1911 Draveil) : Marxiste de la première heure et intellectuel français.
LAFARGUE, P. (1880). Le droit à la paresse (Réfutation du « Droit au travail » de 1848). [LIRE]
LAFARGUE, P. (1887). La religion du capital. [PDF]
 
 
 
Laffer Arthur Betz ( Youngstown 1940-) : Économiste américain. On lui doit le modèle qui porte son nom.
LAFFER, A.B. (1969). Vertical integration by corporations, 1929-1965. Review of Economics & Statistics, 51 (1), 91-93.
LAFFER, A.B. & RANSON, D.R. (1971). A formal model of the economy. Journal of Business, 44 (3), 247-270.
LAFFER, A.B. & FAMA, E.F. (1972). The number of firms and competition. American Economic Review 62 (4), 670-674.
LAFFER, A.B. (1986). The ellipse : An explication of the Laffer curve in a two-factor model. In The financial analyst's guide to fiscal policy (p. 1-35). New York : Greenwood Press.
LAFFER, A.B., MOORE, S. & TANOUS, P. (2009).The end of prosperity : how higher taxes will doom the economy--if we let it happen. Threshold Editions.
Laforest Guy ( ) : Politologue québécois et professeur à l'Université Laval.
LAFOREST, G. (2001). The true nature of sovereignty. In R. Beiner et W. Norman (Dirs.), Canadian political philosophy. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
LAFOREST, G. et MONTIGNY, E. (2005). Le fédéralisme exécutif : origines, évolution, problèmes et typologie. Dans M. Tremblay et R. Pelletier (Dirs.), Le parlementarisme canadien. Québec : Les Presses de l'Université Laval.
Laforgue René (1894-1962) : Psychanalyste français. L'un des promoteurs de la psychanalyse freudienne en France. Il a été l'analyste de Dolto et le collaborateur de Freud.
LAFORGUE, R. (1932). Relativité de la réalité. Paris : Denoël et Steele.
LAFORGUE, R. (1932). Le super-ego individuel et collectif. Psyché, 88.
LAFORGUE, R. (1955). De la médecine psychosomatique. Maroc Médical, 360, 617-623.
 
 
 
Lafortune
Louise Lafortune Mireille Lafortune
Lafortune Louise ( ) : Mathématicienne, féministe et spécialiste de l'enseignement des mathématiques. Elle enseigne à l'Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières. Collaboratrice de Gaudet et Potvin.
 LAFORTUNE, L. (1986). Mathématiciennes de l'histoire : Qui sont-elles ? Bulletin AMQ, 25 (2), 21-24.
 LAFORTUNE, L. (1989). Attitudes, différences et enseignement des mathématiques. Dans L. Lafortune (Dir.), Quelles différences? Les femmes et l'enseignement des mathématiques (p. 151-158). Montréal : Remue-Ménage,
 LAFORTUNE, L. et GAUDET, É. (2000). Une pédagogie interculturelle pour une éducation à la citoyenneté. Montréal : ERPI.
 LAFORTUNE, L. et FENNEMA, E. (2002). Situation des filles à l'égard des mathématiques : anxiété et stratégies utilisées. Recherches féministes : Sciences, ingénierie et technologie, 15 (1), 7-24.
 LAFORTUNE, L., C. DEAUDELIN, P.-A. DOUDIN et D. MARTIN (Dirs.) (2003). Conceptions, croyances et représentations en maths, sciences et technos. Sainte-Foy : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
Lafortune Mireille (1935-1998) : Psychanalyste québécoise. Elle a enseigné à l'Université du Québec à Montréal.
 LAFORTUNE, M. (1972). Le sentiment de culpabilité et le choix d'une méthode contraceptive chez les femmes. Montréal :
 LAFORTUNE, M. (1977). Le mémoire et les méthodes qualitatives de recherche en psychologie clinique. Montréal :
 LAFORTUNE, M. (1985). Psychologie clinique et science. Essai méthodologique. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 6 (1), 2-15.
 LAFORTUNE, M.. (1987). Le sujet emprisonné. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 8 (3), 78-88.
 LAFORTUNE, M. (1989). Le psychologue pétrifié ou du modèle expérimentale comme perversion du discours humaine. Montréal : Louise Courteau.
Lagache Daniel (Paris 1903-1972 Paris) : Psychiatre et psychanalyste français. Il s'est notamment intéressé aux hallucinations. Analysé par Bouvet et Loewenstein. Collaborateur d'Anzieu.
ANZIEU, D., LAGACHE, D. & ROSENBLUM, E. (1984). Agressivité structure de la personalité et autres travaux. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LAGACHE, D. (1986). La folle du logis : La psychanalyse comme science exacte - 1964-1968. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LAGACHE, D. (1997). Les oeuvres 1 ; Les hallucinations verbales. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LAGACHE, D. (1997). La jalousie amoureuse; psychologie descriptive et psychanalyse. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LAGACHE, D. (2004). Unité de la psychologie. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Lahey Benjamin B. ( ) : Psychologue américain. Collaborateur de Pelham, Rhee, Waldman et Willcutt.
LAHEY, B.B., WALDMAN, I.D. & McBURNETT, K. (1999). Annotation : The development of antisocial behavior : An integrative causal model. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 40, 669-682.
LAHEY, B.B., SCHWAB-STONE, M., GOODMAN, S.H., WALDMAN, I.D., CANINO, G., RATHOUZ, P.J., MILLER, T.L., DENNIS, K.D., BIRD, H. & JENSEN, P.S. (2000). Age and gender differences in oppositional behavior and conduct problems : A cross-sectional household study of middle childhood and adolescence. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 488-503.
LAHEY, B.B., LOEBER, R., BURKE, J.D., RATHOUZ, P. & MCBURNETT, K. (2002). Waxing and waning in concert: Dynamic comorbidity of conduct disorder with other disruptive and emotional problems over seven years among clinic-referred boys. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 556-567.
LAHEY, B.B., PELHAM, W.E., LONEY, J., LEE, S.S. & WILLCUTT, E.G. (2005). Instability of the DSM-IV subtypes of ADHD from preschool through elementary school. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 896-902.
LAHEY, B.B. (2009). Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist, 64, 241-256.
Laïcité/Laïc/Laïque : Tout systéme ou service (gouvernement, école, hôpital, etc) dans lequel il existe une séparation légale et de fait entre l'état et l'église. Dans un tel cas, l'église n'exerce aucun pouvoir; elle n'a alors en ces matières qu'une autorité morale. *sécularisation.
  ROY O. (2005). La laïcité face à l'Islam. Paris : Stock.
BAUDÉROT, J. (2007). Les laïcités dans le monde. Paris : Que sais-je ?/Presses Universitaires de France.
MODOD. J.C. (2007). Sécularisation et laïcié. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
BAUDÉROT, J. (2008). Une laïcité interculturelle. Le Québec, avenir de la France. Paris : Éditions de l'Aube.
MASSIGNON, B. (2008). Jean-Claude Monod : Sécularisation et laïcié. Archives de Sciences Sociales des Religions, 144, 144-49. [PDF]
Laing Ronald David (Glasgow 1927-1989 Saint-Tropez) : Psychiatre et chef de file de l'antipsychiatrie. Il a fondé en 1965 la Philadelphia Association, qui se donne pour objectif de modifier notre conception de la maladie mentale (avec Laing, Sigal, Cooper et Briskin). Collaborateur de Cooper et Esterson.
LAING, R.D. (1960/65). The divided self : An existential study in sanity and madness. Tavistock/Penguin.
LAING, R.D. & COOPER, D.G. (1964). Reason and violence : A decade of Sartre's philosophy 1950-1960. Tavistock.
LAING, R.D. & ESTERSON, A. (1964/1975). Sanity, madness, and the family : Families of schizophrenics. Penguin Books / L'équilibre mental, la folie, la famille. Paris : Maspero.
LAING, R.D. (1969). The politics of the family and other essays. London : Tavistock Publications.
LAING, R.D. (1985). Wisdom, madness and folly. Macmillan : London.
Lait maternel : Première nourriture du nouveau-né, quelle soit ou non donnée par allaitement. Lait maternel, maternité et allaitement. Mother's milk.

  YOSHIDA, K., SMITH, B. & KUMAR, R.C. (1999). Psychotropic drugs in mother's milk : a comprehensive review of assay methods, pharmacokinetics and of safety in breast-feeding. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 13, 64-80.
Lajoie Jacques ( ) : Psychologue québécois et professeur à l'Université du Québec à Montréal. Il s'intéresse plus particulièrement à l'utilisation de l'ordinateur et d'Internet en psychologie et en éducation. Collaborateur de Bindra.
LAJOIE, J. & BINDRA, D. (1976). An interpretation of autoshaping and related phenomena in terms of stimulus-incentive contingencies alone. Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 30 (3), 157-173.
LAJOIE, J. (1998). Les moteurs de recherche du réseau Internet comme indicateurs des besoins intimes. Revue Québecoise de Psychologie, 19 (2), 207-229.
LAJOIE, J. (2001). Richesse et diversité des requêtes. Dans É. Guichard (Dir.), Comprendre les usages d'Internet. Paris : Éditions Rue d'Ulm / Presses de l'École normale supérieure.
LAJOIE, J. (2003). Les nouvelles pratiques d'échanges gratuits. Dans S. Proulx (Dir.), Gouvernance et usages d'Internet : L'émergence des normes. Montréal : Presses de l'Université de Montréal.
LAJOIE, J. et LÉGARÉ, C. (2005). Pratiques innovatrices de collaboration par Internet : le cybermentorat. Dans S. Proulx (Dir.), Internet, une utopie limitée. Québec : Presses de l'Université Laval.
Lakatos Imre (Hongrie 1922-1974 Londres) : Physicien et épistémologue hongrois. Il a proposé une solution - la théorie des programmes de recherche scientifique - au problème de la démarcation. = Imre Lipsitz. Lakatos et Fayerabend. Étudiant de Lukacs. Professeur de Chalmers. Collaborateur de Musgrave.
LAKATOS, I. (1970). Falsification and the methodology of scientific research programmes. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge (pp. 132-133). London & New York : Cambridge University Press.
LAKATOS, I. (1976/84). Proofs and refutations / Preuves et réfutations. Essai sur la Logique de la découverte mathématique. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press/Paris : Édition Hermann.
LAKATOS, I. (1978). The methodology of scientific research programmes : Philosophical Papers (Vol. 1). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
LAKATOS, I. (1978). Mathematics, science and epistemology : Philosophical Papers (Vol.2). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
LAKATOS, I. (1981). History of science and its rational reconstructions. In I.Hacking (Ed.), Scientific revolutions (pp. 107-127). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
 
HACKING, I. (1980). Imre Lakatos's Philosophy of Science. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 30, 381-410.
OVERTON, W. (1984). World views and their influence on psychological theory and research : Kuhn-Lakatos-Laudan. In H. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 18, pp. 191-226). New York : Academic Press.
MEEHL, P. E. (1990). Appraising and amending theories: The strategy of Lakatosian defense and two principles that warrant it. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 108-141.
MEEHL, P.E. (1990). Corroboration and verisimilitude : Against Lakatos' "sheer leap of faith". Minneapolis: Center for Philosophy of Science : University of Minnesota.
LARVOR, B. (1998). Lakatos: An introduction. New York : Routledge.
Lakoff George (1941-) : Linguiste et mathématicien américain. Collaborateur de Chomsky, Gallese et Turner.
LAKOFF, G. (1976). Linguistique et logique naturelle. Klincksieck.
LAKOFF, G. & JOHNSON, M. (1980). Conceptual metaphor in everyday language. Journal of Philosophy, 77 (8), 453-486.
LAKOFF, G. (1987). Women, fire and dangerous things : what categories reveal about the mind. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
LAKOFF, G. & JOHNSON, M. (1999). Philosophy in the flesh : The embodied mind and its challenge to western thought. .New York: Basic Books.
LAKOFF, G. & NUNEZ, R. (2000). Where mathematics comes from : How the embodied mind brings mathematics into being. New York: Basic Books.
Lallation : Vocalisation élémentaire et sans signification produite par le nourrisson dès 3 ou 4 mois et que l'on observe jusqu'à l'apparition du langage. EX: Ta, ta, ta, ma, ma, ma...

 
Lalli Joseph Sebastian (1952-2001) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'automutilation et des comportements aberrants. Collaborateur de Borrero, Mace et Vollmer.
MACE, F.C. & LALLI, J.S. (1991). Linking descriptive and experimental analyses in the treatment of bizarre speech. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 24 (3), 553-562. [PDF]
LALLI, J.S. & MAURO, B.C. (1995). The paradox of preference for unreliable reinforcement : The role of context and conditioned reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28 (3), 389-394. [PDF]
LALLI, J.S. & CASEY, S.D. (1996). Treatment of multiply controlled problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29 (3), 391-395. [PDF]
LALLI, J.S., LIVEZEY, K. & KATES, K. (1996). Functional analysis and treatment of eye poking with response blocking. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 29 (1), 129-132. [PDF]
LALLI, J.S. & KATES, K. (1998). The effect of reinforcer preference on functional analysis outcomes. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31 (1), 79-90. [PDF]
Lam Dominic H. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste anglais et spécialiste de l'étude du trouble bipolaire. Collaborateur de Jones.

 LAM, D.H., BRIGHT J., JONES, S.H., HAYWARD, P., SCHUCK, N., CHISHOLM, D. & SHAM, P. (2000). Cognitive therapy for bipolar illness : a pilot study of relapse prevention. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 24, 503-520.
LAM, D.H., WRIGHT, K. & SMITH, N. (2004). Dysfunctional assumptions in bipolar affective disorder. Journal of Affective Disorders, 79, 193-199.
LAM, D.H., HAYWARD, P., WATKINS, E.R. & SHAM, P. (2005). Relapse prevention in patients with bipolar disorder : cognitive therapy outcome after 2 years. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162 (2), 324-329. [PDF]
LAM, D.H. (2006). What can we conclude from studies on psychotherapy in bipolar disorder ? The British Journal of Psychiatry, 188, 321-322. [PDF]
LAM, D.H., WRIGHT, K., BURBECK, R. & PILLING, S. (2009). Psychological therapies in bipolar disorder : the effect of illness history on relapse prevention - systematic review. Bipolar Disorders, 11, 474-482.
Lamal Peter A. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain et spécialiste de l'étude des métacontingences. Collaborateur de Chase, Greenspoon et Windholz.
LAMAL P.A. (1983). A cogent critique of epistemology leaves radical behaviorism unscathed. Behaviorism, 11, 103-109. [PDF]
LAMAL, P.A. (1991). Three metacontingencies in the pre-Perestroika Soviet Union. Behavior & Social Issues, 1 (1), 75-90. [PDF]
LAMAL, P.A. (1998). Advancing backwards. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31(4), 705-706. [PDF]
LAMAL P.A., RAKOS, R.F. & GREENSPOON, J. (2000). Collegiate contingencies. The Behavior Analyst, 23, 219-238. [PDF]
LAMAL, P.A. (2001). Higher education : Social institution or business ? Behavior & Social Issues, 11 (1), 65-70. [PDF]
Lamarck Jean-Baptiste de Monet Chevalier de (Bazentin-le-Petit France 1744-1829) : Biologiste français de l'école transformisme. Il défend la thèse d'une évolution des espèces basée sur l'hérédité des caractères acquis.
LAMARCK, J.-B. (1802/1986). Recherches sur l'organisation des corps vivants. Fayard.
LAMARCK, J.-B. (1809/1984).Zoological philosophy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
 
 
 
