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OB - OBJECTIVITÉ - OBSERVATION - OC - OF - OL - OLDS - OP - OPÉRATIONNALISATION - OPINION - OR - OS - OSGOOD - OUBLI - OV - OY/OZ
Oakes
Michael J. Oakes Penelope J. Oakes
 
Oakes Michael J. ( ) : Sociologue, épidémiologiste et statisticien américain.
OAKES, M.J. (1986). Statistical inference : A commentary for social and behavioral sciences. New York : Wiley.
OAKES, M.J. (2002). Risks and wrongs in social science research : An evaluator's guide to the IRB. Evaluation Review, 24, 443-478.
OAKES, M.J. (2004). Causal inference and the relevance of social epidemiology. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1969-1971.
OAKES, M.J. & KAUFMAN, J.S. (Eds.) (2006). Methods in social epidemiology. New York : John Wiley & Sons.
OAKES, M.J., MASSE, L.C. & MESSER, L.C. (2009). Methodological issues in research on the food and physical activity environment : Overcoming data complexity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36 (S), 177-181.
Oakes Penelope J. ( ) : Psychologue sociale et organisationnelle anglaise, spécialiste de l'étude des stéréotypes. Collaboratrice de Haslam, Hogg, McGarty, Reicher, Reynolds et Turner.

OAKES, P.J. & TURNER, J.C. (1990). Is limited information processing capacity the cause of social stereotyping ? European Review of Social Psychology, 1, 111-135.
OAKES, P.J., TURNER, J.C. & HASLAM, S.A. (1991). Perceiving people as group members : The role of fit in the salience of social categorizations. British Journal of Social Psychology, 30, 125-144.
OAKES, P.J., HASLAM, S.A. & TURNER, J.C. (1994). Stereotyping and social reality. Oxford : Blackwell.
REYNOLDS, K.J. & OAKES, P.J. (2000). Variability in impression formation : Investigating the role of motivation, capacity and the categorization process. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 355-373.
Oatley Karl ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain d'origine canadienne, spécialisé dans l'étude de la relation entre la cognition et les émotions. Collaborateur de Duncan et Johnson-Laird.
OATLEY, K. (1996). Emotions, rationality, and informal reasoning. In J.V. Oakhill & A. Garnham (Eds.), Mental models in cognitive science : Essays in honour of Phil Johnson-Laird. (pp. 175-196). Hove : Psychology Press.
OATLEY, K. & JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. (1996). The communicative theory of emotions : empirical tests, mental models, and implications for social interaction. In L.L. Martin & A. Tesser (Eds), Striving and feeling : Interactions among goals, affect, and self-regulation (pp. 363-393). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
OATLEY, K. (1998). Emotion. The Psychologist, 11, 285-288.
OATLEY, K. (1999). Why fiction may be twice as true as fact : Fiction as cognitive and emotional simulation. Review of General Psychology, 3, 101-117.
OATLEY, K. & JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. (2002). Emotion and reasoning to consistency : The case of abductive inference. In S. Moore & M. Oaksford (Eds), Emotional cognition : From brain to behaviour (pp. 157-182). Amsterdam : John Benjamin.
OBÉISSANCE - OBÉSITÉ - OBJECTIF - OBJECTIVITÉ - OBJET - OBJET D'ÉTUDE - OBLIGATION - OBSERVATION - OBSESSION - OC
Type d'obéissance
Obéissance à l'autorité Obéissance aux règles
 
