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NA - NARCISSISME - NE - NEISSER - NEO - NEURO - NEUROCOGNITION - NEV - NEWCOMB - NI - NISBETT - NO - NOS - NOYAU - NU
N (grand) : En statistique, le N désigne le nombre d'individus de la population à l'étude. = grand n.

  SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
N (petit) : En statistique, le n désigne le nombre d'individus de l'échantillon à l'étude. = nombre de sujets ou de participants.

  ORWIN, R. (1983). Fail-safe N for effect size. Journal of Educational Statistics, 8, 157-159.
ABRAMI, P.C. & d'APOLLONIA, S. (1991). Multidimensional students’ evaluations of teaching effectiveness generalizability of "N = 1" research : Comment on Marsh (1991). Journal of Educational Psychology, 30, 221-227.
LAZIC, S.E., CLARKE-WILLIAMS, C.J. & MUNAFÖ, M.R. (2018). What exactly is ‘N’ in cell culture and animal experiments ? PLOS BIO, 16 (4), 1-4. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
N = 1 : Voir Méthode du cas unique. *étude de cas.
N400 : Désigne le potentiel évoqué négatif (n = négatif) mesuré dans le cerveau 400 ms après l'apparition d'un signe linguistique.

  KUTAS, M. & HILLYARD, S.A. (1980). Reading senseless sentences : Brain potentials reflect semantic incongruity. Science, 207, 203-205. KUTAS, M. & IRAQGUI, V. (1998). The N400 in a semantic categorization task across six decades, Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 108, 456-471. [PDF]
GUNTER, T.C., JACKSON, J.L., KUTAS, M., MULDER, G. & BUIJINK, B.M. (1994). Focusing on the N400: An exploration of selective attention during reading. Psychophysiology, 31, 347-358. [PDF] NITTONO, H., SUEHIRO, M. & HORI, T. (2002). Word imageability and n400 in an incidental memory paradigm. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 44, 219-229.
REBAI, M., BERNARD, C. & LANNOU, J. (1996). The Stroop's test evokes a negative brain potential, the N400. International Journal of Neuroscience, 91, 85-94. HILL, H., OTT, F. & WEISBROD, M. (2005). Soa-dependent n400 and p300 semantic priming effects using pseudoword primes and a delayed lexical decision. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 56, 209-221.
OLICHNEY, J.M., IRAGUI, V.J., KUTAS, M., NOWACKI, R. & JESTE, D.V. (1997). N400 abnormalities in late-life schizophrenia and related psychoses. Biological Psychiatry, 42 (1), 13-23. KUTAS, M. & FEDEMEIRER, K.D. (2011).Thirty Years and counting : Finding meaning in the N400 component of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Annual Review of Psychology, 62, 621-647. [PDF]
  ELMAN, J.L., BOROVSKY, A., ELMAN, J. & KUTAS, M. (2012). Once is enough : N400 indexes semantic integration of novel word meaning. Language, Learning & Development, 8 (3), 278-302. [PDF]
Voir aussi Potentiel évoqué et P300
NAGEL - NAIRNE - NARCISSISME - NARCOLEPSIE - NASH - NATIONALISME - NAT - NATSOULAS - NAUSÉE - NAVETTE D'ÉVITEMENT - NE
Nacht Sacha (Racacini Roumanie 1901-1977 Paris) : Psychanalyste français d'origine roumaine. Il fut longtement directeur de la Société psychanalytique de Paris. Il a été analysé par Loewenstein, Spitz, Hartmann et Freud. Analyste de Grunberger. Collaborateur de Lebovici.
NACHT, S. (1935/2004). Psychanalyse des psychonévroses et des troubles de la sexualité. Paris : L'Harmattan.
NACHT, S. et LEBOVICI, S. (1958). Indications et contre-indications de la psychanalyse chez l'adulte. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
NACHT, S. (1971). Guérir avec Freud. Paris : Payot.
 
 
 
Nadeau
Line Nadeau Richard Nadeau
 
Nadeau Line ( ) : Psychologue écologiste québécoise et professeure à l'Université Laval. Elle se spécialise dans l'étude du développement psychologique et social des enfants nés prématurément. Collaboratrice de Tessier.
NADEAU, L., BOIVIN, M., TESSIER, R., LEFEBVRE, F. & ROBAEY, P. (2001). Mediators of behavioral problems in 7-year-old children born after 24 to 28 weeks of gestation. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 22, 1-11.
NADEAU, L. et TESSIER, R. (2003). Relations sociales entre enfants à l’âge scolaire : effet de la prématurité et de la déficience motrice. Enfance, 55, 48-55.
TESSIER, R., CRISTO, M.E., VELEZ, S., GIRON, M., NADEAU, L. & CHARPAK, N. (2003). Kangaroo mother-care : A method of protecting high-risk premature infants against developmental delay. Infant Behavior & Development, 26, 384-397.
NADEAU, L., TESSIER, R., LEFEBVRE, F. & ROBAEY, P. (2004). Victimization : A newly recognized outcome of prematurity. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 46, 508-513.
LAGANIÈRE, J., TESSIER, R. et NADEAU, L. (2003). Attachement mère-enfant prématuré : Un lien médiatisé par les perceptions maternelles. Enfance, 55, 101-117.
Nadeau Richard ( ) : Politologue québécois et spécialiste de l'opinion politique. Il s'intéresse également au comportement de vote et aux élections. Il enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Collaborateur de Blais et Martin.
NADEAU, R. & BLAIS, A. (1993). Explaining election outcomes in Canada : Economy and politics. Canadian Journal of Political, 26 (4), 775-790
NADEAU, R., NIEMI, R.G. & AMATO, T. (1994). Expectations andpreferences in British general elections. American Political Science Review, 88, 371-383.
NADEAU, R., NIEMI, R.G. & AMATO, T. (1995). Emotions, issue importance and political learning. American Journal of Political Science, 39, 558-574.
NADEAU, R., MARTIN, P. & BLAIS, A. (1999). Attitude towards risk-taking and individual choice in the Quebec referendum on sovereignty . British Journal of Political Science, 29, 523-539. [PDF]
NADEAU, R., NIEMI, R.G., AMATO, T. & LEWIS-BACK, M.S. (2001). National economic voting in U.S. presidential elections. Journal of Politics, 63, 159-181.
Nadel Lynn ( ) : Neurosychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'hippocampe. Collaborateur Gilboa, Nadel, Mosccovitch, O'Keefe et Zola-Morgan.
NADEL, L. (1991). The hippocampus and space revisited. Hippocampus, 1 (3), 221-229. [PDF]
NADEL, L. & MOSCOVITCH, M. (1997). Consolidation, retrograde amnesia and the hippocampal formation. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 7, 217-227.
NADEL, L., RYAN, L., HAYES, S.M., GILBOA, M. & MOSCOVITCH, M. (2003). The role of the hippocampal complex in long-term episodic memory. International Congress Series, 1250, 215-234. [PDF]
NADEL, L. & MOSCOVITCH, M. (1998). Hippocampal contribution to cortical plasticity. Neuropharmacology, 3, 431-449. [PDF]
NADEL, L. & PATERSON, M.A. (2013). The hippocampus : part of an interactive posterior representational system spanning perceptual and memorial systems. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 1242-1254.
NADEL, L., HOSHCHEIDT S, RYAN, LR. (2013). Spatial cognition and the hippocampus : the anterior-posterior axis. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 25 (1), 22–28.
Ernest Nagel
Ernest Nagel Thomas Nagel
 
Nagel Ernest (Prague 1901-1985 New York) : Philosophe américain d'origine tchécoslovaque, épistémologue et chef de file de l'opérationnalisme. Ses idées sont en grande partie compatibles avec le positivisme logique. Collaborateur de Suppes et Tarski.
COHEN, M.R. & NAGEL, E. (1934). An introduction to logic and scientific method. New York : Harcourt Brace.
NAGEL, E. (1961). The structure of science : Problems in the logic of explanation. London : Routledge and Kegan Paul.
NAGEL, E., SUPPES, P. & TARSKI, A. (1962). Logic, methodology and philosophy of science. Stanford : Stanford University Press.
NAGEL, E. (1965). Types of causal explanation in science. In D. Lerner (Ed.), Cause and effect. New York : Academic Press.
NAGEL, E. & NEWMAN, J.R. (1983). Gödel's proof. New York University Press.
Nagel Thomas (1937-) : Philosophe américain.
NAGEL, T. (1972). War and massacre. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 1, 123-144.
NAGEL, T. (1974). What is it like to be a bat ? Philosophical Review, 83, 435-450. [PDF]
NAGEL, T. (1998). Conceiving the impossible and the mind-body problem. Philosophy, 73 (285), 337-352. [PDF]
NAGEL, T. (2000). The psychophysical nexus. In P. Boghossian (Ed.), New essays on the apriori. Oxford : Clarendon Press. [PDF]
NAGEL, T. (2003). John Rawls and affirmative action. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 39, 82-84.
Nager/Nage/Natation : Sport et exercice qui consiste à se mouvoir dans l'eau, sans couler au fond. Swimming.

   McKENZIE, T.L. & RUHALL, B.S. (1974). Effects of self-recording on attendance and performance in a competitive swimming training environment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7 (2), 199-206. [PDF]
 DOWRICK, P.W. & DOVE, C. (1980). The use of self-modeling to improve the swimming performance of spina bifida children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13 (1), 51-56. [PDF]
 BERGER, B.G. & OWEN, D.R. (1983). Mood alterations with swimming e swimmers really do "feel better". Psychosomatic Medicine 45, 425-433.
HAZEN, A., JOHNSTONE, C., MARTIN, G.L. & SRIKAMES- WARAN, S. (1990). A videotaping feedback package for improving skills of youth competitive swimmers. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 213-227.
EVERETT, J.J., SMITH, R.E. & WILLIAMS, K.D. (1992). Effects of team cohesion and identifiability on social loafing in relay swimming performance. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23, 311-324.
RAPP, J.T., VOLLMER, T.R. & HOVANETZ, A.N. (2005). Evaluation and treatment of swimming pool avoidance exhibited by an adolescent girl with autism. Behavior Therapy, 36, 101-105. [PDF]
GUILBERT, S. (2010). La violence des entraîneurs: une étude comparative entre 5 disciplines sportives (basket-ball, tennis de table, karaté, natation et tir). Esporte e Sociedade Ano, 5 (13), 1-20. [PDF]
Voir aussi Sport
Nagin Daniel S. ( ) : Spécialiste américain de la violence et de l'agression motrice. Collaborateur de Tremblay.
NAGIN, D.S. (1978). Crime rates, sanction levels and constraints on prison population. Law & Society Review, 12, 341-366.
NAGIN, D.S. (1999). Analyzing developmental trajectories: A semi- parametric, group-based approach. Psychological Methods, 4, 139- 177.
NAGIN, D.S. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (1999). Trajectories of boys’ physical aggression, opposition, and hyperactivity on the path to physically violent and non violent juvenile delinquency. Child Development, 70, 1181-1196.
NAGIN, D.S. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (2001). Parental and early childhood predictors of persistent physical aggression in boys from kindergarten to high school. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 389-394.
NAGIN, D.S. (2015). Group-based trajectory modeling in criminal career research. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 1-6.
Nahallage Charmalie A.D. ( ) : Primatologue srilankaise, spécialisée dans l'étude de la fabrication des outils chez les singes, notammment chez les macaques. Étudiante de Huffman.
NAHALLAGE, C.A.D. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2006). Observations of meat eating by captive juvenile Macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 45 (1), 1-4.
NAHALLAGE, C.A.D. & HUFFMAN, M.A (2007). Acquisition and development of stone handling behavior in infant Japanese macaques. Behaviour, 144, 1193-1215.
NAHALLAGE, C.A.D. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2008). Environmental and social factors associated with the occurrence of stone handling behavior in a captive troop of Japanese macaques. International Journal of Primatology, 29 (3), 795-806.
NAHALLAGE, C.A.D. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2008). Comparison of stone handling behavior in two macaque species : It’s implications for the role of phylogeny and environment in primate cultural variation. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 1124-1132.
NAHALLAGE, C.A.D. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2008). Diurnal primates in Sri Lanka and people’s perception of them. Primate Conservation, 23, 81-88.
Nairne James S. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire, et plus particulièrement de l'effet de récence et du rappel séquentiel. Collaborateur de Williams.
NAIRNE, J.S. (1988). A framework for interpreting recency effects in immediate serial recall. Memory & Cognition, 16, (3), 343-352. [PDF]
NAIRNE, J.S. (1990). A feature model of immediate memory. Memory & Cognition, 18, 251-269. [PDF]
NAIRNE, J.S. (2002). The myth of the encoding-retrieval match. Memory, 10, 389-395. [PDF]
NAIRNE, J.S., CEO, D.A. & REYSEN, M. B. (2007). The mnemonic effects of recall on immediate retention. Memory & Cognition, 35, 191-199. [PDF]
NAIRNE, J.S. & PANDEIRADA, J.N.S. (2010). Adaptive memory : Ancestral priorities and the mnemonic value of survival processing. Cognitive Psychology, 61, 1-22. [PDF]
Naissance : À la suite d'une grossesse, moment de l'accouchement. Naissance, ordre de naissance et nouveau-né. = accouchement, venir au monde. *début de la vie d'un organisme. Childbirth, born.


Naissance Enfance Adolescence Adulte Mort
Nouveau-né Nourrisson Enfant Pré-adolescent Adolescent jeune adulte Adulte Vieux


  ZUCKERMAN, M., NURNBERGER, J.I., GARDINER, S.H., VANDIVEER, J.M., BARRETT, B.H. & DEN BREEIJEN, A. (1963). Psychological correlates of somatic complaints in pregnancy and difficulty in childbirth. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 27, 324-329. TWENGE, J. & NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (2002). Age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, and birth cohort differences in the Children’s Depression Inventory : A meta-analysis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 111, 578-588. [PDF]
McMANUS, I.C. (1985). Writing hand position, birth stress, and familial factors. Current Psychological Research & Reviews, 4, 195-203. [PDF] DOOLEY, D. & PRAUSE, J. (2005). Birth weight and mothers' adverse employment change. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 46, 141-155. [PDF]
BELL, J.F. & DANIELS, S. (1990). Are summer-born children disadvantaged ? The birthdate effect in education. Oxford Review of Education, 16, 67-80. RODGERS, J.L., ST. JOHN, C. & COLEMAN, R. (2005). Did fertility go up after the Oklahoma City bombing ? An analysis of births in metropolitan counties in Oklahoma, 1990-1999. Demography, 42, 675-692.
APT, M. & HURLBERT, D. (1992). Motherhood and female sexuality beyond one year postpartum : A study of military wives. Journal of Sex Education & Therapy, 18, 104-114. SIT, D., ROTHSCHILD, A.J. & WISNER, K.L. (2006). A review of postpartum psychosis. Journal of Women’s Health, 15 (4), 352-368. [PDF]
BAXTER-JONES, A. & HELMS, P. (1994). Born too late to win ? Nature, 370, 186.  
Voir aussi Grossesse et Ordre des naissances
Naïveté/Naïf : Qui croit à l'existence de pseudo-phénomènes et recourt à des explications simplistes pour comprendre la nature de ces phénomènes.

 
Nantel Jacques ( ) : Spécialiste de la mise en marché et de la consommation. Il enseigne aux HEC/Université de Montréal. Collaborateur de Sénécal.
NANTEL, J. & COLBERT, F. (1992). Positioning cultural arts products in the market. Journal of Cultural Economics, 16 (2), 63-71.
NANTEL, J. & WEEKS, W.A. (1996). Marketing ethics : is there more to it than the utilitarian approach ? European Journal of Marketing 30 (5), 9-19.
NANTEL, J. (2004). My virtual model : Virtual reality comes into fashion. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 18 (3), 73-86.
NANTEL, J. & GLASER, E. (2008). The impact of language and culture on perceived website usability. Journal of Engineering & Technology Management, 25 (1), 112-122.
NANTEL, J. (2008). The impact of SMS advertising on members of a virtual community. Journal of Advertising Research, 48 (3), 363-374.
Narcissisme/Narcissique : Amour excessif de soi. En psychanalyse, on parle de narcissisme lorsque la libido est détournée au profit exclusif du moi. Narcissisme et valorisation de soi. ( ) : narcissisme primaire, narcissisme secondaire. Narcissistic personality.
     MORF, C.C., WEIR, C.R. & DAVIDOV, M. (2000). Narcissism and intrinsic motivation: The role of goal congruence. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36, 424-438.
RANK, O. (1911/74). Une contribution au narcissisme. Paris : Topiques. CAMPBELL, W.K., REEDER, G.D., SEDIKIDES, C. & ELLIOT, A.J. (2000). Narcissism and comparative self-enhancement strategies. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 329-347. [PDF]
FREUD, S. (1914/86). Pour introduire le narcissisme : métapsychologie. Paris : Gallimard.  MORF, C.C. & RHODEWALT, F. (2001). Unraveling the paradoxes of narcissism : A dynamic self-regulatory processing model. Psychological Inquiry, 12 (4), 177-196. [PDF]
HARNIK, J. (1924). The various developments undergone by narcissism in men and in women. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 5, 66-83. CAMPBELL, W.K. (2001). Is narcissism really so bad ? Psychological Inquiry, 12, 214-216.
  PAULHUS, D.L. (2001). Normal narcissism : Two minimalist views. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 228-230.
   MORF, C.C. & RHODEWALT, F. (2001). Expanding the dynamic self-regulatory processing model of narcissism: Research directions for the future. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 243-251
ELLIS, H. (1927). The conception of narcissism. Psychoanalytic Review, 14, 129-153. ELLIOT, A.J. & THRASH, T.M. (2001). Narcissism and motivation. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 216-219.
FEDERN, P. (1928). Narcissism in the structure of the ego. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 9, 401-419. BAUMEISTER, R.F. & VOHS, K. D. (2001). Narcissism as addiction to esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 206-210.
ROSENFELD, H. (1949). Remarks on the relation of male homosexuality to paranoia, paranoid anxiety and narcissism. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 30, 36-47. ROBINS, R.W., TRACY, J.L. & SHAVER, P.R. (2001). Shamed into self-love : Dynamics, roots, and functions of narcissism. Psychological Inquiry, 12, 230-236. [PDF]
REICH, A. (1953). Narcissistic object choice in Women. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 1, 122-144.  RUIZ, J.M., SMITH T.W. & RHODEWALT, F. (2001). Distinguishing narcissism and hostility : Similarities and differences in interpersonal circumplex and five-factor correlates. Journal of Personality Assessment, 76, 537-555.
GRAUER, D. (1955). Homosexuality and the paranoid psychoses as related to the concept of narcissism. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 24, 516-526. PAULHUS, D.L. & WILLIAMS, K.M. (2002). The dark triad of personality : Narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556- 563. [PDF]
  RHODEWALT, F. & EDDING, S. K. (2002). Narcissis reflects : Memory distortion in response to ego relevant feedback in high and low narcissistic men. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 97-116.
  WALLACE, H.M. & BAUMEISTER, R.F. (2002). The performance of narcissists rises and falls with perceived opportunity for glory. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82, 819-834.
BERNSTEIN, I. (1957). The role of narcissism in moral masochism. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 26, 358-377. CAMPBELL, W.K., FORSTER, C.A. & FINKEL, E.J. (2002). Does self-love lead to love for others ? A story of narcissistic game playing. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83, 340-354. [PDF]
HART, H.H. (1958). Maternal narcissism and the Oedipus complex. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 39, 188-190. CAMPBELL, W.K., RUDICH, E.A. & SEDIKIDES, C. (2002). Narcissism, self- esteem, and the positivity of self-views : Two portraits of self-love. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 358-368. [PDF]
  BARRY, C.T., FRICK, P.J. & KILLIAN, A.L. (2003). The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children : A preliminary investigation. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139-152.
  TRACY, J.L. & ROBINS, R.W. (2003). "Death of a (narcissistic) salesman": An integrative model of fragile self-esteem. Psychological Inquiry, 14, 57-62.
ROSENFELD, H. (1964). On the psychopathology of narcissism : A clinical Approach. In H. Rosenfeld (1965/2004), Psychotic states. Londres : Karnac. PONNIER, J. (2003). Narcissisme et séduction : pour une critique métapsychologique du concept d'idéalisation. Economica.
FREEMAN, T. (1962). Narcissism and defensive processes in schizophrenic states. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 43, 415-425. TWENGE, J.M. & CAMBPELL, W.K. (2003). "Isn’t it fun to get the respect that we’re going to deserve ?" Narcissism, social rejection, and aggression. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 261-272.
KOHUT, H. (1966). Forms and transformations of narcissism. In C. B. Strozier (Ed.), Self psychology and the humanities: Reflections on a new psychoanalytic approach (pp. 124-160). New York, NY: W. W. Norton. BARRY, C.T., FRICK, P.J. & KILLIAN, A.L. (2003). The relation of narcissism and self-esteem to conduct problems in children : A preliminary investigation. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 139-152. [PDF]
KOHUT, H. (1968). Narcissistic personality disorders : outline systematic approach. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 23, 86-113. FOSTER, J.D., CAMBPELL, W.K. & TWENGE, J.M. (2003). Individual differences in narcissism : Inflated self-views across the lifespan and around the world. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 469-486. [PDF]
ROSENFELD, H. (1971). A clinical approach to the psycho-analytic theory of the life and death instincts : an investigation into the aggressive aspects of narcissism. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 52, 169-178. SEDIKIDES, C., RUDICH, E.A., GREGG, A.P., KUMASHIRO, M. & RUSBULT, C. (2004). Are normal narcissists psychologically healthy ? : Self-esteem matters. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 87, 400-416. [PDF]
  KUBARYCH, T.S., DEARY, I.J. & AUSTIN, E.J. (2004). The Narcissistic Personality Inventory : Factor structure in a non-clinical sample. Personality & Individual Differences, 36, 857-872.
  AMES, D.R. & KAMMRATH, L.K. (2004). Mind-reading and metacognition: Narcissism, not actual competence predicts self-estimated ability. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 28, 187-209.
ROSENFELD, H. (1971). A clinical approach to the psycho-analytic theory of the life and death instincts : an investigation into the aggressive aspects of narcissism. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 52, 169-178. BROWN, R.P. & ZEIGGLER-HILL, V. (2004). Narcissism and the non-equivalence of self-esteem measures : A matter of dominance ? Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 585-592. [PDF]
  CAMPBELL, W.K., BUSH, C.P., BRUNELL, A.B. & SHELTON, J. (2005). Understanding the social costs of narcissism : The case of the Tragedy of the Commons Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31 (10), 1358-1368. [PDF]
  FOSTER, J.D. & CAMPBELL, W.K. (2005). Narcissism and resistance to doubts about romantic partners. Journal of Research in Personality, 39, 550-557.
  RHODEWALT, F. & MORF, C.C (2005). Reflections in troubled waters: Narcissism and the vicissitudes of an interpersonally contextualized self. In A. Tesser, J.V. Wood & D.A. Stapel, (Eds.), On building, defending and regulating the self: A psychological perspective (pp. 125-149). Philadelphia, PA : Psychological Press.
  LEE, K. & ASHTON, M.C. (2005). Psychopathy, Machiavellianism, and narcissism in the Five-Factor model and the HEXACO model of personality structure. Personality & Individual Differences, 38, 1571-1582. [PDF]
  JUDGE, T.A., LEPINE, J.A. & RICH, B.L. (2006). Loving yourself abundantly : Relationship of the narcissistic personality to self- and other perceptions of workplace deviance, leadership, and task and contextual performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 762-776. [PDF]
  VAZIRE, S. & FUNDER, D.C. (2006). Impulsivity and the self-defeating behaviour of narcissists. Personality & Social Psychology Review 10 (2), 154-165. [PDF]
  HORTON, R.S., BLEAU, G. & DRWECKI, B. (2006). Narcissus : what are the links between parenting and narcissism ? Journal of Personality, 74 (2), 345-376.
  MOCAYO, R. (2006). The partial object, the ideal ego, the ego-ideal, and the empty subject : Four degrees of sifferentiation within narcissism. The Psychoanalytic Review, 93 (4), 565-602.
  CAMPBELL, W.K., BRUNELL, A.B. & FINKEL, E.J. (2006). Narcissism, interpersonal self-regulation, and romantic relationships : An Agency Model approach. In E.J. Finkel & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), Self and relationships : Connecting intrapersonal and interpersonal processes (pp. 297-316). New York : Guilford Press.
  FOSTER, J.D., SHRIRA, I. & CAMPBELL, W.K. (2006). Theoretical models of narcissism, sexuality, and relationship commitment. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 23, 367-386.
  AMES, R.D., ROSE, P. & ANDERSON, P.C. (2006). The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 440-450. [PDF]
GRUNBERGER, B. (1973/2003). Le narcissisme. Essais de psychanalyse. Paris : Payot. OTWAY, L.J. & VIGNOLES, V.L. (2006). Narcissism and childhood recollections : A quantitative test of psychoanalytic predictions. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 104-116. [PDF]
  SAKELLAROPOULO, M. & BALDWIN, M.W. (2007). The hidden sides of self-esteem : Two dimensions of implicit self-esteem and their relation to narcissistic reaction. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43, 995-1001. [PDF]
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  PINCUS, A.L. (2013). The Pathological Narcissism Inventory. In J. Ogrudniczuk (Ed.), Understanding and treating pathological narcissism (pp. 93-110). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
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CAMPBELL, W.K. (1999). Narcissism and romantic attraction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, 1254-1270. [PDF] WRIGHT, A.G.C., PINCUS, A.L., THOMAS, K.M., HOPWOOD, C.J., MARKON, K.E. & KRUEGER, R.F. (2013). Conceptions of narcissism and the DSM-5 pathological personality traits. Assessment, 20, 339-352. [PDF]
EIGUER, A. (1999). Du bon usage du narcissisme. Paris : Éditions Bayard. PINCUS, A.L., CAIN, N.M. & WRIGHT, A.G.C. (2014). Narcissistic grandiosity and narcissistic vulnerability in psychotherapy. Personality Disorders : Theory, Research, & Treatment, 5, 439-443. [PDF]
IMBESI, L. (1999). The making of a narcissist. Clinical Social Work Journal, 27, 41-54 VAN DER LINDEN, S. & ROSENTHAL, S.A. (2016). Measuring narcissism with a single question ? An replication and extension of the Single-Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Personality & Individual Differences, 90, 238-241. [PDF]
   MORF, C.C., SCHÜRCH E., KÜFNER, A., SIEGRIST, P., VATER A., BACK, M., MESTEL R., SCHRÖDER-ABÉ, M. (2017). Expanding the nomological net of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory : German validation and extension in a clinical inpatient sample. Assessment, 24 (4), 419-443.
Voir aussi Valorisation de soi, Machiavelisme, Paranoïa et Soi
LAPLANCHE, J. et PONTALIS, J.B. (1967/1998). Vocabulaire de la psychanalyse. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.  
Narcissisme (Mesure et évaluation du...) : Ensemble des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer le narcissisme. Pathological Narcissism Inventory, narcissistic personality inventory.

    KUBARYCH, T.S., DEARY, I.J. & AUSTIN, E.J. (2004). The Narcissistic Personality Inventory : Factor structure in a non-clinical sample. Personality & Individual Differences, 36, 857-872.
  AMES, R.D., ROSE, P. & ANDERSON, P.C. (2006). The NPI-16 as a short measure of narcissism. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 440-450. [PDF]
  CORRY, N., MERRITT, R.D., MRUG, S. & PAMP, B. (2008). The factor structure of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 90, 593-600.
RASKIN, R. & HALL, C.S. (1979). A narcissistic personality inventory. Psychological Reports, 45, 590. TWENGE, J.M., KONRATH, S., FOSTER, J.D., CAMPBELL, W.K. & BUSHMAN, B.J. (2008). Egos inflating over time : A cross-temporal meta-analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality, 76, 875-901. [PDF]
PINCUS, A.L., ANSELL, E.B., PIMENTAL C.A., CAIN, N.M., WRIGHT, A.G.C. & LEVY, K.N. (2009). Initial construction and validation of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 21, 365-379.
WATSON, P.J. GRISHAM, S.O., TROTTER, M.V. & BIDERMAN, B.D.D. (1984). Narcissism and empathy : Validity evidence for the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 301-305. MILLER, J.D., GAUGHAN, E.T., PRYOR, L.R., KAMEN, C. & CAMPBELL, W.K. (2009). Is research using the Narcissistic Personality Inventory relevant for understanding narcissistic personality disorder ? Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 482-488.
EMMONS, R.A. (1984). Factor analysis and construct validity of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 291-300. ANG, R.P. & RAINE, A. (2009). Reliability, validity and invariance of the Narcissistic Personality Questionnaire for Children-Revised (NPQC-R). Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 31, 143-151.
EMMONS, R.A. (1987). Narcissism : Theory and measurement. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52, 1117. BROWN, R.P. & TAMBORSKI. M. (2011). Of tails and their dogs : A critical view of the measurement of narcissism in social personality research. In W.K. Campbell & J. D. Miller (Eds.), Handbook of narcissism and narcissistic personality disorder (pp. 141-147). New York : Wiley & Sons.
  ACKERMAN, R.A., WITT, E.A., DONNELLAN, M.B., TRZESNIEWSKI, K., ROBINS, R.W. & KASHY, D. (2011). What does the narcissistic personality inventory really measure ? Assessment, 18 (1), 67-87. [PDF]
RASKIN, R. & TERRY, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52 (5), 890-902. [PDF] ACKERMAN, R.A., DONNELLAN, M.B. & ROBINS, R.W. (2012). An item response theory analysis of the narcissistic personality inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 94, 141-155.
  ROCHE, M.J., PINCUS, A.L., LUKOWITSKY, M.R., MÉNARD, K.S. & CONROY, D.E. (2013). An integrative approach to the assessment of narcissism. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95, 237-248.
  WRIGHT, A.G.C., PINCUS, A.L., THOMAS, K.M., HOPWOOD, C.J., MARKON, K.E. & KRUEGER, R.F. (2013). Conceptions of narcissism and the DSM-5 pathological personality traits. Assessment, 20, 339-352. [PDF]
WATSON, P.J. & BIDERMAN, B.D. (1993). Narcissistic Personality Inventory factors, splitting and self-consciousness. Journal of Personality Assessment, 61, 41-57. PINCUS, A.L. (2013). The Pathological Narcissism Inventory. In J. Ogrudniczuk (Ed.), Understanding and treating pathological narcissism (pp. 93-110). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
RHODEWALT, F. & MORF, C.C. (1995). Self and interpersonal correlates of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory : A review and new findings. Journal of Research in Personality, 29, 1-23. WRIGHT, A.G.C., PINCUS, A.L., THOMAS, K.M., HOPWOOD, C.J., MARKON, K.E. & KRUEGER, R.F. (2013). Conceptions of narcissism and the DSM-5 pathological personality traits. Assessment, 20, 339-352. [PDF]
 TSCHANZ, B.B., MORF, C.C. & TURNER, C.M. (1998). Gender differences in the structure of narcissism : A multi-sample analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory. Sex Roles, 38, 863-870. VAN DER LINDEN, S. & ROSENTHAL, S.A. (2016). Measuring narcissism with a single question ? An replication and extension of the Single-Item Narcissism Scale (SINS). Personality & Individual Differences, 90, 238-241. [PDF]
   MORF, C.C., SCHÜRCH E., KÜFNER, A., SIEGRIST, P., VATER A., BACK, M., MESTEL R., SCHRÖDER-ABÉ, M. (2017). Expanding the nomological net of the Pathological Narcissism Inventory : German validation and extension in a clinical inpatient sample. Assessment, 24 (4), 419-443.
Narcissisme primaire : Primary narcissism.