 
Lamarckisme : Lamarckisme et néo-lamarckisme. Lamarkism.
  JABLONKA, E., LAMB, M.J. & AVITAL, E. (1998). Lamarckian mechanisms in darwinian evolution. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 13 (5), 206-210.
Lamb Michael E. ( ) : Psychologue anglais, spécialisé dans l'étude du développement des enfants.
LAMB, M.E. (2005). Attachments, social networks, and developmental contexts. Human Development, 48, 108-112.
LAMB, M.E. & LARSSON, A.S. (2006). Developmentally appropriate interview techniques. In B. Brooks-Gordon & M. Freeman (Eds.), Law and psychology (pp. 143-153). Oxford : Oxford University Press.
HERSHKOWITZ, I., LAMB, M.E. & HOROWITZ, D. (2007). Victimization of children with disabilities. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77, 629-635.
CYR, M. & LAMB, M.E. (2009). Assessing the effectiveness of the NICHD investigative interview Protocol when interviewing French-speaking alleged victims of child sexual abuse in Quebec. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 257-268.
LAMB, M.E. (Ed.) (2010). The role of the father in child development. Hoboken NJ : Wiley.
Lambercier Marc ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste européen. Il a étudié le développement cognitif chez l'enfant. Collaborateur de Piaget.
PIAGET, J., LAMBERCIER, M., BOESCH, E. et ALVERTINI, G. (1942). Introduction à l'étude des perceptions chez l'enfant et analyse d'une illusion relative à la perception visuelle de cercles concentriques (Delboef). Archive de Psychologie, 29 (113), 1-107.
PIAGET, J. et LAMBERCIER, M. (1946). Transpositions perceptives et transitivité opératoire dans les comparaisons en profondeur. Archives de Psychologie, 31 (124), 325-368.
PIAGET, J. et LAMBERCIER, M. (1951). La comparaison des grandeurs projectives chez l'enfant et chez l'adulte. Archives de Psychologie, 33 (130), 81-130.
PIAGET, J. et LAMBERCIER, M. (1953). La comparaison des différences de hauteur dans le plan fronto-parallèle. Archives de Psychologie, 34 (134), 73-107.
PIAGET, J. et LAMBERCIER, M. (1956). Les comparaisons verticales à intervalles croissants. Archives de Psychologie, 35 (140), 321-367.
Lambert Michael J. ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'évaluation des thérapies et de leur efficacité. Collaborateur de Bergin, Garfield, Norcross, Shapiro et Stiles.
LAMBERT, M.J., DEJULIO, S.S. & STEIN, D.M. (1978). Therapist interpersonal skills. And recommendations for future research. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 467-489.
LAMBERT, M.J., SHAPIRO, D.A. & BERGIN, A.E. (1986). The effectiveness of psychotherapy. In S.L. Garfield & A.E. Bergin (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 157-211). Toronto : John Wiley and Sons.
LAMBERT, M.J. & BARLEY, D.E. (2001). Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome. Psychotherapy : Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 38 (4), 357-361.
LAMBERT, M.J. & OGLES, B.M. (2004). The efficacy and effectiveness of psycho therapy. In M.J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield's handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (pp. 139-193). New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
LAMBERT, M.J., HARMON, C., SLADE, K., WHIPPLE, J.L. & HAWKINS, E.J. (2005). Providing feedback to psychotherapists on their patients' progress : Clinical results and practice suggestions. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 61, 165-174.
La Mettrie julien Offray de (Saint-Malo 1709-1751) : Médecin et philosophe matérialiste français. Selon lui, les comportements des humains et des animaux sont déterminés par les mêmes causes.
LA METRIE, J.O. (1747-48). L'Homme-machine.
 
 
 
 
Laming Donald Richard John ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain d'origine anglaise, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire, et plus particulièrement du rappel.
LAMING, D. (1999). Testing the idea of different storage mecanism in memory. International Journal of Psychology, 34 (5), 419-426.
LAMING, D. (2006). Predicting free recalls. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 32 (5), 1146-1163.
LAMING, D. (2008). An improved algorithm for predicting free recalls. Cognitive psychology, 57 (3), 179-221.
LAMING, D. (2009). Failure to recall. Psychological Review, 116 (1), 157-186.
LAMING, D. (2010). Serial position curves in free recall. Psychological Review, 117 (1), 93-133.
LAMING, D. (2012). Recalling the list-before-last: a cautionary tale. Mathematics & Social Sciences, 199 (3), 61-69. [PDF]
Lamont Peter ( ) : Psychologue et historien anglais, spécialisé dans l'étude de la magie et des phénomènes paranormaux. Collaborateur de Wiseman.
LAMONT, P. & WISEMAN, R. (1999). Magic in theory : an introduction to the theoretical and psychological elements of conjuring. Hatfield : University of Hertfordshire Press.
LAMONT, P. (2004). The rise of the Indian rope trick : biography of a legend. London : Little, Brown.
LAMONT, P. (2006). Critically thinking about paranormal belief. In S. Della Sala (Ed.), Tall tales about the mind and brain (pp. 23-35). Oxford : Oxford University Press.
LAMONT, P. (2007). Paranormal belief and the avowal of prior scepticism. Theory & Psychology, 17 (5), 681-696.
LAMONT, P., HENDERSON, J.M. & SMITH, T. (2010). Where science and magic meet : the illusion of a "science of magic". Review of General Psychology, 14 (1), 16-21.
Lampl-de Groot Jeanne (Schiedam 1895-1987 Amsterdam) : Psychiatre et psychanalyste néerlandaise.
LAMPL-DE-GROOT, J. (1946). The pre-oedipal phase in the development of the male child. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 2, 75-83.
LAMPL-DE-GROOT, J. (1950). On masturbation and its influence on general development. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 5, 153-174.
LAMPL-DE-GROOT, J. (1960). On adolescence. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 15, 95-103.
LAMPL-DE-GROOT, J. (1962). Ego ideal and superego. Psycoanalytic Study of the Child, 17, 94-106.
LAMPL-DE-GROOT, J. (1985). Man and mind : Collected papers of Jeanne Lampl-de Groot, M.D. New York : International Universities Press.
Lana (1970-) : Femelle chimpanzé dressée par Rumbaugh.
 
Landa/Landau/Lando
Lev N. Landa H.G. Landau H..A. Lando
 
Landa Lev N. (U.R.S.S. - 1999) : Spécialiste de l'étude des algorithmes mentaux.
LANDA, L.N. (1974). Algorithmization in learning and instruction. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Educational Technology Publications.
LANDA, L. (1975). Some problems in algorithmization and heuristics in instruction. Instructional Science, 4, 99-112.
LANDA, L.N. (1976). Instructional regulation and control : Cybernetics, algorithmization, and heuristics in education. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Educational Technology Publications.
LANDA, L.N. (1993). Landamatics ten years later. Educational Technology, 33 (6), 7-18.
LANDA, L.N. (1999). Landamatics instructional design theory and methodology for teaching general methods of thinking. In C.M. Reigeluth (Ed.), Instructional-design theories and models : A new paradigm of instructional theory. Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Landau H.G. ( ) : Mathématicien et éthologiste anglais, spécialisé dans la formalisation et la modélisation de la dominance et des hiérarchies. Collaborateur de Birren.

LANDAU, H.G. (1951). On dominance relations and the structure of animal societies: I. Effects of inherent characteristics. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 13, 1-19.
LANDAU, H.G. (1951). On dominance relations and the structure of animal societies: II. Some effects of possible social factors. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 13, 245-262.
LANDAU, H.G. (1953). On dominance relations and the structure of animal societies. III. The condition for a score structure. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 15 (2), 143-148.
LANDAU, H.G. (1965). Development of structure in a society with a dominance relation when new members are added successively. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 27, 151-160.
LANDAU, H.G. (1968). Models of social structure. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics, 30, 215-224.
 
BRAUER, A., GENTRY, I.C. & SHAWA, K. (1968). New proof of a theorem by H.G. Landau on tournament matrices. Journal of Combinatorial Theory, 5, 289-292. [PDF]
Lando Harry O. ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude du comportement de fumer. Collaborateur de Bobo.
LANDO, H.A. (1975). A comparison of excessive and rapid smoking in the modification of chronic smoking behavior. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 43, 350-355.
LANDO, H.A. (1976). Self-pacing in eliminating chronic smoking : Serendipity revisited ? Behavior Therapy, 7, 634-640.
LANDO, H.A. (1978). Stimulus control, rapid smoking, and contractual management in the maintenance of nonsmoking. Behavior Therapy, 9, 962-963.
LANDO, H.A., THAI, D.T., MURRAY, D.M., ROBINSON, L.A., JEFFREY, R.W., SHERWOOD, N.E. & HENNRIKUS, D.J. (1999). .Age of initiation, smoking patterns, and risk in a population of working adults. Preventive Medicine, 6 (1), 590-598.
LANDO, H.A., HIPPLE, B., MURAMOTO, M., KLEIN, J., PROKHOROV, A., OSSIP, D. & WINICKOFF, J. (2010). Tobacco control and Children: An international perspective. Pediatric Asthma, Allergy, & Immunology, 23 (2), 99-103.
Landrum R. Eric ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain et spécialiste de l'enseignement de la psychologie.
LANDRUM, R.E. & MUENCH, D.M. (1994). Assessing students' library skills and knowledge : The Library Research Strategies Questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 75, 1619-1628.
LANDRUM, R.E. & HORMEL, L. (2002). Textbook selection : Balance between the pedagogy, the publisher, and the student. Teaching of Psychology, 29, 245-248. [PDF]
LANDRUM, R.E. (2008). Introductory psychology student performance : weekly quizzes followed by a cumulative final exam. Teaching of Psychology, 34 (3), 177. [PDF]
LANDRUM, R.E., CARLSON, H. & MANWARING, W. (2009). The relationship between time to complete a test and test performance. Psychology Learning & Teaching, 8, 53-56.
LANDRUM, R.E. (2015). Teacher-Ready Research Review : Clickers. Scholarship of Teaching & Learning in Psychology, 1 (3), 250-254. [PDF]
Landry Bernard (Saint-Jacques-de-Montcalm 1937-) : Économiste, avocat, homme d'état et politicien québécois. Il enseigne à l'UQÀM.
LANDRY, B. (1987). Commerce sans frontières : le sens du libre-échange. Québec/Amérique.
LANDRY, B. (2002). La cause du Québec. Québec/Amérique.
LANDRY, B., PANET-RAYMOND, A. et ROBICHAUD, D. 2008). Le commerce international : une approche nord-américaine. Montréal : Chenelière Éducation.
 
VASTEL, M. (2001). Landry : le grand dérangeant : biographie. Montréal : Éditions de l'Homme.
 
Lane Christopher (1966-) : Essayiste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude et la critique de la psychiatrie et de l'industrie pharmaceutique.
LANE, C. (1998). Homosexuality and race. Columbia University Press.
LANE, C. (2001). Homosexuality and psychoanalysis. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
LANE, C. (2007). Psychiatrists and drug companies are thoroughly redefining normal behaviour. London : Institute of Ideas.
LANE, C. (2007). Shyness. How normal behavior became a sickness. New Haven : Yale Univesity Press. / Comment la psychiatrie et l'industrie pharmaceutique ont médicalisé nos émotions. Paris : Flammarion.
 LANE, C. (2009). The surprising history of passive-aggressive personality disorder. Theory & Psychology, 19 (1), 55-70.
Langage : Ensemble de signes organisés selon un ensemble fini de règles, qui servent à désigner les objets, réels et imaginaires, et à communiquer une idée, une émotion ou une intention de comportement. Pour Skinner, le langage désigne les comportements verbaux et les contingences sociales qui les façonnent. Pour Jakobson, le langage remplit six fonctions : 1) la fonction dénotative (qui décrit le monde qui nous entoure); 2) la fonction d'appel (qui dévoile un doute ou une certitude du locuteur grâce aux interrogations ou au mode impératif); 3) la fonction expressive (qui révèle une émotion chez le locuteur grâce aux exclamations); 4) la fonction phatique (qui permet de s'assurer que la communication entre émetteur et récepteur est clairement établie grâce à des phrases comme : «Tu m'écoutes? Allo?» ); 5) la fonction poétique (qui décrit une vision personnelle du monde, le monde intérieur); 6) la fonction métalinguistique (qui permet au locuteur de faire référence au langage ou au contexte de la communication). Langage, parole et comportement verbal. Language.

Types de langage
Langage artificiel Langage empirique Langage logico-mathématique
Langage chez les animaux Langage formel Langage naturel
Langage des signes Langage intentionel Langage non-verbal
Langage égocentrique Langage intérieur Méta-langage
 

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Voir aussi Parler, Autisme et Comportement verbal
Langage (Apprentissage/Acquisition précoce du....) : Accelerating language development.

  ARNOLD, D.S. & WHITEBURST, G.J. (1994). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. In D. Dickinson (Ed.), Bridges to literacy : Approaches to supporting child and family literacy (pp. 103-128). Cambridge, MA : Basil Blackwell.
WHITEHURST, G.J., FALCO, F.L., LONIGAN, C., FISCHEL, J.E., DEBARYSHE, B.D., VALDEZ-MENCHACA, M.C. & CAUFIELD, M. (1988). Accelerating language development through picture book reading. Developmental Psychology, 24, 552-559.
Langage (Apprentissage/Acquisition tardif du....) : Early developmental language delay.

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FISCHEL, J.E., WHITEHURST, G.J., DEBARYSHE, B.D. & CAUFIELD, M. (1987). Specific expressive language delay : A longitudinal study. Pediatric Research, 21, 181A. AGIN, M.C. (2004). The "late talker" : When silence isn't golden. Contemporary Pediatrics, 21, 22-32.
STEMMER, N. (1989). Empiricist versus prototype theories of language acquisition. Mind & Language, 4, 201-221.  
WHITEHURST, G.J. & FISCHEL, J.E. LONIGAN, C.J., VALDEZ-MEMCHACA, M.C., ARNOLD, D.S. & SMITH, M. (1991). Treatment of expressive language delay: If, when and how. Topics in Language Disorders, 11, 55-68. KUHL, P.K. (2004). Early language acquisition : Cracking the speech code. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 5, 831-843.
WHITEHURST, G.J. & FISCHEL, J.E. (1994). Early developmental language delay : What, if anything, should the clinician do about it ? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 35, 613- 648. KUHL, P.K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67, 713-727. [PDF]
KUHL, P.K. (2004). Early language acquisition : Cracking the speech code. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 831-843. [PDF] KUHL, P.K. (2011). Early language learning and literacy : Neuroscience implications for education. Mind, Brain & Education, 5 (3), 128-142. [PDF]
Voir aussi Apprentissage, Langage et FOXP2
Langage (Méta) : Élément du langage qui a pour objet le langage lui-même, ses propriétés ou sa signification, et non le réel. = langage du langage.

  GOMBERT, J.-L. (1990). Le développement métalinguistique. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Voir aussi Langage
Langage (Para) :

  Voir aussi Langage
Langage artificiel : Logique (logique des ensembles, logique floue, etc.) ou langage de programmation (C++, Pascal, Fortran, Basic, Java, Html, etc.). /langage naturel. Artificial language.

  KNOWLTON, B.J. & SQUIRE, L.R. (1994). The information acquired during artificial grammar learning. JEP : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 20, 79-91.
STEELS, L. (2006). How to do experiments in artificial language evolution and why. Proceedings of the 6th International Conference EVOLANG6. World Scientific Publishing Co. 323-332. [PDF]
Voir aussi Langage
Langage chez les animaux : Au sens strict, il n'y a pas de langage chez les animaux, car il n'y a pas de code lingusitique formel (alphabet, règes grammaticales, etc) comme chez les humains. Il est préférable d'utiliser le mot communication pour désigner l'échange d'information entre congénères.
  SAVAGE-RUMBAUGH, E.S.,SEVCIK, R.A., RUMBAUGH, D.M. & RUBERT, E. (1985). The capacity of animals to acquire language Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368, 177-185
Voir aussi Animaux, Communication et i Langage
Langage des signes : Langage des signes et Washoe. American Sign Language, ASL.

  GARDNER, R.A. & GARDNER, B.T. (1969). Teaching sign language to a chimpanzee. Science, 165 (3894), 664-672. [PDF]
BENAROYA, S., WESLEY, S., OGILVIE, H., KLEIN, L.S. & MEANEY, M. (1977). Sign language and mutliisensory input training of children with communication and related developmental disorders. Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia, 7, 23-31.
FULWILLER, R.L. & FOUTS, R.S. (1976). Acquisition of American Sign Language by a noncommunicating autistic child. Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia, 6, 43-51.
BONVILLIAN, J.D. & NELSON, K.E. (1976). Sign language acquisition in a mute autistic boy. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 41, 339- 347.
CARR, E.G., BINKOFF, J.A., KOLOGINSKY, E. & EDDY, M. (1978). Acquisition of sign language by autistic children. I : Expressive labelling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11 (4), 489-501. [PDF]
Voir aussi Langage
Langage égocentrique : Chez le jeune enfant, tendance à ne parler que de soi, sans se soucier de la présence des autres ou de leur point de vue (répétition, monologue, fabulation).

  Voir aussi Langage
Langage empirique : Niveau de langage qui désigne des objets ou des phénomènes observables. EX: Le chat est noir, la chaise est bleue, cet homme est gros. /langage formel.

  Voir aussi Langage
Langage formel : Niveau de langage qui désigne des concepts ou des structures hypothétiques non-observable. EX: Le chat est un mammifère, la chaise a une forme postmoderne, cet homme souffre de maniaco-dépression. /langage empirique.