Obéissance à l'autorité : Conformisme qui résulte de l'influence d'une personne en autorité. On doit à Milgram les premières études expérimentales de ce phénomène. Obéissance et autorité. = soumission. /désobéissance. Obedience, obedience to authority.
  MILGRAM, S. (1963). Behavioral study of obedience. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 67 (4), 371-378. [PDF] BLASS, T. (1995). Right-Wing Authoritarianism and role as predictors of attributions about obedience to authority. Personality & Individual Differences, 19, 99-100.
BAUMRIND, D. (1964). Some thoughts on ethics of research : After reading Milgram's "Behavioral Study of Obedience." American Psychologist, 19 (6), 421-423. DARLEY, J.M. (1995). Constructive and destructive obedience : A taxonomy of principal-agent relationships. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 125-154.
MILGRAM, S. (1964). Issues in the study of obedience : A reply to Baumrind. American Psychologist, 19, 848-852. LUTSKY, N. (1995). When is "obedience" obedience ? Conceptual and historical commentary. Journal of Social Issues, 51, 55-66.
MILGRAM, S. (1965). Some conditions of obedience and disobedience to authority. Human Relations, 18, 57-76. BLASS, T. (1996). Attribution of responsibility and trust in the Milgram obedience experiment. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1529-1535.
KAUFMANN, H. (1967). The price of obedience and the price of knowledge. American Psychologist, 22, 321-322.  
RING, K., WALLSTON, K. & COREY, M. (1970). Mode of debriefing as a factor affecting subjective reactions to a Milgram-type obedience experiment : An ethical inquiry. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 1 (1), 67-55. BLASS, T. (1996). The Milgram obedience experiment : Support for a cognitive view of defensive attribution. Journal of Social Psychology, 136, 407-410.
MILGRAM, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 13, 1461-1468. ROCHAT, F. & MODIGLIANI, A. (1997). Authority : Obedience, defiance, and identification in experimental and historical contexts. In M. Gold & E. Douvan (Eds.), A new outline of social psychology (pp. 235-246). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
SHERIDAN, C.L. & KING, R.G. (1972). Obedience to authority with an authentic victim. In Proceedings of the eightieth annual convention of the American Psychological Association (pp. 165-166). Washington, DC : American Psychological Association. LECOMTE, J. (1997). Soumission à l’autorité. Sciences Humaines, 72, 42-44. [PDF]
MILGRAM, S. (1972). Interpreting obedience : Error and evidence. In A. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of psychological research. BEAUVOIS, J.-L. & JOULE, R.-V. (1998). La soumission librement consentie : comment amener les gens à faire librement ce qu'ils doivent faire ? Paris : Presses universitaires de France.
PENNER, L.A., HAWKINS, H.L., DERTKE, M.C., SPECTOR, P. & STONE, A. (1973). Obedience as a fonction of experimenter competence. Memory & Cognition, 1 (3), 241-245. BLASS, T. (1999). The Milgram paradigm after 35 years : Some things we now know about obedience to authority. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 955-978. [PDF]
  BLASS, T. (2000). The Milgram paradigm after 35 years: Some things we now know about obedience to authority. In T. Blass (Ed.), Obedience to authority : Current perspectives on the Milgram paradigm (pp. 35-59). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
ZIMBARDO, P.G. (1974). On "obedience to authority". American Psychologist, 29 (7), 566-567. BLASS, T. & SCHMITT, C. (2001). The nature of perceived authority in the Milgram paradigm : Two replications. Current Psychology, 20, 115-121.
  MILLER, A.G. (2004). What can the Milgram obedience experiments tell us about the Holocaust ? Generalizing from the social psychology laboratory. In A. G. Miller (Ed.), The social psychology of good and evil (pp. 193-239). New York : Guilford Press.
MILLER, A.G., GILLEN, B., SCHENKER, C. & RADLOVE, S. (1974). The prediction and perception of obedience to authority. Journal of Personality, 42, 23-42. BURGER, J.M. (2007). Replicating Milgram. APS Observer, 20, 15-17.
MILGRAM, S. (1974). Soumission à l'autorité : un point de vue expérimental. Paris : Calmann-Lévy. /Obedience to authority. An experimental view. New York. BURGER, J.M. (2009). Replicating Milgram : Would people still obey today ? American Psychologist, 64 (1), 1-11. [PDF]
PATTEN, S.C. (1977). Milgram’s shocking experiments. Philosophy, 52, 425- 440. PASSINIA, S. & MORSELLI, D. (2009). Authority relationships between obedience and disobedience. New Ideas in Psychology, 27 (1), 96-106.
SHANAB, M.E. & YAHYA, K.A. (1978). A cross-cultural study of obedience. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 11, 267-269. NICHOLSON, I. (2011). "Torture at Yale": Experimental subjects, laboratory torment and the "rehabilitation" of Milgram's "Obedience to authority". Theory & Psychology, 21 (6), 737-761.
GILBERT, S.J. (1981). Another look at the Milgram obedience studies: The role of the graduated series of shocks. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 690-695. BURGER, J.M., GIRGIS, Z.M. & MANNING, C.C. (2011). In their own words : Explaining obedience to authority through an examination of participants’ comments. Social Psychological & Personality Science, 2, 460-466.
MORELLI, M. (1983). Milgram’s dilemma of obedience. Metaphilosophy, 14, 183-189. GIBSON, S. (2013). Milgram's obedience experiments : A rhetorical analysis. British Journal of Social Psychology, 52 (2), 290-309.
MILGRAM, S. (1983). Reflections on Morelli’s “Dilemma of Obedience.” Metaphilosophy, 14, 190-194. HASLAM, S.A., REICHER, S. & BIRNEY, M. E. (2014). Nothing by mere authority : Evidence that in an experimental analogue of the Milgram paradigm participants are motivated not by orders but by appeals to science. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 473-488.
KELMAN, H.C. & HAMILTON, V.L. (1989). Crimes of obedience : Toward a social psychology of authority and responsibility. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press. GRIGGS, R.A. (2014). Coverage of the Stanford prison experiment in introductory psychology textbooks. Teaching of Psychology, 41, 195-203.
MILGRAM, S. (1987). Obedience. In R.L. Gregory (Ed.), Oxford companion to the mind (pp. 566-568). New York, NY Oxford University Press. HASLAM, S.A., REICHER, S., MILLARD, K. & McDONALD, R. (2015). "Happy to have been of service" : The Yale archive as window into the engaged followership of participants in Milgram's "obedience" experiments. British Journal of Social Psychology, 54, 55-83.
MILGRAM, S. (1987). Obedience. In R.J. Corsini (Ed.), Concise encyclopedia of psychology (pp. 773-774). New York, NY : John Wiley & Sons. GRIGGS, R.A. & WHITEHEAD, G.I. (2015). Coverage of Milgram’s obedience experiments in social psychology textbooks : Where have all the criticisms gone ? Teaching of Psychology, 42, 315-322.
BLASS, T. (1991). Understanding behavior in the Milgram obedience experiment : the role of personality, situations, and their interactions. Journal of personality & social Psychology, 60 (3), 398-413. HASLAM, S.A., REICHER, S. & BIRNEY, M.E. (2016). Questioning authority : New perspectives on Milgram's "obedience" research and its implications for intergroup relations. Current Opinion in Psychology, 11, 6-9.
  GRIGGS, R.A. (2016). Milgram's obedience study : A contentious classic reinterpreted. Teaching of Psychology, 44 (1), 1-6. [PDF]
Voir aussi Expérience de Milgram et Autorité
Obéissance aux règles parentales : Chez les enfants, capacité de suivre des règles ou des instructions donnée par un adulte (parents, enseignant, etc.). = discipline, respect des règles. Children’s compliance.