  BALINT, M. (1960). Primary narcissism and primary love. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 29, 6-43.
LAPLANCHE, J. et PONTALIS, J.B. (1967/1998). Vocabulaire de la psychanalyse. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Narcissisme secondaire :

  LAPLANCHE, J. et PONTALIS, J.B. (1967/1998). Vocabulaire de la psychanalyse. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
Narcolepsie : Trouble du sommeil qui se caractérise par des accès incontrôlables de sommeil diurne. N.D.L.R. Attention, la narcolepsie peut frapper à tout mo = maladie de Gélineau. Narcolepsy.

  YOUNG, D. & SCOVILLE, W.B. (1938). Paranoid psychosis in narcolepsy and the possible dangers of benzedrine treatment. Medical Clinics of North America, 22, 637.
YOSS, R.E. & DALY D.D. (1957). Criteria for the diagnosis of the narcoleptic syndrome. Proceedings of the Staff Meetings of the Mayo Clinic, 32, 320-328.
GUILLEMINAULT, C., DEMENT, W.C. & PASSOUANT, P. (Eds.) (1976). Advances in sleep research : Narcolepsy. New York : Spectrum Publications.
GUILLEMINAULT, C. (1985). Narcolepsy. Sleep, 9 (1), 99-101.
 DEMENT, W.C. (1993). The history of narcolepsy and other sleep disorders. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 2 (2), 121-134.
SCAMMELL, T.E. (2003). The neurobiology, diagnosis, and treatment of narcolepsy. Annals of Neurology, 53, 154-166.
ZAHARNA, M., DIMITRIU, A. & GUILLEMINAULT, C. (2010). Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy of narcolepsy. Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy, 11 (10), 1633-1645.
Voir aussi Trouble du sommeil
Narcotique : Du grec narkè qui signifie "torpeur". Famille de drogues naturelles et synthétiques qui soulage la douleur en imitant l'action des endorphines (drogue naturelle produite par le cerveau). En injection, les narcotiques produisent un sentiment d'euphorie soudain, souvent suivi d'une baisse d'anxiété et de motivation. = stupéfiant, opiacé. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Opiate.

Narcotiques
Cocaïne Morphine Méthadone
Opium Héroïne  
 

 
Narval : Animal de la classe des mammifères (marins). Narwhal.

  SMITH, T.G. & SJARE, B. (1990). Predation of belugas and narwhals by polar bears in nearshore areas of the Canadian high arctic. Arctic, 43, 99-102.
BURNIE, D. (Ed.) (2001). Animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi. Voir aussi Animal et Mammifère
Narvaez Darcia (Puerto Rico) : Psychologue américaine d'origine porto-ricaine et spécialiste du développement moral, notamment de la théorie de Kohlberg. Collaboratrice de Rest.
NARVAEZ D. (1993). High achieving students and moral judgment. Journal for the Education of the Gifted, 16 (3), 268- 279.
NARVAEZ D. & BOCK, T. (2002). Moral schemas and tacit judgment or how the Defining Issues Test is supported by cognitive science. Journal of Moral Educational, 31 (3), 297-314.
NARVAEZ D., LAPSLEY, D.K., HAGELE, S. & LASKY, B. (2006). Moral chronicity and social information processing : Tests of a social cognitive approach to the moral personality. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 966-985.
NARVAEZ D. (2008). Triune ethics : The neurobiological roots of our multiplemoralities. New Ideas in Psychology, 26, 95-119.
NARVAEZ, D., GLEASON, T. & MITCHELL, C. (2010). Moral virtue and practical wisdom : Theme comprehension in children, youth and adults. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 171 (4), 1-26.
NARVAEZ D., WANG, L., GLEASON, T., CHENG, A., LEFEVER, J. & DENG, L. (2013). The evolved developmental niche and sociomoral outcomes in Chinese three-year-olds. European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 10 (2), 106-127.
Nash
John Nash Michael R. Nash
 
Nash John (Bluefield États-Unis 1928-2015) : Mathématicien et prix Nobel d'économie en 1994. Il a contribué au développement de la théorie des jeux (Équilibre de Nash).
NASH, J. (1950). Equilibrium points in n-person games. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 36 (1), 48-49.
NASH, J. (1950). The bargaining problem. Econometrica, 18 (2), 155-1162. [PDF]
NASH, J. (1951). Non-cooperative games. The Annals of Mathematics, 54 (2), 286-295.
NASH, J. (1953). Two-person cooperative games. Econometrica, 21 (1), 128-140. [PDF]
 
 
Nash Michael R. ( ) : Psychanalyste américain et spécialiste de l'hypnose et des agressions sexuelles. Collaborateur de Killeen, Lynn et Woody.
NASH, M.R., JOHNSON, L.S. & TIPTON, R.D. (1979). Hypnotic age regression and the occurrence of transitional object relationships. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (5), 547-555. [PDF]
NASH, M.R. (1987). What, if anything, is regressed about hypnotic age regression ? A review of the empirical literature. Psychological Bulletin, 102 (1), 42-52. [PDF]
NASH, M.R. (1997). Why scientific hypnosis needs psychoanalysis (or something like it). International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis, 45, 291-300.
NASH, M.R. & NADON, R. (1997). Hypnosis. In D.L. Faigman, D. Kaye, M.J. Saks and J. Sanders (Eds.), Modern scientific evidence : The law and science of expert testimony. St. Paul, MN : West.
NASH, M.R. (2001). The truth and hype of hypnosis. Scientific American, 285, 46-55.
Näswall Katharina ( ) : Psychologue organisationnelle suédoise. Elle s'intéresse au travail, notamment aux effets psychologiques engendrés par la précarité et la perte de son emploi. Collaborateur de De Cuyper, De Witte et Sverke.
NÄSWALL, K. & DE WITTE, H.H. (2003). Who feels insecure in Europe ? Predicting job insecurity from background variables. Economic & Industrial Democracy, 24 (2), 189-215.
NÄSWALL, K., SVERKE, M. & HELLGREN, J. (2005). The moderating effects of work-based and family-based support on the relation between job insecurity and subsequent strain. South African Journal of Industrial Relations, 31, 57-64.
NÄSWALL, K., SVERKE, M. & HELLGREN, J. (2005). The moderating role of personality characteristics on the relation between job insecurity and strain. Work & Stress, 19, 37-49.
NÄSWALL, K., LINDFORS, P. & SVERKE, M. (2012). Job insecurity as a predictor of physiological indicators of health in healthy working women: An extension of previous research. Stress & Health, 28 (3), 255-263.
NÄSWALL, K., SVERKE, M. & GÖRANSSON, S. (2014). Is work affecting my health ? Appraisals of how work affects health as a mediator in the relationship between working conditions and work-related attitudes. Work & Stress, 28 (4), 342-361.
Nathan Peter E. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'évaluation des thérapies et la mesure de leur efficacité. Collaborateur de Gorman, O'leary et Wilson.
NATHAN, P.E. (1994). DSM-IV : Empirical, accessible, not yet ideal. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 103-110.
NATHAN, P.E. (1996). Validated forms of psychotherapy may lead to better-validated psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology : Science & Practice, 3, 251-255.
NATHAN, P.E., GORMAN, J.M. & SALKIND, N.J. (1999). Treating mental disorders : A guide to what works. New York & London : Oxford University Press.
NATHAN, P.E., STUART, S.P. & DOLAN, S.L. (2000). Research on psychotherapy efficacy and effectiveness : Between Scylla & Charybdis ? Psychological Bulletin, 126, 964-981. [PDF]
NATHAN, P. (2004). The evidence base for evidence-based mental health treatments : Four continuing controversies. Brief Treatment & Crisis Intervention, 4 (3), 243-254. [PDF]
Nation : Groupe, généralement assez vaste, occupant un territoire, dont les membres (X) partagent un ensemble de caractéristiques (linguistiques, culturelles, historiques, religieuses, sociales, économiques, morphologique, etc.). La stabilité et la perrenité de ce groupe reposent sur la reconnaissance individuelle (Je suis un X) et la familiarité (Nous sommes des X) et le projet collectif que ces individus nourissent que leur groupe soit reconnu par les autres (Les Y admettent que nous sommes des X). Le projet collectif des nations varie : il peut s'agir de former un pays, de se joindre à un plus vaste ensemble (union, fédération, confédération, etc), ou simplement de défendre son existence et ses intérêts au sein du «concert des nations», dixit Landry. Pour certains auteurs, la distinction entre «peuple» et «nation» réside dans le fait que le second a une reconnaissance formelle des autres pays (Les Y admettent que nous sommes des X), ce qui nécessite généralement que cette nation (Tous les X) soit représentée par un état (des X élus) doté de pouvoirs formels (judiciaire, exécutif, législatif, militaire). EX : Le Québec, la Catalogne, l'Écosse. D'autres auteurs considèrent que ce qui distingue la nation du peuple, c'est qu'un peuple peut exister sans territoire et sans état. EX : Le peuple juif avant la création d'Israël. = société distincte. Nation, patriotisme et nationalisme. Nation.
  SEYMOUR, N. (1999). La nation en question. Montréal : L'Hexagone.
 REICHER S.D. & HOPKINS, N. (2001). Self and nation : Categorization, contestation and mobilisation. London : Sage.
ALTER, A.L. & OPPENHEIMER, D.M. (2009). Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 3, 219-235. [PDF]
Voir aussi Référendum, Pays, Nationalisme, État, Peuple, Patriotisme et Québec
 
National Academy of Sciences :
  NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES (2002). The polygraph and lie detection. Washington, DC : National Academy Press.
National Center for Biotechnology Information : Site de dépôt d'articles scientifiques. NCBI.
   
National Institute of Health (NIH) : Il s'agit du plus important organisme public de santé aux États-Unis.
  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH (1978). Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Washington, D.C. : National Institute of Health.
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) : Il s'agit du plus important organisme public de santé mentale aux États-Unis.
  NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MENTAL HEALTH (1982). Television and behavior : Ten years of scientific progress and implications for the eighties. Washington, DC : U.S. Government Printing Office.
NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH (1991). National Institutes of Health Consensus Development Conference Statement. In Treatment of destructive behaviors in persons with developmental disabilities. Washington, DC : U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
SHEA, M.T., ELKIN, I., IMBER, S.D., SOTSKY, S.M., WATKINS, J.T., COLLINS, J.E., PILKONIS, P.A., BECKHAM, E., GLASS, D.R., DOLAN, R.T. & PARLOFF, M.B. (1992). Course of depressive symptoms over follow-up : Findings from the National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 782-787.
ELKIN, I., FALCONNIER, L., MARTIOVITCH, Z. & MAHONEY, C. (2006). Therapist effects in the National Institute of Mental Health treatment of depression collaborative research program. Psychotherapy Research, 16, 144-160.
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) : Organisme américain de recherche sur les drogues.
 
National Reading Panel (NRP) : National Reading Panel.
   NATIONAL READING PANEL (2000). Teaching children to read : An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Rockville, MD : National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. [PDF]
EHRI, L.C., NUNES, S.R., STAHL, S.A. & WILLOWS, D.M. (2001). Systematic phonics instruction helps students learn to read : evidence from the national reading panel’s meta-analysis. Review of Educational Research, 71 (3), 393-447. [PDF]
EHRI, L.C., NUNES, S.R., WILLOWS, D., SCHUSTER, B., YAGHOUD-ZADEH, Z. & SHANAHAN, T. (2001). Phonemic awareness instruction helps children learn to read : Evidence from the National Reading Panel’s meta-analysis. Reading Research Quarterly, 36, 250-287.
Voir aussi Lire/Lecture
Nationalisme : Idéologie qui consiste, pour un individu, à prendre conscience de son appartenance à un groupe x (pays, nation, union de pays, etc.) et à défendre les intérêts de ce groupe en son nom, au sein d'un mouvement social ou d'un parti politique. Le nationalisme se fonde ou bien sur 1) les préférences individuelles (je préfère mon X à ce Y); 2) sur la comparaison sociale (mon X est supérieur à ce Y); 3) ou bien sur le rejet des autres (j'aime mon x mais je déteste ce Y); 4) parfois sur un mélange des ces trois formes. Nationalisme, nation et identité. Nationalism.

  KLINEBERG, O. & ZAVALLONI, M. (1969). Nationalism and tribalism among African students : a study of social identity. Paris : Mouton. BRUBAKER, R. (1992). Myths and misconceptions in the study of nationalism. In J. Hall (Ed.), The state of the nation : Ernest Gellner and the theory of nationalism. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
 KATZ, D., KELMAN, H.C. & VASSILIOU, D. (1970). A comparative approach to the study of nationalism. Peace Research Society (International) Papers, 14, 1-13. BALTHAZAR, L. (1992). L'évolution du nationalisme québécois. Dans Gérard Daigle et Guy Rocher. (Dirs.), Le Québec en jeu (pp. 647-667). Montréal : Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal. [PDF]
DION, L. (1975). Nationalismes et politique au Québec. Montréal : Les Éditions Hurbubise HMH. [PDF] CITRIN, J., HAAS, E.B., MUSTE, C. & REINGOLD, B. (1994). Is American nationalism changing ? Implications for foreign policy. International Studies Quarterly, 38, 1-31.
BALTHAZAR, L. (1977). Le nationalisme au Québec. Études internationales, 266-281. MONIÈRE, D. (2001). Pour comrendre le nationalisme au Québec et ailleurs. Montréal : Presse de l'Université de Montréal.
BERLIN, I. (1979). Nationalism : Past Neglect and Present Power. Partsian Review, 46 (3), WIMMER, A. (2002). Nationalist exclusion and ethnic conflict : Shadows of modernity. Cambridge University Press.
BALTHAZAR, L. (1980). La dynamique du nationalisme québécois. Dans R. Pelletier et G. Bergeron (Dirs.), L'État du Québec en devenir (p. 37-58). Montréal : Boréal Express. [PDF]  
GUIMOND, S. & DUBE-SIMARD, L. (1983). Relative deprivation theory and the Quebec Nationalist Movement. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 44, 526- 535. WIMMER, A. & GLICK-SCHILLER, N. (2003). Methodological nationalism, the social sciences, and the study of migration : An essay in historical epistemology. International Migration Review, 37 (3), 576-610. [PDF]
BALTHAZAR, L. (1986). Bilan du nationalisme au Québec. Montréal : Éditions de L’Hexagone. [PDF] SKITKA, L.J. (2005). Patriotism or nationalism ? Understanding post- September 11, 2001, flag-display behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1995-2011. [PDF]
BALTHAZAR, L. (1987). Quebec nationalism after twenty-five years. Quebec Studies, 5, 29-38.  
KOSTERMAN, R. & FESHBACH, S. (1989). Toward a measure of patriotic and nationalistic attitudes. Political Psychology, 10, 257-274. COURTOIS, S. (2007). La politique du multiculturalisme est-elle compatible avec le nationalisme québécois ? Globe. Revue Internationale d'Études Québécoises, 10 (1), 53-72. [PDF]
BREUILLY, J. (1993). Nationalism and the state. Manchester : Manchester University Press. ALTER, A.L. & OPPENHEIMER, D.M. (2009). Uniting the tribes of fluency to form a metacognitive nation. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 3, 219-235. [PDF]
BILLIG, M. (1995). Banal nationalism. London : Sage. CARTER, T.J. & FERGUSON, M.J. (2011). Implicit natioanalism as system justification : The case of the United States of America. Social Cognition, 29 (3), 341-359. [PDF]
KELMAN, H.C. (1997). Nationalism, patriotism, and national identity : Social-psychological dimensions. In D. Bar-Tal & E. Staub (Eds.), Patriotism in the life of individuals and nations (pp. 165-189). Chicago : Nelson-Hall. [PDF] CARTER, T.J., FERGUSON, M.J. & HASSIN, R.R. (2011). Supporting the American system: The relationship between implicit American nationalism and system justification. Social Cognition, 29, 341-359.
Voir aussi Patriotisme et Drapeau
Nativisme : Ce concept a deux acceptions bien distinctes : a) Au sens philosophique du terme, le nativisme désigne les théories qui attribuent à l'esprit un rôle prépondérant dans l'acquisition de la connaissance, par opposition à l'expérience et aux sens. Pour les tenants de cette thèse, la connaissance est prédéterminée c-à-d que le cerveau est programmé pour agir ou pour parler, et il le fera s'il reçoit une stimulation suffisante de la part des congénères. = rationalisme. /empirisme. b) En science, le nativisme est une doctrine qui accorde à l'hérédité un rôle fondamental dans la détermination des comportements, du langage, de l'intelligence, etc. EX: La théorie de Chomsky sur le développement du langage est une théorie nativiste. /environnementalisme, behaviorisme. = innéisme. Nativism.
  a
SPELKE, E.S. & NEWPORT, E. (1998). Nativism, empiricism, and the development of knowledge. In W. Damon and R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology : Theoretical models of human development. (Vol. 1, pp. 275-340). New York : Wiley.
NEWCOMBE, N.S. (2002). The nativist-empiricist controversy in the context of recent research on spatial and quantitative development. Psychological Science, 13, 395-401. [PDF]
Voir aussi Empirisme
b
KUHL, P.K. & MELTZOFF, A.N. (1997). Evolution, nativism, and learning in the development of language and speech. In M. Gopnik (Ed.), The inheritance and innateness of grammars (pp. 7-44). New York : Oxford University Press.
GREEN, C.D. & VERVAEKE, J. (1997). But what have you done for us lately ? : Some recent perspectives on linguistic nativism. In D. Johnson & C. Erneling (Eds.), The future of the cognitive revolution. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
PALMER, D.C. (2000). Chomsky's nativism : A critical review. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 39-50. [PDF]
Voir aussi Hérédité
Natsoulas Thomas ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de la conscience.
NATSOULAS, M. (1970). Concerning introspective "knowledge". Psychological Bulletin, 73 (2), 89-111.
NATSOULAS, M. (1978). Toward a model for consciousness in the light of B.F. Skinner's contribution. Behaviorism, 6 (2), 139-175. [PDF]
NATSOULAS, M. (1981). Basic problems of consciousness. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 41 (1), 132-178.
NATSOULAS, M. (1997). Blindsight and consciousness. American Journal of Psychology, 110 (1), 1-33.
NATSOULAS, M. (1998). Tertiary consciousness. Journal of Mind & Behavior, 19 (2), 141-176.
Naturalisme : Toute personne qui étudie ou s'intéresse à comprendre la nature, sans faire intervenir dieu ou le divin dans ses explications. Les naturalistes sont souvent des scientifiques, mais pas nécessairement... Bates, Bonnet, Buffon, Darwin, Geoffroy, Humbolt, Linné, Romanes, Treviranus, Vicq d'azir, Wallace. Naturalist.

  WHITMAN C.O. (1891). The naturalist's occupation. Boston : Ginn et Co.
TINBERGEN, N. (1958). Curious naturalists. London : Country life.
CRAVENS, H. & BURNHAM, J.C. (1971). Psychology and evolutionary naturalism in American thought, 1890-1940. American Quarterly, 23, 635-657.
GODFREY-SMITH, P. (2002). Dewey on naturalism, realism and science. Philosophy of Science 69 (S), 1S11 [PDF]
Naturaliste Canadien : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire. Éditeur : Société Provancher.
COTNOIR, P.A., BEAUGRAND, J.P. & GOULET, C. (1986). Des différences liées au sexe dans les stratégies de répartition spatiale chez des poissons Porte-épée (Xiphophorus helleri) maintenus en captivité. Naturaliste Canadien (Rev. Écol. Syst.), 113, 257-262.

Nature/naturel/Naturellement : Ensemble des objets (et leur propriétés) qui constituent le monde, et qui n'ont pas été créés par l'humain. (EX: Une montagne, un soleil, un poumon, les ailes d'un oiseau, un cerveau). On peut reproduire la nature en laboratoire pour mieux la comprendre. /culture, artificiel. Nature.

  HUXLEY, T.H. (1863). Evidence as to man's place in nature. New York : Appleton & co. SOSA, E. (1983). Nature unmirrored, epistemology naturalized. Epistemology of Synthes, 55, 49-72.
SHERRINGTON, C.S. (1940). Man on his nature. Cambridge : The Gifford lectures. CHANGEUX, J.P. et RICOEUR, P. (1998). Ce qui nous fait penser - La nature et la règle. Paris : Odile Jacob.
MÜLLER, H. (1973). Modern concept of nature. SUNY Press. HUGHES, C. & CUTTING, A. (1999). Nature, nurture and individual differences in early understanding of mind. Psychological Science, 10, 429-432.
DRETSKE, F. (1977). Laws of nature. Philosophy of Science, 44, 248-268. NADDAF, G. (2005). The Greek concept of nature. New York : New York Press.
Voir aussi Variation naturelle et Objet naturel
Nature (Revue scientifique) : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire, qui publie notamment des recherches en psychologie.
EPSTEIN, R., KIRSHNIT, C.E., LANZA, R.P. & RUBIN, L.C. (1984)."Insight" in the pigeon : Antecedents and determinants of an intelligent performance. Nature, 308, 61-62.

Naturel/Nature (Sur-) : Tout objet ou phénomène qui possède des propriétés que l'on observe pas dans la nature physique ou biologique. (EX: la télépathie).

  Voir aussi Phénomène paranormal
Nature humaine : Ce qui caractérise l'espèce humaine (EX: la station verticale, le langage, la conscience, le rire, les calembours faciles, etc). Le concept a aussi un sens plus étroit lorsqu'il renvoie à ce qui nous distingue des autres espèces, notamment des grands singes (EX: la parole mais pas le langage, la penée abstraite mais pas la conscience, etc). Finalement, on utilise souvent cette expression comme synonyme d'inné pour désigner tout ce qui serait produit par les gènes, sans influence de la culture (EX: égoïsme, agressivité, certains cancers, etc). Human nature.

  COOLEY, C.H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York : Scribner's. MASLOW, A.H. (1976). The farther reaches of human nature. New York: Penguin.
FARIS, E. (1914). The nature of human nature. Publications of the American Sociological Society, 20, 15-29. [LIRE] FEIBLEMAN, J.K. (1977). Understanding human nature: a popular guide to the effects of technology on man and his behavior. New York : Horizon Press.
DEWEY, J. (1922/57). Human nature and conduct : An introduction to social psychology. New York : The Modern Library. WILSON, E.O. (1978). On human nature. Cambridge MA : Harvard University Press.
STEVENSON, L. (1974). Seven theories of human nature. New York : Oxford University Press. HARZEM, P. (2007). A brief history of knowledge : Science and non-science in the understanding of human nature. In E. Ribes-Inesta & J.E. Burgos (Eds.), Knowledge, cognition, and behavior: Proceedings of the 9th Biannual Symposium on the Science of Behavior (pp. 11-30). Guadalajara, Mexico : Universidad de Guadalajara.
Voir aussi Humain
Nature Neuroscience : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages aux neurosciences. Éditeur : Nature Publishing Group.=Nat Neurosci.
EVERITT, B.J. & ROBBINS, T.W. (2005.) Neural systems of reinforcement for drug addiction : from actions to habits to compulsion. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1481-1489.

Nature Review Genetics : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la génétique et de son influence, notamment sur le plan psychologique. Éditeur : Nature Publishing Group.
ORR, H. (2005). The genetic theory of adaptation : a brief history. Nature Review Genetics, 6 (2), 119-127.

Nature Review Neuroscience : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude du cerveau. Éditeur : Nature Publishing Group. = Nat Rev Neurosci.
FISHER, S.E. & DeFRIES, J.C. (2002). Developmental dyslexia : genetic dissection of a complex cognitive trait. Nature Review Neuroscience, 3, 767-780.

Nature Reviews Drug Discovery : Revue scientifique.
DIETRICH, M.O. & HORVATH, T.L. (2012). Limitations in anti-obesity drug development : the critical role of hunger-promoting neurons. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 11, 675-691. [PDF]

Naturopathie : Pseudotechnologie médicale. Naturopathy.

  BEYERSTEIN, B.L. & DOWNIE, S. (1998). Naturopathy. The Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 1 (2), 10-18.
BEYERSTEIN, B.L. & DOWNIE, S. (2000). Naturopathy. In W. Sampson & L. Vaughn (Eds.), Science meets alternative medicine (pp. 141-163). Amherst, N.Y. : Prometheus Books.
DE SMET, P.A. (2002). Herbal Remedies. New England Journal of Medicine, 347, 2046-2056.
Naturwissenschaften : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude animaux. Éditeur : Nature Publishing Group. = Nat Rev Neurosci.
FERSEN, L., WYNNE, C.D.L., DELIUS, J.D. & STADDON, J.E.R. (1990). Deductive reasoning in pigeons. Naturwissenschaften, 77, 548-549.

Nausée : Malaise provoqué par de nombreux facteurs, notamment par conditionnement aversif. = Haut-le-coeur. Nausea.

  REDD, W.H., JACOBSEN, P.B., DIE-THRILL, M. & DERMATIS, H. (1987). Cognitive/attentional distraction in the control of conditioned nausea in pediatric cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 391-395.
MUTH, E.R., STERN, R.M., THAYER, J.F. & KOCH, K.L. (1996). Assessment of the multiple dimensions of nausea : the nausea profile (NP). Journal Psychosomatic Reserch, 40, 511-520.
BOVBJERG, D.H., REDD, W.H., JACOBSON, P.B., MANNE, S.L., TAYLOR, K.L., SURBORNEW, A., CROWN, J.P., NORTON, L., GILEWSKI, T.A., HUDIS, C.A., REICHMAN, B.S., KAUFMAN, R.J., CURRIE, V.E. & HAKES, T.B. (1992). An experimental analysis of classically conditioned nausea during cancer chemotherapy. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 623-637.
BRANDON, S. & OVERMIER, J.B. (Eds.) (2006). Nausea and vomiting : An interdisciplinary approach. Autonomic Neuroscience, 129 (1-2), 1-118.
GRUNDY, D. (2006). Nausea and vomiting : An interdisciplinary approach. Autonomic Neuroscience, 129 (1-2), 1-118.
Navarette Carlos D. ( ) : Anthropologue américain. Collaborateur de Cesario, Fessler, Higgins et Sidanius.
NAVARRETE, C.D. & FESSLER, D.M.T. (2005). Normative bias and adaptive challenges: A relational approach to coalitional psychology and a critique of terror management theory. Evolutionary Psychology, 3, 297-325.
NAVARRETE, C.D. & FESSLER, D.M.T. (2006). Disease avoidance and ethnocentrism : The effects of disease vulnerability and dis- gust sensitivity on intergroup attitudes. Evolution & Human Behavior, 27, 270-282. [PDF]
NAVARRETE, C.D., FESSLER, D.M.T. & ENG, S.J. (2007). Elevated ethnocentrism in the first trimester of pregnancy. Evolution & Human Behavior, 28, 60-65. [PDF]
NAVARRETE, C.D., FESSLER, D.M.T., FLEISHMAN, D.S. & GEYER, J. (2009). Race bias tracks conception risk across the menstrual cycle. Psychological Science, 20 (6), 661-665.
NAVARRETE, C.D., McDONALD, M.M., MOLINA, L.E. & SIDANIUS, J. (2010). Prejudice at the nexus of race and gender : An out-group male target hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 98, 933-945. [PDF]
Naveh-Benjamin Moshe ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire, de l'encodage, de l'attention partagée, et des effets du vieillissement sur ces phénomènes. Collaborateur de Cowan, Craik, Jonides et Roediger.
NAVEH-BENJAMIN, M. & JONIDES, J. (1984). Cognitive load and maintenance rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 23 (4), 494-507.
NAVEH-BENJAMIN, M. & JONIDES, J. (1985). The effects of rehearsal on frequency coding. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23 (4), 387-390.
NAVEH-BENJAMIN, M., CRAIK, F.I., GAVRILESCU, D. & ANDERSON, D. (2000). Asymmetry between encoding and retrieval processes : evidence from divided attention and a calibration analysis. Memory & Cognition, 28 (6), 965-996. [PDF]
NAVEH-BENJAMIN, M. COWAN, N., KILB, A. & CHEN, Z. (2007). Age-related differences in immediate serial recall : Dissociating chunk formation and capacity. Memory & Cognition, 35 (4), 724-737. [PDF]
OLD, S. & NAVEH-BENJAMIN, M. (2008). Differential effects of age on item and associative measures of memory : A meta-analysis. Psychology & Aging, 23, 104-118.
Navette d'évitement/Échappement : Dispositif expérimental semblable à une boîte de Skinner, divisé en deux sections (d'où le mot navette); dans la première section, l'animal peut recevoir une décharge électrique, alors que dans la seconde il peut s'y réfugier afin d'éviter cette décharge, de s'en échapper ou de recevoir un renforcement positif. Ce dispositif permet à un rat, à un pigeon ou même à un poisson d'apprendre à éviter ou à échapper à un stimulus aversif. Navette d'évitement et conditionnement aversif. ( ):navette aquatique, navette-double. Shuttle box.
 