  Voir aussi Langage
Langage intentionnel : Intentional language.

  HEYES, C.M. (1987). Contrasting approaches to the legitimation of intentional language within comparative psychology. Behaviorism, 15 (1), 41-50. [PDF]
Voir aussi Langage
Langage intérieur : Ce qu'un individu se dit, sans parler, de manière plus ou moins consciente. = dialogue intérieur. Inner speech.

    MIYAKE, A., EMERSON, M.J., PADILLA, F. & AHN, J.C. (2004). Inner speech as a retrieval aid for task goals : The effects of cue type and articulatory suppression in the random task cuing paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 115 (2-3), 123-142.
MORIN, A. & EVERETT, J. (1990). Inner speech as a mediator of self-awareness, self-consciousness, and self-knowledge : An hypothesis. New Ideas in Psychology, 8 (3), 337-356. MORIN, A. (2005) Possible links between self-awareness and inner speech: Theoretical background, underlying mechanisms, and empirical evidence. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 12 (4-5), 115-134.
HITCH, G.J., HALLIDAY, M.S., SCHAAFSTAL, A.M. & HEFFERNAN, T.E. (1991). Speech, "inner speech" and the development of short-term memory : Effects of picture-labelling on recall. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 51, 220-234. EHRICH, J.F. (2006). Vygotskian inner speech and the reading process. Australian Journal of Educational & Developmental Psychology, 6, 12-25.
MORIN, A. & EVERRET, J. (1991). Self-awareness and "introspective" private speech in 6-year-old children. Psychological Reports, 68, 1299-1306. [PDF] MORIN, A. (2009). Inner speech and conscious experience. In. W. Banks (Ed.), Encyclopedia of consciousness (pp.389-402). Oxford : Elsevier.
  MARTINEZ-MANRIQUE, F., & VICENTE, A. (2010). « What the...! » The role of inner speech in conscious thought. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 17, 141-167.
MORIN, A., EVERETT, J., TURCOTTE, I. & TARTIF, G. (1993). Le dialogue intérieur comme médiateur cognitif de la conscience de soi privée : Une mesure de l'activité de se parler à soi- même à propos de soi et une étude. La Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 14 (2), 3-19. MORIN, A. (2012). Inner speech. In. W. Hirstein (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (pp.436-443). Elsevier.
Voir aussi Parole et Langage
Langage logico-mathématique : Langage qui repose sur la logique (raisonnement hypothtico-déductif).

Langage naturel Langage logico-mathématique
Pierre est plus grand que Jean, et Jean et plus grand que Serge, donc Pierre est plus grand Serge P > J > S

  Voir aussi Langage
Langage naturel : Langage de tous les jours, celui que l'on parle. EX: Le français et l'anglais sont des langages naturels. C-EX: Le c++ ou la logique des ensembles sont des langages artificiels. /langage artificiel.

  Voir aussi Langage
Langage non-verbal : Voir Communication non verbale. Body language.
Lange Carl Georg (1834-1900) : Physiologiste danois. Il a développé une théorie des émotions en collaboration avec James. Selon lui, nos émotions sont une réponse aux changements physiologiques subies par notre corps. L'émotion est donc la perception/interprétation de nos changements corporels. EX: On est triste (émotion) parce que l'on pleure (réponse physiologique); on a peur (émotion) parce que l'on tremble (réponse physiologique), et non l'inverse.
LANGE, C.G. (1887). Eine psycho-physiologische Studie. In J. Rand (Ed.) (1912). The classical psychologists (pp. 672-684). Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
 
 
 
 
Langer Ellen J. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américaine spécialisée dans l'étude du contrôle et de l'illusion de contrôle. On lui doit le concept d'esprit passif. Étudiante d'Abelson et collaboratrice de Dweck, Rodin et Schank.
LANGER, E. & DWECK, C. (1973). Personal politics. New Jersey : Prentice-Hall.
LANGER, E.J. & ABELSON, R.P. (1974). A patient by any other name... : Clinician group differences in labeling bias. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 42, 4-9.
LANGER, E. & RODIN, J. (1976). The effects of choice and enhanced personal reponsibility for the aged : A field experiment in an institutional setting. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 34 (2),191-198.
LANGER, E. (1989). Mindfulness. Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley.
LANGER, E. (1997). The power of mindful learning. Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley.
Langeveld/Langfeld
Jan Martinus Langeveld Herbert Sidney Langfeld
Langeveld Jan Martinus (Haarlem 1905-1989 Bussum) : Philosophe phénoménologiste et pédagogue allemand d'origine néerlandaise.
 
 
 
 
 
Langevin Hélène M. ( ) : Neuroanatomiste québécoise et spécialiste de l'étude de l'acupuncture.
LANGEVIN, H.M. & VAILLANCOURT, P.D. (1999). Acupuncture : does it work and, if so, how ? Seminars in Clinical Neuropsychiatry, 4, 167-175.
LANGEVIN, H.M., CHURCHILL, D.L., FOX, J.R., BADGER, G.J., GARRA, B.S. & KRAG, M.H. (2001). Biomechanical response to acupuncture needling in humans. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 2471-2478. [PDF]
LANGEVIN, H.M. & YANDOW, J.A. (2002). Relationship of acupuncture points and meridians to connective tissue planes. The Anatomical Record, 269, 257-265. [PDF]
LANGEVIN, H.M. (2006). Connective tissue: A body-wide signaling network ? Medical Hypotheses, 66, (6), 1074-1077.
LANGEVIN, H.M. & SHERMAN, K.J. (2007). Pathophysiological model for chronic low back pain integrating connective tissue and nervous system mechanisms. Medical Hypotheses, 68, 74-80.
Langfeld Herbert Sidney (Philadelphie 1879-1959 Princeton) : Psychologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la conscience et des émotions. Président de l'APA en 1930. Étudiant de Stumpf. Professeur et collaborateur d'Allport.
LANGFELD, H.S. & ALLPORT, F.H. (1916). An elementary laboratory course in psychology. Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company.
LANGFELD, H.S. (1918). Judgments of facial expression and suggestion. Psychological Review, 25, 488-494.
LANGFELD, H.S. (1918-1919). The judgment of emotions from facial expressions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 13, 172-184.
LANGFELD, H.S. (1945). Introduction to symposium on operationism. Psychological Review, 52, 241-248.
Langlois Judith ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américaine et spécialiste de l'étude du développement des enfants, notamment de la catégorisation et de l'attirance à l'égard des visages. Collaboratrice de Vaughn et Zebrowitz.
LANGLOIS, J.H. & STYCZYSKI, L.E. (1979). The effects of physical attractiveness on the behavioral attributions and peer preferences of acquainted children. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 2, 325-341.
LANGLOIS, J.H., ROGGMAN, L.A. & RIESER-DANNER, L.A. (1990). Infants' differential social responses to attractive and unattractive faces, Developmental Psychology, 26 (1), 153-159. [PDF]
LANGLOIS, J.H., RITTER, J.M., ROGGMAN, L.A. & VAUGHN, L.S. (1991). Facial diversity and infant preferences for attractive faces. Developmental Psychology, 27 (1), 79-84. [PDF]
LANGLOIS, J.H., ROGGMAN, L.A. & MUSSELMAN, L. (1994). What is average and what is not average about attractive faces ? Psychological Science, 5, 214-220. [PDF]
LANGLOIS, J.H., KALAKANIS, L., RUBENSTEIN, A.J., LARSON, A., HALLAM, M. & SMOOT, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty ? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 390-423. [PDF]
Langone Michael D. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain spécialisé dans l'étude des sectes, de la manipulation des individus et de leur déprogrammation.
LANGONE, M. (1993). Recovery from cults : help for victims of psychological and spiritual abuse. New York : W.W. Norton.
LANGONE, M. (1989). Beware of "New Age" solutions to age old Problems. Business & Society Review, 69, 39-42.
CLARK, J.G., LANGONE, M.D., SCHECTER, R.E. & DALY, R.C.B. (1981). Destructive cult conversion : Theory, research, and treatment. Bonita Springs, FL : American Family Foundation.
LANGONE, M. (1983). Treatment of individuals and families troubled by cult involvement. Update, 7, 27-38.
LANGONE, M. (1984). Deprogramming : An analysis of parental questionnaires. Cultic Studies Journal, 1, 63-78.
Language & Cognitive Processes : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude du langage et aux processus cognitifs sous-jacents.
KIDD, E., BRANDT, S., LIEVEN, E. & TOMASELLO, M. (2007). Object relatives made easy: A cross-linguistic comparison of the constraints influencing young children's processing of relative clauses. Language & Cognitive Processes, 22 (6), 860 897. [PDF]

Language Learning : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de l'apprentissage du langage.
DEWAELE, J.M., PETRIDES, K.V. & FURNHAM, A. (2009). Effects of trait emotional intelligence and sociobiographical variables on communicative anxiety and foreign language anxiety among adult multilinguals : A review and empirical investigation. Language Learning, 58, 911-960. [PDF]

Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire. Éditeur : American Speech-Language-Hearing Association.
KOEGEL, L.K., KOEGEL, R.L., FREA, W.D. & GRENN-HOPKINS, I. (2003). Priming as a method of coordinating educational services for students with autism. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 34, 228-235. [PDF]

Langue : Le mot a deux acceptions complémentaires : a) Il désigne au sens premier un organe situé dans la cavité buccale de plusieurs animaux, notamment les mammifères, qui permet notamment de goûter, d'avaler et de produire des sons. b) Variation du langage humain. Pour Skinner, le langage est un ensemble de comportements verbaux, tandis que la langue est l'ensemble des contingences (de la communauté verbale) qui façonnent et maintiennent ces comportements.

Types de langue
Langue seconde Langue maternelle Langage des sourds
 
Éléments d'une langue
Consonne Métaphore Symbole
Lettre Nom Syntagme
Mot Phonème Syntaxe
Orthographe Phrase
Grammaire Qualificatif Verbe
Graphème Syllabe Voyelle
 


  a
ANISFLED, M. (1996). Only tongue protruding modeling is matched by neonates. Developmental Review, 16, 149-161.
Voir aussi Organe
b
SKINNER, B.F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts.
CHIAPPE, P. & SIEGEL, L.S. (2006). A longitudinal study of reading development of Canadian children from diverse linguistic backgrounds. The Elementary School Journal, 107 (2), 136-152. [PDF]
Voir aussi Langage et Comportements verbaux
Langue maternelle : Première langue acquise par un enfant, habituellement dès sa naissance (d'où le mot maternel). Mother tongue, first language.
  BROWN, R. (1973). A first language. Boston, MA : Harvard University Press. RENSMAN, T. (1995). French in Paris - Dutch in Gouda. Comparison of two practices of mother tongue education. Nijmegen : IMEN.
CORDER, S.P. (1983). A role for the mother tongue. In S.M. Gass & L. Selinker (Eds.), Language transfer in language learning (pp. 18-31). Philadelphia, PA : John Benjamins North America. HAUEIS, E., KROON, S. & VAN DE VEN, P.-H. (Eds.) (1999.) Research in mother tongue education in a comparative perspective. Nijmegen : IMEN.
HERRLITZ, W., KAMER, A., KROON, S., PETERSE, H. & STURM, J. (Eds.) (1984). Mother tongue education in Europe. A survey of standard language teaching in nine european countries. Studies in mother tongue education 1. Enschede : SLO. FITCH, W.T. (2004). Kin selection and "mother tongues": A neglected component in language evolution. In D. Kimbrough Oller and Ulrike Griebel (Eds.), Evolution of communication systems : A comparative approach (pp. 275-296). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
GAGNÉ, G., DAEMS, F., KROON, S. STURM, J. & TARRAB, E. (Eds.) (1987). Selected papers in mother tongue education. Dordrecht : Foris. / Études en pédagogie de la langue maternelle. Montréal : Centre de Diffusion. CHIAPPE, P. & SIEGEL, L.S. (2006). A longitudinal study of reading development of Canadian children from diverse linguistic backgrounds. The Elementary School Journal, 107 (2), 136-152. [PDF]
WRIGHT, R. (1991). Quest for the mother tongue. Atlantic Monthly, 267, 39-68.  
GAGNÉ, G. & PURVES, A.C. (Eds.) (1993). Papers in mother tongue education 1 : Mother Tongue Education Research Series, vol. 1. New York : Waxman. / Études en pédagogie de la langue maternelle 1. Münster.  
RUHLEN, M. (1994). The origin of language : Tracing the evolution of the mother tongue. New York : John Wiley & Sons.  
Voir aussi Langue seconde et Langue
Langue seconde : Qui parle deux langues, - sa langue maternelle et une seconde langue - sans nécessairement les maîtriser (fluidité). = polyglotte, langue étrangère. bilingualism, second language.

  DUNKEL H. (1948). Second language learning. Boston : Ginn & Company. PIATTELLI-PALMARINI, M. (2000). Speaking in too many tongues. Nature, 408, 403-404.
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LAMBERT, W.E., GARDNER, R.C., BARIK, H.C. & TUNSTALL, K. (1963). Attitudinal and cognitive aspects of intensive study of a second language. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 66, 358-368.  
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COMEAU, L., CORMIER, P., GRANDMAISON, E. & LACROIX, D. (1999). A longitudinal study of phonological processing skills in children learning to read in a second language. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 29-43. BIALYSTOK, E. (2011). Global-local and trail-making tasks by monolingual and bilingual children : Beyond inhibition. Developmental Psychology, 46 (1), 93-105.[PDF]
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KLEIN, D., MILNER, B., ZATORRE, R.J., ZHAO, V. & NIKLESKI, J. (1999). Cerebral organization in bilinguals : A PET study of Chinese-English verb generation. NeuroReport, 10, 2841-2846. SCHWEIZER, T.A., WARE, J., FISCHER, C.E., CRAIK, F.I. & BIALYSTOK, E. (2012). Bilingualism as a contributor to cognitive reserve : Evidence from brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease. Cortex, 48 (8), 991-996. [PDF]
HERNANDEZ, A. & KOHNERT, K. (1999). Aging and language switching in bilinguals. Aging, Neuropsychology & Cognition, 6(2), 69-83. BIALYSTOK, E., CRAIK, F.I.M. & LUK, G. (2012). Bilingualism : Consequences for mind and brain. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 16, 240-250.
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  Voir aussi Multilinguisme, Langue, Langage et Parler
 
Langur : Singe de la famille des cercopithecidae. Langur.
  HRDY, S.B. (1977/80). The langurs of Abu : Female and male strategies of reproduction. Cambridge : Harvard University Press.
DAWKINS, R. (2004/07). The ancestor's tale : A pilgrimage to the dawn of evolution. New York : Houghton Mifflin. / Il était une fois l'évolution. Paris : Hachette. Voir aussi Singe et Animal
Languirand Jacques ( ) : Tripatif animateur de radio québécois et communicateur scientifique. Il a animé une émission de réflexion et de vulgarisation scientifique pendant plus de quarante ans Par quatre chemins (mise en ondes : 13 septembre 1971).
 