  CLUSS, P.A., EPSTEIN, L.H., GALVIS, S.A., FIREMAN P. & FRIDAY, G. (1984). Effect of compliance for chronic asthmatic children. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 52, 909-910. ADAMS, G.R., RYAN, B.A., KETSETZIS, M. & KEATING, L. (2000). Rule compliance and peer sociability : A study of family process, parent-child school-focused interactions and children's classroom behavior. Journal of Family Psychology, 14, 237-250.
DUMAS, J.E. & LECHOWICZ, J.G. (1989). When do noncompliant children comply ? Implications for family behavior therapy. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 11, 21-38. KAPALKA, G.M. (2004). Longer eye contact improves ADHD children’s compliance with parents’ commands. Journal of Attention Disorders, 8 (1), 17-23.
CHRISTIANSE, M.E., LAVIGNE, J.V. & LERNER, C.V. (1989). Psychosocial aspects of compliance in children and adolescents with asthma. Journal of Developmental Behavioral Pediatrics, 10, 75-80. BLANDON, A.Y. & VOLLING, B.L. (2008). Parental gentle guidance and children’s compliance within the family : A replication study. Journal of Family Psychology, 22, 355-366.
Voir aussi Suivre des règles et Conformisme
Oberauer Klaus ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, d'origine allemande, et spécialiste de la mémoire de travail, notamment au rôle de l'attention. Il s'intéresse également à l'interférence. Collaborateur de Engle.
OBERAUER, K., SÜB, H.-M., SCHULZE, R., WILHELM, O. & WITTMANN, W.W. (2000). Working memory capacity - facets of a cognitive ability construct. Personality & Individual Differences, 29, 1017-1045.
OBERAUER, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory. Exploring the focus of attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 411-421. [PDF]
OBERAUER, K., LANGE, E. & ENGLE, R.W. (2004). Working memory capacity and resistance to interference. Journal of Memory & Language, 51, 80-96. [PDF]
OBERAUER, K. & LEWANDOWSKY, S. (2008). Forgetting in immediate serial recall : Decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference ? Psychological Review, 115 (3), 544-576. [PDF]
OBERAUER, K. (2013). The focus of attention in working memory–from metaphors to mechanisms. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7: 673, 1-16. [PDF]
Obésité/Obèse : Surpoids important qui entraîne des problèmes de santé physique et psychologique. Obésité, poids et embonpoint. Obesity, extreme overweight.
  STUNKARD, A.J., GRACE, W.J. & WOLFF, H.G. (1955). The night-eating syndrome : A pattern of food intake among certain obese patients. American Journal of Medicine, 19, 78-86. OGDEN, J. & EVANS, C. (1996). The problem of weighing: effects on body image, self esteem and mood. International Journal of Obesity 20, 272-277.
STUNKARD, A.J. (1959). Eating patterns and obesity. Psychiatric Quarterly, 33, 284-295. EPSTEIN, L.H. (1996). Family-based behavioral intervention for obese children. International Journal of Obesity & Related Metabolic Disorders, 20 (S1), 14-21.
CARNE, S. (1961). The action of chorionic gonadotrophin in the obese. Lancet, 2, 1282-1284. HEWITT, J.K. (1997). The genetics of obesity : What have genetic studies told us about the environment ? Behavior Genetics, 27, 353-358.
SCHACHTER, S. (1968). Obesity and eating. Science, 161, 751-56. HOPPE, R. & OGDEN, J. (1997). The relative effectiveness of two styles of educational package to change practice nurses management of obesity. International Journal of Obesity 21, 963-971.
SCHACHTER, S. & RODIN, J. (1968). Obese humans and rats. Hillsdale, N.J. : Erlbaum. GURA, T. (1997). Obesity sheds its secrets. Science, 275, 751-753.
NISBETT, R.E. (1968). Determinants of food intake in obesity. Science, 159, 1254-1255. OGDEN, J. & HOPPE, R. (1998). Changing practice nurses' management of obesity. Journal of Human Nutrition & Dietetics, 11, 249-256.
NISBETT, R.E. & KANOUSE, D. (1969). Obesity, food deprivation and supermarket shopping behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 12, 289-294. HEBL, M. & HEATHETON T. F. (1998). The stigma of obesity in women: The difference is black and white. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 417-426.
WOOLEY, O.W. (1971). Long-term food regulation in the obese amd non-obese. Psychosomatic Medicine, 33 (5), 436-444. DIETZ, W.H. (1998). Health consequences of obesity of youth : childhood predictors of adult disease. Pediatrics, 101, 518-525
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SCHACHTER, S. (1971). Emotion, obesity and crime. New York : Academic. OGDEN, J. (2000). The correlates of long terms weight loss : a group comparison study of obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 24, 1018-1025.
SALZMAN, L. (1972). Obsessive-compulsive aspects of obesity. Psychiatry Medicine, 3 (1), 29-36. VEALE, D. (2001). Cognitive-behavioural therapy for body dysmorphic disorder. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 7, 125-132. [PDF]
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ROSEN, J.C., OROSAN, P. & REITER, J. (1995). Cognitive behavior therapy for negative body image in obese women. Behavior Therapy, 26 (1), 25-42. DAR-NIMROD, I., CHEUNG, B.Y., RUBY, M. & HEINE, S.J. (2014). Can merely learning about obesity genes affect eating behavior ? Appetite, 81, 269-276. [PDF]
  PAVELA, G., LEWIS, D.W., LOCHER, J. & ALLISON, D.B. (2016). Socioeconomic status, risk of obesity, and the importance of Albert J. Stunkard. Current Obesity Reports, 5 (1), 132-139. [PDF]
  MONGRAW-CHAFFIN, M., FOSTER M.C., ANDERSON C.A.M., BURKE, G.L., HAQ, N., KALYANI, R.R., OUYANG, P., SIBLEY C.T., TRACY, R., WOODWARD, M. & VAIDYA, D. (2017). Metabolically healthy obesity, transition to metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risk. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 71 (17), 1857-1865. [PDF]
  NEELAND, I.J., POIRIER, P. J.-P., DESPRÈS, J.-P. (2018). Cardiovascular and metabolic heterogeneity of obesity : clinical challenges and implications for management. Circulation, 137, 1391-1406.
  BROWN, K.F., RuMGAY, H., DUNLOP, C., RYAN, M., QUARTLY, F., COX, A., DEAS, A., ELLISS-BROOKES, L., GAVIN, A., HOUNSOME, L., HUWS, D., ORMISTON-SMITH, N., SHELTON.J., WHITE, C. & PARKIN, D.M. (2018). The fraction of cancer attributable to modifiable risk factors in England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, and the United Kingdom in 2015. British Journal of Cancer, 118, 1130-1141. [PDF]
Voir aussi Diabète de type II, Comportement de manger, Trouble alimentaire et Poids
Obésité (Drogue contre l'...) : Voir Drogue.
Obésité (Mesure et évaluation de l'...) : Ensemble des critères de diagnostic, des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer l'obésité.

  FOSTER, G.D., WADDEN, T.A., SWAIN, R.M., STUNKARD, A.J. PLATTE, P. & VOGT, R.A. (1998). The Eating Inventory in obese women: Clinical correlates and relationship to weight loss. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 22, 778-785.
Obésité morbide : Obésité qui entraîne de nombreux problèmes de santé, et parfois la mort (morbide).