RIESS, D. & FARRAR, C.H. (1972). Unsignalled avoidance in a shuttlebox : A rapid acquisition, high efficiency paradigm. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 18 (1), 169-178. [PDF] GRALEWICZ, S. (1976). Electrical stimulation of the hippocampus and acquisition of the conditioned avoidance response in shuttle-box in cats. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis, 36 (6), 639-654.
GALLON, R.L. (1972). Effects of shock intensity on shuttlebox avoidance conditioning in goldfish : Psychological Reports, 31 (3), 855-858. HINELINE, P. & ALLOY, L.B. (1978). Warm-up effects in free-operant avoidance in a shuttle box. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 12, 447-450.
  MINEKA, S. (1978). The effects of overtraining on flooding of jump-up and shuttlebox avoidance responses. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 16 (5), 335-344.
GALLON, R.L. (1972). Effects of pretraining with fear and escape conditioning on shuttlebox avoidance acquisition by goldfish. Psychological Reports, 31 (3), 919-924. SANAVIO, E. & SAVARDI, U. (1979). Observational learning of a discriminative shuttlebox avoidance by rats : Psychological Reports, 44 (3), 1151-1154.
  ANDERSON, D.C., CROWELL, C., CUNNINGHAM, C. & LUPO, V. (1979). Behavior during shock exposure as a determinant of subsequent interference with shuttle box escape-avoidance learning in the rat. Journal of Experi mental Psychology, Animal Behavior Processes, 1979, 5, 243-257.
CAUL W.F. & BARRETT, R.J. (1973). Shuttle-box versus -maze avoidance : Value of multiple response measures in interpreting active-avoidance performance of rats. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 84 (3), 572-578. COTTON, M.M. & WOOD, W.P. (1982). Rapidly developed scalar timing in unsignalled shuttlebox avoidance learning. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology B : Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 34 (4), 209-219.
ETSCORN, F. (1974). A home tank aquatic shuttlebox. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 6 (1), 77. RUSH, D.K. (1982). A two-way shuttlebox for testing nonhuman primates. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 14 (1), 16-18.
FUREDY, J.J. & BIEDERMAN, G.B. (1976). Preference for signaled shock phenomenon : Direct and indirect evidence for modifiability factors in the shuttlebox. Animal Learning & Behavior, 4 (1), 1-5. BOZARTH, M.A. (1983). A computer approach to measuring shuttle box activity and conditioned place preference. Brain Research Bulletin, 11, (6), 751-753.
BLATT, R.C. (1976). Facilitation and nonfacilitation of active avoidance behavior of rats with septal lesions in the shuttle box and running whee. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 90 (7), 704-713. CLARK, M.G., VASILEVSKY, S. & MYERS, T.M. (2003). Air and shock two-way shuttlebox avoidance in mice. Physiology & Behavior, 78 (1), 117-123.
Voir aussi Dispositif expérimental et Évitement
 
Naville Pierre (1904-1993) : Historien, sociologue béhavioriste et marxiste français.

NAVILLE, P. (1942/63). La psychologie science du comportement : le behaviorisme de Watson. Paris : Gallimard.
NAVILLE, P. (1946). Psychologie, marxisme, matérialisme. Paris : Librairie. Marcel Rivière.
 
 
Nazisme : Nazisme, Hitler et idéologie. Nazism.

  DOOB, L.W. (1950). Goebbels' principles of propaganda. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 14 (3), 419-423. [PDF]
HENLE, M. (1978). One man against the Nazis : Wolfgang Köhler. American Psychologist, 33, 939-944.
ZILLMER, E.A., HARROWER, M., RITZLER, B.A. & ARCHER, R.P. (1995). The quest for the Nazi personality. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
VERSTEGEN, I. (2006). Art history, gestalt and nazism. Gestalt Theory, 26 (1), 134-150.
Voir aussi Point Goodwin
NÉCESSITÉ - NEEF - NÉGOCIATION - NEISSER - NEO - NÉPOSTIME - NEUGARTEN - NEUMANN - NEURATH - NEURINGER - NEURO
Néanderthal : Voir Homo neanderthalensis.
Néant : Vide ou absence de matière, d'énergie, d'idée, de toute chose. Néant et zéro absolu. N.D.L.R. «le grand Néant et ses zéros absolus» ferait un bon nom de groupe rock-nihiliste...

   
Near/Neary
Janet P Near D, Neary
 
Near Janet P. ( ) : Spécialiste américaine de la gestion. Elle s'inéresse notamment aux lanceurs d'alerte. Collaboratrice de Miceli.
NEAR, J.P. & MICELI, M.P. (1985). Organizational dissidence : The case of whistle-blowing. Journal of Business Ethics, 4 (1), 1-16
NEAR, J.P., DWORKIN, T.M. & & MICELI, M.P. (1993). Explaining the whistle-blowing process: Suggestions from power theory and Jjustice theory. Organization Science, 4 (3), 345-512.
NEAR, J.P. & MICELI, M.P. (1995). Effective Whistle-Blowin. The Academy of Management Review, 20 (3), 679-708. [PDF]
NEAR, J.P. & MICELI, M.P. (1996). Whistle-blowing : Myth and reality. Journal of Management, 22, (3), 507-526.
NEAR, J.P. & MICELI, M.P. (2016). After the wrongdoing: What managers should know about whistleblowing. Business Horizons, 59, 105-114. [PDF]
Neary D. ( ) : : Neuropsychologue anglaise et spécialiste de l'étude de la démence. Collaborateur Mann et Snowden.
NEARY, D., SNOWDEN, J.S. & BOWEN, D.M. (1986). Neuropsychological syndromes in presenile dementia due to cerebralatrophy. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 49, 163-174.
NEARY, D., SNOWDEN, J.S., NORTHEN, B. & GOULDING, P. (1988). Dementia of frontal lobe type. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 51, 353-361. [PDF]
NEARY, D., SNOWDEN, J.S.,, MANN. D.M.A. (1990). Frontal lobe dementia and motor neuron disease. Neurology, Neurosurgery, & Psychiatry, 53, 23-32.
NEARY, D., SNOWDEN, J.S., GUSTAFSON L., PASSANT, U., STUSS, D., BLACK, S., FREEDMAN, M., KERTESZ, A., ROBERT, P.H., ALBERT, M., BOONE, K., MILLER, B.L., CUMMINGS, J. & BENSON, D.F. (1998). Frontotemporal lobar degeneration : a consensus on clinical diagnostic criteria. Neurology, 51, 1546-1554.
NEARY, D., SNOWDEN, J.S. & MANN, D. (2005). Frontotemporal dementia. Lancet Neuroogy, 4 (11), 717-780.
Nécessité : En logique, caractère d'un objet ou d'une propriété d'un objet qui existe ou influence un autre objet (cause) si les conditions x sont réunies. EX: Il est nécessaire qu'un carré ait quatre angles droits (a) et quatre cotés égaux (b) pour être un carré (c), donc Si a et b donc c. En méthodologie, phénomème qui doit être présent pour qu'un autre phénomène survienne. = condition obligatoire. Necessity.

  CARNAP, R. (1947). Meaning and necessity. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. KRIPKE, S. (1980). Naming and necessity. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
QUINE, W.V. (1970). Notes on existence and necessity. In L. Linsky (Ed.), Semantic and the philosophy of language. Urbana and Chicago : University of Illinois Press. PIAGET, J. (1981). Le possible et le nécessaire : L'évolution des possibles chez l'enfant. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
MONOD, J. (1970). Le hasard et la nécessité. Paris : Seuil. PIAGET, J. (1986). Essay on necessity. Human Development, 29, 301-314.
HACKING, I. (1978). On identity, necessity and physicalism. In S. Korner (Ed.), Philosophy of logic (pp. 147-58). Oxford and California.  
PIAGET, J. (1976). Le possible, l'impossible et le nécessaire. Archives de Psychologie, 44, (172), 281-299. EVANS, J., HANDLEY, S.J., HARPER, C.N.J. & JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. (1999). Reasoning about necessity and possibility : A test of the mental model theory of deduction. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 25, 1495-1513. [PDF]
PIAGET, J. (1977). Essai sur la nécessité. Archives de Psychologie, 45 (175), 235-251. CARROLL, S.B. (2001). Chance and necessity : the evolution of morphological complexity and diversity. Nature, 409 (6823), 1102-1109.
  Voir aussi Condition nécessaire
Nécrophilie : Paraphilie qui consiste à chercher une excitation sexuelle en pensant (fantaisies et fantasmes répétés et intenses) en voyant ou en manipulant un cadavre lors de l'acte sexuel. Necrophilia.
  BRILL, A.A. (1941). Necrophilia. Journal of Criminal Psychopathology, 2 (4), 433-443.
KLAF, F.S. & BROWN, W. (1958). Necrophilia : Brief review and case report. The Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 29 (143), 645-652.
ROSMAN, J.P. & RESNICK, P.J. (1989). Sexual attraction to corpses : a psychiatric review of necrophilia. Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 17, 153-163.
Needlman Robert ( ) : Pédiatre américain et spécialiste de la promotion de la lecture.

NEEDLMAN, R., FRIED, L.E., MORLEY, D.S., TAYLOR, S. & ZUCKERMAN, B. (1991). Clinic-based intervention to promote literacy. A pilot study. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 145, 881-884. [PDF]
NEEDLMAN, R., KLASS, P. & ZUCKERMAN, B. (1992). Fight illiteracy : Prescribe a book ! Contemporary Pediatrics, 9 (2), 41
NEEDLMAN, R., KLASS, P. & ZUCKERMAN, B. (2002). Reach out and get your patients to read. Contemprory Pediatrics, 19 (1), 51-69. [PDF]
NEEDLMAN, R. & SILVERSTEIN, M. (2004). Pediatric interventions to support reading aloud : how good is the evidence ? Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 25 (5), 352-363.
NEEDLMAN, R., TOKER, K.H., DREYER, B.P., KLASS, P. & MENDELSOHN, A.L. (2005). Effectiveness of a primary care intervention to support reading aloud : a multicenter evaluation. Ambululatory Pediatrics, 5 (4), 209-215. [PDF]
Neef/Neff
Nancy A. Neef Kristin D. Neff
 
Neef Nancy A. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine et spécialiste de l'étude du trouble de l'hyperactivité avec déficit d'attention,de l'impulsivité et de la loi de l'appariement. Collaboratrice de Cataldo, Iwata, Lattal, Lerman, Mace, Saville et Vollmer.
NEEF, N.A., IWATA, B.A. & PAGE, T.J. (1978). Public transportation training : In vivo versus classroom instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11 (3), 331-344. [PDF]
NEEF, N.A., SHAFER, M.S., EGEL, A.L, CATALDO, M.F. & PARRISH, J.M. (1983). The class specific effects of compliance training with "do" and "don't" requests : analogue analysis and classroom application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16 (1), 81-99. [PDF]
NEEF, N.A., MACE, F.C. & SHADE, D. (1993). Impulsivity in students with serious emotional disturbance : The interactive effects of reinforcer rate, delay, and quality. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26 (1), 37-52. [PDF]
NEEF, N.A. (1992). Effects of reinforcer rate and reinforcer quality on time allocation : Extensions of matching theory to educational settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 25 (3), 691-699. [PDF]
NEEF, N.A., MARCKEL, J., FERRERI, S.J., BICARD, D.F., ENDO, S., AMAN, M.G., MILLER, K.M., JUNG, S., NIST, L. & ARMSTRONG, N. (2005). Behavioral assessment of impulsivity : A comparison of children with and without attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 (1), 23-37. [PDF]
Neff Kristin D. ( ) : Psychosociologue américaine. Elle étudie la compassion de soi.
NEFF, K.D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self & Identity, 2, 223-250. [PDF]
NEFF, K.D., HSEIH, Y. & DEJTTHIRAT, K. (2005). Self-compassion, achievement goals, and coping with academic failure. Self & Identity, 4, 263-287. [PDF]
NEFF, K.D., RUDE, S.S. & KIRKPATRICK, K. (2007). An examination of self-compassion in relation to positive psychological functioning and personality traits. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 908-916. [PDF]
NEFF, K.D. & VONK, R. (2009). Self-compassion versus global self-esteem : Two different ways of relating to oneself. Journal of Personality, 77, 23-50. [PDF]
NEFF, K.D. (2009). The role of self-compassion in development : A healthier way to relate to oneself. Human Development, 52, 211-214. [PDF]
Négatif : Qualifie tout phénomène qui croît ou que l'individu perçoit comme désagréable. Dans le conditionnement opérant, désigne l'opération qui consiste à soustraire un stimulus comme conséquence à un comportement afin de faire augmenter ou diminuer la fréquence/probilité de ce comportement. On utilise également ce mot pour qualifier les émotions, les affects, une boucle de rétroaction. /positif. Negative.

Négatif -
Affect négatif Humeur négative Renforcemen négative
Émotion négatif Punition négative Boucle de rétroaction négative
 
Négation : Voir Dénégation.
Négativisme : Opposition irrationelle à toute proposition, qui se traduit dans certain cas par un refus d'établir un contact visuel et un mutisme partiel ou total, ainsi que par un évitement systématique des individus de l'entourage qui tentent d'infléchir cette attitude ou de modifier les comportements qui en découlent.

 
Négligence : Absence ou quantité insuffisante de soins prodigués à un enfant, un handicapé ou une personne âgée. Négligence et maltraitance. Neglect.

  HIGGINS, D.J. & McCABE, M.P. (2001). Multiple forms of child abuse and neglect : Adult retrospective reports. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 6 (6), 547-578.
KNUTSON, J.F., DEGARMO, D., KOEPPL, G. & REID, J.B. (2005) Care Neglect, supervisory neglect and harsh parenting in the development of children's aggression : A replication and extension. Child Maltreatment, 10, 92-107.
Voir aussi Maltraitance
Négociation/Négocier/Négociateur : Discussion entre deux individus/groupes ou plus autour d'un problème dans le but de trouver une solution, une entente, une façon de faire satisfaisante pour toutes les parties. Les parties d'une négociation use d'argument (logique), d'humour, d'intimitation et de menace pour conclure une entente. = stratégie de négociation, trouver un accord, un terrrain d'entente. Negotiation, bargaining.
  NASH, J. (1950). The bargaining problem. Econometrica, 18 (2), 155-1162. [PDF] BOLTON, G.E. & ZWICK, R. (1995). Anonymity versus punishment in ultimatum bargaining. Games & Economic Behavior, 10, 95-121. [PDF]
SIEGEL, S. & FOURAKER, L.B. (1960). Bargaining and group decision making. New York : McGraw Hill. RAPOPORT, A., EREV, I. & ZWICK, R. (1995). Bargaining behavior in bilateral monopoly with one-sided incomplete information. Management Science, 41 (3), 377-394. [PDF]
DEUTSCH, M. & KRAUSS, R.M. (1962). Studies of interpersonal bargaining. The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 6 (1), 52-76. THOMPSON, L. L., PETERSON, E. & BRODT, S.E. (1996). Team negotiation : An examination of integrative and distributive bargaining. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 70, 66-78.
KELLEY, H.H. (1965). Experimental studies of threats in interpersonal negotiations. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 9, 81-107.  
KELLEY, H.H. (1966). A classroom study of the dilemnas in interpersonal negotiations. In K. Archibald (Ed.), Strategic interaction and conflict (pp. 49-73). Berkeley, California : University of California, Institute of International Studies.  
KELLEY, H.H., DEUTCH, M., LANZETTA, J.T., NUTTIN, J.M., SHURE, G.H., FAUCHEUX, C., MOSCOVICI, S., RABBIE, J.M. & THIBAULT, J.W. (1970). A comparative experimental study of negociation behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 16 (3), 411-438.  
BENTON, A.A. & KELLEY, H.H. & LIEBLING, B. (1972). Effects of extremity of offers and concession rate on the outcomes of bargaining. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 24, 73-84. ZWICK, R. & LEE. C.C. (1999). Bargaining and search : An experimental study. Group Decision & Negotiation, 8 (6), 463-487. [PDF]
RUBIN, J.Z. & BROWN, B.R. (1975). The social psychology of bargaining and negotiation. New York : Academic Press. STUHLMACHER, A.F. & WALTERS, A.E. (1999). Gender differences in negotiation outcome : A meta analysis. Personnel Psychology, 52 (3), 653-677.
CIALDINI, R.B., BICKMAN, L. & CACIOPPO, J.T. (1979). An example of consumeristic social psychology : Bargaining tough in the new car showroom. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 115-126. ZWICK, R., RAPOPORT, A. & WEG, E. (2000). Invariance failure under subgame perfectness in sequential bargaining. Journal of Economic Psychology, 21 (5), 517-544. [PDF]
SMITH, D.L., PRUITT. D.G. & CARNAVALE, P.J. (1982). Matching and dispatching : The effect of own Limit, other's toughness and time pressure on concession rate in negotiation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 42, 876-903. WADE, M.E. (2001). Women and salary negotiation : The costs of self-advocacy. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 25 (1), 65-76.
RAIFFA, H. (1982). The art and science of negotiation. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. KRAY, L.J., THOMPSON, L. & GALINSKY, A. (2001). Battle of the sexes : Gender stereotype confirmation and reactance in negotiations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80(6), 942-958.
FARBER, H.S. & BAZERMAN, M.H. (1987). Why is there disagreement in bargaining ? Journal American Economic Review, 77 (2), 347-352. [PDF] O'SHEAA, P.G. & BUSH, D.F. (2002). Negotiation for starting salary : Antecedents and outcomes among recent college graduates. Journal of Business & Psychology, 16 (3), 365-382.
BAZERMAN, M.H. & LEWICKI, R.J. (Eds.) (1991). Negotiating in organizations. Sage Publications. ZETIK, D.C. & STUHLMACHER, A.F. (2002). Goal setting and negotiation performance : A meta-analysis. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 5 (1), 35-52.
BRESLIN, J.W. & RUBIN, J.Z. (Eds.) (1991). Negotiation theory and practice. Cambridge : PON Books. LEE, C.C., WEG, E. & ZWICK, R. (2005). Failure of Bayesian updating in repeated bilateral bargaining. In A. Rapoport and R. Zwick (Eds.), Experimental business research, economic and managerial perspectives, (Vol. 2, pp. 249-260). Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Springer. [PDF]
NEALE, M.A. & BAZERMAN, M.H. (1991). Cognition and rationality in negotiation. Free Press. VAN KLEEF, G.A., De BREU, C.K.W. & MANSTEAD, A.S.R. (2006). Supplication and appeasement in conflict and negotiation : The interpersonal effects of disappointment, worry, guilt, and regret. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 91, 124-142.
ZWICK, R., RAPOPORT, A. & HOWARD, J.C. (1992). Two-person sequential bargaining behavior with exogenous breakdown. Theory & Decision, 32, 241-268. [PDF] MITCHELL-TURNER, M., TAMBORINI, R., LIMON, M.S. & ZUCKREMAN-HYMAN, C. (2007). The moderators and mediators of door-in-the-face requests : Is it a negotiation or a helping experience ? Communication Monographs, 74 (3), 333-356. [PDF]
NEALE, M.A. & BAZERMAN, M.H. (1992). Negotiator cognition and rationality : A behavioral decision theory perspective. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 51, 157-175. SMALL, D.A., GELFAND, M., BABCOCK, L. & GETTMAN, H. (2007). Who goes to the bargaining table ? The influence of gender and framing on the initiation of negotiation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 93 (4), 600-613. [PDF]
WALTON, R.E., CUTCHER-GERSHENFELD, J.E. & McKERSIE, R.B. (1994). Strategic negotiations. Boston : Harvard Business School Press. CURHAN, J.R. & OVERBACK, J.R. (2008). Making a positive impression in a negotiation : Gender differences in response to impression motivation. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research, 1 (2), 179-193. [PDF]
GRAHAM, J.L., MINTU, A.T. & RODGERS, W. (1994). Explorations of negotiation behaviors in 10 foreign cultures using a model developed in the United States. Management Science, 40, 72-95. BOWLES, H.R. & MCGINN, K.L. (2008). Untapped potential in the study of negotiation and gender inequality in organizations. The Academy of Management Annals, 2 (1), 99-132. [PDF]
KAMAN, V.S. & HARTEL, C.E.J. (1994). Gender differences in anticipated pay negotiation strategies and outcomes. Journal of Business & Psychology, 9 (2), 183-197. KRAY, L.J., GALINSKY, A.D. & MARKMAN, K.D. (2009). Counterfactual structure and learning from experience in negotiations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 979-982. [PDF]
Voir aussi Conflit
Nègre : Terme péjoratif pour désigner les Afro-Américains/Noirs. Negro.

  BEAN, R.B. (1906). Some racial peculiarities of the Negro brain. American Journal of Anatomy, 5, 353-432.
Voir aussi Afro-Américain
Neighbors Clayton ( ) : Psychosociologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des normes sociales. Collaborateur de Lewis.
NEIGHBORS, C., LOSTUTTER, T.W., LARIMER, M.E. & TAKUSHI, R.Y. (2002). Measuring gambling outcomes among college students. Journal of Gambling Studies, 18, 339-360. [PDF]
NEIGHBORS, C., LARIMER, M.E. & LEWIS, M.A. (2004). Targeting misperceptions of descriptive drinking norms : Efficacy of a computer-delivered personalized normative feedback intervention. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 72, 434-447. [PDF]
NEIGHBORS, C., LEE, C.M., FOSSOS, N. & LARIMER, M.E. (2007). Are social norms the best predictor of outcomes among heavy-drinking college students ? Journal of Studies on Alcohol & Drugs, 68 (4), 556-565. [PDF]
NEIGHBORS, C., LABRIE, J.W., HUMMER, J.F., LEWIS, M.A., LEE, C.M., DESAI, S., KILMER, J.R. & LARIMER, M.E. (2010). Group identification as a moderator of the relationship between perceived social norms and alcohol consumption. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24 (3), 522-528. [PDF]
NEIGHBORS, C., JENSEN, M., TIDEWELL, J., WALTER, T., FOSSOS, N. & LEWIS, M.A. (2011). Social norms interventions for light and non-drinking students. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 14, 651-669.
Neill Wilfred Trammell ( ) : Psychologue cognitivisme américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'attention et de l'amorçage.
NEILL, W.T. (1977). Inhibitory and facilitatory processes in selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 3, 444-450.
NEILL, W.T., VALDES, L.A., TERRY, K.M. & GORFEIN, D.S. (1992). Persistence of negative priming : II. Evidence for episodic trace retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 18, 993-1000.
NEILL, W.T. & VALDES, LA. (1992). Persistence of negative priming : Steady state or decay ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 18, 565-576.
NEILL, W.T. (1997). Episodic retrieval in negative priming and repetition priming. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 23, 1291-3105.
NEILL, W.T. & JOORDENS, S. (2002). Negative priming and stimulus repetitions : A reply to Grison and Strayer (2001). Perception & Psychophysics, 64, 855-860.
Neisser Ulrich (Kiel Allemagne 1928-) : Psychologue cognitivisme américain, pionnier de l'étude de la mémoire et des images mentales. Il a écrit l'un des tout premiers livres traitant de la cognition. Professeur de Bahrick. Collaborateur de Bouchard, Ceci, Halpern, Loehlin, Perloff, Spelke, Sternberg et Urbina.

No 32
NEISSER, U. (1978). Anticipations, images and introspection. Cognition, 6, 167-174.
NEISSER, U. (1979). Images, models, and human nature. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 2, 561.
NEISSER, U. (1982). Memory observed : Remembering in natural contexts. New York : W.H. Freeman.
NEISSER, U. & WINOGRAD, E. (1988). Remembering reconsidered : Ecological and traditional approaches to the study of memory. Cambridge : Cambridge University.
NEISSER, U., BOODOO, G., BOUCHARD, T.J., BOYKIN, A.W., BRODY, N., CECI., S J., HALPERN, D.F., LOEHLIN, J.C., PERLOFF, R., STERNBERG, R.J. & URBINA, S. (1996). Intelligence : Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51 (2), 77-101. [PDF]
 
SALZINGER, K. (1973). Inside the black box, with apologies to Pandora. A review of Ulric Neisser's Cognitive Psychology. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 19 (2), 369-378. [PDF]
CUTTING, J.E. (2012). Ulric Neisser (1923-2012): Obituary. American Psychologist, 67 (6), 492.
 Nelder Johnn Ashworth (1924-2010) : Mathématicien et statisticien anglais, spécialisé dans l'analyse de la variance.
h
NELDER, J.A. & MEAD, R. (1965). A simplex method for function minimization. Computer Journal, 7 (4), 308-313. [PDF]
NELDER, J.A. (1966). Inverse polynomials, a useful group of multi-factor response functions. Biometrics, 22, 128-141
NELDER, J.A. (1968). Weighted regression quantal reponse data and inverse polynomials. Biometrics, 24, 979-985.
NELDER, J.A. & WEDDERBURN, R.W.M. (1972). Generalized linear models. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, A, 135 (3), 370–384. [PDF]
Nelson Thomas O. (Newark 1943-2005) : Psychologue cognitivisme américain et spécialiste de la métacognition et de la métamémoire. Collaborateur de Kruglanski.
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NELSON, T.O. & NARENS, L. (1980). A new technique for investigating the feeling of knowing. Acta Psychologica, 46, 69-80.
NELSON, T.O., GERLER, D. & NARENS, L. (1984). Accuracy of feeling of knowing judgments for predicting perceptual identification and relearning. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 113, 282-300.
NELSON, T.O. & LEONESIO, R.J. (1988). Allocation of self-paced study time and the "labor-in-vain effect". Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 14, 476-486.
NELSON, T.O. & DUNLOSKY, J (1991). The delayed-JOL effect : When delaying your judgements of learning can improve the accuracy of your metacognitive monitoring. Psychological Science, 2, 267-270.
NELSON, T.O. (1996). Consciousness and metacognition. American Psychologist, 51, 102-116.
 
BAHRICK, H. & BJORK, B. (2005). In memory of Thomas O. Nelson. The Experimental Psychology Bulletin, 9 (1), [LIRE]
Nème : Concept proposé par Minsky pour désigner les connaissances. Nème, nome et ligne-K.

  MINSKY, M. (1986). The society of mind. New York : Simon & Schuster.
SINGH, P. (2003). Examining the society of mind. Computing & Informatics, 1001-1023. [PDF]
 
Nemeroff Charles B. (New York 1949-) : Psychiatre américain. Collaborateur de Kirsch et Weiss.
NEMEROFF, C.B., DEVANE, C.L. & OLLOCK, B.G. (1996). Newer antidepressants and the cytochrome P450 system. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153 (3), 311-320.
NEMEROFF, C.B. (1999). Recognition and treatment of psychiatric disorders : A psychopharmacology handbook for primary care. American Psychiatric Pub Inc.
NEMEROFF, C.B., COMPTON, M.T. & BERGER, J. (2001). The depressed suicidal patient : assessment and treatment. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 932, 1-23.
NEMEROFF, C.B., JONGSMA, A.R. & PURSELLE, D.C. (2003). The psychopharmacology treatment planner. John Wiley & Sons Inc.
NEMEROFF, C.B. (2008). Recent findings in the pathophysiology of depression. Focus, 6, 3-14. [PDF]
Nemeth Charlan Jeanne ( ) : Psychosociologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'influence des minorités.
NEMETH, C. & WATCHLER, J. (1983). Creative problem solving as a result of majority vs minority influence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 13, 45-55.
NEMETH, C.J. (1986). Differential contributions of majority and minority influence. Psychological Review, 93 (1), 23-32. [PDF]
NEMETH, C. MAYSELESS, O., SHERMAN, J. & BROWN, Y. (1990). Exposure to dissent and recall of information. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 58, 429-437.
NEMETH, C. MOSIER, K. & CHILES, C. (1992). When convergent thought improves performance : Majority vs. minority influence. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 81, 139-144.
NEMETH, C. (2003). Minority dissent and its "hidden benefits". New Review of Social Psychology, 2, 21-28.
NEMI : Test développé en 1966 par Zazzo pour mesurer l'intelligence.
 
NÉO - NERF - ÉOTONIE - NÉPOTISME - NERSESSIAN - NESDALE - NESSE - NEUGARTEN - NEURATH - NEURINGER - NE
Néo : Préfixe qui signifie nouveau. Uitilsé pour qualifier une nouvelle variante d'un phénomène bien connu.

Néo
Néo-béhaviorisme Néo-freudien Néo-libéralisme
Néo-cortex Néo-kantisme Néo-piagétisme
Néo-darwinisme Néo-lamarkisme Néophobie alimentaire
    Néo-positivisme
 

Néo-béhaviorisme : Voir Béhaviorisme.
Néo-cortex : Voir Cortex.
Néo-darwinisme : Conception moderne de l'évolution des espèces qui s'appuie sur la théorie de Darwin, la génétique des populations et certaines théories de l'évolution neutralisme, théorie des équilibres ponctués, etc.). Neo-Darwinism.
  MAYNARD SMITH, J. (1969). The status of neo-darwinism. Towards a theoretical Biology, 2, 82-89.
Néo-freudien : Groupe de dissidents de la théorie freudienne. /freudien orthodoxe. ( ): Klein, Winnicott.

 
Néo-kantisme : Neo-kantianism.

  TEO, T. (2002). Friedrich Albert Lange on neo-Kantianism, socialist Darwinism, and a psychology without a soul. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 38, 285-301. [PDF]
Néo-lamarckisme : ( ): Grassé, Piaget.
  RITVO, L.B. (1965). Darwin as the source of Freud's neo-Lamarckism. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 13, (3), 499-517.
CONRY, Y. (1993). Comment a-t-on pu être néo-lamarckien en France (1843-1930) ? Nuncius, 8 (2), 487-520.
LOISON, L. (2010). Qu'est-ce que le néo-Lamarckiste. Les biologistes français et la question de l'évolution des espèces. Paris : Vuibert.
Néo-libéralisme : Voir Libéralisme (Néo).
Néo-piagétisme : Voir Piagétisme (Néo).
Néophobie alimentaire : Réticence, crainte ou peur de goûter de nouveaux aliments. Néophobie alimentaire, phobie et conditionnement aversif alimentaire. Neophobic behavior to food.