 
 
 
Lanovaz Marc J. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste québécois et spécialiste de la stéréotypie, notamment chez les autistes. Il enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Étudiant de Rapp.
LANOVAZ, M.J. & ARGUMEDES, M. (2009). Using the three-component multiple-schedule to examine the effects of treatments on stereotypy. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 15 (3), 64-68.
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LANOVAZ, M.J., RAPP, J.T. & FERGUSON, S. (2012). The utility of assessing musical preference before implementation of noncontingent music to reduce vocal stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45 (4), 845-851. [PDF]
LANOVAZ, M.J., RAPP, J.T., MACIA, I., PRÉGENT-PELLETIER, É., DORION, C., FERGUSON, S. & SAADE, S. (2014). Effects of multiple interventions for reducing vocal stereotypy : Developing a sequential intervention model. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 529-545. [PDF]
Lantéri-Laura Georges (Nice 1903-2004) : Psychiatre français d'origine italienne. Collaborateur de Hécaen.
LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. (1970). Histoire de la phrénologie. L'homme et son cerveau selon F.S Gall. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. (1991). Psychiatrie et connaissances. Paris : Sciences en situation.
LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. (1991). Les hallucinations. Paris : Masson.
LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. (1997). La chronicité en psychiatrie. Paris : Les Empêcheurs de penser en rond.
LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. (1998). Essai sur les paradigmes de la psychiatrie moderne. Paris : Éditions du Temps.
Lanza Robert Paul (Boston 1956-) : Médecin béhavioriste et spécialiste du clonage cellulaire. Collaborateur de Epstein et Skinner.
EPSTEIN, R., LANZA, R.P. & SKINNER, B.F. (1980). Symbolic communication between two pigeons (Columba livia domestica). Science, 207, 543-545. [PDF]
EPSTEIN, R., LANZA, R.P. & SKINNER, B.F. (1981). "Self-awareness" in the pigeon. Science, 212, 695-696. [PDF]
LANZA, R.P., STARR, J. & SKINNER, B.F. (1982). Lying" in the pigeon. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38 (2), 201-203. [PDF]
EPSTEIN, R., KIRSHNIT, C.E., LANZA, R.P. & RUBIN, L.C. (1984). "Insight" in the pigeon : Antecedents and determinants of an intelligent performance. Nature, 308 (5954), 61-62.
LANZA, R.P & BERMAN, B. (2009). Biocentrism : How life and consciousness are the keys to understanding the universe. Benbella Books.
LAPLANCHE - LAPSUS - LASHLEY - LASSONDE - LATANÉ - LATENT - LATÉRALISATION - LATINOS - LAUDAN - LAURIN - LAZARUS - LE
Lapierre-Adamcyk Évelyne ( ) : Sociologue et démographe québécoise, spécialisée dans l'étude de la famille. Étudiante de Henripin.Collaboratrice de Le Bourdais.
LAPIERRE-ADAMCYK, É., LE BOURDAIS, C. et MARCIL-GRATTON, N. (1999). Vivre en couple pour la première fois. La signification du choix de l'union libre au Québec et en Ontario. Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, 28 (1-2), 199-227.
LAPIERRE-ADAMCYK, É. & CHARVET, C. (2000). Cohabitation and marriage : An assessment of research in demography. Canadian Studies in Population, 27 (1), 239-254.
LAPIERRE-ADAMCYK, É. (2003). Modalités de garde des enfants et rôle du tribunal. Policy Options - Options politiques, 24 (7), 58-62.
LE BOURDAIS, C. & LAPIERRE-ADAMCYK, É. (2004). Changes in conjugallife in Canada : Is cohabitation progressively replacing marriage ? Journal of Marriage & Family, 66 (4), 929-942.
LAPIERRE-ADAMCYK, É., MARCIL-GRATTON, N. & LE BOURDAIS, C. (2006). A balancing act : Parents' work arrangements and family time. In K. McQuillan & Z.R. Ravanera (Eds.), Canada's changing families : Implications for individuals and society (pp. 49-75). Toronto : University of Toronto Press.
Lapin (Oryctolagus cuniculus) : Animal de la famille des rongeurs utilisé notamment dans les recherches en conditionnement répondant (réflexe de la membrane nictinante) et sur la neurogénèse postnatal. Rabbit.

  STONE, C.P. (1925). The effects of cerebral destruction on the sexual behavior of rabbits. II. The frontal and parietal regions. American Journal of Physiology, 72, 372- 385.  KEHOE, E.J. (1986). Summation and configuration in conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response to compound stimuli. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 12, 186-195.
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PFAFFMANN, C. (1955). Gustatory nerve impulses in rat, cat and rabbit. Journal of Neurophysiology, 18, 429-440.  POWELL, D.A. & LEVINE-BRYCE, D. (1988). A comparison of two model systems of associative learning : Heart rate and eyeblink conditioning in the rabbit. Psychophysiology, 25, 672-682.
 GORMEZANO, I.N., SCHEIDERMAN, E. DEAUX, E. & FUENTES, I. (1962). Nictitating membrane : Classical conditioning and extinction in the albino rabbit. Science 138, 33-34.  KEHOE, E.J., GRAHAM-CLARKE, P. & SCHREURS, B.G. (1989). Temporal patterns of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response to compound and component stimuli under mixed CS-US intervals. Behavioral Neuroscience, 103, 283-295.
 SMITH, M.C. (1968). CS-US interval and US intensity in classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 66, 679-687. BUCHANAN, S.L. (1991). Differential and reversal Pavlovian conditioning in rabbits with mediodorsal thalamic lesions : assessment of heart rate and eyeblink responses. Experimental Brain Research, 86, 174-181.
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CEGAVSKE, C.F., THOMPSON, R.F., PATTERSON, M.M. & GORMEZANO, I. (1976). Mechanisms of efferent neuronal control of the reflex nictitating membrane response in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 90, 411-423.  KEHOE, E.J. & JOSCELYNE, A. (2005). Temporally specific extinction of conditioned responses in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) nictitating membrane preparation. Behavioral Neuroscience, 119 (4), 1011-1022. [PDF]
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BERGER, T.W. & THOMPSON, R.F. (1978). Neuronal plasticity in the limbic system during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. I. The hippocampus. Brain Research, 145 (2), 323-346. PONTI, G., PERETTO, B. & BONFANTI, L. (2008). Genesis of neuronal and glial progenitors in the cerebellar cortex of peripuberal and adult rabbits. PLoS ONE, 3 (6).
BERGER, T.W. & THOMPSON, R.F. (1978). Neuronal plasticity in the limbic system during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. II : Septum and mammilary bodies. Brain Research, 156, (2), 293-314.  KEHOE, E.J. (2006). Repeated acquisitions and extinctions in classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane responses. Learning & Memory, 13, 366-375. [PDF]
 KEHOE, E.J., SCHREURS, B.G. & AMODEI, N. (1981). Blocking acquisition of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response to serial conditioned stimuli. Learning & Motivation, 12, 92-108. [PDF] PONTI, G., CROCIARA, P. & ARMENTANO, M. & BONFANTI, L. (2010). Adult neurogenesis without germinal layers : the "atypical" cerebellum of rabbits. Archives Italiennes de Biologie, 148, 147-158. [PDF]
   CARNEIRO, M., AFONSO, S., GERALDES, A., GARREAU, H., BOLET, G., BOUCHER, S., TIRCAZES, A., QUENEY, G., NACHMAN, M.W. & FERRAND, N. (2011). The genetic structure of domestic rabbits. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 28, 1801-1816. [PDF]
 APPLEGATE, C.D., FRYSINGER, R.C., KAPP, B.S. & GALLAGHER, M. (1982). Multiple unit activity recorded from amygdala central nucleus during Pavlovian heart rate conditioning in rabbit. Brain Research, 238, 457-462.  KEHOE, E.J., LUDVIG, E.A. & SUTTON, R.S. (2113). Timing and cue competition in conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Learning & Memory, 20, 97-102. [PDF]
BURNIE, D. (Dir.) (2001). Animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley. / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi. Voir aussi Réflexe/Membrane nictinante et Animal
Laplace Pierre-Simon de (Beaumont-en-Auge Normandie 1749-1827) : Mathématicien, statisticien, géomètre et astronome français. Élu membre de l'Académie en 1816 (fauteuil 8). Il a développé les principes de la statistique.
 LAPLACE, P.S. (1774). Mémoire sur les suites récurro-récurrentes et sur leurs usages dans la théorie des hazards. Mémoires de l'Académie des sciences de l'Institut de France, 6, 353-371.
 LAPLACE, P.S. (1820/1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities. New York : Dover.
 
 
Laplanche Jean (1924-2012) : Philosophe et psychanalyste français et exégète de l'oeuvre de Freud. En collaboration avec Pontalis, il a publié le célèbre dictionnaire de la psychanalyse. Il a été analysé par Lacan. Étudiant de Bachelard et Merleau-Ponty. Collaborateur de Pontalis.
LAPLANCHE, J. et PONTALIS J.-B. (1964/85). Fantasme originaire - Fantasmes des origines - Origines du fantasme. Paris : Hachette.
LAPLANCHE, J. et PONTALIS, J.-B. (1967/2004). Vocabulaire de la psychanalyse. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LAPLANCHE, J. (1986). De la théorie de la séduction restreinte à la théorie de la séduction généralisée. Études Freudiennes, 27, 7-25.
LAPLANCHE, J. (1987). Nouveaux fondements pour la psychanalyse. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LAPLANCHE, J. (1992). Notes sur l'après-coup. In J. Laplache (Dir.), Entre séduction et inspiration : l'homme (p. 57-66). Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Laps de temps : Voir Délai de renforcement, Délai de récompense, Délai de gratification, Interréponse, Durée, Temps de réaction, Latence.
Lapsus : Fait d'employer par erreur - généralement et sans s'en rendre compte - un mot/expression à la place d'un-e autre. EX: « Je suis enculé au pied du mur » ou «Faites éjaculer la salle» ou encore « Il faut bien circoncire le problème ». Pour Freud, le lapsus n'est pas gratuit ou aléatoire; la plupart du temps, il révèle l'existence d'une pulsion déplacée ou refoulée. Le lapsus est donc un symptôme de la structure psychique. Lapsus et acte manqué. Freudian slip, lapsus linguae, slip of tongue, linguistic slip.

  FREUD, S. (1904). Psychopatholgie de la vie quotidienne. Paris : Payot. MacKAY, D.G. (1980). Speech errors : Retrospect and prospect. In V. Fromkin (Ed.), Errors of linguistic perfor- mance: Slips of the tongue, ear, pen, and hands. New York : Academic Press.
FREUD, S. (1915). Introductory lectures on psychoanalysis. BAARS, B.J. (1980). On eliciting predictable speech errors in the laboratory : Methods and results. In V. Fromkin (Ed.), Errors of linguistic performance: Slips of the tongue, ear, pen, and hands. New York : Academic Press.
MacKAY, D.G. & SODERBERG, G.A. (1971). Homologous intrusions : An analogue of linguistic slips. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 32, 645-646. NORMAN, D.A. (1981). Categorization of action slips. Psychological Review, 88 (1), 1-15. [PDF]
RUCH, R.S. (1972). An analysis of the Freudian slip and errors in speech communication. Journal of Technical Writing and Communication, 2 (4), 343-352.

BEAR, G. (1992). A Freudian slip ? Teaching Paychology, 19 (3), 174-175.

FROMKIN, V. (1973) (Ed.). Speech errors as linguistic evidence. The Hague : Mouton. JACOBY, L.L. & KELLEY, C.M. (1992). A process-dissociation framework for investigating unconscious influences: Freudian slips, projective tests, subliminal perception and signal detection theory. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 174–179.
BAARS, B.J. MOTLEY, M.T. & MacKAY, D.G. (1975). Output editing for lexical status in artificially induced slips of the tongue. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 14, 382-391. DIMEN, M. (2011). Lapsus linguae, or a slip of the tongue ? A sexual violation in an analytic treatment and its personal and theoretical aftermath. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 47 (1), 35-79. [PDF]
BAARS, B.J. & MacKAY, D.G. (1978). Experimentallyeliciting phonetic and sentential speech errors: Methods, im- plications and work in progress. Language in society : Experimental Lnguistics, 7, 105-109.  
MOTLEY, M.T. (1985). Slips of the tongue. Scientific American, 253, 116-127. LAWSON-McCONNEL, R.A. (2013). Freudian slips: Live loved: the psychology and theology of love. Stimulus, 22 (2), 51-53.
Voir aussi Freud et Symptôme
LAREHS : Laboratoire de recherche en écologie humaine et sociale de l'UQAM (il a cessé ses activitiés).

 
Largatil : Marque déposée du chlorpromazine, surtout utilisé dans le traitement de la schizophrénie.

  Voir aussi Chlorpromazine
Larivée
Serge Larivée Serge J. Larivée
 
Larivée Serge ( ) : Psychologue québécois et spécialiste de l'étude de l'intelligence et des fraudes scientifiques. Il s'intéresse également aux pseudo-sciences et à l'effet Flynt. Il enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Collaborateur de Baruffaldi, Bouffard et Tremblay.
LARIVÉE, S. & MICHAUD, N. (1980). L'ordinateur au secours de l'inadaptation. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 6 (3), 451-472.
LARIVÉE, S. (1996). Le marché de l'intervention psychosociale : une fraude collective politiquement correcte. Revue Canadienne de Psycho-Éducation, 25 (1), 1-24.
LARIVÉE, S. (1998). Le modèle de Gardner : l'intelligence au pluriel, une approche singulière. Revue Canadienne de Psycho-Éducation, 27 (1), 1-29.
LARIVÉE, S. (2001). Science contre pseudo-sciences : un combat inégal. Revue Canadienne de Psycho-Éducation, 30 (1), 1-25.
LARIVÉE, S., SÉNÉCHAL, C. & AUDY, P. (2012). L'effet Flynn et ses paradoxes. L'Année psychologique, 112 (3), 465-497.
Larivée Serge J. ( ) : Spécialiste de l'éducation. Il enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Collaborateur de Terrisse.
LARIVÉE, S.J. et TERRISSE, B. (2006). Les compétences professionnelles des éducatrices : perspective des intervenantes et des parents. Interactions, 9 (2), 63-93.
LARIVÉE, S.J., TERRISSE, B. et KALUBI, J.-C. (2006). La collaboration école-famille en contexte d'inclusion : entre obstacles, risques et facteurs de réussite. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 32 (3), 525-543.
LARIVÉE, S.J. (2011). Le rapport au savoir au préscolaire. Dans P. Maubant & Y. Lenoir (Dir.), La place des savoirs dans les pratiques des enseignants au primaire (pp. 59-89). Québec, Québec : Les Presses de l'Université du Québec.
LARIVÉE, S.J. (2012). L'implication des parents dans le cheminement scolaire de leur enfant. Comment la favoriser ? Éducation & Formation, 297, 33-48.
LARIVÉE, S.J. (2011). Regards croisés sur l'implication parentale et les performances scolaires. Service Social, 57 (2), 5-19.
Larme : Voir Pleurer.
Larson
Greger Larson Reed W. Larson
 
Larson Greger ( ) : Paléantologue anglais et spécialiste de la domestication, notamment du chien et du cochon.
LARSON, G., DOBNEY, K., ALBARELLA, U., FANG, M. Y., MATISOO-SMITH, E., ROBINS, J., LOWDEN, S., FINLAYSON, H., BRAND, T., WILLERSLEV, E., ROWLEY-CONWY, P., ANDERSSON, L. & COOPER, A. (2005). Worldwide phylogeography of wild boar reveals multiple centers of pig domestication. Science, 307, 1618-1621.
LARSON, G., ALBARELLA, U., DOBNEY, K., ROWLEY-CONWY, P., SCHIBLER, J., TRESSET, A., VIGNE, J.D., EDWARDS, C.J., SCHLUMBAUM, A., DINU, A., BALACSESCU, A., DOLMAN, G., TAGLIACOZZO, A., MANSERYAN, N., MIRACLE, P., VAN WIJNGAARDEN-BAKKER, L., MASSETI, M., BRADLEY, D.G. & COOPER, A. (2007). Ancient DNA, pig domestication, and the spread of the Neolithic into Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 104, 15276-15281.
LARSON, G., LIU, R.R., ZHAO, X.B., YUAN, J., FULLER, D., BARTON, L., DOBNEY, K., FAN, Q.P., GU, Z.L., LIU, X.H., LUO, Y.B., SU, P., ANDERSSON, L., LI, N., (2010). Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 107, 7686-7691.
LARSON, G. & BURGER, J. (2013). A population genetic theory of animal domestication. Trends in Genetics, 29, 197-205.
LARSON, G. & FULLER, D.Q. (2014). The evolution of animal domestication. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, & Systematics, 45, 115-136. [PDF]
Larson Reed W. ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste du développement, notamment chez les adolescent-e-s. Collaborateur de Eccles.
LARSON, R.W. & KUBEY, R. (1983). Television and music : Contrasting media in adolescent life. Youth & Society, 15, 13-31.
LARSON, R.W. & RICHARDS, M.H. (1991). Boredom in the middle school years: Blaming schools versus blaming students. American Journal of Education, 99, 418-443.
LARSON, R.W. & KLEIBER, D.A. (1993). Structured leisure as a context for the development of attention during adolescence. Loisir et Société/Society & Leisure, 16, 77-98.
LARSON, R.W. & VERMA, S. (1999). How children and adolescents spend time across the world : Work, play and developmental opportunities. Psychological Bulletin, 125, 701-736.
LARSON, R.W. (2000). Toward a psychology of positive youth development. American Psychologist, 55, 170-183. [PDF]
Larynx : Organe de l'appareil respiratoire situé dans la gorge et dont l'une des principales fonsction consiste à produire des sons au myen des cordes vocales.