  ROSEN, J.C., JONES, A., RAMIREZ, E. & WAXMAN, S. (1996). Body shape questionnaire : Studies of validity and reliability. Eating Disorders, 20 (3), 315-319.
Obesity Reviews : Revue scientifique qui se consacre à l'étude de l'obésité. Éditeur : Wiley.
MAIO, G.R., HADDOCK, G. & JARMAN, H. (2007). Social psychological factors in tackling obesity. Obesity Reviews, 8, 124-127.

Objectif : Le mot a deux significations distinctes selon qu'il est utilisé comme adjectif ou substantif. a) Dans la théorie de Freud, propriété ou caractéristique du moi, qui tient compte de la réalité, qui distingue la réalité de ses désirs, de ses fantasmes. Objectif et objectivité. /subjectif. b) Comme substantif, le terme renvoie à ce que l'on cherche à atteindre (EX : objectif de carrière) ou ce que l'on doit atteindre (EX : objectif d'apprentissage), compte tenu de notre rôle ou de notre engagement. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Goal, aim.

Types d'objectif
Objectif commun Objectif de recherche Objectif partagé
Objectif d'apprentissage Objectif général Objectif spécifique
Ojectif de performance Objectif individuel Objectif thérapeutique
 

  a
Voir aussi Freud
b
BLOOM, B.S. (1984). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
ECCLES, J.S. & WIGFIELD, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132. [PDF]
FREITAS, A.L., CLARK S.L., KIM, J.Y. & LEVY, S.R. (2009). Action construal and affective experience : When all goals are one. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 938-941. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objectif d'apprentissage
Objectif commun : But que s’assigne formellement une organisation (faire respecter la loi, défendre son pays, augmenter les profits de l’entreprise, offrir de meilleurs services de santé, favoriser l'apprentissage des étudiants, etc.). Objectif commun, groupe et équipe. = objectif du groupe, mission de l'entreprise, projet commun, bien commun, but commun. *objectif partagé. Group goal, team goal.

  RAVEN, B.H. & RIETSEMA, J. (1957). The effects of varied clarity of group goal and group path upon the individual and his relationship to his group. Human Relations, 10, 29-45.
RAVEN, B.H. & RIETSEMA, J. (1960). Clarity of group goal and group path. In D. Cartwright & A.F. Zander (Eds.), Group dynamics : Research and theory (pp. 395-413). Evanston, IL : Row, Peterson.
ZANDER, A., NATSOULAS, T. & THOMAS, E.J. (1960). Personal goals and the group goals for the member. H man Relations, 13, 333-344.
CHEN, Y.F., LU, J. & TJOSVOLD, D. (2008). Effects of team goal interdependence on newcomer socialization: An experiment in China. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 198-214.
FREITAS, A.L., CLARK S.L., KIM, J.Y. & LEVY, S.R. (2009). Action construal and affective experience : When all goals are one. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 938-941. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objectif
Objectif d'apprentissage : En éducation, objectif visé par le professeur/enseignant dans le cadre d'un cours ou d'un programme scolaire. Cet objectif décrit ce que l'élève/étudiant doit apprendre (et parfois ce que le prof doit enseigner). Objectif d'apprentissage, techniques d'enseignement et réussite scolaire. ( ): objectif général, objectif spécifique. Educational objective, behavioral objective.
  BLOOM, B.S. ENGLEHART, M., FURST, E., HILL, W. & KRATHWOHL, D.R. (1956/75). Taxonomy of educational objectives : The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I : Cognitive Domain. New York : Longmans Green / Taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques : Vol. 1 : Domaine cognitif. Montréal : PUQ.
MAGER, R.F. (1969). Preparing behavioral objectives. Atlanta, Georgia : Center for Effective Instruction.
KRATHWOHL, D.R., BLOOM, B.S. et MASIA, B.B. (1970). Taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques (le domaine affectif). Éducation nouvelle.
BLOOM, B.S. (1984). Taxonomy of educational objectives. Boston : Allyn and Bacon.
LANDSHEERE, V. de & LANDSHEERE, G. de (1989). Définir les objectifs de l'éducation. Paris : Dessain.
LEHMANN, D. (1993). Objectifs spécifiques en langue étrangère. Paris : Hachette.
NEVID, J.S. & McCLELLAND, N. (2013). Using action verbs as learning outcomes: Applying Bloom's taxonomy in measuring instructional objectives in Introductory Psychology. Journal of Education & Training Studies, 1 (2), 19-24.
Voir aussi Étudiant, Objectif, Évaluation des apprentissages Taxonomie de Bloom et Apprentissage
Objectif de la science : Objectifs que la science cherche à atteindre. La science, comme tout autre activié humaine, a aussi pour objectif de permettent aux individus de s'accomplir et aussi... d'enrichir les uns aux détriment des autres. L'omettre constitue un bel exemple d'angélisme scientifique.

Objectif de la science
Contrôler Expliquer Prédire
Décrire    
 
Objectif de performance : Dans le sport et en éducation, objectif que se fixe l'étudiant ou l'athlète en vue d'améliorer sa perfomance, sa réussite. = objectif de réussite. Achievement goal.

  CHALABAEV, A., SARRAZIN, P. STONE, J. & CURY, F. (2008). Do achievement goals mediate stereotype threat ? : An investigation on females’ soccer performance. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 143-158. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objectif
Objectif de recherche : Au sens large, ce que veut savoir le chercheur. Plus précisément, en méthodologie, l'objectif est un énoncé qui vise à décrire un phénomène ou à monter la différence entre deux groupes ou plus (comparer). Une fois correctement formulé, cet objectif sera soumis à un processus de vérification empirique, dans le cadre d'une recherche scientifique. Généralement l'objectif est présenté dans le dernier paragraphe de la problématique. Objectif et hypothèse de recherche. *hypothèse. Aim of research.
  Voir aussi Objectif et Recherche scientifique
Objectif général : En éducation, objectif visé par le professeur/enseignant dans le cadre d'un cours ou d'un programme, qui décrit ce que l'élève/étudiant doit savoir ou apprendre au terme de cette période d'enseignement. Ojectif général et objectif spécifique.