  ROYET, J.P. & PAGER, J. (1980). Neophobic behavior to food and electrical responses of olfactory bulb in rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 94, 255-262.
ROYET, J.P. & PAGER, J. (1980). Réduction progressive de la néophobie au cours de l'expérience olfacto-gustative de la variété alimentaire che le rat adulte. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, 290, 907-909.
ROYET, J.P. (1983). Les aspects comportementaux de l'aversion conditionnée et de la néophobie. L'Année Biologique, 22, 113-167.
BIRCH, L.L., McPHEE, L, SHOBA, B.C., PIROK, E. & STEINBERG, L. (1987). What kind of exposure reduces children's food neophobia ? Looking vs. tasting. Appetite, 9 (3), 171-178.
DE BRUGADA, I., GONZALE, F. & CANDIDO, A. (2003). Repeated administration of LiCl produces an unconditioned stimulus preexposure effect in backward excitatory CTA but not habituation of the unconditioned increment in neophobia. Behavioural Processes, 60, 227-233. [PDF]
Voir aussi Conditionnement aversif alimentaire
Néo-positivisme : Doctrine philosophique qui postule que la vérification empirique des énoncées d'une théorie est le seul critère de vérité de la science. Le Cercle de Vienne est à l'origine du néo-positivisme. = positivisme logique. Neo-positivism.

 
Néotonie : Conservation des caractéristiques juvéniles chez les adultes d'une espèce. Chez l'humain, la néotonie se manifeste notamment par la présence de grands yeux et d'un petit nez.

 
Népotisme : De façon générale, avantage que l'on tire du fait d'être apparenté avec un individu qui détient un rang ou une position enviable, qui lui confère du pouvoir. Chez l'humain, forme de discrimination qui consiste à favoriser de manière injustifiée ceux et celles que l'on connaît, souvent des membres de notre famille, au détriment d'autrui, dans l'octroi d'un emploi, d'une promotion, d'une bourse, etc. Népotisme, biais intergroupe et clientélisme. Nepotism.

  SHERMAN, PW. (1977). Nepotism and the evolution of alarm calls. Science, 197, 1246-1253. CHAPAIS, B., GAUTHIER, C., PRUD’HOMME, J. & VASEY, P. (1997). Relatedness threshold for nepotism in Japanese macaques. Animal Behaviour, 53, 1089-1101.
SHERMAN, P.W. (1980). The meaning of nepotism. American Naturalist, 116, 604-606. WENNERAS, C. & WOLD, A. (1997). Nepotism and sexism in peer-review. Nature, 387, 341-343.
SHERMAN, P.W. (1981). Kinship, demography, and Belding's ground squirrel nepotism. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 8, 251-259. SANDSTRÖM, U. & HÖLLSTEN, M. (2008). Persistent nepotism in peer-review. Scientometrics, 74 (2), 175-189. [PDF]
SHERMAN, P.W. (1985). Alarm calls of Belding's ground squirrels to aerial predators : nepotism or self-preservation ? Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 17, 313-323. SILK, J.B. (2009). Nepotistic cooperation in nonhuman primate groups. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 364, 3243-3254.
Népotisme intellectuel : Forme de népotisme que l'on observe dans le milieu intellectuel et scientifique, et qui consiste à accorder des avantages indus aux collègues qui partagent nos idées, au détriment de ceux qui les contestent ou proposent des idées différentes. Népotisme intellectuel et comité de lecture.

 
Nerf : Faisceau de fibres nerveuses du système nerveux périphérique. Ils sont composés de fibre afférente et de fibre efférente. Nerve.

Types de nerf
Nerf optique Nerf sympathique Nerf vague
Nerf parasympathique    
 

   TISSOT, S. (1778). Traité des nerfs et de leurs maladies. Paris : Didot PF..
 VICQ D'AZIR, F. (1784). Second mémoire contenant des observations sur plusieurs régions du cerveau disséqué par sa base, et sur l'origine des nerfs. Paris : Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences.
 REIl J.C. (1796). First volume of anatomical practice: On the structure of nerves. Halle, Halae Saxonum, In Officina Curtiana Venalis.
 PHILIPEAUX, J.-M. et VULPIAN, A. (1860). Recherches expérimentales sur la régénération des nerfs séparés des centres nerveux. Comptes Rendus des Séances et Mémoires de la Société de Biologie, 1, 343-415.
 MITCHELL, S.W. (1872). Injuries of nerves and their consequences. Philadelphia : Lippincott.
 TASAKI, I. (1939). The strength-duration relation of the normal, polarized and narcotized nerve fiber. American Journal of Physiology, 125, 367-379.
 TASAKI, I. (1953). Nervous transmission. Springfield, Illinois : Chas. C.Thomas.
 TASAKI, I. (1968). Nerve excitation : A macromolecular approach. Springfield, Illinois : Chas. C.Thomas.
CARPENTER, M.B. & SUTIN, J. (1983). Human neuroanatomy. Londres : Williams & Wilkins.
Nerf optique : Optic nerve.
  SPERRY, R.W. (1944). Optic nerve regeneration with return of vision in anurans. Journal of Neurophysiology, 7, 57-69.
 
Nerf parasympathique :

 
Nerf sympathique :

 
Nerf vague : Vagus nerve.

  CORAZZOL, M., LIO, G., LEFEVRE, A., DEIANA, G., TELL, L., ANDRÉ-OBADIA, N., BOURDILLON, P., GUENOT, M., DESMURGET, M., LUAUTÉ, J. & SIRIGU, A. (2017). Restoring consciousness with vagus nerve stimulation. Current Biology, 27 (18), 994-996. [PDF]
Nersessian Nancy J. ( ) : Philosophe et épistémologue néerlandaise, spécialisée dans l'étude de la pensée et du raisonnement scientifiques.
NERSESSIAN, N.J. (1992). In the theoretician's laboratory : Thought experimenting as mental modeling. Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, 2, 291-301. [PDF] + [PDF]
NERSESSIAN, N.J. (1995). Should physicists preach what they practice ? Constructive modeling in doing and learning physics. Science & Education, 4 (3), 203-226. [PDF]
NERSESSIAN, N.J. (2006).The cognitive-cultural systems of the research laboratory. Organization Studies, 27, 125-145. [PDF]
NERSESSIAN, N.J. (2009). How do engineering scientists think ? Model-based simulation in biomedical engineering laboratories. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 730-757. [PDF]
NERSESSIAN, N.J. & CHANDRASEKHARAN, S. (2009). Hybrid analogies in conceptual innovation in science. Cognitive Systems Research, 10 (3), 178-188. [PDF]
 Nervous & Mental Disease : Voir Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease
 Nervous Child (1941-1956) : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des troubles mentaux chez les enfants. Éditeur :

KANNER, L. (1943). Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250.

Nesdale Drew ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude du harcèlement à l'école.
NESDALE, D. & SCARLETT, M. (2004). Effects of group and situational factors on pre-adolescent children's attitudes to school bullying. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28, 428-434.
NESDALE, D., DURKIN, K., MAASS, A. & GRIFFITHS, J. (2005). Group norms, threat, and children’s racial prejudice. Child Development, 76 (3), 652-663. [PDF]
NESDALE, D. & PICKERING, K. (2006). Teacher's reactions to children's aggression. Social Development, 15, 109-127.
NESDALE, D., DURKIN, K., MAAS, A., KLESNER, J. & GRIFFITHS, J.A. (2008). Effects of group norms on children's intentions to bully. Social Development, 17 (4), 889-907. [PDF]
NESDALE, D., LAWSON, M., DURKIN, K. & DUFFY, A. (2010). Effects of information about group members on young children's attitudes towards the in-group and out-group. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 28, 467-482. [PDF]
Nesse Randolf M. (1948-) : Biologiste américain et spécialiste de la psychologie évolutionniste. Il s'intéresse notamment aux troubles de santé mentale. Collaborateur de Williams.
 NESSE, R.M. & WILLIAMS, G.C. (1994). Why we get sick : The new science of Darwinian medicine. New York, NY : Vintage Books.
NESSE, R.M. (1999). Emotional disorders in evolutionary perspective. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71, 397-415.
NESSE, R.M. (1999). Testing evolutionary hypotheses about mental disorders. In S. Stearns (Ed.), Evolution in Health and Disease (pp. 260-266). New York : Oxford University Press.
NESSE, R.M. (2000). Is depression an adaptation ? Archives of General Psychiatry, 57, 14-20.
NESSE, R.M. (2011). Evolutionary foundations for psychiatric diagnosis : making DSM-V valid. In P.R. Ariens & De Block, A. (Eds.), Maladapting minds (pp. 173-197). New Yory : Oxford University Press. [PDF]
Nestler Eric J. ( ) : Psychiatre et neurobiologiste américain et spécialiste de la dépendance.
NESTLER, E.J. (1992). Molecular mechanisms of drug addiction. Journal of Neuroscience, 12,2439-2450.
NESTLER, E.J., HOPE, B.T. & WIDNEL, K.L. (1993). Drug addiction : a model for the molecular basis of neural plasticity. Neuron, 11, 995-1006.
NESTLER, E.J. (2000). Genes and addiction. Nature Genetics, 26, 277-281.
NESTLER, E.J. (2005). Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction ? Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1445-1449.
NESTLER, E.J. & CALREZON, W.A. (2006). The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 59 (12), 1151-1159. [PDF]
Nestor Peter J. ( ) : Neurocognitivste anglais et spécialiste de la démence, notamment de l'Alzheimer. Collaborateur de Hodges et Patterson.
NESTOR, P.J., FRYER, T.D., SMILEWSKI, P. & HODGES, J.R. (2003). Limbic hypometabolism in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment. Annals of Neurology, 54, 343-351.
NESTOR, P.J., SCHELTENS, P. & HODGES, J.R. (2004). Advances in the early detection of Alzheimer's disease. Nature medicine, 10 (7), 34-41.
NESTOR, P.J., FRYER, T.D. & HODGES, J.R. (2006). Declarative memory impairments in Alzheimer's disease and semantic dementia. Neuroimage, 30, 1010-1020.
NESTOR, P.J. (2012). Reversal of abnormal eating and drinking behaviour in a frontotemporal lobar degeneration patient using low-dose topiramate. Journal of Neurology Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 83 (3), 349-350.
NESTOR, P.J. (2017). Dementia of the personality. Medical Journal of Australia, 207 (7), 286-287.
Netquiz : Le mot désigne un logiciel québécois développé par le CCDMD pour rédiger des jeux questionnaire. N.D.L.R. Le terme quiz est un anglicisme (avec un z ou deux).
 
Neubauer Aljoscha C. ( ) : Neuropsychologue autrichien, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'efficience neurale. Collaborateur de Grabner et Stern.

NEUBAUER, A.C. & FINK, A. (2003). Fluid intelligence and neural efficiency : effects of task complexity and sex. Personality & Individual Differences, 35 (4), 811-827.
NEUBAUER, A.C., GRABNER, R.H., FREUDENTHALER, H.H., BECKMANN, J.F. & GUTHKE, J. (2004). Intelligence and individual differences in becoming neurally efficient. Acta Psychologica, 116 (1), 55-74.
NEUBAUER, A.C., GRABNER, R.H., FINK, A. & NEUPER, C. (2005). Intelligence and neural efficiency: Further evidence of the influence of task content and sex on the brain' IQ relationship. Cognitive Brain Research, 25 (1), 217-225.
NEUBAUER, A.C., GRABNER, R.H. & STERN, E. (2005). Intelligence and neural efficiency : further evidence of the influence of task content and sex on the brain-IQ relationship. Cognitive Brain Research, 25 (1), 217-225.
NEUBAUER, A.C. & FINK, A. (2009). Intelligence and neural efficiency : Measures of brain activation versus measures of functional connectivity in the brain. Intelligence, 37 (2), 223-229.
Neugarten Lewin Bernice (Norfolk 1916-2001 Chicago) : Psychologue américaine spécialisée dans l'étude du vieillissement et pionnière de la gérontologie.
NEUGARTEN, B.L., MOORE, J.W. & LOWE, J.C. (1965). Age norms, age constraints and adult socialization. American Journal of Sociology, 70, 710-717.
NEUGARTEN, B.L. (1982). Age or need ? Public policies for old people. Beverly Hills, CA : Sage.
NEUGARTEN, B.L. (1996). The meanings of age : Selected papers. Dail A. Neugarten. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
 
COHLER, B. & TOBIN, S.S. (2002). Bernice Levin Neugarten (1916-2001): Obituary. American Psychologist, 57 (4), 288.
Neumann John von : = Von Neumann.
Neural (efficience) : Hypothèse selon laquelle le niveau d'activité neurale serait positivement corrélé à l'intelligence ou du moins à son utilisation selon les contextes; autrement dit, plus un problème est difficile à résoudre, plus on observe une grande activité du cerveau. Neural efficiency.
  GRABNER, R.H., STERN, E. & NEUBAUER, A.C. (2003). When intelligence loses its impact : neural efficiency during reasoning in a familiar area. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 49, 89-98. [PDF]
GRABNER, R.H., FINK, A. STIPACEK, A., NEUPER, C. & NEUBAUER, A.C. (2004). Intelligence and working memory systems : evidence of neural efficiency in alpha band ERD. Cognitive Brain Research, 20 (2), 212-225.
NEUBAUER, A.C., GRABNER, R.H. & STERN, E. (2005). Intelligence and neural efficiency : further evidence of the influence of task content and sex on the brain-IQ relationship. Cognitive Brain Research, 25 (1), 217-225.
GRABNER, R.H., NEUBAUER, A.C. & STERN, E. (2006). Superior performance and neural efficiency : The impact of intelligence and expertise. Brain Research Bulletin, 69, 422-439. [PDF]
NUSSBAUMER, D., GRABNER, R.H. & STERN, E. (2015). Neural efficiency in working memory tasks : The impact of task demand. Intelligence, 50, 196-208. [PDF]
Voir aussi Activité neurale
Neural Networks : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'étude des réseaux neuronaux. Éditeur : Elsevier.
 HÉLIE, S., PROULX, R. & LEFEBVRE, B. (2011). Bottom-up learning of explicit knowledge using a Bayesian algorithm and a new Hebbian learning rule. Neural Networks, 24, 219-232.

Neural Plasticity : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'étude des réseaux neuronaux. Éditeur : Elsevier.
DALEN, L., SONUGA-BARKE, E.J.S,HALL, M. & REMINGTON, B. (2004). Inhibitory deficits, delay aversion and rreschool AD/HD : Implications the dual pathway model. Neural Plasticity, 11, (1-2), 1-11. [PDF]

Neurath Otto (Vienne 1882-1945 Oxford) : Sociologue et épistémologue autrichien. Il est membre du Cercle de Vienne.
NEURATH, O. (1932). World planning and the USA. Survey Graphic, 20 (6), 621-628.
NEURATH, O. (1933). Museums of the future. Survey Graphic, 22 (9), 458-463.
NEURATH, O. (1939). Modern man in the making. New York : Knopf.
NEURATH, O. (1945). The human approach to visual education. Health Education Journal, 2, 61-66.
NEURATH, O. (1937). Visual education : a new language. Survey Graphic, 26 (1), 25-28.
Neuringer Allen Joel ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la variabilité comportementale et de l'auto-expérérimentation. Professeur de Kornell et Slavin.
NEURINGER, A. (1967). Effects of reinforcement magnitude on choice and rate of responding. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10, 417-424. [PDF]
NEURINGER, A. (1969). Delayed reinforcement versus reinforcement after a fixed interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (3), 375-383. [PDF]
NEURINGER, A. (1970). Many responses per food reward with free food present. Science, 169, 503-504.
NEURINGER, A. (1985). Melioration and self-experimentation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 42 (3), 397-406. [PDF]
NEURINGER, A. (2004). Reinforced variability in animals and people. American Psychologist, 59 (9), 891-906. [PDF]
NEUROBIOLOGIE - NEUROCOGNITION - NEURODÉPRESSEUR - NEUROLEPTIQUE - NEURONE - NEUROPSYCHOLOGIE - NEUROSCIENCE - NEV
Neuro : = neurone.


Neuro
Efficience neurale Neuroéducation Neurophilosophie
Neuroanatomie Neuroéthique Neuroplasticité
Neurobiologie Neurogénèse postnatale Neuropsychanalyse
Neurochirurgie Neurogénétique Neuropsychologie
Neurocircuit    
Neurocognition Neuro-imagerie cognitive Neupsychopharmacologie
Neuroconstructivisme Neuroleptique Neuroscience
Neurocomputation Neurolinguistique Neurosexisme
Neurodépresseur Neuromédiateur Neurotransmetteur
Neuroéconomie  
 
aNeuroanatomie : Branche de la neurobiologie qui s'intéresse plus particulièrement à la division et à l'organisation des parties ou structures du cerveau.
  ROSENZWEIG, M. et LEIMAN, A.L. (1991). Psychophysiologie. Ville Mont Royal : Décarie.
Neurobiologie : Branche de la biologie qui étudie la structure (neuranatomie) et le fonctionnement (neurophysiologie) du cerveau. ( ): Adrian, Alzheimer, Barlow, Berger, Bremer, Carlsson, Changeux, Calvin, Cohen, Eliot, Forel, Gage, Geschwind, Goldman-Rakic, Greengard, Gutkin, Haber, Jelliffe, Jouvet, Kandel, Kempermann, Kuhn, Magoun, McEwen, Menzel, Moruzzi, Morris, Nestler, Parent, Penfield, Ramon y Cajal, Rose, Royet, Sapolsky, Shalev, Shankardas, Shaywitz, Shaywitz, Sherrington, Schultz, Squire, Swaab, Tononi, Vidal, Wickens. Neurobiology.

  THOMPSON, R.F. (1986). The neurobiology of learning and memory. Science, 233, 941-947.
WISE, R.A. (1996). Neurobiology of addiction. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 6, 243-251. [PDF]
ROSENZWEIG, M. et LEIMAN, A.L. (1991). Psychophysiologie. Ville Mont Royal : Décarie.
Voir aussi Biologie, Neurocognitiviste et Neuropsychologue
Neurobiology of Learning & Memory : Revue scientifique de neurobioologie. Anciennement Behavioral & Neural Biology. Éditeur : Elsevier. = Neurobiol Learn. Mem.
LEPORT, A.K.R., MATTFELD, A.T., DICKINSON-ANSON, H., FALLON, J.H., STARK, C.E.L., KRUGGEL, F., CAHILL, L. & MCGAUGH, J.L. (2012). Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 98, 78-92. [PDF]

Neurocase : Revue scientifique de neuropsychologie. Éditeur : Francis & Taylor.
KLEIN, D., MILNER, B., ZATORRE, R.J., VISCA, R. & OLIVIER, A. (2002). Cerebral organization in a right-handed trilingual patient with right-hemisphere speech : A PET study. Neurocase : Special Edition.

Neurochirurgie/Neurochirurgien : ( ): Bogen, Mirsky, Penfield, Pribram.

 
Neurocircuit : Chemin neural suivit dans le cerveau par l'influx nerveux en réponse à un stimulus, et qui mener à de nombresuses structures cérébrales. Certains auteurs distinguent le circuit (neural circuit) , qui forme une boucle (A-B-A), de la voie cérébrale (pathway) qui va de A en B sans retourner à son point d'origine. Circuit neuronal, cerveau et mécanisme neural. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Circuit, neural circuit, neural pathway.

Neurocircuit/Voie cérébrale
Neuro-circuit Voie cérébrale
Circuit de la récompense/renforcement Circuit de Papez-Jakob Voie extra-pyramidale Voie méso-limbique
Circuit fronto-limbic Circuit striato-frontal Voie méso-corticale Voie tubéro-infundibulaire
Circuit striato-thalamo-cortical Voie nigro-strié  
 

  PITTS, W. (1942). Some observations on the simple neuron circuit. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 4 (3), 121-129. KELLEY, A.E., BALDO, B.A., PRATT, W.E. & WIL, M.J. (2005). Corticostriatal-hypothalamic circuitry and food motivation : integration of energy, action and reward. Physiology & Behavior, 86, 773-795.
OLDS, J. & MILNER, P.M. (1955). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 47, 419-427. BALLEINE, B. (2005). Neural bases of food-seeking : affect, arousal and reward in corticostriatolimbic circuits. Physiology & Behavior, 86 (5), 717-730. [PDF]
 BYRNE, J.H. (1981). Comparative aspects of neural circuits for inking behavior and gill-withdrawal in aplysia californica. Journal of Neurophysiology, 45, 98-106.  
SCHWARZ, M. & SUSSWEIN, A.J. (1986). Identification of the neural pathway for reinforcement of feeding when aplysia learn that food is inedible. Journal of Neuroscience, 6, 1528-1536. WISE, R.A. (2006). Role of brain dopamine in food reward and reinforcement. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B : Biological Sciences, 361, 1149-1158. [PDF]
GOLDMAN-RAKIC, P.S. (1987). Circuitry of primate prefrontal cortex and regulation of behavior by representational memory. In F. Plum (Ed.), Handbook of physiology : The nervous system (pp. 373-317). Bethesda, MD : American Physiology Society.  
GOLDMAN-RAKIC, P.S. & FRIEDMAN, H.R. (1991). The circuitry of working memory revealed by anatomy and metabolic imaging. In H.S. Levin, H. M. Eisenberg & A.L. Benton (Eds.), Frontal lobe function and dysfunction (pp. 72-91). New York : Oxford University Press. KNUTSON, B. & WIMMER, G.E. (2007). Reward : Neural circuitry for social valuation. In Harmon-Jones, E., Winkielman, P. (Eds.), Social neuroscience (pp. 157-175). New York : Guilford Press. [PDF]
HABER, S., KUNISHIO, K., MIZOBUCHI, M. & LYND-BALTA, E. (1995). The orbital and medial prefrontal circuit through the primate basal ganglia. Journal of Neuroscience, 15, 4851-4867.  
CALLAWAY, E.M. (1998). Local circuits in primary visual cortex of the macaque monkey. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 21, 47-74.  
SCHWARZ, J.M. (1999). A role for volition and attention in the generation of new brain circuitry: Towards a neurobiol- ogy of mental force. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 6, 115-142.  
HOLLAND, P. & GALLAGHER, M. (1999). Amygdala circuitry inattentional and representational processes. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3 (2), 65-73. WAGER, T.D., DAVIDSON, M.L., HUGHES, B.L., LINDQUIST, M.A. & OCHSNER, K.N. (2008). Prefrontal-subcortical pathways mediating successful emotion regulation. Neuron, 59, 1037-1050. [PDF]
CARELLI, R.M., IJAMES, S.G. & CRUMLING, A.J. (2000). Evidence that separate neural circuits in the nucleus accumbens encode cocaine versus "natural" (water and food) reward. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, (11), 4255–4266. [PDF]  
MIDDLETON, F.A. & STRICK, P.L. (2000) Basal ganglia and cerebellar loops : motor and cognitive circuits. Brain Research. Brain Research Reviews, 31, 236-250. PETERS, J., KALIVAS, P.W. & QUIRK, G.J. (2009). Extinction circuits for fear and addiction overlap in prefrontal cortex. Learning & Memory, 16, 279-288. [PDF]
LEDOUX, J.E. (2000). Emotion circuits in the brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 21, 155-184 BANGASSER, D.A. & SHORS, T.J. (2010). Critical brain circuits at the intersection between stress and learning. Neuroscience Biobehavioral Reviews, 34, 1223-1233. [PDF]
SCHULTZ, W. (2000). Multiple reward systems in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, 199-207. [PDF] HABER, S.N. & KNUTSON, B. (2010). The reward circuit : Linking primate anatomy and human imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 4-26. [PDF]
VEIT, R., FLOR, H., ERB, M., HERMANN, C., LOTZE, M., GRODD, W. & BIRBAUMER, N. (2002). Brain circuits involved in emotional learning in antisocial behavior and social phobia in humans. Neuroscience Letters 328, 233-236. IKEMOTO, S. (2010). Brain reward circuitry beyond the mesolimbic dopamine system : A neurobiological theory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 129-150. [PDF]
WISE, R.A. (2002) Brain reward circuitry: insights from unsensed incentives. Neuron, 36, 229- 240.  
DE VRIES, G.J. & SIMERLY, R. (2002). Anatomy, development and function of sexually dimorphic neural circuits in the mammalian brain. In D.W. Pfaff, et al. (Eds.)., Hormones, brain and behavior. New York : Elsevier.  
FELLOUS, J.M., ARMONY, J.L. & LEDOUX, J.E. (2002). Emotional circuits and computational neuroscience In M.A. Aribd (Ed.), The handbook of brain theory and neural networks. Cambridge, MA : The MIT. [PDF] ARNSTEN A.F. & RUBIA, K. (2012). Neurobiological circuits regulating attention, cognitive control, motivation, and emotion : Disruptions in neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 51 (4), 356-367.
MECK, W.H. & BENSON, A. M. (2002). Dissecting the brain's internal clock : How frontal-striatal circuitry keeps time and shifts attention. Brain & Cognition, 48, 195-211. [PDF] RICHARD, J.M., CASTRO, D.C., DIFELICEANTONIO, A.G., ROBINSON, M.J.F. & BERRIDGE, K.C. (2012). Mapping brain circuits of reward and motivation : In the footsteps of Ann Kelley. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 37, 1919-1931. [PDF]
CARELLI, R.M. & WIGHTMAN, R.M. (2004). Functional microcircuitry in the accumbens underlying drug addiction : insights from real-time signaling during behavior. Current Opinion in Neurobiology 14, 763–768. [PDF]  
GUTKIN, B.S., JOST, J. & HELY, T. (2004). Noise delays onset of sustained firing in a positively coupled neural circuit. Neurocomputing, 58-60, 753-760. [PDF] ZHANG, S., XU, M., KAMIGAKI, T., HOANG DO, J.P., CHANG, W.C., JENVAY, S., KAZUNARI, M., LIQUN, L. & YANG, D. (2014). Long-range and local circuits for top-down modulation of visual cortex processing. Science, 345, 660-665. [PDF]
Voir aussi Mécanisme neural
Neurocircuit de la récompense/renforcement : = système hédonique, centre du plaisir, circuit de la dopamine. Cerebral localization of pleasure, pleausre circuit, reward circuit, neural pathway for reinforcement, reward pathway, brainstem pathways of reward, dopamine hypothesis of reward, reward system, reward neurocircuitry.
 
OLDS, J. & MILNER, P.M. (1955). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 47, 419-427. SCHULTZ, W. (2000). Multiple reward systems in the brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1, 99-207. [PDF]
  RAO R. P.N. & SEJNOWSKI, T.J. (2000). Predictive sequence learning in recurrent neocortical circuits. In S.A. Solla, T. K. Leen & K.-R. Miller (Eds.), Advances in neural infomation processing systems (Vol. 12). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
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  KOOB, G.F. & MOAL, M. (2005). Plasticity of reward neurocircuitry and the "dark side" of drug addiction. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1442-1444.
ROUTTENBERG, A. & MALSBURY, C. (1969). Brainstem pathways of reward. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 68, 22- 30. BRATCHER, N.A., FARMER-DOUGAN, V., DOUGAN, J.D., HEINDENREICH, B.A. & GARRIS, P.A. (2005). The role of dopamine in reinforcement : Changes in reinforcement sensitivity induced by D1-type, D2-type, and nonselective dopamine receptor agonists. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 84 (3), 371-399. [PDF]
SCHWARZ, M. & SUSSWEIN, A.J. (1986). Identification of the neural pathway for reinforcement of feeding when aplysia learn that food is inedible. Journal of Neuroscience, 6, 1528-1536. NESTLER, E.J. & CALREZON, W.A. (2006). The mesolimbic dopamine reward circuit in depression. Biological Psychiatry, 59 (12), 1151-1159. [PDF]
ETTENBERG, A. (1989). Dopamine, neuroleptics and reinforced behavior. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 13 (2-3), 105-111. BAUMEISTER, A.A. (2006). Serendipity and the cerebral localization of pleasure. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 15, 92-98. [PDF]
  WISE, R.A. (2006). Role of brain dopamine in food reward and reinforcement. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B : Biological Sciences, 361, 1149-1158. [PDF]
KOOB, G.F. (1992). Drugs of abuse: anatomy, pharmacology and function of reward pathways. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 13, 177-184. SCHULTZ, W. (2006). Behavioral theories and the neurophysiology of reward. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 87-115. [PDF]
SCHULTZ, W. (1998). Predictive reward signal of dopamine neurons. The Journal of Neurophysiology, 80 (1), 1-27. [PDF] KNUTSON, B. & WIMMER, G.E. (2007). Reward : Neural circuitry for social valuation. In E. Harmon-Jones & P. Winkielman (Eds.), Social neuroscience (pp. 157-175). New York : Guilford Press. [PDF]
  WU, M.V., MANOLI, D.S., FRASER, E.J., COATS, J.K, TOLLKUHN, J. HONDA, S.-I., HARADA, N. & SHAH, N.M. (2009). Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors. Cell, 139 (1), 61-72. [PDF]
  IKEMOTO, S. (2010). Brain reward circuitry beyond the mesolimbic dopamine system : A neurobiological theory. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 35, 129-150. [PDF]
  HABER, S.N. & KNUTSON, B. (2010). The reward circuit : Linking primate anatomy and human imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 4-26. [PDF]
BERRIDGE, K.C. & ROBINSON, T.E. (1998). What is the role of dopamine in reward : hedonic impact, reward learning, or incentive salience ? Brain Research Reviews, 28, 309-369. HABER, S.N. & KNUTSON, B. (2010). The reward circuit : Linking primate anatomy and human imaging. Neuropsychopharmacology, 35, 4-26. [PDF]
SPANAGEL, R. & WEISS, F. (1999). The dopamine hypothesis of reward : Past and current status. Trends in Neuroscience, 22, 521-527. RICHARD, J.M., CASTRO, D.C., DIFELICEANTONIO, A.G., ROBINSON, M.J.F. & BERRIDGE, K.C. (2012). Mapping brain circuits of reward and motivation : In the footsteps of Ann Kelley. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, [PDF]
Voir aussi Plaisir, Renforcement et Récompense
Neuro-circuit de Papez-Jacob : Neurocircuit qui joue un rôle important dans le contrôle des émotions. Ce circuit comprend quatre structures : les corps mamillaires, le noyau antérieur du thalamus , le cortex cingulaire et l'hippocampe. Papez circuit, medial limbic circuit.