  Voir aussi Organe
La Salpètrière : Voir Salpètrière.
Lashley Karl Spence (Davis États-Unis 1890-1958 Poitiers France) : Neuropsychologue américain. Il a étudié la relation entre l'apprentissage et le système nerveux central, plus précisément le cortex. On lui doit également le concept d'engramme. Président de l'APA en 1929. Étudiant de Watson. Professeur de Stone. Collaborateur de Franz.
LASHLEY, K.S. (1923). The behavioristic interpretation of consciousness. Psychological Bulletin, 30, 237-272, 329-353.
LASHLEY, K.S. (1924). The theory that synaptic resistance is reduced by the passage of the nerve impulse. Psychological Review, 31, 369-375.
LASHLEY, K.S. (1929.) Brain mechanisms and intelligence : A quantitative study of injuries to the brain. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
LASHLEY, K.S. (1930). Basic neural mechanisms in behavior. Psychological Review, 37, 1-24. [PDF]
LASHLEY, K.S. (1950). In search of the engram. Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology, 4, 454-482. [PDF]
 
BEACH, F.A., HEBB, D.O., MORGAN, C.T. & NISSEN, H.W. (Eds.) (1960). The neuropsychology of Lashley : Selected papers of K.S. Lashley. New York Toronto London : McGraw-Hill Book Company.
BRUCE, D. (1986). Lashley's shift from bacteriology to neuropsychology, 1910-1917, and the influence of Jennings, Watson, and Franz. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 22, 27-44.
BRUCE, D. (1991). Integrations of Lashley. In G.A. Kimble, M. Wertheimer & C.L. White (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (pp.307-323). Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
DEWSBURY, D.A. (2002). The role of evidence in interpretations of the scientific work of Karl Lashley. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 38, 255-257.
Lassonde Maryse (1954-) : Neuropsychologue québécoise, spécialiste de l'épilepsie et de la communication interhémisphérique. Collaboratrice de Gosselin, Jolicoeur, Laurencelle, Lepore, Ptito et Segalowitz.
LASSONDE, M., PERENIN, M.T., TASSINARI, G., CORBETTA, M. & CAVANAGH, P. (1988). Central mechanisms of stereopsis in man. Advances in the Biosciences 70, 95-98. [PDF]
LASSONDE, M. & JEEVES, M. (Eds.) (1994). Callosal agenesis : A natural split brain ? New York : Plenum Press.
LASSONDE, M. & JAMBAQUÉ, I. (2001). Évaluation neuropsychologique chez l'enfant épileptique. Epilepsies, 19-22.
LASSONDE, M. (2002). Split brain research. In The encyclopedia of cognitive science (pp. 206-211).
LASSONDE, M. et SAUERWEIN, H.C. (2007). Neuropsychologie, plasticité et épilepsie infantile. Medecine/Science, 23, 923-928. [PDF]
Lasswell Harold Dwight (1902-1978) : Politologue et psychiatre américain spécialisé dans l'étude de la communication, du pouvor, de la propagande et de la personnalité. Il est l'un des chefs de file de l'École de Chicago. Collaborateur de Almond.
LASSWELL, H.D. (1927/1971). Propaganda in the World War. London : Kegan, Paul, Trench, Trubner/Boston : MIT Press.
LASSWELL, H.D. (1936). Politics : Who gets what, when, how. Peter Smith Publisher
LASSWELL, H.D. (1948). Power and personality. New York : Norton.
LASSWELL, H.D. & KAPLAN, A. (1950). Power and society : a framework for political inquiry. New Haven : Yale University Press.
LASSWELL, H.D. (1973). The structure and function of communication in society/Structure et fonction de la communication dans la société. Dans F. Balle et J.G. Padioleau (Dirs.), Sociologie de l'information. Paris : Hachette.
Latané Bibb (New York 1937-) : Psychosociologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'atruisme et du comportement d'aide. En collaboration avec Darley, il a développé une théorie de la diffusion de la responsabilité pour expliquer l'effet du passant, et plus particulièrement le cas de Kitty Genovese. On lui doit également la théorie de l'influence sociale (Theory of social impact). Étudiant de Schachter. Professeur de Lynn et Schaller. Collaborateur de Dabbs, Darley, Rodin et Williams.
LATANÉ, B. & DARLEY, J. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 10 (3), 215-221. [PDF]
LATANÉ, B. & DABBS, J.M. (1975). Sex, group size and helping in three cities. Sociometry, 18, 180-194.
LATANÉ, B. (1981). The psychology of social impact. American Psychologist, 36, 343-356.
LATANÉ, B. & NIDA, S. (1981). Ten years of research on group size and helping. Psychological Bulletin, 89 (2), 308-324. [PDF]
LATANÉ, B. (1996). Dynamic social impact : The creation of culture by communication. Journal of Communication, 46 (4), 13-25.
Latent : Qualifie ce qui est caché, qui ne saute pas aux yeux, mais qui peut se révéler à tout moment ou dans certaines circonstances. Latent, apprentissage latent et inhibition. Latency.

  SKINNER, B.F. (1936). The verbal summator and a method for the study of latent speech. Journal of Psychology, 2, 71-107. VISSER, P.S., BIZER, G.Y. & KOSNICKK, J.A. (2006). Exploring the latent structure of strenght-related attitude attributes. In M.P. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 38, pp. 1-67). San Diego : Academic Press. [PDF]
SOLORZ, A. (1960). Latency of instrumental responses as a function of compatibility with the meaning of eliciting verbal signs.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 59, 239-245.  
KENNY, D.A. & JUDD, C.M. (1984). Estimating the nonlinear and interactive effects of latent variables. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 201-210. DISTEFANO, C. & KAMPHAUS, R.W. (2008). Latent growth curve modeling of child behavior in elementary school. Research in the Schools, 15 (1), 27-37.
LOEHLIN, J.C. (1987). Latent variable models : An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. Loehlin RUDOLPH, K.D., TROOP-GORDON, W., HESSEL, E.T. & SCHMIDT, J.D. (2011). Wendy Troop-Gordon, Elenda T. Hessel, and Jennifer D. Schmidt (2011). A latent growth curve analysis of early and increasing peer victimization as predictors of mental health across elementary school. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40 (1), 111-122. [PDF]
GREVE, K.W., STICKLE, T.R., LOVE, J., BIANCHINI, K.J. & STANFORD, M.S. (2005). Latent structure of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test : a confirmatory factor analytic study. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 20, 355-364. [PDF] KÄRGEL, C., SARTORY, G., KARIOFILLIS D., WILTFANG, J. & MÜLLER, B.W. (2014). Mismatch negativity latency and cognitive function in schizophrenia. PLoS ONE 9 (4), 1-10. [PDF]
Voir aussi Apprentissage latent et Inhibition
Latence : Paramètre ou caractéristique d'une réponse que l'on observe en condition naturelle ou lors d'une expérience ou d'une quasi-expérience. Se mesure en calculant le temps qui s'écoule entre le début de la période d'observation et l'occurence d'un premier comportement (d'une deuxième, d'une troisième, selon le cas) ou, dans le cadre d'une expérience, en mesurant le temps séparant la présentation d'un stimulus du comportement qui le suit. Response latency.

  SPENCE, K.W. (1954). The relation of response latency and speed to the intervening variables and N in S-R theory. Psychological Review, 61 (4), 209-216. BASSILLI, J.N. (1996). The "how" and "why" of response latency measurement in telephone surveys. In N. Schwarz & S. Sudman (Eds.), Answering questions : Methodology for determining cognitive and communicative processes in survey research (pp. 319-346). San Francisco : Josey-Bass.
SCHUSTER, C. (1959). Response latencies as a measure of the interaction of components on a multiple fixed-ratio schedule. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 2, 259. BUDAEV, S. V. (1997). The statistical analysis of behavioural latency measures. ISCP Newsletter, 14, (1), 1-4. [PDF]
STEBBINS, W.C. (1962). Response latency as a function of amount of reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5 (3), 305-307. [PDF]  
CHURCH, R.M. & CARNATHAN, J. (1963). Differential reinforcement of short latency responses in the white rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 56, 120-123. (1963). Differential reinforcement of short latency responses in the white rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 56, 120-123. WALTON, G. & SPENCER, S.J. (2009). Latent ability : Grades and test scores systematically underestimate the intellectual ability of negatively stereotyped students. Psychological Science, 20 (9), 1132-1139. [PDF]
WOLLEN, K.A. & ALLISON, T.S. (1968). Latency and frequency of S-R and R-S associations as a function of recall time. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 7, 895-899. THOMASON-SASSI, J.L., IWATA, B., NEIDERT, P.L. & ROSCOE, E.M. (2011). Response latency as an index of response strength during functional analyses of problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44, 51-67.
OLDS, J., DISTERHOFT, J.F., SEGAL, M., KORNBLITH, L. & HIRSH, R. (1972). Learning centres of rat brain mapped by measuring latencies of conditioned unit responses. Journal of Neurophysiology, 35, 202-219.  
MacLEOD, C.M. & NELSON, T.O. (1984). Response latency and response accuracy as measures of memory. Acta Psychologica, 57, 215-235. [PDF] HASBROUK, J. & SAAR,G. (2014). Low-latency trading. Journal of Financial Markets, 16, 646-679. [PDF]
Voir aussi Latence, Paramètre et Réponse
Latence (période ou stade de...) : Voir Période de latence.
Latéralisation cérébrale : Voir Hémisphères cérébraux (Latéralisation).
Laties Victor G. (1945-) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain. Étudiant de Pfaffman et Schlosberg. Collaborateur de Catania, Gentry et Weiss.
LATIES, V.G. (1959). Effects of meprobamate on fear and palmar sweating. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 59 (2), 156-161.
LATIES, V.G. & WEISS, B. (1962). Enhacement of human performance by caffeine ant the amphetamines. Pharmacological Review, 14, 1-36.
LATIES, V.G., WEISS, B (1964). Effects of a concurrent task on fixed-interval responding in humans. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (3), 431-436. [PDF]
LATIES, V.G., WEISS, B., CLARK, R.L. & REYNOLDS, M.D. (1965). Overt "mediating" behavior during temporally spaced responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 8 (2), 107-116. [PDF]
LATIES, V.G., WEISS, B. & WEISS, A.B. (1969). Further observations on overt "mediating" behavior and the discrimination of time. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (1), 43-57. [PDF]
LATIES, V.G. (2003). Behavior Analysis and the growth of behavioral pharmacology. The Behavior Analyst, 26 (2), 235-252. [PDF]
Latinos : Voir Hispanophone.
Latouche Daniel (1945-) : Politologue québécois et professeur à l'Université du Québec À Montréal. Collaborateur de Gagnon.
GAGNON, A.G. et LATOUCHE, D. (1991). Allaire, Bélanger, Campeau et les autres. Montréal : Québec/Amérique.
LATOUCHE, D. (1995). Démocratie et nationalisme à l'heure de la mondialisation. Cahiers de Recherche Sociologique, 25, 59-78.
LATOUCHE, D. (1995). Limites à la compétitivité : Vers un nouveau contrat mondial. Montréal : Boréal.
LATOUCHE, D. (1997). Les territoires de la ville : la mondialisation comme aventure urbaine. Cahiers de Géographie du Québec, 41, (114), 413-419.
LATOUCHE, D. (1997). Mondialisation et cosmopolitisme à Montréal. Dans J.-M. Lacroix (Dir.), Villes et politiques urbaines au Canada et aux États-Unis. Paris : Presses de la Sorbonne Nouvelle.
Latour Bruno (Beaune 1947-) : Anthropologue français, sociologue des sciences et chef de file du postmodernisme. Collaborateur de Woolgar.
LATOUR, B. & WOOLGAR, S. (1979/88). Laboratory life : the construction of scientific facts / La Vie de laboratoire : la Production des faits scientifiques. Beverly Hills : Sage Publications/Paris : La Découverte.
LATOUR, B. (1991). Nous n'avons jamais été modernes : Essai d'anthropologie symétrique. Paris : La Découverte.
LATOUR, B. (1996). Petites leçons de sociologie des sciences. Paris : Le Seuil.
LATOUR, B. (1999). Do you believe in reality : News from the trenches of the science wars. In Pandora's Hope. Cambridge : Harvard University Press.
LATOUR, B. (1999). Politiques de la nature : Comment faire entrer les sciences en démocratie. Paris : La Découverte.
 
HACKING, I. (1992). Bruno Latour, science in action and the pasteurization of France. Philosophy of Science, 59, 510-512.
Lattal Kennon Andy ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'apprentissage chez les animaux. Il s'intéresse notamment au concept de contingence. Professeur de Cançado. Collaborateur de Chase, Clément, Escobar, Fantino, Hackenberg, Harzam, Hineline, Iversen, Neef, Okouchi, Perone et Shahan.
LATTAL, K.A. (1974). Combinations of response-reinforcer dependence and independence. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 22 (2), 357-362. [PDF]
LATTAL, K.A. (1995). Contingency and behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 18 (2), 209-224. [PDF]
LATTAL, K.A. & SHAHAN, T.J. (1997). Differing views on contingency : How contiguous ? The Behavior Analyst, 20, 149-154. [PDF]
LATTAL, K.A. (2010). Delayed reinforcement of operant behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 93 (1), 129-139. [PDF]
LATTAL, K.A. & WACKER. D. (2015). Some dimensions of recurrent operant behavior. Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 41 (2), 1-13. [PDF]
Laudan Larry (Austin États-Unis 1941-) : Philosophe et épistémologue américain. Il s'est notamment intéressé au problème de la démarcation. Laudan et Ruse.
LAUDAN, L. (1977). Progress and its problems : Toward a theory of scientific growth. Berkeley : University of California Press.
LAUDAN, L. (1981). A confutation of convergent realism. Philosophy of Science, 48 (1), 19-49. [PDF]
LAUDAN, L. (1982). Commentary : Science at the bar – causes for concern. Science, Technology & Human, 41, 16-19.
LAUDAN, L. (1990). Science and relativism : Some key controversies in the philosophy of science. Science and Its Conceptual Foundations series.
LAUDAN, L. (1990). Normative naturalism. Philosophy of Science, 57, 44-59.
 
OVERTON, W. (1984). World views and their influence on psychological theory and research : Kuhn-Lakatos-Laudan. In H. Reese (Ed.), Advances in child development and behavior (Vol. 18, pp. 191-226). New York : Academic Press.
OKASHA, S. (1997). Laudan and Leplin on empirical equivalence. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 48, 251-256.
Laurencelle Louis (Montréal 1946-) : Psychologue, méthodologiste et statisticien québécois. ll enseigne à l'Université de Trois-Rivières. Collaborateur de Lassonde.
LAURENCELLE, L. (1993). Deux tests de variation monotone pour l'analyse de variance. Lettres statistiques, 9, 69-91.
LAURENCELLE, L. (2005). Abrégé sur les méthodes de recherche et la recherche expérimentale. Sainte-Foy : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
LAURENCELLE, L. (2005). La distribution nulle de la somme de rangs de Wilcoxon et ses moments. Lettres Statistiques, 12, 99-108.
LAURENCELLE, L. (2007). Inventer ou estimer la puissance statistique ? Quelques considérations utiles pour le chercheur. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology 3 (2), 35-42. [PDF]
LAURENCELLE, L. (2009). Le tau et le tau-b de Kendall pour la corrélation de variables ordinales simples ou catégorielles. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 5 (2), 51-58. [PDF]
Laurendeau Bendavid Monique (1930-2013 Bouche) : Psychologue cognitiviste européen d'origine québécoise. Elle est le co-auteur avec Barbeau et Pinard d'un test d'intelligence, le Tests différentiels d'intelligence. Étudiante de Mailloux. Collaboratrice de Barbeau et Pinard.
PINARD, A., BARBEAU, G.L. & LAURENDEAU, M. (1954). Tests différentiels d'intelligence P.B.L.P. Montréal : Éditions de l'Institut de Psychologie de l'Université.
LAURENDEAU, M. & PINARD, A. (1962). La pensée causale. Paris ; Presses universitaires de France.
LAURENDEAU, M. & PINARD, A. (1963). Causal thinking in the child : A genetic and Experimental Approach. New York : International Universities Press.
LAURENDEAU, M. (1968). Les premières notions spatiales de l'enfant : examen des hypothèses de Jean Piaget. Genève : Delachaux et Niestlé.
LAURENDEAU, M. (1970). The development of the concept of space in the child. New York : International Universities Press.
 