  Voir aussi Objectif
Objectif individuel : But poursuivis par les membres d'un groupe ou d'une organisation. EX: Se réaliser, se développer, se faire des amis, gagner un salaire, être le meilleur, influencer les autres, dominer le monde (surtout chez les rats). = objectif personnel, but personnel, rêve. Personal goal.

  ZANDER, A., NATSOULAS, T. & THOMAS, E.J. (1960). Personal goals and the group goals for the member. Human Relations, 13, 333-344.
ELLIOT, A.J., THRASH, T.M. & MURAYAMA, K. (2011). A longitudinal analysis of self-regulation and well-being : Avoidance personal goals, avoidance coping, stress generation, and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality, 79, 643-674. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objectif
Objectif partagé : Désigne une situation où les membres d’un groupe ont les mêmes objectifs individuels. EX: Tous les étudiants d’une classe désirent obtenir une bonne note. Ils partagent le même objectif, mais cet objectif n’est pas commun, et son atteinte ne nécessite aucune collaboration entre les membres du groupe. *objectif commun.

  Voir aussi Objectif
Objectif personnel : Voir Objectif individuel.
Objectif spécifique : Objectif opérationnel, qui décrit en terme de comportements observables, que l'on peut donc évaluer/mesurer, ce que l'élève/étudiant doit savoir ou apprendre au terme d'un cours ou d'une année scolaire. Le libellé de cet objectif comprend habituellement un verbe d'action qui permet ainsi d'opérationnaliser l'objectif général. Objectif général et spécifique. = objectif comportemental.

  LEHMANN, D. (1993). Objectifs spécifiques en langue étrangère. Paris : Hachette.
Voir aussi Objectif
Objectif thérapeutique : Comportement ou connaissance que le patient/client/malade doit savoir/faire au terme d'un traitement, d'une thérapie. = objectif comportemental. Goal of psychotherapy.

  ELLIS, A. (1967). Goals of psychotherapy. In A.R. Mahrer (Ed.), The goals of psychotherapy (pp. 206-220). New York : Macmillan.
Voir aussi Objectif
Objectivation (Auto) : Processus qui consiste à adopter le regard évaluateur et critique de son entourage sur son propre corps, lequel corps se voit alors réduit à la fonction d'objet. Self-objectification.
  McKINLEY, N.M. & HYDE, J.S. (1996). The objectified body consciousness scale : Development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181-216. MINER-RUBINO, K., TWENGE, J.M. & FREDRICKSON, B.L. (2002). Trait self-objectification in women : affective and personality correlates. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 147-172.
  SLATER, A. & TIGGEMANN, M. (2002). A test of objectification theory in adolescent girls. Sex Roles, 46, 343-349
FREDRICKSON, B.L. & ROBERTS, T.-A. (1997). Objectification theory : Toward understanding women's lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173-206. MUEHLENKAMP, J.J. & SARIS-BAGLAMA, R.N. (2002). Self-objectification and its psychological outcomes for college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 26, 371-379.
  MURNEN, S.K., SMOLAK, L., MILLS, J.A. & GOOD, L. (2003). Thin, sexy women and strong, muscular men : Grade-school children's responses to objectified images of women and men. Sex Roles, 49, 427-437.
  MORADI, B., DIRKS, D. & MATTERSON, A. V. (2005). Roles of sexual objectification experiences and internalization of standards of beauty in eating disorder symptomatology: A test and extension of objectification theory. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52, 420-428.
  MUEHLENKAMP, J.J., SWANSON, J.D. & BRAUSCH, A.M. (2005). Self-objectification, risk taking, and self-harm in college women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 29, 24-32.
  MYERS, T.A. & CROWTHER, J.H. (2007). Sociocultural pressures, thin-ideal internalization, self-objecti cation, and body dissatisfaction : Could feminist beliefs be a moderating factor ? Body Image, 4, 296-308.
  ZURBRIGGEN, E.L., RAMSEY, L.R. & JAWORSKI, B. (2011). Self- and partner- objectification in romantic relationships: Associations with media consumption and relationship satisfaction. Sex Roles, 64 (7-8), 449-462. [PDF]
FREDRICKSON, B.L., ROBERTS, T.-A., NOLL, S.M., QUINN, D.M. & TWENGE, J.M. (1998). That swimsuit becomes you : Sex differences in self-objectification, restrained eating, and math performance. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75, 269-284. SZYMANSKI, D.M., MOFFITT, L.B. & CARR, E.R. (2011). Sexual Objectification of Women : Advances to Theory and Research. The Counseling Psychologist 39 (1) 6-38. [PDF]
NOLL, S.M. & FREDRICKSON, B.L. (1998). A mediational model linking self objectification, body shame, and disordered eating. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 623-636. ZURBRIGGEN, E.L. (2013). Objectification, self-objectification, and societal change. Journal of Social & Political Psychology, 1, 188-215.
  McKAY, T. (2013). Female self-objectification : Causes, consequences and prevention. McNair Scholars Research Journal, 6 (1), 53-70. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objet sexuel
Objectivisme : Doctrine philosophique qui prône l'usage de la logique et des faits (empirisme) afin de neutraliser la subjectivité naturelle des individus et leurs conclusions fallacieuses. Objectivism.

  BERNSTEIN, R.J. (1985). Beyond objectivism and relativism : Science, hermeneutics, and praxis. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press.
MADILL, A., JORDAN, A. & SHIRLEY, C. (2000). Objectivity and reliability in qualitative analysis : Realist, contextualist and radical constructionist epistemologies. British Psychological Society, 91, 1-20.
VRASIDAS, C. (2000). Constructivism versus objectivism : Implications for interaction, course design, and evaluation in distance education. International Journal of Educational Telecommunications 6 (4), 339-362. [PDF]
Objectivité (scientifique) : Ensemble des dispositions prises par un scientifique pour éviter toute forme de subjectivité, de biais. Si elles sont efficaces, ces dispositions permettent au chercheur d'augmenter la validité de ses affirmations/conclusions. En science, l'objectivité est davantage une vertu ou un objectif à atteindre qu'un état ou une propriété de la recherche (objectivité absolue). Cet objectif est atteint grâce à certains mécanismes mis en place de manière systématique par le chercheur (cohérence théorique et stratégies de contrôle) et la communauté scientifique (comité de lecture, communication scientifique, indépendance de la recherche). Objectivité, neutralité et angélisme scientifique. /subjectivité. Objectivity.
Mécanismes assurant l'objectivité scientifique
Scientifique/Chercheur Cohérence théorique
Stratégies de contrôle
Commuanauté scientifique Comité de lecture
Communication scientifique
Indépendance de la recherche
 