 
PAPEZ, J.W. (1937). A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, 38, 725-743. [PDF]
Vertes, R. P., Albo, Z., & Di Prisco, G. V. (2001). Theta-rhythmically firing neurons in the anterior thalamus: Implications for mnemonic functions of Papez's circuit. [Letter]. Neuroscience, 104(3), 619-625
SHAH, A., JHAWAR, S.S. & GOEL, A. (2012). Analysis of the anatomy of the Papez circuit and adjoining limbic system by fiber dissection techniques. Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, 19 (2), 289-298.
VANN, S.D. (2013). Dismantling the Papez circuit for memory in rats. eLife.
BHATTACHARYY (2017). James Wenceslaus Papez, his circuit, and emotion. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 20 (3), 207-210. [LIRE]
BUENO, A.P.A., PINAYA, W.H.L., MOURA, L.M., BERTOUX, M., RADAKOVIC, R., KIERNAN, M.C., TEIXEIRA, A.L., DE SOUZA, L.C., HORNBERGER, M. & SATO, J.R. (2018). Structural and functional papez circuit integrity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Brain Imaging & Behavior, [LIRE]
Neuro-circuit fronto-limbic : . Fronto-limbic circuity.

  BACHEVALIER, J. & LOVELAND, K. (2006). The orbitofrontal-amygdala circuit and self-regulation of socio-emotional behavior in autism. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 30, 97–117.
LOVELAND, K.A., BACHEVALIER, J., PEARSON, D. & LANE, D.M. (2008). Fronto-limbic functioning in children and adolescents with and without autismm. Neuropsychologia, 46 (1), 49–62. [PDF]
Neuro-circuit nigro-strié : Voir Voie nigrostriée.
Neuro-circuit striato-frontal : Frontal-striatal circuity.

  SEO, M, LEE, E. & AVERBECK. B.B. (2012) Action selection and action value in frontal-striatal circuits. Neuron, 74, 947-960.
AVERBECK, B.B., LEHMAN, J., JACOBSON, M. & HABER, S.N. (2016). Estimates of projection overlap and zones of convergence within frontal-striatal circuits. The Journal of Neuroscience, 34 (29), 9497-9505. [PDF]
Neuro-circuit striato-thalamo-cortical : Corticostriatal-hypothalamic circuitry, cortical-limbic pathway.

  MAYBERG, H.S. (1997). Limbic-cortical dysregulation : a proposed model of depression. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 9 (3), 471-481.
MAYBERG, H.S. (2003) Modulating dysfunctional limbic-cortical circuits in depression: towards development of brain-based algorithms for diagnosis and optimised treatment. British Medical Bulletin, 65, 193-207.
GOLDAPPLE, K., SEGAL, Z., GARSON, C., LAU, M., BIELING, P., KENNEDY, S. & MAYBERG, H. (2004). Modulation of cortical-limbic pathways in major depression : treatment-specific effects of cognitive behavior therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61 (1), 34-41. [PDF]
KELLEY, A.E., BALDO, B.A., PRATT, W.E. & WIL, M.J. (2005). Corticostriatal-hypothalamic circuitry and food motivation : integration of energy, action and reward. Physiology & Behavior, 86 (5), 773-795.
HABER, S.N. (2016). Corticostriatal circuitry. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 18 (1), 7-21. [PDF]
Neurocognition/Neurocognitivisme : Branche de la neuropsychologie qui étudie la relation entre le cerveau, la cognition et le traitement de l'information. Neuropsychologie et neurocognition. = neurobiologie cognitive, neuropsychologie cognitive. ( ): Anderson, Arbib, Bates, Bavelier, Berntson, Bindra, Buxbaum, Cacioppo, Camarazza, Eccles, Cohen, Dawson, Dehaene, Dunbar, Federmeier, Frith, Goswani, Graham, Green, Grossberg, Hebb, Hernandez, Hodges, Holcomb, Jefferies, Keefe, Kimura, Kuhl, Kutas, Lambon Ralph, Marr, Martin, Meltzoff, Morin, Nestor, Owen, Pascalis, Patterson, Penfield, Poldrack, Posner, Pribram, Raz,Redish, Rugg, Saffran, Schmajuk, Schwartz, Segalowitz, Smillie, Snowden, Stuss, Tanaka, Touretzky Voicu, Wade, Ziegler, Zurif. Neurocognition, cognitive neuropsychology, cognitive neuroscience.

  CHURCHLAND, P.S. & SEJNOWSKI, T.J. (1988). Perspectives on cognitive neuroscience. Science, 242, 741-74. [PDF]  
McCARTHY, R.A. & WARRINGTON, E.K. (1990). Cognitive neuropsychology : A clinical introduction. New York : Academic Press. BAARS, B. & GAGE, N. (2007). Cognition, brain, and consciousness : Introduction to cognitive neuroscience. Academic Press.
SARTER, M., BERNSTON, G.G. & CACIOPPO, J.T. (1996). Brain imaging and cognitive neuroscience : Toward strong inference in attributing function to structure. American Psychologist, 51, 13-21. [PDF] SCHACTER, D.L. & ADDIS, D.R. (2007). The cognitive neuroscience of constructive memory : remembering the past and imagining the future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences, 362, 773-786. [PDF]
BUCKNER, R.L. & WHEELER, M.E. (2001). The cognitive neuroscience of remembering. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 1-12. TIBERGHIEN, G. (2007). Entre neurosciences et neurophilosophie : la psychologie cognitive et les sciences cognitives. Psychologie Française, 52 (3), 279-297. [PDF]
KOSSLYN, S.M. & PLOMIN, R. (2001). Towards a neurocognitive genetics : Goals and issues. In D. Dougherty, S.L. Rauch & J.F. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Psychiatric neuroimaging research : Contemporary strategies (pp. 383-402). Washington, D.C. : American Psychiatric Press Inc. DAW, N.D. & SHOHAMY, D. (2008). The cognitive neuroscience of motivation and learning. Social Cognition, 26 (5), 593-620. [PDF]
FAUX, S.F. (2002). Cognitive neuroscience from a behavioral perspective : A critique of chasing ghosts with Geiger counters. The Behavior Analyst, 25, 161-173. [PDF] POLDRACK, R.A. (2008). The role of fMRI in cognitive neuroscience : Where do we stand ? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 18, 223-227. [PDF]
GEAKE, J. & COOPER, P. (2003). Cognitive neuroscience : Implications for education ? Westminster Studies in Education, 26, 7-20.  
   
RAZ, A. & NORMAN, K. (2004). Social psychology illuminates cognitive neuroscience. Brain & Behavioral Sciences, 27 (5), 673-674. [PDF]  
Voir aussi Cognitivisme américain, Neuropsychologie et Neurobiologie
 
Neurocomputation : Neuromputation.

  CHURCHLAND, P.M. (1989). A neurocomputational perspective : The nature of mind and the structure of science. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
MAYOR, J. & PLUNKETT, K. (2010). A neurocomputational account of taxonomic responding and fast mapping in early word learning. Psychological Review, 117 (1), 1-31.
Neuroconstructivisme : Théorie ou perspecctive du développement humian qui se fonde sur les travaux de Piaget et du cognitivisme européen, ainsi que sur les progrès récents de la neurocognition.

   KARMILOFF-SMITH, A. (2006). The tortuous route from genes to behavior : a neuroconstructivist approach. Cognitive Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience, 1, 9-17. [PDF]
 WESTERMANN, G., MARESCHAL, D., JOHNSON, M.H., SIROIS, S., SPRATLING, M. & THOMAS, M. (2007). Neuroconstructivism. Developmental Science, 10, 75-83. [PDF]
 WESTERMANN, G., THOMAS, M.S.C. & KARMILOFF-SMITH, A. (2010). Neuroconstructivism. In Goswami, U. (Ed). The handbook of cognitive development. Oxford : Blackwell. [PDF]
Neurodépresseur : Famille de drogues naturelles et synthétiques qui réduit l'activité du système nerveux central (SNC). Leur consommation modérée entraîne un sentiment de calme, d'assoupissement (relaxation) et une réduction de l'anxiété et du sentiment de culpabilité. L'action de ces drogues entraîne également une somnolence et un ralentissement de la respiration, et parfois, en trop forte de dose, une démarche chancelante, un manque de coordination, une articulation laborieuse, une diminution des réflexes et des erreurs de jugement. = dépresseur, sédatif. ( ): anxiolytique, alcool, café. Neurodepressor.

Neurodépresseurs
Anxiolytique Alcool Café
 

 
Neuroéconomie : Science au carefour de l'économie, de la psychologie et de la neurobiologie. La neuroéconomie s'intéresse principalement aux mécanismes de prise de décision et d'évaluation de risque des agents économiques. Neuroéconomie et risque. = psychoéconomie, économie béhaviorale. Neuroeconomy.
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TARDE, G. (1902). La psychologie économique. Paris : Alcan. CAMERER, C., LOEWENSTEIN, G. & PRELEC, D. (2004). Neuroeconomics : Why economics needs brains. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 106, 555-579.
TVERSKY, A. & KAHNEMAN, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty : Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124-1130. CAMERER, C., LOEWENSTEIN, G. & PRELEC, D. (2005). Neuroeconomics : How neuroscience can inform economics. Journal of Economic Literature, 243, 9-64.
KAHNEMAN, D. & TVERSKY, A. (1979). Prospect theory : An analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47, 263-291. KNUTSON, B., RICK, S., WIMMER, E., PRELEC, D. & LOEWENSTEIN, G. (2007). Neural predictors of purchases. Neuron, 53, 147-156.
BELSKY, G. & GILOVICH, T. (1999). Why smart people make big money mistakes and how to correct them: Lessons from the new science of behavioral economics. New York : Simon and Schuster. BOURGEOIS-GIRONDE, S. (2008). La neuroéconomie, comment le cerveau gère mes intérêts. Plon.
  RICK, S. (2011). Losses, gains, and brains : Neuroeconomics can help to answer open questions about loss aversion. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21, 453-463. [PDF]
Neuroéducation : Contribution des sciences neurocognitives/neuropsycologie aux connaissances et aux paratiques en éducations. Educational neuroscience.
  GOSWANI, U. (2004). Neuroscience and education. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74, 1-14. MONNIN, C. (2010-2011). De jeunes cerveaux à formater. Contre la neuroéducation. Argument, 13 (1), 3-13.
GOSWANI, U. (2006). Neuroscience and education : from research to practice ? Nature Review Neurosciences, 7 (5), 406-411. [PDF] GOSWANI, U. (2011). What cognitive neuroscience really tells educators about learning and development. In J. Moyles, J. Paylor, J. Georgeson (Eds). Beginning Teaching, Beginning Learning (pp. 21-31). Open University Press.
FISHER, K.W., DANIEL, D., IMMORDIO-YANG, M.H., STERN, E., BATTRO, A. & KOIZUMI, H. (2007). Why mind, brain, and education ? Why now ? Mind, Brain, & Education, 1 (1), 1-2. [PDF] POTVIN, P., RIOPEL M. & MASSON, S. (2011). Soutenir les élèves et outiller les enseignants. Pour la neuroéducation. Argument, 13 (2), 203-212. [PDF]
PICKERING, S.J. & HOWARD-JONES, P. (2007). Educators’ views on the role of neuroscience in education : findings from a study of UK and international perspectives. Mind, Brain, & Education, 1, 109-113. LALANCETTE, H. & CAMPBELL, S.R. (2012). Educational neuroscience : Neuroethical considerations. International Journal of Environmental & Science Education, 7 (1), 37-52. [PDF]
SZÜCS, D. & GOSWANI, U. (2007). Educational Neuroscience: Defining a new discipline for the study of mental representations. Mind, Brain & Education 1 (3), 114-127.  
PURDY, N. (2008). Neuroscience and education : how best to filter out the neurononsense from our classrooms ? Irish Educational Studies, 27, 197-208.  
BRAULT-FOISY, L.-M., et MASSON, S. (2009). La neuroéducation : mieux comprendre le cerveau pour mieux enseigner. Vivre le Primaire, 22 (4), 1-6. [PDF] DEKKER, S., LEE, N.C., HOWARD-JONES, P. & JOLLES, J. (2012). Neuromyths in education : Prevalence and predictors of misconceptions among teachers. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 1-8. [PDF]
Neuroéthique : Neuroethic.

  FARAH, M.J. (2005). Neuroethics : The practical and the philosophical. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9, 34-40. [PDF]
Neurofeedback : Rétroaction neurobiologique. Neurofeedback.
Neurogénèse postnatale : Division de cellules souches en nouveaux neurones dans un cerveau à maturité, chez les lézards, les souris, les lapins, les primates humain et non-humains, plus particulièrement dans l'hippocampe (gyrus dentelé et région sous-ventriculaire) et le bulbe olfactif. Cette différenciation tardive des cellules dans le cerveau a été observée chez des rats par Altman, chez le singe par Gould, puis mise en évidence chez l'humain par Eriksson et Gage. = neurogénèse tardive. Adult neurogenesis.
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ALTMAN, J. (1963). Autoradiographic investigation of cell proliferation in the brains of rats and cats. Anatomical Record, 145, 573-591. [PDF] PARENT, J.M. (2003). Injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Neuroscientist, 9, 261-272.
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GODLMAN, S.A. & NOTTEBOHM, F. (1983). Neuronal production, migration, and differentiation in a vocal control nucleus of the adult female canary brain. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 80 (8), 2390-2394. KEMPERMANN, G., WISKOTT, L. & GAGE, F.H. (2004). Functional significance of adult neurogenesis. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14 (2), 186-191.
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RAKIC, P. (1985). Limits of neurogenesis in primates. Science, 227, 1054-1056.  BAYER, S.A. & ALTMAN, J. (2004). Development of the preoptic area : Time and site of origin, migratory routes, and settling patterns of its neurons. The Journal of Comparative Neurology, 265 (1), 65-95.
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GOULD, E., REEVES, A.J., GRAZIANO, M.S. & GROSS, C.G. (1999). Neurogenesis in the neocortex of adult primates. Science, 286 (5439), 548-552. AIMONE J.B., JESSBERGER, S. & GAGE, F.H. (2007). Adult neurogenesis. Scholarpedia.
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Voir aussi Hippocampe
fNeurogénétique : Neurogenetic.

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NeuroImage : Revue scientifique de neurologie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
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Neuro-imagerie cognitive : Procédé d'inférence des fonctions cognitives au moyen notamment de l'imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle. Neuroimaging.

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Voir aussi Imagerie par résonance magnétique fonctionnelle
 
Neuroleptique : Du grec neuron, qui signifie "nerf" et leptos, qui veut dire "affaiblir". Il s'agit d'un groupe de médicaments qui ont pour fonction de réduire la sévérité des symptômes psychotiques, notamment chez les schizophrènes. On les prescrit également aux patients qui ont un trouble bipolaire et à ceux qui souffrent d'hallucination et de délires. Ces médicaments ont pour effet de bloquer les récepteurs de la dopamine dans le cerveau (benzisoxazoles, butyrophénones, dibenzodiazépines, dibenzothiazépines, dibenzoxazépines, phénothiazines, thiénobenzodiazépines, thioxanthènes). On distingue les neuroleptiques typique (première génération) des neuroleptiques atypique (seconde génation); les premiers ont des effets plus spécifiques que les seconds. Il convient de noter que leur usage et leur degré d'efficacité sont contestés par certains psychiatres, psychologues et autres professionnels de la santé et que peu d'études indépendantes ont fait la démonstration claire de leur efficacité (soulagement des symptômes supérieur à une thérapie psychologique ou à un placebo ou modifications des comportements pathologiques). = antipsychotique, tranquillisants majeurs. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Antipsychotic drug, neuroleptic.
Molécules neuroleptiques
Neuroleptiques atypiques/Seconde génération Neuroleptiques typiques/Première génération
Aripiprazole Quétiapine Chlopromazine Perphénazine
Clozapine Rispéridone Fluphénazine  
Olanzipine Ziprasidone Haloperidol  
 

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  LEUCHT, S. KOMOSSA, K., RUMMEL-KLUGE, C., HUNGER, H., SCHMID, F., ASENJO LOBOS, C. & DAVIS, J.M. (2009). A meta-analysis of head-to-head comparisons of second-generation antipsychotics in the treatment of schizophrenia. merican Journal of Psychiatry, 166 (2), 152-163.
  HO, B., ANDREASEN, N.C., ZIEBELL, S., PIERSON, R. & MAGNOTTA, V. (2011). Long-term antipsychotic treatment and brain volumes. Archives of General Psychiatry, 68, 128-137. [PDF]
  ZHANG, X.R., ZHANG, Z.J., ZHU, R.X., YUAN, Y.G., JENKINS, T.A. & REYNOLDS, G.P. (2011). Sexual dysfunction in male schizophrenia : influence of antipsychotic drugs, prolactin and polymorphisms of the dopamine D2 receptor gene. Pharmacogneomics 12 (8), 1127-1136. [PDF]
  TURNER, E.H., KNOEPFLMACHER, D. & SHAPLEY, L. (2012). Publication bias in antipsychotic trials : An analysis of efficacy comparing the published literature to the US Food and Drug Administration Database. PLoS Medicine, 9 (3), 1-17. [PDF]
  KOMOSSA, K., RUMMEL-KLUGE, C., SCHWARZ, S., SCHMID, F., HUNGER, H., KISSLING, W. & LEUCHT, S. (2013). Risperidone versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, 1-281. [PDF]
  ASMAL, L., FLEGAR, S.J., WANG, J., RUMMEL-KLUGE, C., SCHWARZ, S., KOMOSSA, K. & LEUCHT, S. (2013). Quetiapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia.. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 11, 1-278. [PDF]
  KHANNA, P., SUO, T., KOMOSSA, K., MA, H., RUMMEL-KLUGE, C., EL-SAYEH, H.G., LEUCHT, S. & XIA, J. (2014). Aripiprazole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, 1-559. [PDF]
HOGARTY, G.E. & ULRICH, R.F. (1998). The limitations of antipsychotic medication on schizophrenia relapse and adjustment and the contributions of psychosocial treatment. Journal of Psychiattric Research, 32 (3-4), 243-250. KIM, J., MacMASTER, E.C. & SCHWATRZ, T.L. (2014). Tardive dyskinesia in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics : case series and brief review of etiologic and treatment considerations. Drugs Context, 3, 1-9. [PDF]
  KOMOSSA, K., RUMMEL-KLUGE, C., HUNGER, H.,, SCHWARZ, S., BHOOPATHI, P.S., KISSLING, W. & LEUCHT, S. (2014). Risperidone versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 1, 1-176. [PDF]
  CORRELL, C.U., DETRAUX, J., DE LEPELEIRE, J. & DE HERT, M. (2015). Effects of antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers on risk for physical diseases in people with schizophrenia, depression and bipolar disorder. World Psychatry, 14 (2), 119-136. [PDF]
Voir aussi Dyskénisie tardive
Neurolinguistique :
Neurological Clinics : Revue scientifique de neurologie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
DEMENT, W.C. (2005). History of sleep medicine. Neurological Clinics, 23 (4), 945-965.

Neurological Research : Revue scientifique de neurologie. Éditeur : Maney Publishing.
RAUSHER, F.H., SHAW, G.L. & KY, K.N. (1996). Music training causes long : Term enhancement of preschool children’s spatial - Temporal Reasoning. Neurological Research, 19, 208.

fNeurologie/Neurologue : Branche de la médecine qui traite les affections du cerveau. Neurologie et Neuroscience. ( ): Ajuriaguerra, Andermann, Duchenne, Galaburda, Gilles de la Tourette,Habib, Hécaen, Luys, Vulpian. Neurology.

 
Neurology : Revue scientifique de neurologie. Éditeur : American Academy of Neurology.
ALEXANDER, M.P., STUSS, D.T., SHALLICE, T., PICTON, T.W. & GILLINGHAM, S. (2005). Impaired concentration due to frontal lobe damage from two distinct lesion sites. Neurology, 65 (4), 572-579.

Neurology & Neurosurgery : Revue scientifique de neurologie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
LYON, G.R. & PODHAJSKI, B. (1985). Diagnosis and remediation of learning disabilities. Neurology & Neurosurgery, 5, 1-12.

Neuromarketing : Neuromarketing.

  LINDELL, A.K. & KIDD, E. (2013). Consumers favor "right brain" training : The dangerous lure of neuromarketing. Mind, Brain, & Education, 7, (1), 35-39.
Neuromédiateur :

 
Neuromélanine : Neurotransmetteur.

 
Neuron : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude du neurone. Éditeur : Cell Press.
FANSELOW, M.S. & LEDOUX, J.E. (1999). Why we think plasticity underlying Pavlovian fear conditioning occurs in the basolateral amygdala. Neuron, 23, 229-232.

Neurone : Cellule du cerveau en forme d'arbuste qui possède deux fonctions : 1) transmettre et propager des signaux électriques (l'influx nerveux) le long de son axone et; 2) secréter des neurotransmetteurs. Le neurone constitue l'unité de base du système nerveux central. Les cent milliards de neurones (1011) que compte notre cerveau forment de minuscules réseaux à travers lesquels circulent l'influx nerveux. Cet influx peut se propager du cerveau vers les muscles (neurone moteur) ou, en sens inverse, des sens au cerveau (neurone sensoriel). Neurone, neuroscience et neorogènèse. = cellule nerveuse. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Neuron.
Types de neurones
Neurone canonique Neurone miroir Neurone sensoriel
Neurone dopaminergique Neurone moteur Neurones sérotoninergiques
Neurone formel Neurone pré-post synaptique
 

 
ADRIAN, E.D. (1932). The mechanism of nervous action : electrical studies of the neurone. University of Pennsylvania Press. COGGESHALL, R.E. & LEKAN, H.A. (1996). Methods for determining numbers of cells and synapses : a case for more uniform standards for review. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 364, 6-15.
KONORSKI, J. (1948). Conditioned reflexes and neuron organization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. TOVEE, M.J., ROLLS, E.T. & RAMACHANDRAN, V.S. (1996). Rapid visual learning in neurones of the primate temporal visual cortex. Neuroreport, 7, 2757-2760.
ALTMAN, J. (1962). Are neurons formed in the brains of adult mammals ? Science, 135, 1127-1128. [PDF] KEMPERMANN, G., KUHN, H.G. & GAGE, F.H. (1997). More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment. Nature, 386 (6624), 493-495.
 VERTES, R.P. & MILLER, N.E. (1976). Brain stem neurons that fire selectively to a conditioned stimulus for shock. Brain Research, 103, 229-242.  PACKENBERG, B. & GUNDERSEN, H.J.G. (1997). Neocortical neuron number in humans : Effect of sex and age. The Journal of comparative Neurobiology, 384, 312-320.
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 STEIN, L. & BELLUZZI, J.D. (1988). Operant conditioning of individual neurons. In M. Commons, R.M. Church, J.R. Stellar & A. Wagner (Eds.), Quantitative analyses of behavior : Biological determinants of reinforcement (pp. 249-264). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. SHORS, T.J. (2003). Can new neurons replace memories lost ? Science of Aging Knowledge Environment, 49, 35-38. [PDF]
WEST, M.J. & GUNDERSON, H.J.G. (1990). Unbiased Stereological estimation of the number of neurons in the human hippocampus. The Journal of Comparative Neu- rology, 296, 1–22. WADE, N.J. (2004). Visual neuroscience before the neuron. Perception, 33 (7), 69-889.
 SKOTTUN, B.C, DE VALOIS, R.L., GROSOF, D.H., MOVSHON, J.A., ALBRETCHT, D.G. & BONDS, A.B. (1991). Classifying simple and complex cells on the basis of response modulation. Vision Research, 31 (7/8), 1079-1086. [PDF]  BARNEA, A., MISHAL, A. & NOTTEBOHM, F. (2006). Social and spatial changes induce multiple survival regimes for new neurons in two regions of the adult brain : An anatomical representation of time ? Behavioural Brain Research, 167, 63-74. [PDF]
 GEISLER, W.S. & ALBRETCH, D.G., SALVI, R.J. & SAUNDERS, S.S. (1991). Descrimination performance of single neurons: Rate and temporal-pattern information. Journal of Neurophysiology, 66 (1), 334-362. [PDF] SHORS, T.J. (2009). Saving new brain cells. Scientific American (March), 47-54. [PDF]
YEOMANS, J.S., MATHUR, A. & TAMPAKERAS, M. (1993). Rewarding brain stimulation : Role of tegmental cholinergic neurons that activate dopamine neurons. Behavioral Neuroscience, 107 (6), 1077-1087. WADDELL, J., ANDERSON, M.L. & SHORS, T.J. (2011). Changing the rate and hippocampal dependence of trace eyeblink conditioning : slow learning enhances survival of new neurons. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory, 95, 159-165. [PDF]
CARPENTER, M.B. & SUTIN, J. (1983). Human neuroanatomy. Londres : Williams & Wilkins. AGGARWAL, M. & WICKENS, J.R. (2011). A role for phasic dopamine neuron firing in habit learning. Neuron, 72, 892-894. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Neuroscience etNeurogenèse
Neurone canonique : Canonical neuron.

  GALLESE V. & FREEDBERG, D. (2007). Mirror and canonical neurons are crucial elements in esthetic response. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11, 411.
Neurone dopaminergique : Neurone qui synthétise de la dopamine, un neurotransmetteur.

  PINEL, J. (2007). Biopsychologie. Pearsons.
Neurone formel : Formalisation mathématique des propriétés biologiques d'un neurone.
 
Neurone miroir : Neurone du cortex prémoteur et du lobe lobule pariétal inférieur, qui décharge ou s'active (potentiel d'action) dans le cerveau d'un macaque lorsqu'il émet un comportement (mouvement de la main ou de la bouche) ou lorsqu'il observe l'un de ses congénères faire ce comportement. Mirror neuron.
  RIZZOLATTI G., FADIGA, L., GALLESE, V. & FOGASSI, L. (1996). Premotor cortex and the recognition of motor actions. Cognitive Brain Research, 3, 131-141. [PDF] RIZZOLATTI, G. (2005). The mirror neuron system and its function in humans. Anatomy & Embryology, 210 (5-6), 419-421.
RIZZOLATTI, G., FADIGA, L., FOGASSI, L. & GALLESE, V. (1999). Resonance behaviors and mirror neurons. Archives of Italian Biology, 137 (2-3), 85-100. OBERMAN, L.M., HUBBARD, E.M., McCLEERY, J.P., ALTSCHULER, E.L. & RAMACHADRAN, V.S. (2005). EEG evidence for mirror neuron dysfunction in autism spectrum disorders. Cognitive Brain Research, 24 (2), 190-198. [PDF]
GALLESE V. & KEYSERS C. (2001). Mirror neurons : a sensorimotor representation system. Behavioral Brain Sciences, 24 (5), 983-984. RIZZOLATTI G. & CRAIGHERO L. (2005). Mirror neuron : a neurological approach to empathy. Neurobiology of Human Values, 107-123. [PDF]
GALLESE V. (2001). The shared manifold hypothesis. From mirror neurons to empathy. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 8, 33-50. FERRARI, P.F., ROZZI, S. & FOGASSI, L. (2005). Mirror neurons responding to observation of actions made with tools in monkey ventral premotor cortex. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 17 (2), 212-226.
  GALLESE V. (2001). Mirror neurons and intentional attunement: Commentary on Olds. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 54, 47-57.
WILLIAMS, J.H.G., WHITEN, A., SUDDENDORF, T. & PERRETT, D.I. (2001). Imitation, mirror neurons and autism. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 25 (4), 287-295. LYONS, D.E., SANTOS, L.R. & KEIL, F.C. (2006). Reflections of other minds : How primate social cognition can inform the function of mirror neurons. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 16 (2), 230-234. [PDF]
KOHLER, E., KEYSERS, C., UMILTÀ, M.A., FOGASSI, L., GALLESE, V. & RIZZOLATTI G. (2002). Hearing sounds, understanding actions : Action representation in mirror neurons. Science, 297, 846-848. SCHULTE-RUTHER, M., MARKOWITSCH, H.J., FINK, G.R. & PIEFKE, M. (2007). Mirror neuron and theory of mind mechanisms involved in face-to-face interactions : a functional magnetic resonance imaging approach to empathy. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 19, 1354-1372.
  OBERMAN, L.M. & RAMACHADRAN, V.S. (2007). The simulating social mind : the role of the mirror neuron system and simulation in the social and communicative deficits of autism spectrum disorders. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 310-327.
  LEPAGE J.F. & THEORET, H. (2007). The mirror neuron system : Grasping others’ actions from birth ? Developmental Science, 10, 513-529.
WOHLSCHLÄGER, A. & BEKKERING, H. (2002). Is human interaction based on a mirror-neurone system ? Some behavioral evidence. Experimental Brain Research, 143, (3), 35-341, EAGLE, M.N. & WAKEFIELD, J.C. (2007). Gestalt psychology and the mirror neuron discovery. Gestalt Theory, 29 (1), 59-64.
WICKER, B., KEYSERS, C., PLAILLY, J., ROYET, J.P., GALLESE, V. & RIZZOLATI, G. (2003). Both of us disgusted in my insula : The common neural basis of seeing and feeling disgust. Neuron, 40, 655-664. PFEIFER, J.H., IACOBONI, M., MAZZIOTTA, J.C. & DAPRETTO, M. (2008). Mirroring others' emotions relates to empathy and interpersonal competence in children. Neuroimage, 39, 2076-2085.
BUCCINO, G., BINKOFSKI, F. & RIGGIO, L. (2004). The mirror neuron system and action recognition. Brain Language, 89 (2), 370-376. FABRI-DESTRO, M. & RIZZOLATTI, G. (2008). Mirror neurons and mirror systems in monkeys and humans. Physiology, 23, 171-179.
  LOTTO, A.J., HICKOK, G. & HOLT,L.L. (2009). Reflections on mirror neurons and speech perception. Trends in Cognition Sciences, 13 (3), 110–114. [PDF]
  EAGLE, M.N., GALLESE V. & MIGONE, P. (2009). Mirror neurons and mind : Commentary on Vivona. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 57, 559-568. [PDF]
RIZZOLATTI, G. & CRAIGHERO L. (2004). The mirror-neuron system. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience, 27, 169-192. [PDF] IACOBONI, M. (2009). Imitation, empathy, and mirror neurons. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 653-670. [PDF]
HEYES, C.M. (2010). Where do mirror neurons come from ? Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 34, 575-583. [PDF]
Voir aussi Apprentissage par observation
Neurone moteur : = motoneurone.
  CARPENTER, M.B. & SUTIN, J. (1983). Human neuroanatomy. Londres : Williams & Wilkins.
Neurone pré-post synaptique :

  CARPENTER, M.B. & SUTIN, J. (1983). Human neuroanatomy. Londres : Williams & Wilkins.
Neurone sensoriel :

  CARPENTER, M.B. & SUTIN, J. (1983). Human neuroanatomy. Londres : Williams & Wilkins.
Neurones sérotoninergiques : Neurones qui synthétisent de la sérotonine.