Laurin Camille (Charlemagne 1922-1999 Vaudreuil-Dorion) : Psychiatre et homme politique québécois. En 1958, il est nommé directeur du Département de psychiatrie de la Faculté de médecine de l'Université de Montréal. Il a contribué à moderniser la psychiatrie québécoise. Il est également connu comme le père de la loi 101.
LAURIN, C. et Lemieux, R. (1954). L'enseignement psychiatrique. Revue Médicale de l'Université de Montréal, 6 (3), 124-132.
LAURIN, C. (1960). L'approche psychosomatique. L'Union Médicale du Canada, 89 (5), 593-599.
LAURIN, C. (1964). Phallus et sexualité féminin. La Psychanalyse, 7, 15-54.
LAURIN, C. (1964). L' évolution du concept de maladie mentale. L'Infirmière Canadienne, 60 (2), 98-105.
LAURIN, C. (1975). L'utilisation du lithium en psychiatrie. L'Union Médicale du Canada, 104 (11), 1694-1697.
Lautry Jacques ( ) : Psychologue d'origine française et spécialiste de l'éducation. Il s'intéresse notamment à l'influence des classes sociales sur le développement cognitif. Collaborateur de Tiberghien. À lire
LAUTREY, J. (1974). Niveau socio-économique et structuration de l'environnement familial. Psychologie Française, 19, 41-63.
LAUTREY, J. (1976). Classe sociale et développement cognitif. La Pensée, 5 (190), 31-53.
LAUTREY, J. (1984). Diversité comportementale et développement cognitif. Psychologie Française, 29, 16-22.
LAUTREY, J., de RIBAUPIERRE, A. & RIEBEN, L. (1986). Les différences dans la forme du développement cognitif évalué avec des épreuves piagétiennes : une application de l'analyse des correspondances. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 6, 575-613. [PDF]
LAUTREY, J. (2005). Le Q.I. : concept mal compris ou concept dépassé ? ANAE, 17, 146-149.
Lavage de cerveau : Lavage du cerveau, endoctrinement et influence sociale. Brainwashing.

  BARON, R.S. (2007). Brainwashing. In R. Baumeister & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), Encyclopedia of social psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
Voir aussi Déprogrammation et Endoctrinement
Lavage excessif (des mains) : Excessive washing.

  OLATUNJI B.O., WILLIAMS, N.L., LOHR, J.M. & SAWCHUK, C.N. (2005). The structure of disgust : Domain specificity in relation to contamination ideation and excessive washing. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 43, 1069-1086.
Voir aussi Trouble obsessionnel-compulsif
Lave Jean ( ) : Anthropologue socioconstructiviste américaine, spécialisée en apprentissage. Collaborateur de Rogoff et Wenger.
LAVE, J. (1988). Cognition in practice : Mind, mathematics, and culture in everyday life. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
LAVE, J. & WENGER, E. (1991). Situated learning : Legitimate peripheral participation. New York : Cambridge University Press.
LAVE, J. (1993). Situating learning in communities of practice. In L.B. Resnick, J.M. Levine & S.D. Teasley (Eds.), Perspectives on socially shared cognition (pp. 17-36). Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
LAVE, J. (1996). Teaching, as learning, in practice. Mind, Culture & Activity, 3, 149-164.
LAVE, J. (1997). The culture of acquisition and the practice of understanding. In D. Kirshner & J.A. Whitson (Eds.), Situated cognition : Social, semiotic, and psychological perspectives (pp. 63-82). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
Law & Human Behavior : Revue scientifique de psychologie. Éditeur : Springer.
ARKES, H.R. & MELLERS, B.A. (2002). Can juries meet our expectations ? Law & Human Behavior, 26, 625-639. [PDF]

Law & Psychology Review : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la criminalité. Éditeur : Springer
CLEMENS, C.B. (1985). Towards an objective approach to offender classification. Law & Psychology Review, 9, 45-55.

Law & Society Review : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la criminalité. Éditeur : Wiley.
KUTCHINSKY, B. (1992). The politics of pornography research. Law & Society Review, 26,447-455.

Laxisme :

 
Lay Clarry H. ( ) : Psychosociologue canadien et spécialiste de la procrastination.
LAY, C.H. (1986). At last, my research on procrastination. Journal of Research in Personality, 28, 474-495.
LAY, C.H. & BURNS P. (1991). Intentions and behavior in studying for an examination : The role of trait procrastination and its interaction with optimism. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6, 605-617.
LAY, C.H. KNISH, S. & ZANATTA, R. (1992). Self-handicappers and procrastinators : A comparison of their practice behavior prior to an evaluation. Journal of Research in Personality, 26, 242-257.
LAY, C.H. & SCHOUWENBURG, H.C. (1993). Trait procrastination, time mangement, and academic behavior. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 8 (4), 647-662. [PDF]
LAY, C. & SILVERMAN, S. (1996). Trait procrastination, anxiety, and dilatory behavior. Personality & Individual Differences, 21, 61-67.
Layng T.V. Joe ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain et spécialiste de l'analyse fonctionnelle du comportement. Étudiant de Goldiamond. Collaborateur de Andronis.
LAYNG, T.V.J. & ANDRONIS, P.T. (1984). Toward a functional analysis of delusional speech and hallucinatory behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 7 (2), 139-156. [PDF]
JOHNSON, K.R. & LAYNG, T.V.J. (1992). Breaking the structuralist barrier : Literacy and numeracy with fluency. American Psychologist, 47, 1475-1490.
LAYNG, T.V.J. (1995). Causation and complexity : Old lessons new crusades. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 26, 249-258.
LAYNG, T.V.J., TWYMAN, J.S. & STIKELEATHER, G. (2003). Headsprout early reading : Reliably teaching children to read. Behavioral Technology Today, 3, 7-20. [PDF]
LAYNG, T.V.J. (2006). Emotions and emotional behavior : a constructional approach to understanding some social benefits of aggression. Brazilian Journal of Behavior Analysis, 2 (2), 155-170. [PDF]
Lazarsfeld Paul Felix (Vienne 1901-1976 New York) : Sociologue et mathématicien américain d'origine autrichienne. Membre du Cercle de Vienne et de l'École de Francfort. Il fut l'un des pionniers de la sociologie quantitative et de l'étude des médias et de leur influence sur les électeurs (sociologie électorale). Professeur de Boudon, Cantril et Glaser. Collaborateur de Jahoda et Lipset.
LAZARSFELD, P.F., BERELSON, B. & GAUDET, H. (1944). The people's choice. New York : Duell, Sloan & Pearce.
KATZ, E. & LAZARSFELD, P.F. (1955). Personal influence. New York : Free Press.
LAZARSFELD, P.F. & HENRY, N.H. (1968). Latent structure analysis. Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
LAZARSFELD, P.F. (1970). Quelques fonctions de l'analyse qualitative en sociologie. Dans P. Lazarsfeld, Philosophie des sciences sociales. Paris : Gallimard.
LAZARSFELD, P.F. (1972). Qualitative analysis. Historical and critical essays. Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
 
STOETZEL, J. (1976). Paul F. Lazarsfeld 1901-1976 : An obituary. Internatonal Social Sicence Journal, 28 (4), 833-834.
SILLS, D.L. (1976). Paul F. Lazarsfeld 1901-1976. Washington : National Academy of science. [PDF]
BLONDIAUX, L. (1990). Paul F. Lazarsfeld (1901-1976), Jean Stoetzel (1910-1987) et les sondages d'opinion : genèse d'un discours scientifique. Mots, 23, 5-22.
STAMM, M. (2010). Paul Lazarsfeld's radio and the printed page: A critical reappraisal. American Journalism, 27 (4), 37-58.
POOLEY, J.D. & SOCOLOW, M.J. (2013). Checking up on the invasion from Mars : Hadley Cantril, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and the making of a misremembered classic. International Journal of Communication 7, 1920-1948. [PDF]
Lazarus
Arnold Allan Lazarus Richard S. Lazarus
 
Lazarus Arnold Allan (1932-2013) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain, d'origine sud-africaine, spécialisé dans le traitement des phobies et de la dépression. Collaborateur de Wolpe.
LAZARUS, A.A. (1963). The treatment of chronic frigidity by systematic desensitization. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disorders, 136, 272-278. [PDF]
LAZARUS, A.A. (1969). Behavioral counseling : Some pros and cons. The Counseling Psychologist, 1, 60-62.
LAZARUS, A.A. (1971). Behavior therapy and beyond. New York : McGraw-Hill.
LAZARUS, A.A. (1989). The practice of multimodal therapy. Baltimore, MD : Johns Hopkins University Press.
LAZARUS, A.A. (1992). The multimodal approach to the treatment of minor depression. American Journal of Psychotherapy, 46, 50-57.
 
DAVISON, G.C. & WILSON, T.G. (2014). Arnold A. Lazarus (1932-2013): Obituary. American Psychologist, 69 (6), 620-621.
Lazarus Richard S. (New York 1922-2002) : Psychosociologue américain. Il étudie notamment la relation entre le stress et les émotions. Collaborateur de Deese et Koriat.
LAZARUS. R.S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York : McGraw-Hill.
LAZARUS, R.S. (1984). Thoughts on the relation between emotion and cognition. In K.R. Scherer and P. Ekman (Eds.), Approaches to emotion. Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
FOLKMAN, S, LAZARUS, R.S., DUNKEISCHETTER, C., DELONGIS, A. & GRUEN, R.J. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter : Cognitive apprasal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 50, 992-1003.
LAZARUS, R.S. (1990). Theory-based stress measurement. Psychological Inquiry, 1, 3-13.
LAZARUS, R.S. (1993). From psychological stress to the emotions : A history of changing outlooks. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 1-21. [PDF]
 
EKMAN, P. & CAMPOS, J. (2003). Richard Stanley Lazarus (1922-2002) : Obituary. American Psychologist, 58 (9), 756-757.
Lazarus-Mirage : Site internet visant à démystifier certains pseudosciences/pseudophénomènes.
Lazure Denis (Napiervielle 1925-2008) : Psychiatre et homme politique québécois. Il a contribué à moderniser la psychiatrie québécoise.
BÉDARD, D., LAZURE, D. & ROBERTS, C.A. (1962). Rapport de la commission d'étude des hôpitaux psychiatriques. Gouvernement du Québec.
LAZURE, D. (1967). Child psychiatry in Canada. Acta Paedopsychiatrica, 34 (7), 201-208.
 
 
 
LEAKEY - LEARY - LEBOVICI - LECTURE - LEDOUX - LEE - LEIBNITZ - LEPORE - LEPPER - LERMAN - LEROY-GHOURAN - LES
Leader/Leadership : Ensemble de caractéristiques physiques et d'habiletés sociales/cognitives qui permettent à un individu d'influencer ses pairs, ainsi que les décisions du groupe afin de permettre à ce groupe d'atteindre ses objectifs. Le récipidendaire de ces caractéristiques/habiletés n'est pas toujours conscient de les posséder ou d'en profiter pour influencer autrui (En revanche, certains leaders, par stratégie, minimise leur influence). On utilise le terme leader négatif pour qualifier un individu qui se sert de son influence pour faire échouer le groupe - à son seul bénéfice - ou pour convaincre d'autres membres d'agir contre les intérêts du groupe. Leadership.

Leader
Leader charismatique Style de leader Mesure et évaluation du leadership
Leader exemplaire    
 

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Voir aussi Pouvoir, Décision, Gestion, Différences sexuelles/de genre, PDG et Leader charismatique
 
Leader/Leadership (Mesure et évaluation du...) : Ensemble des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer le leadership. Leadership scale.

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SALMINEN, S. & LUIKKONENEN, J. (1994). The convergent and discriminant validity of the coach's version of the leadership scale for sports. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 25, 119-127.  
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ROSS, S.M. & OFFERMANN, L.R. (1997). Transformational leaders : Measurement of personality attributes and work group performance. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 1078-1086. DANIELS, A.C. & DANIELS, J.E. (2007). Measure of a leader : The legendary leadership formula for producing exceptional performers and outstanding results. McGraw-Hill Education.
AVOLIO, B.J., BASS, B.M. & JUNG, D.I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transform ational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Joumal of Occupational & Organisational Psychology, 72, 441-462. [PDF] LEVINE, K.J., MUENCHEN, R.A. & BROOKS, A.M. (2010). Measuring transformational and charismatic leadership : Why isn't charisma measured ? Communication Monographs, 77 (4), 576-591.
Voir aussi Leadership
Leader/Leadership (Style de...) :

    FOX, L. D., REJESKI, W.J. & GAUVIN, L. (2000). Effects of leadership style and group dynamics on enjoyment of physical activity. American Journal of Health Promotion, 14, 277-283.
  VAN ENGEN, M.L., VAN DER LEEDEN, R. & WILLEMSEN, T.M. (2001). Gender, context and leadership styles : a field study. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 74, 581-598.
STOGDILL, R.M. (1963). Manual for the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire - Form XII. Columbus, OH : Bureau of Business Research, Ohio State University. MARTINSONS, M.G. (2001). Comparing the Decision Styles of American, Chinese and Japanese Business Leaders. Best Paper Proceedings of Academy of Management Meetings, Washington, DC. [PDF]
VROOM, V.H. (1972). Toward a normative model of leadership style. Pittsburgh : Carnegie-Mellon University. PEARCE, C.L. & SIMS, H.P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams : An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics : Theory, Research, & Practice, 6 (2), 172-197. [PDF]
SMITH, P.B., MISUMI, J., TAYEB, M., PETERSON, M. & BOND, M.H. (1989). On the generality of leadership style measures across cultures. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 62, 97-109. [PDF] EMANS, B.J.M., MUNDUATE, L., KLAVER, E. & VAN DE VLIERT, E. (2003). Constructive consequences of leaders' forcing influence styles. Applied Psychology, 52 (1), 36-54. [PDF]
EAGLY, A.H. & JOHNSON, B.T. (1990). Gender and leadership style : A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 108 (2), 233-256. [PDF] EAGLY, A.H. (2003). More women at the top : The impact of gender roles and leadership style. In U. Pasero (Ed.), Gender : From costs to benefits (pp. 151-169). Opladen, Wiesbaden, Germany : Westdeutscher Verlag.
ROSS, S.M. & OFFERMANN, L.R. (1997). Transformational leaders : Measurement of personality attributes and work group performance. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 1078-1086. EAGLY, A.H., JOHANNESEN-SCHMIDT, M.C. & VAN ENGEN, M.L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles : A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129 (4), 569-591. [PDF]
  MOORE, E.M. (2007). The impact of leadership style on organizational effectiveness : Leadership in action within United Way of America. (Doctoral Dissertation). Capella University. NJ : Transaction.
  KIEU, H. (2010). Leadership styles and organizational performance. UMI Dissertation Publishing, ProQuest LLC, East Eisenhower Parkway.
BENNETT, G. & MANEVAL, M. (1998). Leadership styles of elite Dixie youth baseball coaches. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 87, 754. MAJEED, K., BHATTI, A.M., NEMATI, A., REHMAN, I.U. & RIZWAN, A. (2010). Can cultural change with different leadership styles enhance The organizational performance ? Research Journal of International Studies, 17, 102-132. [LIRE]
AVOLIO, B.J., BASS, B.M. & JUNG, D.I. (1999). Re-examining the components of transform ational and transactional leadership using the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Joumal of Occupational & Organisational Psychology, 72, 441-462. [PDF] SABIR, M.S., SOHAIL, A. & KHAN, M.A.S (2012). Impact of leadership style on organization commitment : In a mediating role of employee values. Journal of Economics & Behavioral Studies, 3 (2), 145-152. [PDF]
CHURCH, A.H. & WACLAWSKI, J. (1999). The impact of leadership style on global management practices. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 1416-1443. KESTING, P., ULHOI, J.P., SONG, L.J. & NIU,H. (2015). The impact of leadership styles on innovation management - a review and a synthesis. Journal of Innovation Management, 3 (4), 22-41. [PDF]
Voir aussi PDG et Leadership
Leader charismatique : Ensemble de caractéristiques physiques (apparence, taile, etc) et d'habiletés sociales/cognitives d'un leader qui suscite chez autrui un intérêt marqué, emporte l'adhésion des masses, toute chose qui augmente la propension des indivdus à collaborer, à participer aux projets et aux entrprises de ce leader. Le récipidendaire de ces caractéristiques/habiletés n'est pas toujours conscient de les posséder ou d'en profiter pour influencer autrui. En revanche, certains leaders, par stratégie, minimise leur influence ou leur pouvoir. Parmi ces caractéristiques, on trouve l'apparence, la taille, le ton de voix, le regard, une façon particulière de rire, de s'exprimer, l'humour, la spontanéité, la créativité, l'intelligence, la compréhension des enjeux, la capacité de décider, d'évaluer et de prendre des risques, etc. Leader charismatique, leader et charisme. Charismatic leadership.