  BODE, B.H. (1907). Realism and objectivity. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology & Scientific Methods, 4 (10), 259-263. SALMON, W. (1990). Rationality and objectivity in science, or Tom Kuhn meets Tom Bayes. In Scientific theories, Minnesota studies in philosophy of science (Vol. 14, pp. 175-204). University of Minnesota Press.
BODE, B.H. (1908). The problem of objectivity. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology & Scientific Methods, 5 (6), 150-157. RORTY, R. (1991). Objectivity, relativism, and truth : Philosophical papers (Vol.1). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
POPPER, K.R. (1972/98). Objective knowledge : An evolutionary approach / La connaissance objective. Oxford : Oxford University Press/Paris : Flammarion. GUBA, E. (1991). Subjectivity and objectivity. In E. Eisner & A. Peshkin (Eds.), Qualitative inquiry in education. New York : Teachers College Press.
SIEGEL, H. (1980). Objectivity, rationality, incommensurability and more. British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 31, 359-84. JONASSEN, D. (1991). Objectivism vs. constructivism. Educational Technology Research & Development, 39 (3), 5-14.
BERNSTEIN, R. (1983). Beyond objectivism and relativism: Science, hermeneutics, and praxis. Philadelphia : University of Pennsylvania Press. HARDING, S. (1993). After the neutrality ideal : Science, politics, and "strong objectivity". Social Research, 59 (3), 567-587. [PDF]
HEMPEL, C.G. (1983). Valuation and objectivity in science. In R.S. Cohen and L. Laudan (Eds.), Physics, philosophy and psychoanalysis in honor of Adolf Grunbaum (pp. 73-100). Dordrecht, Boston, Lancaster : D. Reidel Publishing Co. HARDING, S. (1993). Rethinking standpoint epistemology : "What is strong objectivity ?" In L. Potter-Alcoff & E. Potter (Eds.), Feminist epistemologies (pp. 49-82). New York : Routledge, Chapman and Hall, Inc. [PDF]
  DAVIDSON, D. (1995/2004). The problem of objectivity. In Problems of rationality (pp. 3-18). Oxford, UK : Clarendon Press.
TILES, M. (1984). Bachelard : Science and objectivity. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. IRTEL, H. (1995). An extension of the concept of specific objectivity. Psychometrika, 60, 115-118.
KUHN, T.S. (1987). Objectivity, value judgment, and theory choice. In J.A. Kourany (Ed.), Scientific knowledge : Basic issues in the philosophy of science (pp. 197-207). Belmont, CA : Wadsworth. MOORE, J.C. (1995). Radical behaviorism and the subjective-objective distinction. The Behavior Analyst, 18 (1), 33-49. [PDF]
BROWN, H. (1987). Observation and objectivity. New York : Oxford University Press. LEIGLAND, S. (1999). Pragmatism, science and society : A review of Richard Rorty's objectivity, relativism, and truth : Philosophical papers (Vol. 1). Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 71 (3), 483-500. [PDF]
 BERGER, J.O. & BERRY, D.A. (1988). Statistical analysis and the illusion of objectivity. American Scientist, 76 (2), 159-165. [PDF] GREEN, C.D. (2010). Scientific objectivity and E.B. Titchener’s experimental psychology. Isis, 101 (4), 697-721.
Voir aussi Angélisme, Étude indépendante, Biais, Impartialité et Neutralité scientifique
 
Objet : Ce mot a plusieurs acceptions : a) De façon générale, il s'oppose au sujet, au vivant. = chose. b) Dans la perspective psychanalytique, il désigne l'ensemble des objets ou des individus susceptibles d'être investis par une pulsion (et donc de satisfaire un besoin). ( ): objet d'amour, objet idéal, objet partiel, objet phallique, objet transitionnel. c) Dans la perspective cognitive, ce terme renvoie à tout objet susceptible d'être connu par le sujet épistémique. Dans les deux cas, le mot englobe aussi bien les objets physiques que les individus (objet social). = phénomène. d) En épistémologie, il désigne toute chose qui compose la réalité, et que l'on peut nommer et connaître grâce à la méthode scientifique. = objet d'étude, objet de recherche, phénomène. e) Finalement, en philosophie du langage, on utilise ce terme pour distinguer les concepts qui ont une correspondance avec la réalité (objet réel) et ceux qui n'ont qu'un référent (objet irréel), les objets en soi et leur propriétés. = substantif, qualité. Object.

Types d'objet
Objet abstrait Objet irréel Objet physique
  Objet matériel  
Objet artificiel Objet maternel Objet réel
Objet concret Objet naturel Objet sexuel
Objet d'amour Objet nouveau Objet social
Objet d'étude Objet partiel Objet transitionnel
Objet du désir Objet phallique Objet virtuel
Objet idéal   Objet visuel
 

  a
NATSOULAS, M. (1980). Against phenomenal objects. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 10 (2), 97-114.
GREEN, C.D. & VERVAKE, J. (1997). The experience of objects and the objects of experience. Metaphor & Symbol, 12, 3-17.
Voir aussi Sujet et Vivant
a
Voir aussi Besoin et Pulsion
c
COOPER, L.A. & SCHACTER, D.L. (1992). Dissociations between structural and episodic representations of visual objects. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1,141-146.
WYNN, K. & CHIANG, W.C. (1998). Limits to infants’ knowledge of objects : the case of magical appearance. Psychological Science, 9, 448-455.
TOMASELLO, M., STRIANO, T. & ROCHAT, P. (1999). Do young children use objects as symbol. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 17, 563-584. [PDF]
WILCOX, T. (1999). Object individuation : infants' use of shape, size, pattern, and color. Cognition 72: 125-166.
GELMAN, S.A. & BLOOM, P. (2000). Young children are sensitive to how an object was created when deciding what to name it. Cognition, 76, 91-103. [PDF]
SCHOLL, B.J. (2001). Objects and attention : The state of the art. Cognition, 80 (1-2), 1-46. [PDF]
KUHLMEIER, V.A., BLOOM, P. & WYNN, K. (2004). Infants do not see humans as material objects. Cognition, 94, 95-103. [PDF]
Voir aussi Sujet épistémique
d
Voir aussi Épistémologie
e
Voir aussi Objet réel et Objet irréel
Objet(s) (Mouvement des...) Voir Perception du mouvement.
Objet abstrait : Un objet abstrait est une propriété d'un objet, qui n'existe pas en soi mais que l'on peut imaginer, abstraire. EX: La neige est concrète, sa blancheur est abstraite. Abstract object.