  PINEL, J. (2007). Biopsychologie. Pearsons.
Neuropaediatrics : Revue scientifique. Éditeur : Thieme.
CRONEL-OHAYON, S., ZESIGER, P., DAVIDOFF, V., BONI, A., ROULET, E., VILLEMURE, J.-G. & DEONNA, T. (2006). Deficit in memory consolidation (abnormal forgetting rate) in childhood temporal lobe epilepsy. Pre- and postoperative long-term observation. Neuropaediatrics, 37, 1-8.

Neurophilosophie : Neurophilosophy.

  CHURCHLAND, P.S. (1989). Neurophilosophy : Toward a unified science of the mind-brain. The MIT Press.
ANDRIEU, B. (1998). La neurophilosophie. Paris : PUF/Que sais-je ?
CHURCHLAND, P.S. (2002). Brain-wise : Studies in neurophilosophy. The MIT Press.
NORTHOFF, G. (2004). Philosophy of the brain : The brain problem. John Benjamins.
WALTER, H. (2001). Neurophilosophy of free Will : From libertarian illusions to a concept of natural autonomy. The MIT Press.
Neurophysiologie : Neurophysiology.

  BURNISTON-BRAZIER, M.A. (1984). A history of neurophysiology in the 17th and 18th Centuries : From concept to experiment. Michigan : Raven Press.
BURNISTON-BRAZIER, M.A. (1988). A history of neurophysiology in the 19th century. Michigan : Raven Press.
Neuroplasticité : Neuroplasticité et neurogénèse. = plasticité neurale, plasticité neurobiologique. Plasticity, neural plasticity, learning-induced plasticity, physiological plasticity, brain plasticity, cortical plasticity, synaptic plasticity.

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BATES, E. (1999). Plasticity, localization and language development. In S.H. Broman & J.M. Fletcher (Eds.), The changing nervous system : Neurobehavioral consequences of early brain disorders (pp. 214-253). New York : Oxford University Press. VOSS, M.W., PRAKASH, R., ERICKSON, K.I., BASAK, C., CHADDOCK, L., KIM, J., HEO, S., WHITE, S., WOJICICKI, T., MAILEY, E., GOTHE, N., OLSON, E., MCAULEY, E. & KRAMER, A.F. (2010). Plasticity of brain networks in a randomized intervention trial of exercise training in older adults. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 2, 1-17. [PDF]
POSNER, M.I. & ABDULLAEV, Y.G. (1999). Neuroanatomy, circuitry and plasticity of word reading. Neuroreport, 10, 12-22. BAVELIER, D. & GREEN, C.S. SCHRATER, P. & POUGET, A. (2012). Brain plasticity through the life span : Learning to learn and action video games. Annual Reviews of Neuroscience, 35, 391-416. [PDF]
HONER, W.G., FALKAI, P., CHEN, C., ARANGO, V., MANN, J.J. & DWORK, A.J. (1999). Synaptic and plasticity-associated proteins in anterior frontal cortex in severe mental illness. Neuroscience, 91, 1247-1255. HORNICKEL, J., ECKER, S.G., BRADLOW, A.R. & KRAUS, N. (2012). Assistive listening devices drive neuroplasticity in children with dyslexia. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109 (41), 16731-16736. [PDF]
ROSENZWEIG, M. et LEIMAN, A.L. (1991). Psychophysiologie. Ville Mont Royal : Décarie. Voir aussi Neurogénèse
Neuropsychanalyse : Neuro-psychoanalysis. ( ): Panksepp, Schore, Solms.
  SCHORE, A.N. (1997). A century after Freud's project : Is a rapprochement between psychoanalysis and neurobiology at hand ? Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 45, 841-867. [PDF] SCHORE, A.N. (2007). Psychoanalytic research : Progress and process. Developmental affective neuroscience and clinical practice. Psychologist Psychoanalyst, 27, 6-15. [PDF]
FEDIDA, P. (2000). Le canular de la neuropsychanalyse. La Recherche, 101. BLASS, R.B. & CARMELI, Z. (2007). The case against neuropsychanalysis. On fallacies underlying psychoanalysis’ latest scientific trend and its negative impact on psychoanalytic discourse. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 88, 19-40.
SCHORE, A.N. (2002). Advances in neuropsychoanalysis, attachment theory, and trauma research : Implications for self psychology. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 22, 433-484. [PDF]  SOLMS, M. & PANKSEPP, J. (2012). The "Id" knows more than the "Ego" admits : Neuropsychoanalytic and primal consciousness perspectives on the interface between affective and cognitive neuroscience. Brain Sciences, 2 (2), 147-175. [PDF]
PANKSEPP, J. (2007). Neuro-psychoanalysis may enliven the mindbrain sciences. Cortex, 43, 1106-1107.  RAMUS, F. (2013). What’s the point of neuropsychoan alysis ? The British Journal of Psychiatry, 203, 170-171. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Psychanalyse
Neuro-Psychoanalysis : Revue scientifique qui étudie les déterminants biologiques de l'inconscient et des processus psychiques. Éditeur : NPSA.
 

Neuropsychologia : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre aux études de neuropsychologie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
HABIB, R., McINTOSH, A.R., WHEELER, M.A. & TULVING, E. (2003). Memory encoding and hippocampally-based novelty/familiarity discrimination networks. Neuropsychologia, 41, 271-279.

Neuropsychologie/Neuropsychologue : Science au carrefour de la psychologie et de la biologie, qui étudie la relation entre le cerveau et les phénomènes psychologiques (comportements, émotion, perception, cognition, etc.). Tous les neurocognivistes sont neuropsychologues; l'inverse est faux. Neuropsychologie, neurone et neurocognition. ( ): Adolphs, Aggleton, Ajuriaguerra, Amodio, Andreasen, Benton, Beyerstein, Bherer, Bickle, Bishop, Brannon, Braun, Butterworth, Carelli, Cavanagh, Champagne, Corr, Davidson, Denson, De Valois, Doyon, Eccles, Everitt, Casey, Cohen, Cyrulnik, Damasio, De Valois, Du Bois-Reymond, Edelman, Eichenbaum, Fletcher, Franz, Gallagher, Gallese, Garcia, Gazzaniga, Gilboa, Goldstein, Gould, Gray, Gregory, Habib, Harris, Harris, Hebb, Hécaen, Howard-Jones, Iacono, Ison, James, Joel, Jolicoeur, Katz, Kelley, Kimura, Knutson, Konorski, Koob, Kuhl, Lashley, Lassonde, Ledoux, Loveland, Lupien, Luria, Maier, Markham, McManus, McCulloch, Meck, Meltzoff, Melzack, Miller, Milner, Milner, Moritz, Moscovitch, Nadel, Nicolson, Nyberg, Öhman, O'keefe, Ozonoff, Panksepp, Penfield, Peretz, Phelps, Preyer, Posner, Ptito, Pugh, Quirk, Ramachadran, Richer, Rizzolatti, Robbins, Robinson, Sacks, Sakurai, Savage, Schmajuk, Sergeant, Shallice, Shors, Sperry, Starrfelt, Thompson, Umiltà, Vann, Voss, Walker, Warrington, Weiskrantz, Weiss, Wise, Wolfe, Yeo, Yeomans, Yonelinas, Zangwill, Zattore. Neuropsychology.
  HEBB, D.O. (1959). A neuropsychological theory. In S. Koch (Ed.), Psychology : A study of a science (Vol. 1). New York : McGraw-Hill. MIALET, J.P. (2000). Les explorations cognitives de l'anxiéte. Dans M. Van der Linden, J.-M. Danion & A. Agniel, (Dirs), La psychopathologie : Une approche cognitive et neuropsychologique (pp. 133-160). France : Solar éditeurs.
 HARTLAGE, L.C. & TELZROW, C.F. (1985). The neuropsychology of individual differences. New York : Plenum Press. GOTTLIEB, G. (2001). The relevance of developmental-psychobiological metatheory to developmental neuropsychology. Developmental Neuropsychology, 19 (1), 1-9.
 HANNAY, H.J. (1986). Experimental techniques in human neuropsychology. New York : Oxford University Press.  RAINS, G.D. (2002). Principles of human neuropsychology. Boston : McGraw-Hill.
MIRSKY, A.F. & DUNCAN, C.C. (1987). An introduction to modern techniques of clinical neuropsychology. In G.A. Favaand & T.N. Wise (Eds.), Advances in psycho-somatic medicine (pp. 167-184). S. Karger, Basel.  KOLB, B. & WHISHAW, I.Q. (2003/2008). Fundamentals of human neuropsychology. Freeman.
SHALLICE, T. (1988). From neuropsychology to mental structure. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. LASSONDE, M., SAUERWEIN, H.C., GALLAGHER, A., THÉRIAULT, M. & LEPORE, F. (2006). Neuropsychology : traditional and new methods of investigation. Epilepsia, 47 (S2), 9-13. [PDF]
 FINGER, S. (1994). Origins of neuroscience. New York : Oxford University Press. CORR, P.J. (2010). The psychoticism-psychopathy continuum : A neuropsychological model of core deficits. Personality & Individual Differences, 48, 695-703. [PDF]
   
 CYTOWIC, R.E. (1996). The neurological side of neurospychology. Cambridge, MA : MIT press.  
PETRI, H.L. & MISHKIN, M. (1994). Behaviorism, cognitivism and the neuropsychology of memory. American Scientist, 82, 30-37. [PDF] McDANIEL, M.A. & EINSTEIN, G.O. (2011). The neuropsychology of prospective memory in normal aging : A componential approach. Neuropsychologia, 49, 2147-2155. [PDF]
Voir aussi Neurone, Neuroscience et Neurobiologiste et Neurocognitiviste
Neuropsychological Rehabilitation : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages aux études de neuropsychologie. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
 WARRINGTON, E.K., McKENNA, P. & ORPWOOD, L. (1998). Single word comprehension : a concrete and abstract word synonym test. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 8 (2), 143-154.

Neuropsychology : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre aux études de neuropsychologie. Éditeur : APA.
 MITCHELL. J.P., SULLIVAN, A.L., SCHACTER, D.L. & BUDSON, A.E. (2006). Misattribution errors in Alzheimer’s disease : The illusory truth effect. Neuropsychology, 20, 185-192.

Neuropsychopharmacologie : Neuropsychopharmacology.

  PLISKA, S.R. (2005). The neuropsychopharmacology of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1385-1390.
Neuropsychopharmacology : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui s'intéresse aux effets des drogues sur les comportements et le cerveau. Éditeur : APA.
KHAN, A., KHAN, S. & BROWN, W.A. (2002). Are placebo controls necessary to test new antidepressants and anxiolytics? International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, 5, 193-197.

NeuroReport : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'étude du cerveau. Éditeur : Wolters Kluwers.
BALL, D., HILL, L., ELEY, T.C., CHORNEY, M.J., CHORNEY, K., THOMPSON, L.A., DETTERMAN, D.K., BENBOW, C.P., LUBINSKI, D., OWEN, M., McGUFFIN, P. & PLOMIN, R. (1998). Dopamine markers and general cognitive ability. NeuroReport, 9, 347-349.

Neuroscience : Ensemble des sciences, auquel appartient une partie de la psychologie, qui s'intéresse au fonctionnement du cerveau, et au lien entre le cerveau, le comportement et la cognition (neurocognition). = neurocognitive science, neuroscience. Neuroscience, computational neuroscience.

  BECHTEL, W. (1983). A bridge between cognitive science and neuroscience : The functional architecture of mind. Philosophical Studies, 44, 319-30. SULLIVAN, P.R. (2006). Are current philosophical theories of consciousness useful to neuroscientists ? Behavior & Philosophy, 34, 59-70. [PDF]
  CAHILL, L. (2006). Why sex matters for neuroscience. Nature Reviews. Neuroscience, 7, 447-448.
  LIEBERMAN, M.D. (2006). Social cognitive neuroscience : A review of core processes. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 259-289. [PDF]
JASPER, H.H. (1985). The early development of neuroscience in Canada. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 12, 221-229.  LUO J. & KNOBLICH, G. (2007). Studying insight problem solving with neuroscientific methods. Methods, 42, 77-86.
 SEJNOWSKI, T.J. KOCH, C. & CHURHLAND, P.S. (1988). Computational neuroscience. Science, 241, 1299-1306. [PDF] TIBERGHIEN, G. (2007). Entre neurosciences et neurophilosophie : la psychologie cognitive et les sciences cognitives. Psychologie Française, 52 (3), 279-297.
BUTLER, K. (1994). Neural constraints in cognitive science. Minds & Machines 4, 129-162. POLDRACK, R.A. (2008). The role of fMRI in cognitive neuroscience : Where do we stand ? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 18, 223-227. [PDF]
NELSON, C.A. & BLOOM, F.E. (1997). Child development and neuroscience. Child Development, 68, 970-987. WEISBERG, D.S., KEIL, F.C., GOODSTEIN, J., RAWSON, E. & GRAY, J. (2008). The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 20, 470-477.
BECHTEL, W., MANDIK, P., MUNDALE, J. & STUFFLEBEAM, R.S. (Eds.) (2001). Philosophy and the neurosciences : A reader. Basil Blackwell. THOMPSON, T. (2008). Self-awareness : Behavior analysis and neuroscience. The Behavior Analyst, 31 (2), 137-144. [PDF]
KANDEL, E.R. & SQUIRE, L.R. (2000). Neuroscience : Breaking down scientific barriers to the study of brain and mind. Science, 290, 1113-1120. DIAMOND, A. & AMSO, D. (2008). Contributions of neuroscience to our understanding of cognitive development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17 (2), 136-141. [PDF]
BEYERSTEIN, B.L. (2001). Neuroscience and psi-ence. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 10 (4), 571-572. PURDY, N. (2008). Neuroscience and education : how best to filter out the neurononsense from our classrooms ? Irish Educational Studies, 27, 197-208.
SQUIRE, L.R. (2002). Fundamental neuroscience. San Diego, CA : Academic Press. POIRIER, P. & FAUCHER, L. (2008). (Dir ). Des neurosciences à la philosophie : Neurophilosophie et philosophie des neurosciences. Éditions Syllepse.
RAZ, A. & SHAPIRO, T. (2002). Hypnosis and neuroscience : a cross talk between clinical and cognitive research. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59 (1), 85-90. [PDF] DOVIDIO, J.F., PEARSON, A.R. & ORR, P. (2008). Social psychology and neuroscience : Strange bedfellows or happy marriage ? Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 11, 249-265. [PDF]
GEAKE, J. & COOPER, P. (2003). Cognitive neuroscience: Implications for education ? Westminster Studies in Education, 26, 7-20. CHOUDHURY, S., NAGEL, S.K. & SLABY, J. (2009). Critical neuroscience : Linking neuroscience and society through Critical practice. BioSocieties, 4,61-77.
BENNETT, M.R. & HACHER, P.M.S. (2003). Philosophical foundations of neuroscience. Malden, MA : Blackwell. JOKIC-BEGIC, N. (2010). Cognitive-behavioral therapy and neuroscience : Towards closer integration. Psychological Topics, 19 (2), 235-254. [PDF]
LIBET, B. (2004). Mind time : The temporal factor in consciousness : Perspectives in Cognitive Neuroscience. Harvard : Harvard University Press. SYLVAN, L.J. & HRISDOULOU, J.A. (2010). Understanding the role of neuroscience in brain based products : a guide for educators and consumers. Mind, Brain, & Education, 4, 1-7. [PDF]
STERN, E. (2005). Pedagogy meets Neuroscience. Science, 310, 745. [PDF] LEGRENZI, P., UMILTÀ, C. & ANDERSON, F. (2011). Neuromania : On the limits of brain science. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
CACIOPPO, J.T. & BERNTSON, G.G. (2005). Social neuroscience. New York : Psychology Press. CORR, P.J. & McNAUGHTON, N. (2012). Neuroscience and approach/avoidance personality traits : A two stage (valuation-motivation) approach. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 36, 2339-2354. [PDF]
SCHAAL, D.W. (2005). Naming our concerns about neuroscience : A review of Bennett and Hacker's philosophical foundations of neuroscience. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 84 (3), 683-692. [PDF] HYDE, H.L., SHAW, D.S. & HARIRI, A.R. (2013). Understanding youth antisocial behavior using neuroscience through a developmental psychopathology lens : Review, integration, and directions for research. Developmental Review, 33, 168-223. [PDF]
TIMBERLAKE, W., SCHAAL, D.W & STEINMETZ, J.E. (2005). Relating behavior and neuroscience : Introduction and synopsis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 84 (3), 305-311. [PDF] POLDRACK, R.A. (2015). Is "efficiency" a useful concept in cognitive neuroscience ? Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 11, 12-17
WINGER, G., WOODS, J.H., GALUSKA, C.M. & WADE-GALUSKA, T. (2005). Behavioral perspectives on the neuroscience of drug addiction. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 84 (3), 667-681. [PDF] MARESHAL, D. (2016) The neuroscience of conceptual learning in science and mathematics. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, 10, 114-118. [PDF]
Voir aussi Neurone, Neurobiologiste, Computation et Neurocognitiviste
Neuroscience : Revue scientifique qui se consacre aux neurosciences cliniques. Éditeur : Elsevier.
HOLLAND, P. & GALLAGHER, M. (2006). Different roles for amygdala central nucleus and substantia innominata in the surprise-induced enhacement of learning. Neuroscience, 26 (14), 3791-3797. [PDF]

Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews : Revue scientifique de neuroscience et de psychologie. Éditeur : Elsevier. = Neurosci Biobehav Rev.
BARON-COHEN, S., RING, H, BULLMORE, E., WHEELWRIGHT, S., ASHWIM, C. & WILLIAMS, S. (2000). The amygdala theory of autism. Neuroscience & Behavioural Reviews, 24, 355-364.

Neuroscience Letters : Revue scientifique de neuroscience. Éditeur : Elsevier.
LEDOUX, J.E., FARB, C.R. & ROMANSKI, L.M. (1991). Overlapping projections to the amygdala and striatum from auditory processing areas of the thalamus and cortex. Neuroscience Letters, 134 (1), 139-144.

Neuroscience Reseach : Revue scientifique de neuroscience. Éditeur : Elsevier.
TAKAHASHI, S. & SAKURAI, Y. (2007). Spatial information of hippocampal pyramidal cells along the dendrosomatic axis of behaving rat. Neuroscience Research, 58 (S1), 45.

Neuroscientist : Revue scientifique de neuroscience. Éditeur : Sage.
HAMANN, S. (2005). Sex differences in the responses of the human amygdala. Neuroscientist, 11 (4), 288-293.

Neurosexisme : Voir Sexisme.
Neurotisme : Dans la théorie des traits de Costa et McCrae (Big-five), trait de personnalité qui se caractérise chez l'individu par un tendance persistante à ressentir des émotions négatives (anxiété, stress, colère, culpabilité, déprime). = neuroticisme, névrotisme. Neuroticism.

Les 5 traits centraux
Extraversion
Neurotisme
Agréabilité
Ouverture à l'expérience
Consciencieux

  McCRAE, R.R. & COSTA, P.T. (1983). Joint factors in self-reports and ratings: Neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience. Personality & Individual Differences, 4, 245-255. HETTEMA, J.M., NEALE, M.C., MYERS, J.M., PRESCOTT, C.A. & KENDLER, K.S. (2006). A population-based twin study of the relationship between neuroticism and internalizing disorders. American journal of Psychiatry, 163, 857-864.
JOHN, O.P. (1983). Joint factors in self-reports and ratings : Neuroticism, extraversion and openness to experience. Personality & Individual Differences, 4, 245-255. SCOLLON, C.N. & DIENER, E. (2006). Love, work, and changes in extraversion and neuroticism over time. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 91 (6), 1152-1165.
  DENISSEN, J.J.A., & PENKE, L. (2008). Neuroticism predicts reactions to cues of social inclusion. European Journal of Personality, 22, 497-517. [PDF]
OKUN, M.A. & GOERGE, L.K. (1984). Physician- and self-ratings of health, neuroticism, and subjective well-being among men and women.Personality & Individual Differences, 5, 533-539. HIRSH, J.B. & INZLICHT, M. (2008). The devil you know : Neuroticism predicts neural response to uncertainty. Psychological Science, 19, 962-967.
BRIGGS, S.R. (1988). Shyness : Introversion or neuroticism. Journal of Research In Personality, 22, 290-307. LAHEY, B.B. (2009). Public health significance of neuroticism. American Psychologist, 64, 241-256.
VIKEN, R.J., ROSE, R.J., KAPRIO, J. & KOSKENVUO M. (1994). A developmental genetic analysis of adult personality : extraversion and neuroticism from 18 to 59 years of age. Journal of personality & social psychology, 66 (4), 722-30. ORMEL J., JERONIMUS, B.F., KOTOV, M., RIESE, H., BOS, E.H. & HANKIN, B. (2013). Neuroticism and common mental disorders : Meaning and utility of a complex relationship. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, (5), 686-697.
  JERONIMUS, B.F., RIESE, H., SANDERMAN, R. & ORMEL, J. (2014). Mutual reinforcement between neuroticism and life experiences : A five-wave, 16-Year study to test reciprocal causation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 107 (4), 751-64
  ZACHAROPOULOS, G., LANCASTER, T.M., MAIO, G.R. & LINDEN, D.E. (2016). The genetics of neuroticism and hucprman values. Genes, Brain & Behavior, 15, 361-366.
Voir aussi McCrae, Costa et Théorie 5 traits centraux
Neurotransmetteur : Famille de molécules, donc de substance chimique libérée dans la fente synaptique du neurone émetteur et qui modifie l'activité du neurone récepteur afin de permettre la transmission de l'influx nerveux. Il existe dans le cerveau des mammifères près d'une centaine de neurotransmetteurs. Le rôle premier de ces molécules est de permettre aux neurones de communiquer entre eux. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Neurotransmitter, neuromodulator.

Les principaux neurotransmetteurs
Acétylcholine Endorphine Histamine
Adrénaline Épinéphrine Neuromélanine
Catécholamine GABA Noradrénaline
Dopamine Glutamate Ocytopamine
  Glycine Sérotonine
 

  IVERSEN, S.D. & IVERSEN, L.L. (1975). Central neurotransmitters and the regulation of behavior. In Handbook of psychobiology (pp. 153-200). Academic Press: New York.
MOORE, K.E. (1977). The actions of amphetamine on neurotransmitters : A brief review. Biological Psychiatry, 12, 451-462.
GUR, R.E. & GUR, R.C. (1992). Neurotransmitters are important, but so is metabolism. Neuropsychopharmacology, 7, 63-65.
VALENSTEIN, E.S. (2002). The discovery of chemical neurotransmitters. Brain & Cognition, 49 (1), 73-95.
Voir aussi Neurone
Neurotransmission : Neurotransmission.

  FIBIGER, H.C., DAMSMA, G. & DAY, J.C. (1991). Behavioral pharmacology and biochemistry of central cholinergic neurotransmission. Advances in Experimental Medicine & Biology, 295, 399-414.
Neutralisation : Technique thérapeutique qui a pour objectif d'apprendre au patient/client à réduire l'anxiété provoquée par ses obsessions. Il s'agit en fait de toute activité volontaire (distraction, arrêt de la pensée, évitement, échappement, etc.) qui a pour but de chasser, prévenir ou diminuer ces obsessions.

 
Neutraliser (les variables parasites) : En méthodologie, opération, essentiel au caractère scientifique d'une recherche, qui consiste à atténuer/annuler l'effet nuisible des variables parasites au moyen d'une stratégie de contrôle, dans le but d'isoler un et un seul facteur, celui que l'on considère comme la cause du phénomène Y que l'on cherche à expliquer (variable dépendante), soit X (variable indépendante). Dans ce contexte, neutraliser signifie «rendre sans effet» ou «rendre sans effet nuibile au raisonnement, à la démonstration». = réduire à zéro, rendre sans effet, sans influence nuisble ou parasite. Neutralization.

 
Neutralisme : Théorie de l'évolution, proposée par Kimura, selon laquelle la plupart des mutations ont une influence négligeable, sinon nulle, sur la valeur sélective des individus d'une espèce. Neutral theory.

  KIMURA, M. (1985). The neutral theory of molecular evolution. New Scientist, 41-46.
KIMURA, M. (1989). The neutral theory of molecular evolution and the world view of the neutralists. Genome, 31 (1), 24-31.
Neutralité (de la science/scientifique) : Un scientifique est neutre s'il défend ses idées (et non celles d'une chaire de recherche, de l'entreprise qui lui verse un salaire, du fonds de recherche qui le subventione, etc.), à condition bien sûr que ses idées s'appuient sur des connaissances scientifiques (et non sur ses propres opinions). Neutralité, impartialié et objectivité de la science. Neutrality, value free.

  HARDING, S. (1993). After the neutrality ideal : Science, politics, and "strong objectivity" Social Research, 59 (3), 567-587. [PDF]
LACEY, H. (1997). Neutrality in the social sciences. Journal for the Theory of Social Behavior, 27, 213-241.
LACEY, H. (1999). Is science value free ? Values and scientific understanding. London & New York : Routledge.
LACEY, H. (2002). The ways in which the sciences are and are not value free. In P. Gardenfors, K. Kijania-Placek & J. Wolenski (Eds), Proceedings of the 11th international congress of logic, methodology and philosophy of science (pp. 513-526). Dordrecht, Holland : Kluwer.
DESCARRIES, F. (2014). Language is not neutral : The construction of knowledge in the social sciences and humanities. Signs : Journal of Women in Culture & Society, 7 (3), 564-569.
Voir aussi Angélisme, Impartialité et Objectivitéscientifique
 
Neutralité (des genres) : Voir Genre (Neutralité).
NEVIN - NEVIS - NÉVROSE - NEWCOMB - NEWELL - NEWMAN - NEYMAN - NEZ - NEZU - NI
Nevill Alan ( ) : Psychosociologue anglais et spécialiste de la psychologie du sport. Il s'intéresse notamment à l'avantage du terrain dans les sports, notamment au football (soccer). Collaborateur de Balmer.
 NEVILL, A.M., NEWELL, S.M. & GALE, S. (1996). Factors associated with home advantage in English and Scottish soccer matches. Journal of Sports Sciences, 14 (2), 181-186.
 NEVILL, A.M., HOLDER, R.L., BARDLEY, A., CALVERT, H. & JONES, S. (1997). Identifying home advantage in international tennis and golf tournaments. Journal of Sports Sciences, 15 (4), 437-443.
 NEVILL, A.M., BALMER, N.J. & WILLIAMS, A.M. (1999). Crowd influence on decisions in association football. Lancet, 353 (9162), 1416.
 NEVILL, A.M. & HOLDER, R.L. (1999). Home advantage in sport : An overview of studies on the advantage of playing at home. Sports Medicine, 28 (4), 221-236.
 NEVILL, A.M., BALMER, N.J. & WILLIAMS, A.M. (2002). The influence of crowd noise and experience upon refereeing decisions in football. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 3, 261-272.
Nevin John Anthony (New York 1933-) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain. Il a proposé une théorie du momentum pour expliquer le taux de réponse des comportements. Il s'est également intéressé à la théorie de la détection du signal. = Tony Nevin. Étudiant de Schoenfeld. Professeur de Grace et collaborateur de Baum, Davison, Deleon, Mace, Shahan, Shettleworth et Smith.

NEVIN, J.A. (1969). Interval reinforcement of choice behavior in discrete trials. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (6), 875-885. [PDF]
NEVIN, J.A. & BAUM, W.N. (1980). Feedback functions for variable-interval reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 34 (2), 207-217. [PDF]
NEVIN, J.A., SMITH, L.D. & ROBERTS, J. (1987). Does contingent reinforcement strengthen operant behavior ? Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 48 (1), 17-33. [PDF]
NEVIN, J.A. (1992). An integrative model for the study of behavioral momentum. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 57 (3), 301-316. [PDF]
NEVIN, J.A. (2003). Mathematical principles of reinforcement and resistance to change. Behavioural Processes, 62, 65-73.
Nevis Edwin Clifford (Brooklyn 1926-2011 Wellfleet) : Psychologue humaniste et gestaltiste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des organisations et des besoins.
NEVIS, E.C. (1983). Using an American perspective in understanding another culture: Toward a hierarchy of needs for the people's Republic of China. Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 19 (3), 249-264.
NEVIS, E.C. (1983). Cultural assumptions and productivity : The United States and China. Sloan Management Review, 24 (3), 17-29.
NEVIS, E.C. (1997). Gestalt therapy : Perspectives and applications. Routledge.
NEVIS, E.C. (1997). Organizational consulting : A gestalt approach. Gestalt Press.
Névrose : Chez Freud, maladie mentale dont les symptômes révèlent l'existence d'un conflit intrapsychique refoulé d'origine infantile. Neurosis.

Les types de névrose
Névrose d'abandon Névrose de transfert Névrose obsessionnelle compulsive
Névrose d'angoisse Névrose narcissique Névrose phobique
Névrose de caractère Névrose obsessionnelle Névrose traumatique
Névrose d'échec
 

  HITSCHMANN, E. (1911/1917). Freud's theories of the neuroses. New York : Moffat, Yard and company. ELLIS, A. (1952). Perversions and neurosis. International Journal of Sexology, 55, 135-138.
FREUD, S. (1921). Introduction to psychoanalysis and the war neurosis. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 2, 1-4. FENICHEL, O. (1953). La théorie psychanalytique des névroses : tome I et II. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
FERENCZI, S., ABRAHAM, K., SIMMEL, E. & JONES, E. (1921). Psychoanalysis and the war neurosis. The International Psycho-Analytical Library, 2, 1-59. EYSENK, H.J. (1962). Conditionnement et névrose : nouvelle méthode thérapeutique. Paris : Gauthier-Villars.
ALEXANDER, F. (1926). Neurosis and the whole personality. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 7, 340-352. EYSENK, H.J. & RACHMAN, S.(1965). The causes and cures of neurosis. London : Routledge and Kegan Paul.
EY, H., BONNAFÉ, F. FOLIN, S., LACAN, J. & ROUART, J. (Ed.) (1950). Le problème de la psychogenèse des névroses et des psychoses. Paris : Desclée de Brouwer. EYSENK, H.J. (1979). La névrose et vous. Bruxelles : Pierre Mardaga.
  ISAACS, K.S. (1990). Affect and the fundamental nature of neurosis : Logic and reality. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 7 (2), 259-284.
  FREEMAN, D. & GARETY, P.A. (2003). Connecting neurosis and psychosis : The direct influence of emotion on delusions and hallucinations. Behavior Research & Therapy, 41, 923-497. [PDF]
Voir aussi Dépression
Névrose d'abandon : État permanent d'insécurité datant de l'enfance, résultant de la crainte, fondée ou non, d'être abandonné par les gens que l'on aime. Névrose d'abandon et abandonnisme. Neurosis of abandonment.