  HOUSE, R.J. (1977). A 1976 theory of charismatic leadership. In J.G. Hunt & L.L. Larson (Eds.), Leadership : The cutting edge (pp. 189-207). Carbondale : Southern Illinois University Press. [PDF] CONGER, J.A., KANUNGO, R.N. & MENON, S.T. (2001). Charismatic leadership and follower effects. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21 (7), 747-767.
MUSSER, S.J. (1987). The determination of positive and negative charismatic leadership. Grantham : PA : Messiah Col AVOLIO, B.J. & YAMMARINO, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership : The road ahead. Oxford, UK : Elsevier Science.
CONGER, J.A. & KANUNGO, R.N. (1988). Charismatic leadership : The elusive factor in organizational effectiveness. San Francisco : Jossey- Bass. De CREMER, D. (2002). Charismatic leadership and cooperation in social dilemmas : A matter of transforming motives? Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32, 997-1016.
CONGER, J.A. (1989). The charismatic leader: Behind the mystique of exceptional leadership. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass. TOURIGNY, L. DOUGAN, W.L., WASHBUSH, J. & CLEMENTS, C. (2003). Explaining executive integrity : governance, charisma, personality and agency. Management Decision, 41, 1035-1049.
HOWELL, J.M. & FROST, P. (1989). A laboratory study of charismatic leadelship. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 43 (2), 243-269. TOSI, H.L., MISANGYI, V.F., FANELLI, A., WALDMAN, D.A. & YAMMARINO, F.J. (2004). CEO charisma, compensation, and firm performance. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 405-420.
HOGAN, R., RASKIN, R. & FAZZINNI, D. (1990). The dark side of charisma. In K.E. Oark & M.B. Clark (Eds.), Measures of leadership (pp. 343-354). West Orange, NJ : Leadership Library of America. KHURANA, R. (2004). Searching for a corporate savior : The irrational quest for charismatic CEOs. Princeton University Press.
HOUSE, R.J., SPANGLER, W.D. & WOYKE, J. (1991). Personality and charisma in the U S. presidency : A psychological theory of leadership effectiveness. Administrative Science Quarterly, 36, 364-396. [PDF] DeCELLES, K.A. & PFARRER, M.D. (2004). Heroes or villains ? Corruption and the charismatic leader. Journal of Leadership & Organisational Studies, 11 (1), 67.
HOWELL J.M. & AVOLIO, B.J. (1992). The ethics of charismatic leadership: submission or liberation ? Academy of Management Executive, 6 (2), 43-54. BLIGH, M.C., KOHLES, J. C., & MEINDL, J.R.. (200a). Charisma under crisis: Presidential leadership, rhetoric, and media responses before and after 9/11. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 211-239.
MAYER, J.D. (1993). The emotional madness of the dangerous leader. Journal of Psychohistory, 20, 331-348. CHOI, J.A. (2006). A motivational theory of charismatic leadership : envisioning, empathy, and empowerment. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 13 (1), 24-43. [PDF]
SHAMIR, B., HOUSE, R.J. & ARTHUR, M.B. (1993). The motivational effects of charismatic leadership : A self-concept based theory. Organization Science, 4 (4), 577-594. [PDF] AGLE, B.R., NAGARAJAN, N.J., SONNENFELD, J.A. & SRINIVASAN, D. (2006). Does CEO charisma matter ? An empirical analysis of the relationships among organizational performance, environmental uncertainty, and top management team perceptions of CEO charisma. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 161-174. [PDF]
SHAMIR, B., HOUSE, R.J. & ARTHUR, M.B.J. (1994). The rhetoric of charismatic leadership: A theoretical extension, a case study, and implications for research. The Leadership Quarterly, 5, 25-42.  
KLEIN, K.J. & HOUSE, R.J. (1996). On fire : Charismatic leadership and level of analysis. Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), 285-305. [PDF] SEYRANIAN, V. & BLIGH, M.C. (2008). Presidential charismatic leadership: Exploring the rhetoric of social change. The Leadership Quarterly, 19, 54-76. [PDF]
KIRKPATRICK, S.A. & LOCKE, E.A. (1996). Direct and indirect effects of three core charismatic leadership components on performance and attitudes. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 36-51.  
CONGER, J.A. & KANUNGO, R.N. (1998). Charismatic leadership in organizations. Thousand Oaks : Sage. LEVINE, K.J., MUENCHEN, R.A. & BROOKS, A.M. (2010). Measuring transformational and charismatic leadership : Why isn't charisma measured ? Communication Monographs 77 (4), 576-591.
SHAMIR, B. (1999). Taming charisma for better understanding and greater usefulness: A response to Beyer. The Leadership Quarterly, 10, 555-562.  BOLKAN, S. & GOODBOY, A.K. (2011) Leadership in the classroom : The use of charismatic leadership as a deterrent to student resistance behaviors. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 46, 4-10.
CONGER, J.A. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations : An insider's perspective on these developing streams of research. Leadership Quarterly, 10, 145-179. WILDEROM, C.P.M., WIERSMA, U.J. & VAN DEN BERG, P.T. (2012). A longitudinal study of the effects of charismatic leadership and organizational culture on objective and perceived corporate performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23835-848.
YUKL, G.A. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), 285-305. AL KAHTANI, A. (2013). Leader charisma, employee organizational commitment, and organizational change : A proposed theoretical framework. International Journal of Academic Research in Business & Social Sciences, 3 (5), 377-399. [PDF]
SHAMIR, B. & HOWELL, J.M. (1999). Organizational and contextual influences on the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), 257-283. SONEMI, M. & MOREEN, M. (2015). Charismatic leadership and the socio-economic transformation of the church. International Journal of Humanities & Social Science, 5 (6), 169-174. [PDF]
HUNT, J.G. & CONGER, J.A. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership : Taking stock of the present and future (Part II). Leadership Quarterly, 10 (3), 331-334.  
Voir aussi Charisme, PDG et Leadership
Leader exemplaire : Transformational leadership.

  TICHY, N. & DEVANNA, M.A. (1986). The transformational leader. New York : Wiley. JUDGE, T.A. & BONO, J. (2000). Five-factor model of personality and transformational leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 751-765.
MEIBAUM, A.J. (1986). The antecedents and consequences of transformational leadership. Dissertation Abstracts International : Section B : the Sciences & Engineering, 53, 215. CARLESS, S.A., WEARING, A.J. & MANN, L. (2000). A short measure of transformational leadership. Journal of Business & Psychology, 14, 389-405.
BASS, B.M., WALDMAN, D.A., AVOLIO, B.J. & BEBB, M. (1987). Transformational leadership and the falling dominoes effect. Group & Organization Studies, 12, 73-87. CHARBONNEAU, D., BARLING, J. & KELLOWAY, E.K. (2001). Transformational leadership and sports performance : The mediating role of intrinsic motivation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 31, 1521-1534.
AVOLIO, B.J., WALDMAN, D.A. & EINSTEIN, W.O. (1988). Transformational leadership in a managementgame simulation. Group & Organizational Studies, 13, 59-80. PEARCE, C.L. & SIMS, H.P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams : An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics : Theory, Research, & Practice, 6 (2), 172-197. [PDF]
  AVOLIO, B.J. & YAMMARINO, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership : The road ahead. Oxford, UK: Elsevier Science.
SELTZER, J. & BASS, B.M. (1990). Transformational leadership : Beyond initiation and consideration. Journal of Management, 16, 693-703. SHIN, S.J. & ZHOU, J. (2003). Transformational leadership, conservation, and creativity : Evidence from Korea. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 703-714.
PODSAKOFF, P.M., MacKENZIE, S.B., MOORMAN, R.H. & FETTER, R. (1990). Transformational leadership behaviors and their effects on followers' trust in leaders, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107-142. EAGLY, A.H., JOHANNESEN-SCHMIDT, M.C. & VAN ENGEN, M.L. (2003). Transformational, transactional, and laissez-faire leadership styles : A meta-analysis comparing women and men. Psychological Bulletin, 129 (4), 569-591. [PDF]
KOH, W.L., TERBORG, J.R., & STEERS, R.M. (1991). The effects of transformational leadership on teacher attitudes and student performance in Singapore. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 319-333. BURNS, J.M. (2003). Transforming leadership : A new pursuit of happiness. Atlantic Monthly Press.
HOUSE, R. & SHAMIR, B. (1993). Toward the integration of transformational, charismatic and visionary theories. In M.M. Chemers & R. Ayman (Eds.): Leadership theory and research : Perspectives and directions (pp. 81-107). San Diego: Academic Press. POUNDER, J.S. (2003). Employing transformational leadership to enhance the quality of management development instruction. Journal of Management Development, 22, 6-13.
BASS, B.M. & AVOLIO, B.J. (Eds.). (1994). Improving organizational effectiveness through transformational leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications CHARBONNEAU, D. (2004). Influence tactics and perceptions of transformational leadership. The Leadership & Organizational Development Journal, 25 (7), 565-576.
YAMMARINO, F.J., SPANGLER, W.D. & BASS, B.M. (1993). Transformational leadership and performance: a longitudinal investigation. The Leadership Quarterly, 4, 81-108. BONO, J.E. & JUDGE, T.A. (2004). Personality and transformational and transactional leadership : A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89 (5), 901-910. [PDF]
BASS, B.M., AVOLIO, B.J. & ATWATER, L. (1996). The transformational and transactional leadership of men and women. Applied Psychology : An International Review, 45, 5-34. ZHU, W., CHEW, I.K.H. & SPANGLER, W.D. (2005). CEO transformational leadership andorganizational outcomes : The mediating role of human-capital-enhancing humanresource management. Leadership Quarterly, 16, 39-52.
PAWAR, B.S. & EASTMAN, K.K. (1997). The nature and implications of contextual influences on transformational leadership : A conceptual examination. Academy of Management Review, 22, 80-109. WALUMBSWA, F.O., LAWLER, J. ., AVOLIO, B.J., WANG, P. & SHI, K. (2005). Transformational leadership and work-related attitudes: The moderating effects of collective and self- efficacy across cultures. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 11 (3), 2-16.
ROSS, S.M. & OFFERMANN, L.R. (1997). Transformational leaders : Measurement of personality attributes and work group performance. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 1078-1086. WANG, H., LAW, K.S., HACKETT, R.D., WANG, D. & CHEN, Z.X. (2005). Leader-member exchange as a mediator of e relationship between transformational leadership and followers' performance and organizational citizenship. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 420- 432.
  PICCOLO, R.F. & COLQUITT, J.A. (2006). Transformational leadership and job behaviors : The mediating role of core job characteristics. Academy of Management Journal, 49, 327–340.
  COLE, M.S. & BEDEIN, A.G. (2006). The measurement equivalence of web-based and paper-and-pencil measures of transformational leadership : A multinational test. Organizational Research Methods, 9, 339-368. [PDF]
CARLESS, S.A. (1998). Gender differences in transformational leadership : An examination of superior, leader, and subordinate perspectives. Sex Roles, 39, 887-902. GARDINER, J.J. (2006). Transactional, transformational, and transcendent Leadership : metaphors mapping the evolution of the theory and practice of governance. Leadership Review, 6, 62-76. [PDF]
  ILIES, R., JUDGE, T.A. & WAGNER, D.T. (2006). Making sense of motivational leadership : The trail from transformational leaders to motivated followers. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Research, 13, 1-22.
  BASS, B.M. & RIGGIO, R.E. (2006). Transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  POUNDER, J.S. (2006). Transformational classroom leadership : The fourth wave of teacher leadership ? Educational Management Administration & Leadership, 34, 533-545.
  SCOTT, M.H. & PETER, W. (2009). Empirical investigation of the effects of transformational and transactional leadership on organizational climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 4, 16-18.
BASS, B.M. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work & Organizational Psychology, 8 (1), 9-32. [PDF]  BOLKAN, S. & GOODBOY, A.K., (2009). Transformational leadership in the classroom : Fostering student learning, student participation, and teacher credibility. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 36, 296-306.
  LEVINE, K.J., MUENCHEN, R.A. & BROOKS, A.M. (2010). Measuring transformational and charismatic leadership : Why isn't charisma measured ? Communication Monographs 77 (4), 576-591.
SOSIK, J.J. & MEGERIAN, L.E. (1999). Understanding leader emotional intelligence and performance: The role of self-other agreement on transformational leadership perceptions. Group & Organization Management, 24, 367-390.  BOLKAN, S. & GOODBOY, A.K. (2010). Transformational leadership in the classroom : The development and validation of the student intellectual stimulation scale. Communication Reports, 23, 91-105.
YUKL, G.A. (1999). An evaluation of conceptual weaknesses in transformational and charismatic leadership theories. The Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2), 285-305.  BOLKAN, S. & GOODBOY, A.K. (2011). Behavioral indicators of transformational leadership in the college classroom. Qualitative Research Reports in Communication, 12, 10-18.
Voir aussi Pouvoir, Décision, Gestion, Différences sexuelles/de genre, PDG et Leader charismatique
 
Leadership Quartely (The...) : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude du leadership. Éditeur : Elsevier.
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Leahey Thomas Hardy ( ) : Historien américain spécialisé dans l'étude de la psychologie.
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Leakey
Louis Seymour Leakey Mary D. Leakey Richard Leakey
 
Leakey Louis Seymour Bazett (Babete Kenya 1903-1972) : Primatologue, paléantologue et archéologue anglais d'origine kenyienne. On lui doit notamment la découverte d'Homo habilis (en 1960). Professeur de Fossey, Galdikas et Goodall. Collaborateur de Leakey.
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Leakey Mary D. (1913-1996) : Paléantologue anglaise. On lui doit notamment la découverte d'Australopithecus boisei (Zinjanthropus ou Nutcracker Man en 1959). Collaboratrice de Leakey.
 
LEAKEY, L.S.B. & LEAKEY, M.D. (1964). Recent discoveries of fossil Hominids in Tanganyika, At Olduvai and near Lake Natron. Nature, 202, 5-7.
LEAKEY, M.D. (1984). Disclosing the past. New York : Doubleday.
 
 
Leakey Richard (Nairobi Kenya 1943-) : Paléantologue et archéologue anglais d'origine kenyienne. On lui doit notamment la découverte d'Australopithecus boisei (en 1969). Fils de Leakey et Leakey.
LEAKEY, R. & LEWIN, R. (1977).Origins. New York : E.P. Dutton.
LEAKEY, R. & LEWIN, R. (1978/80). People of the Lake : Mankind and its beginnings. Anchor Press-Doubleday. / Ceux du lac Turkana. Seghers.
LEAKEY, R. (1981). Making of mankind. Penguin. / La naissance de l'Homme. Éditions du Fanal.
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LEAKEY, R. & LEWIN, R. (1995/99). The sixth extinction. Bantam Dell Pub Group. / La sixième extinction. Paris : Flammarion.
Leaper Campbell ( ) : Psychosociologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des stéréotypes et du genre.
LEAPER, C. (1987). Agency, communion, and gender as predictors of communication style and being liked in adult male-female dyads. Sex Roles, 16, 137-149.
LEAPER, C. (1995). The use of "masculine" and "feminine" to describe women's and men's behavior. Journal of Social Psychology, 135, 359-369.
LEAPER, C. & AYRES, M. (2007). A meta-analytic review of moderators of gender differences in adults' talkativeness, affiliative, and assertive speech. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 11, 328-363.
LEAPER, C. & VAN, S. (2008). Masculinity ideology, covert sexism, and perceived gender typicality in relation to young men's academic motivation and choices in college. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 9, 139-153.
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Learning & Behavior : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des interactions entre l'apprentissage et le comportement. Anciennement Animal Learning & Behavior. Éditeur : Psychonomic Society.
LYCETT, S.J. (2010). The importance of history in definitions of culture : Implications from phylogenetic approaches to the study of social learning in chimpanzees. Learning & Behavior, 38 (3), 252-264.

DENNEY, J. & NEURINGER, A. (1998). Behavioral variability is controlled by discriminative stimuli. Animal Learning & Behavior, 26, 154-162.

Learning & Memory : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des interactions entre l'apprentissage et la mémoire. Éditeur : Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
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Learning & Motivation : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des interactions entre l'apprentissage et la motivation. Éditeur : Elsevier.
GALIZIO, M. & BARON, A. (1976). Verbal labels and auditory frequency generalization. Learning & Motivation, 26, 165-189.

Learning Disability Quarterly : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des troubles d'apprentissage. Éditeur : The Council for Learning Disabilities.
FUCHS, L.S., FUCHS, D., POWELL. R., SEETHALER, P.M., CIRINO, P.T. & FLETCHER, J.M. (2008). Intensive intervention for students with mathematics disabilities : Seven principles of effective practice. Learning Disability Quarterly, 31 (2), 79-92.