  HALE, B. (1987). Abstract objects. Basil Blackwell.
MARTIN, A. (2007). The representation of object concepts in the brain. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 25-45. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objet
Objet artificiel : Objet fabriqué par l'humain ou une autre espèce (outils). = objet naturel.

  Voir aussi Outil et Objet
Objet concret : Objet qui possède des caractéristiques ou des propriétés physiques (poids, longueur, hauteur, etc). = objet matériel. Objet abstrait. Object.

  ROSCH E., MERVIS, C.B., GRAY, W.D., OHNSON, D.M. & BOYES-BRAEM, P. (1976). Basic objects in natural categories. Cognitive Psychology, 8, 382-436.
SPELKE, E.S. & VON HOFSTEN, C. (2001). Predictive reaching for occluded objects by six-month-old infants. Journal of Cognition & Development, 2, 261-282.
 FALMIER, O. & YOUNG, M.E. (2008). The impact of object animacy on the appraisal of causality. American Journal of Psychology, 121 (3), 475-500. [PDF]
SHUTTS, K., ÖRNKLOO H., VON HOFSTEN, C., KEEN, R. & SPELKE, E.S. (2009). Young children’s representations of spatial and functional relations between objects. Child Development, 80 (6), 1612-1627.
Voir aussi Objet
Objet d'amour : En psychanalyse, désigne toute personne sur laquelle est investie la pulsion sexuelle. La mère est habituellement le premier objet d'amour du garçon et de la fille (mais pas nécessairement...). Object-love, attachment object.

  PASSMAN, R.H. & WEISBERG, P. (1975). Mothers and blankets as agents for promoting play and explo- ration by young children in a novel environment : The effects of social and nonsocial attachment objects. Developmental Psychology, 11, 170-177.
MAHALSKI, P.A. (1983). The incidence of attachment objects and oral habits at bedtime in two longitudinal samples of children. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 24, 283-295.
HAUTE, P.V. (2005). Infantile sexuality, primary object-love and the anthropological significance of the Oedipus complex : Re-reading Freud's "female sexuality". International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 86, 1661-1678.
Voir aussi Objet
Objet d'étude : En science, ce que l'on veut connaître ou comprendre plus particulièrement. Aspect de la réalité qui fait l'objet d'un examen systématique et critique ou d'une étude qui se fonde sur la méthode scientifique. EX: Sont des objets d'étude : le comportement en psychologie, le passé des peuples ou des civilisations en histoire ou en archéologie, la vie en biologie, les planètes ou les corps célestes en astrophysique, les molécules en biochimie, les particules élémentaires en physique. C-EX: La théorie de l'évolution n'est pas un objet d'étude mais une explication de deux phénomènes - l'évolution et l'adaptation des espèces - qui sont des caractéristiques ou des propriétés de l'objet d'étude de la biologie, la vie. Ce terme semble avoir un sens plus précis que phénomème qui englobe aussi bien l'objet que ses propriétés ou ses relations avec les autres objets. = objet de recherche. *phénomène. Object.

Objet d'étude selon les grandes perspectives de la psychologie
Perspectives Principaux objets d'étude Synonyme Espèces étudiées Principales explications/Critiques
Antipsychiatrie Conception de la maladie mentale Troubles mentaux Humain Critique de la psychiatrisation, du modèle médico-psychiatrique de la maladie
Béhaviorisme Comportement (Verbal, social, moteur) Réponse, habiletés sociales Humain,pigeon, rat, chien, chat, perroquet, lapin, etc Apprentissage, l'effet du milieu, histoire individuelle des contingences
Béhaviorism-cognitif
(cognitivo-comportementale)
Comportement Réponse, habiletés sociales Humain, singe Traitement de l'information, catégorisation, développement de la pensée, du raisonnement, de l'intelligence
Cognitivisme américain Information, Pensée, Conscience, Mémoire Connaissance, cognition Humain,singe, chat, etc Traitement de l'information, catégorisation, image.
Cognitivisme européen Connaissance, Pensée, Conscience Cognition Humain,singe, chat, etc Développement du raisonnement, de l'intelligence, conceptualisation.
Écologie humaine Développement et adaptation individuelle au milieu social, stress   Humain Les ressources, les effets systémiques du milieu, l'apprentissage des habiletés sociales
Féminisme Rapports entre les sexes, Différences sexuelles, Acquisition du genre   Humain La distribution du pouvoir, l'apprentissage sociale, la cognition sociale, l'inconscient
Fonctionnalisme Esprit et Conscience Fonctions de l'esprit Humain Capacité d'adaptation, acquisition de comportement
Gestaltisme Perception   Humain, singe Organisation de la conscience, structures innées de l'esprit
Humanisme Expérience subjective Vécu Humain Conscience de soi, autoactualisation, ressources personnelles, estime de soi, organisation de la personnalité
Neuropsychologie Relation entre le cerveau et la cognition et les comportements   Humain,singe, calmar, chat Physiologie et neuroanatomie du cerveau, traitement de l'information, apprentissage
Phénoménologie Conscience      
Psychanalyse Inconscient Phénomèmes intrapsychiques Humain Instincts, pulsions, structure de la personnalité, profondeurs de l'esprit
Psychologie comparée Différences entre les individus Psychologie comparative Humain et animaux L'humain est une espèce animale
Pyschologie culturelle Différences entre les cultures     Effet de la culture, des normes sociales, apprentissage sociale
Psychologie évolututionniste/Éthologie humaine Le comportement, les différences homme-femme en relation avec les déterminant biogénétiques (Gène, hormones, cerveau)   Humain, singe, rat,etc. Sélection naturelle, sélection sexuelle, effets des gènes, épigénèse
Psychologie positive Conscience, Bonheur   Humain Développement individuelle, habiletés sociales
Psychologie sociale/Psychologie organisationnelle Comportement social Acte Humain Facteurs cognitifs, Normes sociales, effet des groupes
Psychométrie Intelligence, Personnalité Cognition Humain Traits, types, organisation de la personnalité
Structuralisme/Élémentarisme Esprit et Conscience Structures et éléments de l'esprit Humain Impression, conscience, structure innée de l'esprit
  Ce tableau a été réalisé par l'auteur de ce site

  QUINE, W. (1960). Word and object. Cambridge, MA. : MIT Press.
 