 
Névrose d'angoisse : Anxiety neurosis.

 
Névrose de caractère : Character neurosis.

 
Névrose d'échec : = syndrome d'échec. Failure neurosis.

 
Névrose de transfert : Transference neurosis.

   
Névrose narcissique : Narcissistic neurosis.

 
Névrose obsessionnelle : = psychonévrose obsessionnelle. Obsessional neurosis.
  GREEN, A. (1964). Névrose obsessionnelle et hystérie, leurs relations chez Freud et depuis. Revue Française de Psychanalyse, 28 (5-6), 679-716. BARNETT, J. (1966). Cognitive repair in the treatment of obsessional neurosis. Proceedings of the 4th World Congress of Psychiatry, 150, 752-757.
GREEN, A. (1965). Obsessions et psychonévrose obsessionnelle. Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale II. WINNICOTT, D. (1966). Comment on obsessional neurosis and 'Frankie. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 47 (2), 143-144.
LEBOVICI, S. (1965). Evolution de la névrose obsessionnelle de l’enfant et de l’adolescent. Revue de Psychiatrie Infantile et d'Hygiène Mentale de l'Enfance, 33 (11-12), 469-474.  
KRINGLEN, E. (1965). Obsessional neurotics : A long-term follow-up. British Journal of Psychiatry, 111, 709-722. GREEN, A. (1967). Métapsychologie de la névrose obsessionnelle. Revue Française de Psychanalyse, 31 (4), 629-646.
INOUYE, E. (1965). Similar and dissimilar manifestations of obsessive-compulsive neurosis in monozygotic twins. American Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 1094-1099. LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. & DEL PISTOIA, L. (1984). Névrose obsessionnelle. Encyclopédie médico-chirurgicale II, 37370, A-10 à D-10.
GITTELSON, N. (1965). The depressive psychosis in the obsessional neurotic. Archives of General Psychiatry, 112, 883-887. JEAMMET, P. (1985). Éros et folie : La névrose obsessionnelle. Neuropsychiatrie de l'Enfance, 33, 455-461.
Névrose obsessionnelle compulsive : De nos jours on utilise le terme trouble obsessif-compulsif. Obsessive-compulsive neurosis.
  SANDLER, J. & HAZARA, A. (1960). The "obsessional" : On the psychological clarification of obsessional character traits and symptoms. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 33, 113-122.
JUDD, L.L. (1965). Obsessive-compulsive neurosis in children. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 136-143.
RACHMAN, S., HODGSON, R. & MARKS, I.M. (1971). The treatment of chronic obsessive-compulsive neurosis. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 9, 237-247.
TEMPLER, D.I. (1972). The obsessive-compulsive neurosis : Review of research findings. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 13 (4), 375-383.
AKHTAR, S., WIG, N.N., VERMA, V.K., PERSHAD, D. & VERMA, S.K. (1975). A phenomenological analysis of symptoms in obsessive-compulsive neurosis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 342-348.
RAMSAY, R. (1977). Behavioural approaches to obsessive-compulsive neurosis. In J.C. Boulougouris & A.D. Rabavilas (Eds.), The treatment of phobic and obsessive compulsive disorders : Selected papers from the sixth annual meeting of the European association of behaviour therapy (pp. 102-103). Oxford : Pergamon Press.
Névrose phobique : Voir Phobie. Phobic neurosis.
Névrose traumatique : Traumatic neurosis.
New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development : Revue scientifique qui se consacre à l'étude du développement. Éditeur : Wiley. = New Dir Child Dev.
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New Directions for Evaluation : Revue scientifique qui consacrent ses pages à l'évaluation. Éditeur : Wiley.
LIPSEY, M.W. (2007). Theory as method : Small theories of treatments. New Directions for Evaluation, 114, 30-62. [PDF]

New Directions for Teaching & Learning : Revue scientifique qui se consacre à l'enseignement. Éditeur : Wiley.
SVINCKI, M.D. (1999). New directions in learning & motivation. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 80, 5-27. [PDF]

New Directions for Youth Development : Revue scientifique qui consacrent ses pages à l'étude du développement et de l'adolescence. Éditeur : Wiley.
ZARRETT, N. & ECCLES, J.S. (2006). The passage to adulthood : Challenges of late adolescence. New Directions for Youth Development, 111 (4), 13-28. [PDF]

New England Journal of Medecine : Revue scientifique. Éditeur : Massachusetts Medical Society. = NEJM.
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New Ideas in Psychology : Revue scientifique qui onsacre ses pages aux nouvelles théories en psychologie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
BUNGE, M. (1991). What is science ? Does it matter to distinguish it from pseudoscience ? A reply to my commentators. New Ideas in Psychology, 9, 245-283.

New Review of Social Psychology : Revue scientifique. Éditeur : New York Academy of Sciences. = NYAS.
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New York Academy of Sciences : Revue scientifique. Éditeur : New York Academy of Sciences. = NYAS.
WALKER, M.P. (2009).The role of sleep in cognition and emotion. New York Academy of Sciences, 1156, 168-197. [PDF]

New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'éducation. Éditeur : New York Academy of Sciences. = New Zeal J Educ Stud.
CLAY, M.M. (1967). The reading behaviour of five year old children : a research report. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 2 (1), 11-31.

Newcomb Theodore Mead (1903-1984) : Psychosociologue américain. Président de l'APA en 1956. Étudiant de Murphy. Professeur de Bem. Collaborateur de Festinger et Pepitone.

No 57
NEWCOMB, T.M. (1929). Does extroversion-introversion offer a clue for the prognosis and treatment of problem boys? Mental Hygiene, 14, 919-925.
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Newell
Allen Newell K.M. Newell
 
Newell Allen (San Francisco 1927-1992 Pittsburgh) : Mathématicien américain et chef de file de la perspective cognitive américaine et de l'intelligence artificielle. Collaborateur de Simon.
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Newell Karl M. ( ) : Kinésiologue américain, spécialiste dans l'étude du mouvement et des habiletés motrices, notamment de la préhension. Collaborateur de Baillargeon.
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Newstead Stephen E. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain d'origine anglaise et spécialiste de l'étude du raisonnement, notamment du syllogisme.
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Neyman Jerzy (Bessarabia, Russie [maintenant Tighina] 1894-1981 Oakland) : Mathématicien et statisticien russe. Pionnier de l'étude et de la mise à l'épreuve de la théorie des probabilités. En collaboration avec Pearson, il a développé la notion de test d'hypothèse. Professeur de Dantzig et Lehmann. Collaborateur de Pearson.
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Nez : Organe qui permet la détection des odeurs. Nez, organe de jacobson et odorat.

 
Nezu
Arthur M. Nezu Christine M. Nezu
 
Nezu Arthur M. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste, spécialisé dans l'étude de la résolution de problèmes, des conséquences psychologiques du cancer et du traitement de la dépression. Collaborateur de D'zurilla et Nezu.
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NICOLSON - NICOTINE - NICTATION - NIETZSCHE - NISBETT - NISSEN - NIVEAU - NIVEAU DE BASE - NIVEAU OPÉRANT - NO
Niche écologique : Milieu de vie d'un organisme, dans lequel son espèce a évolué. EX : votre maison n'est pas une niche pour votre chien (mais c'est son habitat).

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Nickols
J.G. Nicholls Margaret E. Nichols
 
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Nickell Joe (West Liberty 1944-) : Sceptique américain et spécialiste de l'étude des phénomènes paranormaux et de la parapsychologie. Collaborateur de Baker.
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Nicolson Rod I. ( ) : Neurosychologue anglais, spécialisé dans l'étude de la dyslexie et du rôle du cervelet dans ce trouble d'apprentissage. Collaborateur de Fawcett et Shankardass.
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Nicotine : Drogue de la famille des stimulants, que l'on trouve notamment dans le tabac et qui est, avec le renforcement buccal, à l'origine de la dépendance à la cigarette. Nicotine et fumer. Nicotine.
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LICHTENSTEIN, E. (1992). Nicotine patch therapy in primary care settings : the missing research link. International Journal of Smoking Cessation, 1, 33-34. GEHRICKE, J-G., WHALEN, C.K., JAMNER, L.D., WIGAL, T.L. & STEINHOFF, K. (2006). The reinforcing effects of nicotine and stimulant medication in the everyday lives of adult smokers with ADHD : A preliminary examination. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 8, 37-47.
WESTMAN, E.C., LEVIN, E.D. & ROSE, J.E. (1993). The nicotine patch in smoking cessation. A randomized trial with telephone counseling. Archives of Internal Medicine, 153, 1917-1923. HABERSTICK, B.C., TIMBERLAKE, D., EHRINGER, M.A., LESSEM, J.M., HOPFER, C.J., SMOLEN, A. & HEWITT, J.K. (2007). Genes, time to first cigarette and nicotine dependence in a general population sample of young adults. Addiction, 102 (4), 655-665.
FIORE, M. C., SMITH, S.S., JORENBY, D.E. & BAKER, T.B. (1994). The effectiveness of the nicotine patch for smoking cessation: A meta-analysis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271, 1940-1947. WAN, G.E. & LESSOV-SCHLAGGAR, C.N. (2007). The effects of tobacco smoke and nicotine on cognition and the brain. Neuropsychology Review, 17, 259-273.
GILBERT, D.G. & GILBERT, B.O. (1995). Personality, psychopathology, and nicotine response as mediators of the genetics of smoking. Behavior Genetics, 25 (2), 133-147. KANDEL, D.B., HU, M-C, GRIESLER, P.C. & SCHAFFRAN, C. (2007). On the development of nicotine dependence in adolescence. Drug & Alcohol Dependence, 91 (1), 26-39. [PDF]
JARVIK, M.E. (1995). The scientific case that nicotine is addictive. Psychopharmacology, 117 (1), 18-20. AUDRAIN-MCGOVERN, J.N., AL KOUDSI, N., RODRIGUEZ, D., WILEYTO, E.P., SHIELDS, P.G. & TYNDALE, R.F. (2007). The role of CYP2A6 in the emergence of nicotine dependence in adolescents. Pediatrics, 119 (1), 26-274.
FUNG, Y.K., SCHMID, M.J., ANDERSON, T.M. & LAU, Y.-S. (1996). Effects of nicotine withdrawal on central dopaminergic systems. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 53, 635-640. PATERSON, N.E., BALFOUR D.J. & MARKOU, A. (2007). Chronic bupropion attenuated the anhedonic component of nicotine withdrawal in rats via inhibition of dopamine reuptake in the nucleus accumbens shell. European Journal of Neuroscience, 25, 3099-3108.
BOBO, J.K., SLADE, J. & HOFFMAN, A.L. (1995). Nicotine addiction counseling for chemically dependent patients. Psychiatric Services 46 (9), 945-947.  
POMERLEAU, O.F. (1995). Individual differences in sensitivity to nicotine : Implications for genetic research on nicotine dependence. Behavior Genetics, 25, 161-177. SLOTKIN, T.A. (2008). If nicotine is a developmental neurotoxicant in animal studies, dare we recommend nicotine replacement therapy in pregnant women and adolescents ? Neurotoxicology & Teratology, 30, 1-19.
PONTIERI F.E., TANDA G., ORZI F. & DI CHIARA, G. (1996). Effects of nicotine on the nucleus accumbens and similarity to those of addictive drugs. nicotine on the nucleus accumbens and similarity to those of addictive drugs. Nature, 382, 255-257. PIPER, M.E., McCARTHY, D.E., BOLT, D.M., SMITH, S.S., LERMAN, C., BENOWITZ, N., FIORE, M.C. & BAKER, T.B. (2008). Assessing dimensions of nicotine dependence: an evaluation of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS) and the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives (WISDM). Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10 (6), 1009-1020. [PDF].
BENOWITZ, N.L. (1997). Treating tobacco addiction : Nicotine or no nicotine ? The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1230-1231. PATERSON, N.E., BALFOUR, D.J. & MARKOU, A. (2008). Chronic bupropion differentially alters the reinforcing, reward-enhancing and conditioned motivational properties of nicotine in rats. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 10, 995-1008.
EPPING-JORDAN, M.P., WATKINS, S.S., KOOP, G.F. & MARKOU, A. (1998). Dramatic decreases in brain reward function during nicotine withdrawal. Nature, 393, 76-79. CASSIDY, R.N. & DALLERY, J. (2012). Effects of economy type and nicotine on the essential value of food in rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 97 (2), 183-202. [PDF]
PERKINS, K.A., DONNY, E. & CAGGIULA, A.R. (1999). Sex differences in nicotine effects and self-administration : Review of human and animal evidence. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1, 301-315.  
PERKINS, K.A. (1999). Nicotine self-administration. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 1 (S), 133-137. RICHMOND-RAKERD, L.S., SLUTSKE, W.S., LYNSKEY, M.T., AGRAWAL, A., MADDEN, P.A.F., BUCHOLZ, K.K., HEATH, A.C., STATHAM, D.J. & MARTIN, N.G. (2016). Age at first use and later substance use disorder : Shared genetic and environmental pathways for nicotine, alcohol, and cannabis. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 125, 946-959.
SHAHAN, T.A., BICKEL, W.K., MADDEN, G.J. & BADGER, G.J. (1999). A comparison of the reinforcing efficacy of nicotine containing and de-nicotinized cigarettes. Psychopharmacology, 147, 210-216.  
Voir aussi Stimulant, Dépendance et Fumer
Nicotine & Tobacco Research : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre ses pages à l'étude du comportement de fumer. Éditeur : Wiley.
MADDEN G.J. & KALMAN, D. (2010). Effects of bupropion on simulated demand for cigarettes and the subjective effects of smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12, 416-422. [PDF]

Nicotinique (Substitut...) : Drogue de substition à la nicotine utilisée comme médicament dans le traitement du tabagisme. Patch.

  TONNESEN, P., NORREGAARD, J., SIMONSEN, K. & SAWE, U. (1991). A double-blind trial of a 16-hour transdermal nicotine patch in smoking cessation. The New England Journal of Medicine, 325, 311-15. PIERCE, J., GILPIN, E. FARKAS, A.J. (1995). Nicotine patch use in the general population : results from the 1993 California tobacco survey. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 87, 87-93.
WESTMAN, E.E., LEVIN, E.D. & ROSE, J.E. (1992). Smoking while wearing the nicotine patch : Is smoking satisfying or harmful ? Clinical Research, 40, 871. BENOWITZ, N.L. (1997). Treating tobacco addiction-nicotine or no nicotine ? The New England Journal of Medicine, 337, 1230-1231.
FIORE, M.C., JORENBY, D.E., BAKER, T.B. & KENFORD, S.L. (1992). Tobacco dependence and the nicotine patch. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268, 2687-2694. LEWIS, S.F., PIASECKI, T.M., FIORE, M.C., ANDERSON, J.E. & BAKER, T.B. (1998). Transdermal nicotine replacement for hospitalized patients : a randomized clinical trial. Preventive Medicine, 27, 296-303.
PALMER, K.J., BUCKLEY, M.M. & FAULDS, D. (1992). Transdermal nicotine : a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and therapeutic efficacy as an aid to smoking cessation. Drugs, 44, 498-529. HU, T., SUNG, H., KEELER, T.K. & MARCINAK, M. (2000). Cigarette consumption and sales of nicotine replacement products. Tobacco Control, 9 (S2), 60-63. [PDF]
CHU, A. ZHENG, Y., LAVOIE, V., WORNER, T.W., LI, D. & McARTHY, E. (1994). The effects of nicotine patch use on smoking cessation. Employee Benefits Journal, 14, 27-34 WARNER, C. & SHOAIB, M. (2005). How does bupropion work as a smoking cessation aid ? Addiction Biology, 10, 219-231.
KENFORD, S.L., FIORE, M.C., JORENBY, D.E., SMITH, S.S., WETTER, D. & BAKER, T.B. (1994). Predicting smoking cessation : who will quit with and without the nicotine patch. Journal of the American Medical Association, 271, 589-594. MADDEN G.J. & KALMAN, D. (2010). Effects of bupropion on simulated demand for cigarettes and the subjective effects of smoking. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 12, 416-422. [PDF]
KORNITZER, M., BOUTSEN, M., DRAMAIX, M., THIJS, J. & GUSTAVSSON, G. (1995). Combined use of nicotine patch and gum in smoking cessation: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Preventive Medicine, 24, 41-47. ONCKEN, C. (2012). Nicotine replacement for smoking cessation during pregnancy. The New England Journal of Medicine, 366 (9), 846-847. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Nicotine
Nictation : Réflexe qui consiste à ouvrir et à fermer les paupières (ou la membrane nictinante) dans un laps de temps très court (entre 100 et 150 millisecondes). Ce réflexe a fait l'objet de nombreuses recherches en conditionnement répondant, notamment chez le lapin. Nictation, yeux et réflexe pupillaire. = clignement de l'oeil. Blinking, eye blink, Eyeblink classical conditioning, eyelid response, eyelink response, nictitating membrane response, nictitating membrane responses.

  SPENCE, K.W. & TAYLOR, J. (1951). Anxiety and strength of the UCS as determiners of the amount of eyelid conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42, 183-188. WAGNER, A.R. & DONEGAN, N. (1989). Some relationships between a computational model (SOP) and an essential neural circuit for Pavlovian (rabbit eyeblink) conditioning. In R.D. Hawkins and G.H. Bower (Eds.), Computational models of learning in simple neural systems : The psychology of learning & motivation (Vol. 23, pp. 157-203). New York : Academic Press.
SPENCE, K.W. (1953). Learning and performance in eyelid conditioning as a function of the intensity of the unconditioned stimulus. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45, 57-63. STEINMETZ, J.E. (1990). Classical nictitating membrane conditioning in rabbits with varying interstimulus intervals and direct activation of cerebellar mossy fibers as the CS. Behavioural Brain Research, 38, 97-108.
SPENCE, K.W. & ROSS, L.E. (1959). A methodological study of the form and latency of eyelid responses in conditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 376-381. BUCHANAN, S.L. (1991). Differential and reversal Pavlovian conditioning in rabbits with mediodorsal thalamic lesions : assessment of heart rate and eyeblink responses. Experimental Brain Research, 86, 174-181.
SPENCE, K.W. & TRAPOLD, M.A. (1961). Performance in eyelid conditioning as a function of reinforcement schedules and changes in them. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 47, 1860-1868. MAUK, M.D. & RUIZ, B.P. (1992). Learning-dependent timing of pavlovian eyelid responses : Differential conditioning using multiple interstimulus intervals. Behavioral Neuroscience, 106 (4), 666-681. [PDF]
 GORMEZANO, I.N., SCHNEIDERMAN, N., DEAUX, E. & FUENTES, I. (1962). Nictitating membrane : Classical conditioning and extinction in the albino rabbit. Science, 138, 33-34.  
SPENCE, K.W. (1963). Cognitive factors in the extinction of the conditioned eyelid response in humans. Science, 140, 1224-1225.  
GOODRICH, K.P., MARKOVITZ, J. & NORMAN, D.A. (1964). An AC amplification system for recording eyeblinks and other movements. American Journal of Psychology, 77, 127-128.  
 SCHNEIDERMAN, N. & GORMEZANO, I.N. (1964). Conditioning of the nictitating membrane of the rabbit as a function of CS-US interval. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 57, 188-195. WOODRUFF-PAK, D.S., ROMANO, S. & PAPKA, M. (1996). Training to criterion in eyeblink classical conditioning in Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome with Alzheimer's disease, and healthy elderly. Behavioral Neuroscience, 110, 22-29.
SPENCE, K.W. (1966). Extinction of the human eyelid CR as a function of presence or absence of the UCS during extinction. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57, 642-48.  POWELL, D.A., MAXWELL, B. & PENNEY, J. (1996). Neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex during Pavlovian eyeblink and nictitating membrane conditioning. Journal of Neuroscience, 19, 6296-6306. [PDF]
 SCHNEIDERMAN, N. (1966). Interstimulus interval function of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit under delay versus trace conditioning. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 62 (3), 397-402.  
SPENCE, K.W. (1966). Cognitive and drive factors in the extinction of the conditioned eye blink in human subjects. Psychological Review, 73 (5), 445-458. WOODRUFF-PAK, D.S. (1999). New directions for a classical paradigm : Eyeblink conditioning. Psychological Science. 10, 1-3.
 SMITH, M.C. (1968). CS-US interval and US intensity in classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 66, 679-687. STEINMETZ, J.E. & WOODRUFF-PAK, D.S. (2000). Animal models in eyeblink classical conditioning : From mice to non-human primates. In D.S. Woodruff-Pak & J.E. Steinmetz (Eds.), Eyeblink classical conditioning : Animal models (Vol. 2, pp. 1-15). Boston : Kluwer.
 FREY, P.W. & ROSS, L.E. (1968). classical conditioning of the rabbit eyelid response as a function of interstimulus interval. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 65 (2), 246-250. WOODRUFF-PAK, D.S. & STEINMETZ, J.E. (2000). Past, present, and future of human eyeblink classical conditioning. In D.S. Woodruff-Pak & J.E. Steinmetz (Eds.), Eyeblink classical conditioning : Applications in Humans (Vol. 1, pp. 1-17). Boston : Kluwer.
 SMITH, M.C. (1968). CS-US interval and US intensity in classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 66, 679-687. WOODRUFF-PAK, D.S. (2001). Eyeblink classical conditioning differentiates normal aging from Alzheimer's disease. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 36, 87-108.
 SMITH, M.C. COLEMAN, S.R. & GORMEZANO, I. (1969). Classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response at backward, simultaneous, and forward CS-US intervals. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 69, 226-231. WOODRUFF-PAK, D.S. (2001). Eyeblink classical conditioning differentiates normal aging from Alzheimer's disease. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 36, 87-108.
CEGAVSKE, C.F., THOMPSON, R.F., PATTERSON, M.M. & GORMEZANO, I. (1976). Mechanisms of efferent neuronal control of the reflex nictitating membrane response in the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 90, 411-423. LEE, T. & KIM, J.J. (2004). Differential effects of cerebellar, amygdalar, and hippocampal lesions on classical eyeblink conditioning in rats. The Journal of Neuroscience, 24 (13), 3242-3250. [PDF]
 MILLENSON J.R., KEHOE, E.J. & GORMEZANO, I. (1977). Classical conditioning of the rabbit's nictitating membrane response under fixed and mixed CS-US intervals. Learning & Motivation, 8, 351-366. [PDF]  POWELL, D.A., CHURCHWELL, J. & BURRISS, L. (2005). Medial prefrontal lesions and pavlovian eyeblink and heart rate conditioning : Effects of partial reinforcement on delay and trace conditioning in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Behavioral Neuroscience in the Public Domain, 19 (1), 180-189. [PDF]
BERGER, T.W. & THOMPSON, R.F. (1978). Neuronal plasticity in the limbic system during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. I. The hippocampus. Brain Research, 145 (2), 323-346.  KEHOE, E.J. (2006). Repeated acquisitions and extinctions in classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane responses. Learning & Memory, 13, 366-375. [PDF]
BERGER, T.W. & THOMPSON, R.F. (1978). Neuronal plasticity in the limbic system during classical conditioning of the rabbit nictitating membrane response. II : Septum and mammilary bodies. Brain Research, 156 (2), 293-314.  KEHOE, E.J., LUDVIG, E.A. & SUTTON, R.S. (2113). Timing and cue competition in conditioning of the nictitating membrane response of the rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus. Learning & Memory, 20, 97-102. [PDF]
BERRY, D.S. & THOMPSON, R.F. (1979). Medial septal lesions retard classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in rabbits. Science, 205, 209-211.  
Voir aussi Lapin, Conditionnement répondant, Réflexe pupillaire et Mouvement des yeux
 
Nielsen Jacob ( ) : Spécialiste de l'ergonomie des documents électroniques. Il a proposé le concept d'utilisibilité (usability).
NIELSEN, J. & MACK, R.L. (Eds.) (1994). Usability inspection methods. New York : John Wiley & Sons.
NIELSEN, J. (1999). Designing web usability : The practice of simplicity. Indianapolis : New Riders Publishing.
NIELSEN, J. & TAHIR, M. (2001). Homepage usability : 50 websites deconstructed. Indianapolis : New Riders Publishing.
NIELSEN, J. (2005). Usability for the masses. Journal of Usability Studies, 1 (1), 2-3.
NIELSEN, J. & LORANGER, H. (2006). Prioritizing web usability. Indianapolis : New Riders Publishing.
Nietzsche Friedrich Wilhelm (1844-1900) : Philosophe allemand.
NIETZSCHE, F.W. (1886/1966). Beyond good and evil. New York : Vintage Books.
NIETZSCHE, F.W. (1892/1954). Thus spoke Zarathustra. New York : Viking Press.
 
 
FOUCAULT, M. (1971/2001). Nietzsche, la généalogie, l'histoire, en dits et écrits (vol. 2, 1970-1975). Paris : Gallimard.
NIH : Voir National Institute of Health.
Nim Chimpsy (1973-2000) : Chimpanzé dressé et étudié par Terrace.
  DUNCAN, S. (1979). Nim Chimpsky and how he grew. New York.
TERRACE, H.S. (1979). Nim : A chimpanzee who learned sign language. New York : Knopf.
TERRACE, H.S. (1979). How Nim Chimpsky changed my mind. Psychology Today, 65-76.
NIMH : Voir National Institute of Mental Health.
Nihilisme :
Ninness Chris Herbert Arthur ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain et spécialiste de l'éducation, notamment de l'enseignement des mathématiques. Collaborateur de Barnes-Holmes, Dixon, Fisher, Glenn, Piazza et Rumph.
NINNESS, C., FUERST J., RUTHERFORD, R. & GLENN, S. (1991). The effects of self-management training and reinforcement on the transfer of improved conduct in the absence of supervision. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24 (3), 499-508. [PDF]
NINNESS, C., RUMPH, R., McCULLER, G., HARRISON, C., FORD, A.M. & NINNESS, S.K. (2005). A functional analytic approach to computer-interactive mathematics. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 (1), 1-22. [PDF]
NINNESS, C., RUMPH, R., MCCULLER, G., VASQUEZ, E., HARRISON, C., FORD, A.M., CAPT, A., NINNESS, S.K. & BRADFIELD, A. (2005). A relational frame and artificial neural network approach to computer-interactive mathematics. The Psychological Record, 51, 561-570.
NINNESS, C., BARNES-HOLMES, D., RUMPH, R., MCCULLER, G., FORD, A. M., PAYNE, R., NINNESS, S.K., SMITH, R.J., WARD, T.A. & ELLIOTT, M.P. (2006). Transformations of mathematical and stimulus functions. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39 (3), 299-321. [PDF]
NINNESS, C., DIXON, M., BARNES-HOLMES, D., REHFELDT, R.A., RUMPH, R., McCULLER, G., HOLLAND, J., SMITH, R.J., NINNESS, S.K. & McGINTY, J. (2009). Constructing and deriving reciprocal trigonometric relations : a functional analytic approach. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39 (3), 299-321. [PDF]
Nisbett Richard E. (Littlefield 1941-) : Psychosociologue américain. Il a développé une théorie de l'attribution. Il est aussi l'un des chef de file de la psychologie culturelle. Étudiant de Schachter. Collaborateur de Aronson, Cheng, Flynn, Halpern, Holland, Holyoak, Jones, Kelley, Kitayama, Krantz, Lepper, Markus, Ross, Thagard, Turkheimer, Valins, Weiner et Wilson.
NISBETT, R.E. & SCHACHTER, S. (1966). Cognitive manipulation of pain. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2, 227-236.
JONES, E.E. & NISBETT, R.E. (1971). The actor and the observer : Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. In E.E. Jones, D.E. Kanouse, H.H. Kelly, Nisbett, R.E., Valins, S. & Weiner, B. (Eds.), Attribution : Perceiving the causes of behavior (pp. 37-52). Morristown, NJ : General Learning Press. [PDF]
NISBETT, R.E. & WILSON, T.D. (1977). The halo effect : Evidence for unconscious alteration of judgments. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 35 (4), 250-256.
NISBETT, R.E. & WILSON, T.D. (1977). Telling more than we can know : Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84 (3), 231-259. [PDF]
NISBETT, R.E., ARONSON, J., BLAIR, C., DICKENS, W., FLYNN, J. HALPERN, D.F. & TURKHEIMER, E. (2012). Intelligence : New findings and theoretical development. American Psychologist, 67 (2), 130-159. [PDF]
Nishida Toshisada (Ichikawa 1941-) : Zoologiste, anthropologue et primatologue japonais, spécialiste de l'étude des chimpanzés. Collaborateur de Boesch, De Waal, Goodall, Huffman, McGrew, Wrangham et Whiten.
NISHIDA, T. (1968). The social group of wild chimpanzees in the Mahali Mountains. Primates, 9, 167-224.
NISHIDA, T. & NAKAMURA, N. (1993). Chimpanzee tool use to clear a blocked nasal passage. Folia Primatology, 61, 218-220.
NISHIDA, T., McGREW, W.C., MARKER, P., PICKFORD, M. & DE WAAL, F.B.M. (Eds.) (1992). Topics in primatology : Human origins. Tokyo : University of Tokyo Press.
WHITEN, A., GOODALL, J., McGREW, W.C., NISHIDA, T., REYNOLDS, V., SUGIYAMA, Y., TUTIN, C.E.G., WRANGHAM, R.W. & BOESCH, C. (1999). Cultures in chimpanzees. Nature, 399, 682-685. [PDF]
NISHIDA, T. (2002). Competition between baboons and chimpanzees. Pan Africa News, 9 (2), 23-26. [LIRE]
Nissen Henry Wieghorst (Chicago 1901-1958) : Psychologue et primatologue américain, spécialisé de la psychologie comparée et l'étude du comportement des chimpanzés.
NISSEN, H.W. (1931). A field study of the chimpanzee. Comparative Psychology Monographs, 8, 1-22.
NISSEN, H.W. & ELDERA, J.H. (1935). The influence of amount of incentive on delayed response performances of chimpanzees. The Pedagogical Seminary & Journal of Genetic Psychology, 47 (1), 49-72.
NISSEN, H.W. RIESEN, A.H. & NOWLIS, V. (1938). Delayed response and discrimination learning by chimpanzees. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 26, 361-386.
NISSEN, H.W. (1951). Individuality in the behavior of chimpanzees. American Anthropologist, 58, 407-13.
NISSEN, H.W. & McDOWELL, A.A. (1951). Solution of bi-manual coordination problems by monkeys and chimpanzees. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 94, 35-42.
 