Learning Disabilities : A Multidisciplinary Journal : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des troubles d'apprentissage. Éditeur : Learning Disabilities Association of America.
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Learning Disabilities Research & Practice : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des troubles d'apprentissage. Éditeur : Wiley.
WEINER, J. (1987). Peer status of children and adolescents : A review of the literature. Learning Disabilities Research, 2, 62-79.

Learning, Media & Technology : Revue scientifique. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
HOEKSTRA, A. (2008). Vibrant student voices : exploring effects of the use of clickers in large college courses. Learning, Media & Technology, 33 (4), 329-341. [PDF]

Learning Organization (The...) : Revue scientifique. Éditeur : Emerald.
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Leary
Mark R. Leary Timothy Leary
 
Leary Mark R. ( ) : Psychologue sociale américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la gêne et de l'estime de soi. Collaborateur de Baumeister, Shepperd et Twenge.
LEARY, M.R. & BARNES, B.D. & GRIEBEL, C. (1986). Cognitive, affective, and attributional effects of potential threats to self-esteem. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 4, 461-474.
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LEARY, R.M. (2007). Motivational and emotional aspects of the self. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 317-344. [PDF]
Leary Timothy (Sprinfield 1920-1996) : Psychologue américain, devenu célèbre grâce à ses travaux sur les effets psychologiques des drogues (notamment le LSD).
LEARY, T., METZNER, R. & ALPERT, R. (1964). The psychedelic experience : A manual based on the Tibetan book of the dead. New York, N.Y. : Citadel.
LEARY, T. (1966). Psychedelic prayers & other meditations. Timothy.
LEARY, T. (1977). Exo-psychology : A manual on the use of the nervous system according to the instructions of the manufacturers. Starseed/Peace Press.
LEARY, T. (1983). Flashbacks. Tarcher.
LEARY, T., HOROWITZ, M. & MARSHALL, V. (1994). Chaos and cyber culture. Ronin Publishing.
Leavens David A. ( ) : Psychologue et primatologue anglais et spécialiste de la communication chez le chimpanzé. Collaborateur de Hopkins et Thomas.
LEAVENS, D.A., HOPKINS, W.D. & BARD, K.A. (1996). Indexical and referential pointing in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 110, 346-353.
LEAVENS, D.A. & HOPKINS, W.D. (1998). Intentional communication by chimpanzees: A cross-sectional study of the use of referential gestures. Developmental Psychology, 34, 813-822.
LEAVENS, D.A., (2003). Integration of visual and vocal communication : Evidence for Miocene origins (Comment on Corballis). Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 26, 232-233.
LEAVENS, D.A., HOSTETTER, A. B., WESLEY, M.J. & HOPKINS, W.D. (2004). Tactical use of unimodal and bimodal communication by chimpanzees, Pan troglodytes. Animal Behaviour, 67, 467-476.
LEAVENS, D.A., HOPKINS, W.D. & THOMAS, R.K. (2004). Referential communication by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 48-57. [PDF]
Leblanc Linda A. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine et spécialiste de l'autisme. Collaboratrice de Carr, Charlop, Hagopian, Patel, Piazza et Poling.
LEBLANC, L.A., HAGOPIAN, L.P. & MAGLIERI, K. (2000). Useof a token economy to eliminate excessive inappropriate social behavior in an adult with developmental disabilities. Behavioral Interventions, 15 (1), 35-143. [PDF]
LEBLANC, L.A., HAGOPIAN, L., MAGLIERI, K. & POLING, A. (2002). Decreasing the intensity of reinforcement-based interventions for reducing behavior : Conceptual issues and a proposed model for clinical practice. The Behavior Analyst Today, 3, 289-300. [PDF]
LEBLANC, L.A., CARR, J.E., CROSSETT, S.E., BENNETT, C.M. & DETWELILER, D.D. (2005). Intensive outpatient behavioral treatment of primary urinary incontinence of children with autism. Focus on Autism & other Developmental Disabilities, 20 (2), 98-105. [PDF]
LEBLANC, L.A., ESCH, J. SIDENER, T.M. & FIRTH, A.M. (2006). Behavioral language interventions for children with autism : Comparing applied verbal behavior and naturalistic teaching approaches. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22 (1), 49-60. [PDF]
LEBLANC, L.A. & GILLIS, J. (2012). Behavioral interventions for children with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 59, 147-164.
Lebon Gustave (Nogent-le-Rotrou France 1841-1931 Paris) : Médecin, sociologue français et psychosociologue avant la lettre. Il s'est notamment intéressé aux comportements et à la composition des foules. Selon lui, les phénomènes sociaux résultent de l'aggrégation des comportements individuels. Cette position s'apparente à l'individualisme méthodologique.
LEBON, G. (1895/1905). La psychologie des foules. Paris : Édition Félix Alcan. [LIRE]
LEBON, G. (1895). Lois psychologiques de l'évolution des peuples. Paris : Édition Félix Alcan.
LEBON, G. (1910). Psychologie de l'éducation. Paris : Ernest Flammarion. [LIRE]
LEBON, G. (1911). Les opinions et les croyances : Genèse et évolution. Paris : Ernest Flammarion.
LEBON, G. (1920). Psychologie des temps nouveaux. Paris : Ernest Flammarion.
 
NYE, R.A. (1975). The origins of crowd psychology : Gustave Le Bon and the crisis of mass democracy in the Third Republic. London : Sage.
Le bourdais Céline ( ) : Sociologue québécoise et spécialiste de l'étude de la famille. Collaboratrice de Lapierre-Adamcyk.
LE BOURDAIS, C., DESROSIERS, H. & LAPLANTE, B. (1995). Factors related to union formation among single mothers in Canada. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 57 (2), 410-420.
LAPIERRE-ADAMCYK, É, LE BOURDAIS, C. et MARCIL-GRATTON, N. (1999). Vivre en couple pour la premère fois. La signification du choix de l'union libre au Québec et en Ontario. Cahiers Quécois de Démographie, 28 (1-2), 199-227.
LE BOURDAIS, C., NEILL, G. et MARCIL-GRATTON, N. (2000). L'effet du type d'union sur la stabilité des familles dites "intactes". Recherches Sociographiques, 61 (1), 53-74.
LE BOURDAIS, C., NEILL, G. & VACHON, N. (2000). Family disruption in Canada : Impact of the changing patterns of family formation and of female employment. Canadian Studies in Population, 27 (1), 85-105.
LE BOURDAIS, C. & LAPIERRE-ADAMCYK, É. (2004). Changes in conjugal life in Canada : Is cohabitation progressively replacing marriage ? Journal of Marriage & Family, 66 (4), 929-942.
Lebovici Serge (1915-2000) : Psychanalyste français, spécialisé dans l'étude des enfants. Collaborateur de Eisenberg, Nacht et Rutter.
NACHT, S. et LEBOVICI, S. (1958). Indications et contre-indications de la psychanalyse chez l'adulte. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LEBOVICI, S. (1960). La relation objectale chez l'enfant. La Psychiatrie de l'Enfant, 111 (1), 143-227.
LEBOVICI, S. et WEIL-HALPERN, F. (1989). Psychopathologie du bébé. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LEBOVICI, S. et MAZET, P. (1998). Psychiatrie périnatale. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LEBOVICI, S. et SOULÉ, M. (2003). La connaissance de l'enfant par la psychanalyse. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Lebreton David (1953-) : Anthropologue et sociologue français, spécialisé dans l'étude des comportements ordaliques et défenseur de l'intéractionisme symbolique.
LEBRETON, D. (1991). Passions du risque. Éditions Métailié.
LEBRETON, D. (2002). Conduites à risque. Presses universitaires de France.
LEBRETON, D. (2004/08). L'interactionnisme symbolique. Presses universitaires de France.
LEBRETON, D. (2006). Anthropologie de la douleur. Éditions Métailié.
LEBRETON, D. (2007). En souffrance. Adolescence et entrée dans la vie. Éditions Métailié.
Leca Jean-Baptiste ( ) : Éthologiste et primatologue français, spécialisé dans l'étude de la culture animale et de la fabrication des outils, notamment chez les macaques. Étudiant de Huffman. Collaborateur de Nahallage.  
LECA, J.B., FORNASIERI, I. & PETIT, O. (2002). Aggression and reconciliation in Cebus capucinus. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 979-998. [PDF]
LECA, J.B., GUNST, N. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2007). Japanese macaque cultures : Inter- and intra-troop behavioural variability of stone handling patterns across 10 troops. Behaviour, 144, 251-281. [PDF]
LECA, J-B., GUNST, N. & HUFFMAN, M.A (2008). Of stones and monkeys : Testing ecological constraints on stone handling, a behavioral tradition in Japanese macaques. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 135, 213-244. [PDF]
LECA, J.B., GUNST, N. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2010). Indirect social influence in the maintenance of the stone handling tradition in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Animal Behaviour, 79, 117-126.[PDF]
LECA, J.B., GUNST, N. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2011). Complexity in object manipulation by Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) : a cross-sectional analysis of manual coordination in stone handling patterns. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 125, 61-71. [PDF]
Lécher : Licking.

  HULSE, S.H. (1960). A precision liquid feeding system controlled by licking behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (3), 1-3. [PDF]
SCHAEFFER, R. & PREMACK, D. (1961). Licking rates in infant allbino rats. Science, 134 (394), 1980-1981.
BOND, N.W., BLACKMAN, D.E. & SCRUTON, P. (1973). Suppression of operant behavior and schedule-induced licking in rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (3), 375-383. [PDF]
NAGHEISHI, Y. & IMADA, H. (1974). Suppression of licking behavior in rats as a function of predictability of shock and probability of conditioned stimulus-shock pairings. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 87, 1165-1173.
PELLON, R. & PÉREZ-PADILLA, A. (2012). Response-food delay gradients for lever pressing and schedule-induced licking in rats. Learning Behavior, DOI 10.3758/s13420-012-0099-x [PDF]

Leclair Éric ( ) : Géographe québécois et professeur au Collège Ahuntsic. Il s'intéresse notamment à l'exploration des rivières et des milieux polaires.

LECLAIR, É. (1996). Les mille et une nuits de l’Ashuapmushuan. Géo Plein-air, 8 (5), 46-49.
LECLAIR, É. (1998). Les beautés lumineuses de la Nahanni-Sud. Géo Plein-air, 10 (3), 14-21.
LECLAIR, É. (1998). Rivière Moisie. Géo Plein-air, 10 (3), 22.
LECLAIR, É. (2012). Descendre-la-rivière-puvirnituq. Espaces, 18 (1), 52-55. [LIRE]
LECLAIR, E. (2017). Rivière Saint-Jean. Espaces, 22 (6), 30-32. [LIRE]
 
Lecompte
Conrad Lecompte Margaret D. Lecompte
 
Lecompte Conrad ( ) : Psychologue québécois et spécialiste de l'étude des thérapies et de la formation des thérapeutes.
LECOMTE, C. CASTONGUAY, L.-G., CYR, M. et SABOURIN, S. (1993). Supervision and instruction in doctoral psychotherapy integration. In S. Stricker et J.R. Gold (Éds), Comprehensive handbook of psychotherapy integration. New York : Plenum Press.
LECOMTE, C. et LECOMTE, T. (1999). Au-delà et en deçà des thérapies cognitives pour les personnes souffrant de troubles mentaux graves : Les facteurs communs. La Revue de Santé Mentale au Québec, 24 (1), 5-12.
LECOMTE, C. (1999). Face à la complexité et à l'incertitude : L'impossibilité de se défaire de soi. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 20 (2), 37-63.
LECOMTE, C. & RICHARD, A. (2003). De la subjectivité à l'intersubjectivité : Pour une psychothérapie pleinement relationnelle. Revue de Psychologie de la Motivation, 35, 64-73.
LECOMTE, C., SAVARD, R., DROUIN, M.-S. & GUILLON, V. (2004). Qui sont les psychothérapeutes efficaces ? Implications pour la formation en psychologie. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 25 (3), 73-102. [PDF]
Lecompte Margaret D. ( ) : Spécialiste de l'éducation et des méthodes qualitatives.
LECOMPTE, M.D. & GOETZ, J.P. (1982). Problems of reliability and validity in educational research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (2), 31-60. [PDF]
LECOMPTE, M.D. & DWORKIN, A.G. (1991). Giving up on school : Teacher burnout and student dropout. Newbury Park, CA : Corwin Press/Sage Publications.
LECOMPTE, M.D., MILLROY, W. & PREISSLE, J. (Eds.) (1992). The handbook of qualitative research in education. San Diego, CA : Academic Press.
LECOMPTE, M.D. (1994). Sensible matchmaking : Qualitative research design and the program evaluation standards. Journal of Experimental Education, 63 (1), 29-45.
LECOMPTE, M.D. (1999). Using ethnographic data : Reporting, dissemination, and utilization. Book Seven.
Leçon : En science, cours donné sous forme de conférence, et qui jouait jadis un rôle important dans la communication des connaissances au sein des universités. Les grandes leçons sont souvent publiées sous forme de livre. = cours magistaux.

  ARON, R. (1962). Dix-huit leçons sur la société industrielle. Paris : Gallimard.
Lecoutre
Bruno Lecoutre Marie-Paule Lecoutrre
 
Lecoutre Bruno ( ) : Psychologue et statisticien français. Il s'intéresse à la statistique bayésienne et au débat concernant l'usage des tests d'hypothèse et de l'hypothèse nulle. Professeur de Poitevineau. Collaborateur de Lecoutre.
LECOUTRE, M-P., DERZKO, G. GROUIN, J.-M. (1995). Bayesian predictive approach for inference about proportions. Statistics in Medicine, 14, 1057-1063.
LECOUTRE, B. & POITEVINEAU, J. (2000). Aller au delà des tests de signification traditionnels : vers de nouvelles normes de publication. L'Année Psychologique, 100 (4), 683-713. [PDF]
LECOUTRE B., LECOUTRE M.-P. & POITEVINEAU J. (2001). Uses, abuses and misuses of significance tests in the scientific community : Won't the Bayesian choice be unavoidable? International Statistical Review, 69, 399-417.
LECOUTRE, B. (2005). Et si vous étiez un bayésien qui s'ignore ? Revue MODULAD, 32, 92-105. [PDF]
LECOUTRE, B. (2006). Training students and researchers in Bayesian methods for experimental data analysis. Journal of Data Science, 4 (2), 207-232. [PDF]
Lecoutre Marie-Paule ( ) : Psychologue et statisticien français. Il s'intéresse à la statistique bayésienne et au débat concernant l'usage des tests d'hypothèse et de l'hypothèse nulle. Collaboratrice de Lecoutre et Poitevineau.
LECOUTRE M.-P. (1982). Comportements des chercheurs dans des situations conflictuelles d'analyse de données expérimentales. Psychologie Française, 27, 1-8. [PDF]
LECOUTRE, M-P. (1992). Cognitive models and problem spaces in "purely random" situations. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 23, 557-568.
LECOUTRE, M-P., POITEVINEAU, J. & LECOUTRE, B. (2003). Even statisticians are not immune to misinterpretations of null hypothesis significance tests. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (1), 37-45.
LECOUTRE, M-P., CLÉMENT, E. & LECOUTRE, B. (2004). Failure to construct and transfer correct representations across probability problems. Psychological Reports, 94, 151-162.
LECOUTRE, M-P., POITEVINEAU, J. & LECOUTRE, B. (2005). A reason why not to ban null hypothesis significance tests. Revue MODULAD, 32, 92-105. [PDF]
Lecteur (en science) : En science, personne type à qui s'adresse le scientifique qui rédige un article, un chapitre de livre ou un livre. Il peut s'agir, selon le cas, d'un cercle restreint d'experts dans un domaine donné (les pairs d'un comité de lecture, les collègues), d'étudiants (Voir Rat-double) ou, lorsqu'il s'agit de vulgarisation scientifique, de monsieur et madame Tout-le-monde.

 
Lecture/Lecteur/Lire : Reconnaître/discriminer les lettres d'une langue et les associer/organiser en mots afin d'en comprendre la signification. Les troubles de lecture se nomme dyslexie. Lecture, fluidité verbale et littéracie. = habileté de lecture, comportement de lecture. Reading, reading skill, reading responses, reading behavior.
Lecture/Lire
Lecture (Général) Enseignement de la lecture efficace par les pairs Méthode d'enseignement de la lecture
Lecture à haute voix Faire la lecture (à un enfant) Prélecture
  Faire ses lectures  
Compréhension de la lecture Mesure et évaluation des habiletés de lecture Relecture
 


 
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