CARMICHAEL, L. (1965). Henry Wieghorst Nissen 1901-1958 : A Biographical Memoir by. Washington D.C. : National academy of sciences. [PDF]
DEWSBURY, D.A. (1998). Henry W. Nissen : Quiet comparative psychologist. In G.A. Kimble, C.A. Boneau & M. Wertheimer (Eds.), Portraits of pioneers in psychology (Vol. 3, pp. 228-242). Washington, DC : APA.
Niveau : Variation x d'un phénomène, souvent utilisé comme point de comparaison ou de référence. = degré. Baseline.

Les niveaux
Niveau d'une variable Niveau de P Niveau mental
Niveau d'activité Niveau de description molaire Niveau ontologique
Niveau de base Niveau de description moléculaire Niveau opérant
Niveau de base multiple Niveau de traitement Niveau socio-économique
 
Niveau (d'une variable) : Voir Niveau d'une variable.
Niveau d'activité : Voir Activité motrice.
Niveau d'analyse : Voir Explication.
Niveau de base : En recherche, le niveau de base désigne la fréquence naturelle d'un comportement (ou d'une réaction physiologique) avant l'intervention du chercheur (qui manipule une variable x) ou d'un clinicien (qui applique un traitement ou une thérapie). Cette mesure, par contraste avec une seconde mesure, sert de point de comparaison pour vérifier l'existence d'un changement, et partant, l'efficacité du traitement scientifique ou thérapeutique. Les béhavioristes utilisent également le terme niveau opérant pour désigner ce niveau de base. Niveau de base et plan ABA. = niveau opérant, ligne de base, situation de départ, état initial. Baseline, base level.

Avant le traitement Traitement Après le traitement
Niveau de base (première mesure) Seconde mesure


  GELLER, I. (1960). The acquisition and extinction of conditioned suppression as a function of the base-line reinforcer. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 3 (3), 235-240. [PDF] HERSEN, M. & BELLACK, A.S. (1976). Multiple-baseline analysis of social-skills training in chronic schizophrenics. Applied Behavioral Analysis, 9 (3), 239-245. [PDF]
 CATANIA, A.C. (1963). Concurrent performances : a baseline for the study of reinforcement magnitude. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (2), 299-300. [PDF]  WEATHERLY, J.N., MELVILLE, C.L. & SWINDELL, S. (1998). Behavioral contrast using different reinforcers : effect of baseline rate of reinforcement. Behavioural Processes, 44, 11-17.
 BAER, D.M., WOLFF, M.M. & RISLEY, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior AnalysiS, 1 (1), 91-97. [PDF] HARPER, D.N. (1999). Drug-induced changes in responding are dependent on baseline stimulus-reinforcer contingencies. Psychobiology, 27, 95-104.
 HALL, R.V., CRISTLER, C. & CRANSTON, S.S.S. (1970). Teachers and parents as researchers using multiple baseline designs. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3 (4), 247-255. [PDF] MANDLER, J.M. & McDONOUGH, L. (2000). Advancing downward to the basic level. Journal of Cognition & Development, 1, 379-403. [PDF]
SPINDLER-BARTON, E., GUESS, D., GARCIA, E. & BAER, D.M. (1970). Improvement of retardates' mealtime behaviors by timeout procedures using multiple baseline techniques. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3 (2), 77-84. [PDF] RINGDAHL, J.E., VOLLMER, T.R., BORRERO, J.C. & CONNELL, J.E. (2001). Fixed-time schedule effects as a function of baseline reinforcement rate. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34 (1), 1-15. [PDF]
 SCHAEFER, H.H., SOBELL, M.B. & MILLS, K.C. (1971). Baseline drinking behaviors in alcoholics and social drinkers; kinds of drinks and sip magnitudes. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 9, 23-27.  DOZIER, C., VOLLMER, T.R., BORERO, J.C., RAPP, J.T., BOURRET J. & GUTIERREZ, A. (2007). Assessment of preference for treatment versus baseline conditions. Behavioral Interventions, 22, 245-261.
  GERBER, A.S., GREEN, D.P., KAPLAN, E.H. & KERN, H.L. (2010). Baseline, placebo, and treatment : Efficient estimation for three-group experiments. Political Analysis, 18, 297-315. [PDF]
Voir aussi Niveau de base multiple
Niveau de base multiple :
   BAER, D.M., WOLFF, M.M. & RISLEY, T.R. (1968). Some current dimensions of applied behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1 (1), 91-97. [PDF] HARVEY, M., MAY, M. & KENNEDY, C. (2004). Nonconcurrent multiple baseline designs and the evaluation of educational systems. Journal of Behavioral Education, 13 (4), 267-276. [PDF]
 HORNER, R.D. & BAER, D.M. (1978). Multiple-probe technique: a variation on the multiple baseline. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11 (1), 189-196. [PDF]  CARR, J.E. (2005). Recommendations for reporting multiple-baseline designs across participants. Behavioral Interventions, 20, 219-224. [PDF]
NELSON, G.L. & CONE, J.D. (1979). Multiple-baseline analysis of a token economy for psychiatric inpatientS. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 12 (2), 255-271. [PDF]  
WATSON, P.J. & WORKMAN, E.A. (1981).The non concurrent multiple base line across-individuals design : An extension of the traditional multiple baseline design. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 12 (3), 257-259.  
HARRIS, F. & JENSON, W. (1985). Comparisons of multiple-baseline across persons designs and AB designs with replication : Issues and confusions. Behavioral Assessment, 7 (2), 121-127.  
HAYES, S.C. (1985). Natural multiple baselines across persons : A reply to Harris and Jenson. Behavioral Assessment, 7, 129-132. CHRIST, T. (2007). Experimental control and threats to internal validity of concurrent and nonconcurrent multiple baseline designs. Psychology in the Schools, 44 (5), 451-459.
Voir aussi Niveau de base
Niveau de P : Voir Valeur de P et Seuil de signification.
Niveau de traitement (de l'information) : Voir Traitement en profondeur.
Niveau de description molaire (du comportement) : Niveau de description du comportement qui se situe sur le plan musculaire. Niveau de description molaire et moléculaire.

  SHIMP, C.P., FREMOUW, T., INGEBRITSEN, L.M. & LONG, K.A. (1994). Molar function depends on molecular structure of behavior. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 20, 96-107.
Niveau de description moléculaire (du comportement) : Plus petit niveau de description du comportement, qui se situe sur le plan chimique. Niveau de description moléculaire et molaire.

 
Niveau de vie : Ce qu'un individu consomme avec son argent (salaire + héritage + crédit - épargne).

 
Niveau mental : Voir Mentalisme et Fonction cognitive.
Niveau ontologique : Expression qui permet de qualifier les propriétés et le niveau d'organisation d'un objet d'étude. Niveau ontologique et ontologie. EX: Le comportement (niveau biologique) serait influencé par le traitement de l'information (niveau cognitif ou mental). ( ): émergentisme, mentalisme, matérialisme.

 
Niveau opérant : En analyse fonctionnelle, le niveau opérant désigne la fréquence naturelle d'un comportement-cible avant l'intervention du chercheur (qui applique ensuite un traitement qui consiste à renforcer ou à punir le comportement-cible) ou d'un clinicien (qui applique une thérapie). Cette mesure, par contraste avec une seconde mesure, sert de point de comparaison pour vérifier l'existence d'un changement, et partant, l'efficacité des traitements scientifique ou thérapeutique. = niveau de base. Operant level.

Avant le traitement Renforcement (ou punition) Après le traitement
Niveau de base du comportement-cible (première mesure) Seconde mesure

  PREMACK, D. & BAHWELL, R. (1959). Operant-level lever pressing by a monkey as a function of interest interval. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 2, 127-131. [PDF]
PREMACK, D. & SCHAEFFER, R.W. (1962). Distributional properties of operant-level locomotion in the rat. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5 (1), 89-95. [PDF]
 
Voir aussi Analyse fonctionnelle et Conditionnement opérant
Niveau socio-économique : Voir Statut socio-économique.
NOELTING - NOLEN-HOEKSEMA - NOMBRE - NOMMER - NON - NORMALITÉ - NORMAN - NORME - NORME APA - NORTON - NOS
Nobel (prix) : Prix remis depuis 1901 à des individus ayant contribué au développement de la science, de la littérature ou de la paix. /Ignobel. ( ): Adrian, Axelrod, Becker, Bergson, Bridgman, Buchanan, Crick, Eccles, Edelman, Friedman, Frisch, Golgi,Hayek, Hicks, Hodgkin, Hubel, Huxley, Jacob, Kahneman, Kandel, Krugman, Leontief, Lewis, Lorenz, Lwoff, Monod, Morgan, Muller, Nash, Pauling, Prigogine, Pavlov, Ramon y Cajal, Roth, Samuelson, Scheilling, Sherrington,Simon, Sperry, Stiglitz, Tinbergen, Watson, Wiesel.
Les Nobels
Nobel d'économie Nobel de chimie
Nobel de physiologie et de médecine Nobel de physique
 
   

  CLARK, R.D. & RICE, G.A. (1982). Family constellations and eminence : The birth orders of Nobel Prize winners. Journal of Psychology, 110, 281-287.
CRAWFORD, E.T. (1984). The beginning of the Nobel Institution : The Science Prizes. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
 BYRNE, J.H. (2001). How neuroscientists captured the 2000 Nobel Prize. Cerebrum, 3, 66-79.
PICKREN, W.E. (2003). An elusive honor : Psychology, behavior, and the Nobel Prize. American Psychologist, 58, 721-722.
Nobel d'économie : Il n'existe pas de Nobel en économie. Ce prix, faussement associé aux Prix Nobel, est en fait remis par la Banque de Suède, sous l'égide de la Fondation Nobel, et se nomme : prix de la Banque de Suède en Sciences Économiques en Mémoire d'Alfred Nobel. ( ): Becker, Buchanan, Friedman, Hayek, Hicks, Kahneman, Krugman, Leontief, Nash, Roth, Samuelson, Schelling, Simon, Stiglitz, Thaler, Tobin.

 
Nobel de physiologie et de médecine : ( ): Adrian, Carlsson, Crick, Eccles, Edelman, Frisch, Golgi, Greengard, Hodgkin, Hubel, Huxley, Jacob, Kandel, Lewis, Lorenz, Lwoff, Monod, Morgan, Muller, Pavlov, Prigogine, Ramon y Cajal, Schelling, Sherrington, Sperry, Tinbergen, Watson, Wiesel.

 
Nobel de chimie : ( ): Axelrod, Pauling, Prigogine.

 
Nobel de physique : ( ): Bridgman.

 
Nocebo : Voir Effet nocebo. Nocebo.
Nocif/Noception : Du latin noxa qui signifie "dommage". Il s'agit de l'activité chimio-électrique de récepteurs et de fibres nerveuses produite par une stimulation aversive ou potentiellement dangeureuse pour l'organisme.

 
Nock Matthew K. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude du suicide et de l'automutilation. Étudiant de Kazdin. Collaborateur de Banaji.
NOCK, M.K. & KAZDIN, A.E. (2002). Examination of affective, cognitive, and behavioral factors and suicide-related outcomes in children and young adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 31, 48-58. [PDF]
NOCK, M.K., JOINER, T.E., GORDON, K.H., LLOYD-RICHARDSON, E. & PRINSTEIN, M.J. (2006). Non-suicidal self-injury among adolescents : Diagnostic correlates and relation to suicide attempts. Psychiatry Research, 144, 65-72. [PDF]
NOCK, M.K., TEPER, R. & HOLLENDER, M. (2007). Psychological treatment of self-injury among adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology : In Session, 63 (11), 1081-1089. [PDF]
NOCK, M.K. & BANAJI, M.R. (2007). Assessment of self-injurious thoughts using a behavioral test. American Journal of Psychiatry, 164 (5), 820-823. [PDF]
NOCK, M.K. (2009). Why do people hurt themselves ? New insights into the nature and functions of self-injury. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 78-83. [PDF]
Noelting Gérard (1921-2004) : Psychologue cognitiviste européen, spécialisé dans l'étude de la pensée et du raisonnement. Collaboratrice de Baillargeon et Szeminska.
NOELTING, G. (1961). Quelques aspects de la genese du raisonnement mathematique chez l'enfant d'après les expériences de J. Piaget. Springer.
BAILLARGEON, R., NOELTING, G., DORAIS, L.-J. et SALADIN D'ANGLURE, B. (1977). Aspects semantiques et structuraux de la numération chez les Inuits. Études Inuit, 1, 93-128.
NOELTING, G. (1977). Le constructivisme piagétien et la théorie de l’équilibration illustrés par la construction de la notion de proportion. Érudit, 4 (2), 145-194.
NOELTING, G. (1961). The development of proportional reasoning and the ratio concept. Part I-The differentiation of stages. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 11 (2), 217-253.
NOELTING, G. (1982). Le développement cognitif et le mécanisme de l'équilibration. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Noétique : Propriétés de certaines fonctions cognitives qui requiert un certain niveau de conscience pour être exécutées. EX: la mémoire procédurale. = conscient. /anoétique, automatisme.

 
Noeud : Correspond à un concept dans un réseau sémantique.

 
Noeud de ranvier : Zone d'interruption de la gaine de myéline, qui permet à l'influx nerveux de se propager le long de l'axone. Node of ranvier, Myelin sheath gap.

 
Noirs (Les) : Voir Afro-Américain, Différence raciale ou Culturelle.
Noise Health : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'étude de l'influence du bruit sur la santé mentale et physique. Éditeur : Medknow.
BABISCH, W. (2008). Road traffic noise and cardiovascular risk. Noise Health, 10 (38), 27-33.

Nolen-Hoeksema Susan K. (Springfield 1959-2013) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américaine et spécialiste de l'étude du genre, de la dépression et des ruminations. Collaboratrice de Johnson, Loftus, Roberts, Rusting, Seligman et Twenge.
NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (1995). Gender differences in coping with depression across the lifespan. Depression, 3, 81-90.
NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. & GIRGUS, J.S. (1994). The emergence of gender differences in depression in adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 115 (3), 424-443. [PDF]
NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S., LARSON, J. & GRAYSON, C. (1999). Explaining the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, 1061-1072. [PDF]
NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (2001). Gender differences in depression. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 173-176. [PDF]
NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, S. (2002). Understanding gender differences in depression. The Economics of Neuroscience, 4, 32-40.
 
KASLOW, N.J., HILT, L., WILSCO, B.E. & BROWN, K.D. (2013). Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (1959-2013): Obituary. American Psychologist, 68 (5), 404.
LYUBOMIRSKY, S. & LAYOUS, K. CHANCELLOR, J. & NELSON, S.K. (2015). Thinking about rumination: The scholarly contributions and intellectual legacy of Susan Nolen-Hoeksema. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 11, 1-22. [PDF]
Nolfi Stefano (1963-) : Philosophe et cybernéticien italien, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'apprentissage des robots et la simulation des réseaux neuraux.
NOLFI, S., ELMAN, J.L. & PARISI, D. (1994). Learning and evolution in neural networks. Adaptive Behavior, 3 (1), 5-28. [PDF]
NOLFI, S. & PARISI, D. (1997). Learning to adapt to changing environments in evolving neural networks. Adaptive Behavior, 5 (1), 75-98. [PDF]
NOLFI, S. (1999). How learning and evolution interact : The case of a learning task which differs from the evolutionary task. Adaptive Behavior, 2, 231-236. [PDF]
NOLFI, S. & FLOREANO, D. (2002). Synthesis of autonomous robots through artificial evolution, Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6 (1), 31-37. [PDF]
NOLFI, S. (2006). Behaviour as a complex adaptive system : on the role of self-organization in the development of individual and collective behaviour. Complex Us, 2 (3-4), 195-203. [PDF]
Nom :

Les noms
Nom de famille Nom d'un auteur Nom propre
Nom d'une revue scientifique Nom du directeur d'un livre Nommer
 
Nom de famille/Nom propre : Family name

  NUTTIN, J.M. (1985). Narcissism beyond gestalt and awareness : The name letter effect. European Journal of Social Psychology, 15, 353-361.
KITAYAMA, S. & KARASAWA, M. (1997). Implicit self- esteem in Japan : Name letters and birthday numbers. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 736-742.
LUSCRI G. & MOHR, P.B. (1998). Surname effects in judgments of mock jurors. Psychological Reports, 82, 1023-1026.
JASWAL, V.K. & MARKMAN, E.M. (2001). Learning proper and common names in inferential versus ostensive contexts. Child Development, 72, 768-786. [PDF]
JONES, J.T., PELHAM, B.W., MIRENBERG, M.C. & HETTS, J.J. (2002). Name letter preferences are not merely mere exposure : Implicit egotism as self-regulation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38, 170-177.
GALLUCCI, M. (2003). I sell seashells by the seashore and my name is Jack : Comment on Pelham, Mirenberg, and Jones (2002). Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85, 789-99.
HODSON, G. & OLSON, J.M. (2005). Testing the generality of the name letter effect : Name initials and everyday attitudes. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 1099-1111.
GUÉGUEN, N. & PASCUAL, A. (2011). Mister "Py" is probably a good mathematician : An experimental study of the subjective attractiveness of family names. Names : A journal of Onomastics, 59 (1), 51-55. [PDF]
Nom de la revue scientifique : Dans la notice d'un article scientifique, désigne le ou les grands thèmes couverts par cette publication. Dans le modèle de référence de l'American Psychological Association, cette information est placée entre le titre de l'article et le volume. = nom du périodique.

BÉLANGER, J. (1978). Images et réalités du béhaviorisme. Philosophiques, 5 (1), 3-110. [PDF]

Nom de l'auteur : Dans la notice d'un livre, d'un chapitre de livre ou d'un article scientifique, désigne la ou les personnes qui ont rédigé le texte ou une partie du texte concerné. Dans certain cas, il peut s'agir d'une association ou d'une institution (EX: Bureau de la statistique du Québec, National Institute of Health, etc). Dans le modèle de référence de l'American Psychological Association, cette information est placée devant l'année de publication, en tête de notice. On peut utiliser les majuscules ou les minuscules pour écrire le nom de l'auteur, mais il faut toujours s'en tenir au même format pour rédiger l'ensemble des notices de la section références/bibliographie d'un ouvrage. Author.

BÉLANGER, J. (1978). Images et réalités du béhaviorisme. Philosophiques, 5 (1), 3-110.

Nom du directeur d'un livre : Dans la notice d'un livre par chapitres, désigne la personne (ou les personnes) qui a pour tâche de définir les thèmes de l'ouvrage, de dénicher les auteurs et de répartir le travail de rédaction (habituellement un chapitre par auteur). Le directeur doit également veiller à la cohésion de l'ouvrage (absence de recoupements et de contradictions entre les chapitres, vocabulaire uniforme, renvois entre les chapitres, etc), ainsi qu'au respect des thèmes. Généralement, le directeur signe un ou quelques chapitres du livre; il est alors aussi considéré comme auteur. Dans le modèle de référence de l'American Psychological Association, cette information est placée entre le titre du chapitre et le titre du livre. Si l'ouvrage compte plusieurs directeurs, on écrit (Dirs.). Directeur et livre par chapitre. Éditor, (Ed.).

BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Démarche scientifique et cycle de la recherche. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 1-34). St-Hyacinthe : Édisem.

Nombre : Concept qui permet de désigner des quantités ou des rapports de grandeurs, en les mesurant ou en les comparant, mais aussi d'évaluer et d'ordonner des objets (ou leurs propriétés). Le nombre est constitué de symboles (chiffres). Pour Piaget, le nombre est la fusion de deux propriétés : 1) la classe (cardinalité) et 2) la relation (ordinalité). Le terme cardinal désigne une quantité x du phénomène y (EX: Il existe trois grandes pyramides de Gizeh), alors que le terme ordinalité renvoie à l'ordre de grandeur de ces quantités (EX: Képhrem (2) est plus grande que Mykérinos (3) mais plus petite que Kéops(1)). Un semi-nombre est ordinal mais non cardinal. Nombre, calculer et enseignement des mathématiques. *chiffre. Number, numeral, numerousness.
Les nombres
Nombre aléatoire Nombre magique Semi-nombre
Nombre-éclair    
 

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DEWEY, J. (1898). Some remarks on the psychology of number. Pedagogical Seminary, 5, 426-434. [LIRE]  XU, F. & SPELKE, E.S. (2000). Large number discrimination in 6-month- old infants. Cognition, 74 (B), 1-11. [PDF]
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TAVES, E.H. (1941). Two mechanisms for the perception of visual numerousness. Archives of Psychology, 265.  
DANTZIG, T. (1954). Number : The language of science. New York : MacMillan. [PDF]  
PIAGET, J. (1965). The child's conception of number. New York : W. W. Norton.  
MOYER, R.S. & LANDAUEUR. K. (1967). Time required for judgments of numerical inequality. Nature, 215, 1519-1520.  
WINDES, J.D. (1968). Reaction time for numerical coding and naming of numerals. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 78 (2), 318-322.  
BRAINERD, C.J. & BRAINERD, S.H. (1972). Order of acquisition of number and quantity conservation. Child Development, 43, 1401-1406. SPELKE, E.S. & TSIVKIN, S. (2001). Language and number : A bilingual training study. Cognition, 78, 45-88.
BRAINERD, C.J. (1973). Mathematical and behavioral foundations of number. Journal of General Psychology, 11, 369-381. BUTTERWORTH, B., CAPPELLETI, M. & KOPELMAN, M. (2001). Category specificity in reading and writing : the case of number words. Nature Neuroscience, 4 (8), 784-786. [PDF]
BRAINERD, C.J. (1973). The origin of number concepts. Scientific American, 228 (3), 101-109. DEHAENE, S. (2001). Precis of the number sense. Mind & Language, 16, 16-36.
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GELMAN C.R. & GALLISTEL, C.R. (1978). The child's understanding of number. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.  
BRAINERD, C.J. & HOWE, M.L. (1979). An attentional analysis of small cardinal number concepts in five-year-olds. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 11, 112-123. BOWER, B. (2002). Numbers in mind. Science News, 161, 392-393.
BRAINERD, C.J. (1979). The origins of the number concept. New York : Praeger. ANSARI, D. & KARMILOFF-SMITH, A. (2002). Atypical trajectories of number development : A neuroconstructivist perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 6 (12), 511-516.
STARKEY, P. & COOPER, R. (1980). Perception of numbers by human infants. Science, 210 (28), 1033-1034.  
ROUCHIER, A., VERGNAUD, G., RICCO, G., R., METREGISTE, R., GIACOBBE,G. VIALA, A., GROSSI, E. & ATRICK, M. (1980). Situations et processus didactiques dans l'étude des nombres rationnels positifs. Recherches en Didactique des Mathématiques, 1, 225-275.  
THOMAS, R.K., FOWLKES, D. & VICKERY, J.D. (1980). Conceptual numerousness judgments by squirrel monkeys. American Journal of Psychology, 93, 247-257. BRANNON, E.M. & ROITMAN, J. (2003). Nonverbal representations of time and number in non-human animals and human infants. In W. Meck (Ed.), Functional and neural mechanisms of interval timing (pp 143-182). New York : CRC Press. [PDF]
CONWAY, J.H. et GUY, R.K. (1980). Le Livre des nombres. Paris : Eyrolles. LIPTON, J.S. & SPELKE, E.S. (2003). Origins of number sense : Large number discrimination in human infants. Psychological Science, 14, 396-401.
WOODRUFF, G. & PREMACK, D. (1981). Primitive mathematical concepts in the chimpanzee : Proportionality and numerosity. Nature, 293, 568-570.  
STRAUSS, M.S. & CURTIS, L.E. (1981). Infant perception of numerosity. Child Development, 52, 1146-1152. XU, F. (2003). Numerosity discrimination in infants : Evidence for two systems of representations. Cognition, 89, B15-B25. [PDF]
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SIEGLER, R.S. & ROBINSON, M. (1982). The development of numerical under- standings. In H. W. Reese & L. P. Lipsitt (Eds.), Advances in child development and behaviour (Vol. 16, pp. 241-312). New York : Academic Press. BRANNON, E.M., ABBOTT, S. & LUTZ, D. (2004). Number bias for the discrimination of large visual sets in infancy. Cognition, 93, 59-68. [PDF]
ANTELL, S.E. & KEATING, L.E. (1983). Perception of numerical invariance by neonates. Child Development, 54, 695-701.  
TREIBER, F. & WILCOX, S. (1984). Discrimination of number by infants. Infant Behavior & Development, 7, 93-100.  
VONÈCHE, J.J. (1985). Concepts, procedures, and structures in the acquisition of the concept of number. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 14 (6), 760-763. LANDERL, K., BEVAN, A. & BUTTERWORTH, B. (2004). Developmental dyscalculia and basic numerical capacities : a study of 8-9-year-old students. Cognition, 93 (2), 99-125. [PDF]
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STEFFE, L. (1988). Children's construction of number sequences and multiplying schemes. In J. Hiebert & M. Behr (Eds.), Number concepts and operations in the middle grades (Vol 2, pp.119-140). Reston, Virginia : Erlbaum.  
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TRICK, L. & PYLYSHIN, Z.W. (1994). Why are small and large numbers enumerated differently ? A limited capacity preattentive stage in vision. Psychological Review, 101, 80-102. BRANNON, E.M., SUANDA, U. & LIBERTU, K. (2007). Temporal discrimination increases in precision over development and parallels the development of numerosity discrimination. Developmental Science, 10, 770-777.
PEPPERBERG, I.M. (1994). Numerical competence in african grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108 (1), 36-44. [PDF] SCHIRLIN, O. & HOUDÉ, O. (2007). Negative priming effect after inhibition of weight/number interference in a Piaget-like task. Cognitive Development, 22, 124-129.
MARKOVITZ, Z. & SOWDER, J.T. (1994). Developing number sense : An intervention study in Grade 7. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 25, 4-29. VON ASTER, M.G. & SHALEV, R.S. (2007). Number development and developmental dyscalculia. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49, 868-873.
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Voir aussi Compter, Habiletés mathématiques, Cardinalité, Ordinalité et Opération mathématique
 
Nombre (Semi-) : Le nombre est constitué de symboles (chiffres) qui possèdent deux propriétés : l'ordinalité et la cardinalité. Le terme ordinal désigne l'ordre ou le rang des nombres (3 < 2 < 1); le terme cardinal désigne une quantité x du phénomène étudié. Un semi-nombre est ordinal mais non cardinal. EX: Ce lexique contient 5000 mots (cardinalité), mais il est tout de même moins volumineux que le Multidictionnaire (ordinalité).

 
Nombre aléatoire : Nombre produit par un processus imprévisible, donc non-déterminé ou hasardeux. Ce processus génère des séries de nombres non-cyclique, que l'on ne peut reproduire à volonté. Table of random number.
  KOLMOGOROV, A.N. (1963). On tables of random number. Theoretical Computer Science, 207 (2), 380-395.
LAURENCELLE, L. (2001). Hasard, nombres aléatoires et méthode Monte Carlo. Montréal : Presses Universitaires du Québec.
Nombre magique : Voir Chiffre magique.
Nombre-éclair : Quantité que l'on peut estimer sans compter. Subitizing.

 
Nombre-éclair Nombre compté
  KAUFMAN, E.L., LORD, M.W., REESE, T.W. & VOLKMANN, J. (1949). The discrimination of visual number. American Journal of Psychology, 62, 498-525.
SVENSON, O. & SJÖBERG, K. (1978). Subitizing and counting processes in young children. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19 (1), 247-250.
MANDLER, G. & SHEBO, B.J. (1982). Subitizing : An analysis of its component processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 111, 1-22.
TRICK, L.M. & PYLYSHYN, Z.W. (1994). Why are small and large numbers enumerated differently ? A limited-capacity preattentive stage in vision. Psychological Review, 101 (1), 80-102. [PDF]
Nome : Concept proposé par Minsky pour désigner les règles qui traitent et transforment les connaissances. Nome, nème et ligne-K.

  MINSKY, M. (1986). The society of mind. New York : Simon & Schuster.
SINGH, P. (2003). Examining the society of mind. Computing & Informatics, 1001-1023. [PDF]
 
Nomenclature : Système de règles et de classement proposé par Linné, qui consiste à désigner les êtres vivants par un nom latin composé de deux mots, désignant les rangs taxonomiques du genre et de l'espèce. EX: Homo sapiens, Xiphophorus helleri. = nomenclature du vivant, nomenclature binaire. Nomenclature.

Règne
  Embranchement  
  Classe  
  Ordre  
  Famille  
  Genre  
  Espèce  
  Population  
   
LEHMANN, H.E. (1969). Psychiatric concepts of depression : Nomenclature and classification. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 1-12.
Nominal/Nominale : Voir Échelle nominale.
Nominalisme : Nominalism.

  GOODMAN, N. & QUINE, W. (1947). Steps towards a reconstructive nominalism. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 12, 105-122.
MARGOLIS, J. (1978). The problems of similarity : realism and nominalism. Monist, 61, 384-400.
Nominer/Nomination : Sélection d'un individu comme candidat à une élection ou à un poste au sein d'une organisation.

  GOODMAN, N. & QUINE, W. (1947). Steps towards a reconstructive nominalism. Journal of Symbolic Logic, 12, 105-122.
MARGOLIS, J. (1978). The problems of similarity : realism and nominalism. Monist, 61, 384-400.
Nommer : Consister à utiliser un son, un mot ou un groupe de mots des langage naturel ou artificiel pour désigner un objet ou une classe d'objet (et ses propriétés). Nommer, parler et verbe. Name, naming, thing be called.

Nommer...
Nommer un objet (ci-dessous) Nommer les couleurs Nommer rapidement
Nommer les chiffres/nombres Nommer les lettres  
 

  CATTELL, J.M. (1886). The time it takes to see and name objects. Mind, 1