Voir aussi Méthode scientifique et Science
Objet du désir : Objet que l'on souhaite acquérir. Plus précisément, pour la psychanalyse, il s'agit de l'objet dans lequel le sujet investit sa pulsion sexuelle. Object of desire.

  GERGELY, G. (2001). The obscure object of desire : Nearly, but clearly not, like me. Contingency preference in normal children versus children with autism. Special Issue of the Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 65 (3), 411-426.
Voir aussi Objet
Objet en trois dimensions : Three-dimensional object.

  JAMES, K.H., HUMPHREY, G.K., VILIS, T., ADDOUR, R., CORRIE, B. & GOODALE, M. (2002). "Active" and "passive" learning of three- dimensional object structure within an immersive virtual reality environment. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 34 (3), 383-390. [PDF]
JAMES, K.H., HUMPHREY, G.K., VILIS, T., ADDOUR, R., CORRIE, B. & GOODALE, M.A. (2002). Learning three-dimensional object structure : A virtual reality study. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 34 (3), 383-390.
Voir aussi Objet
Objet idéal : Dans la perspective psychanalytique, désigne l'objet qui permet de satisfaire au mieux le besoin x d'un individu. EX: la nourriture est l'objet idéal de la pulsion alimentaire (pas le pouce). = bon objet. /mauvais objet.

  Voir aussi Objet
Objet irréel : Pour Meinong, ensemble d'objets qui n'ont aucune référence (directe ou indirecte), donc aucune localisation dans l'espace, mais qui existe néanmoins grâce à leur signification (le Père Noël, l'Atlantide, les martiens, le fédéralisme asymétrique, etc. sont des référents sans référence). Ces objets ont donc une intension, mais pas d'extension. /objet réel. Abstract object.

  HALE, B. (1987). Abstract objects. Basil Blackwell.
Voir aussi Objet
Objet matériel : En science, tout objet composé, essentiellement ou totalement, de matière. De ce fait, l'objet matériel peut être situé dans le temps et l'espace, et pour cette raison, il devient théoriquement observable.

  Voir aussi Matériel et Objet
Objet maternel : En psychanalyse, désigne habituellement le premier objet d'amour.

  Voir aussi Objet
Objet naturel : Tout chose qui n'a pas été modifiée par la main ou l'influence humaine, et qui occupe une position dans le temps et l'espace. /objet artificiel. Naturel object.

  MERVIS, C.B. & ROSCH, E. (1981). Categorization of natural objects. Annual Review of Psychology, 32, 89-115.
Voir aussi Nature
Objet nouveau : Voir Nouveauté.
Objet partiel : Selon Abraham, propriété ou attribut d'un objet dans laquelle est investie la pulsion. Souvent une partie du corps (sein, vulve, pénis). Part-object.

  MOCAYO, R. (2006). The partial object, the ideal ego, the ego-ideal, and the empty subject : Four degrees of sifferentiation within narcissism. The Psychoanalytic Review, 93 (4), 565-602.
Voir aussi Objet
Objet phallique : En psychanalyse, tout objet de forme allongée ou oblongue qui symbolise le pénis (et par extension le pouvoir du père, pour certains psychanalystes). EX: un cigare, une cravate, un obélisque, etc.

  Voir aussi Objet
Objet physique : Expression souvent utilisé pour désigner un objet concret mais non vivant, naturel ou artificiel. EX : un ordinateur est un objet physique (artificiel), une montagne aussi (objet naturel). /objet social.

  Voir aussi Objet
Objet réel : En épistémologie, objet extra-linguistique qui possède une localisation dans le temps et l'espace; qui a une substance ou une existence hors du langage et de la conscience humaine. = objet concret, objet naturel. /objet irréel.

  Voir aussi Objet
Objet sexuel : Personne, la plupart du temps une femme, que l'on réduit à ses caractéristiques sexuelles. Sexual object.

  McKENZIE-MOHR, D., & ZANNA, M.P. (1990). Treating women as sexual objects : Look to the (gender schematic) male who has viewed pornography. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 16, 296-308.
RUDMAN, L. & BORGIDA, E. (1995). The afterglow of construct accessibility : The behavioral consequences of priming men to view women as sexual objects. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 493-517.
LAVINE, H., SWEENEY, D. & WAGNER, S.H. (1999). Depicting women as sex objects in television advertising : Effects on body dissatisfaction. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 25 (8), 1049-1058. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objet
Objet social : L'objet social est un individu de notre espèce, donc un congénère. = les autres.

  Voir aussi Congénère
Objet transitionnel : Tout objet choisi et investi par l'enfant, qui permet, selon Winnicott, de combattre l'angoisse produite par la désillusion, une période critique du développement, durant laquelle l'enfant réalise progressivement que sa dépendance à l'objet d'amour mère est aussi angoissante que gratifiante. Cet objet, substitut provisoire et partiel de la mère, réconforte l'enfant, le rassure, et permet de ce fait à l'enfant d'opérer en douceur la séparation avec son premier objet d'amour et de préparer la transition vers des objets d'adulte. EX: un toutou, une couverture (Voir Linus et sa doudou). Objet transitionnel et attachement. Transitional object.

  WINNICOTT, D.W. (1953). Transitional objects and transitional phenomena - A study of the first not-me possession. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 34, 89-97.
NASH, M.R., JOHNSON, L.S. & TIPTON, R.D. (1979). Hypnotic age regression and the occurrence of transitional object relationships. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 88 (5), 547-555. [PDF]
LITT, C.J. (1986). Theories of transitional object attachment : An overview. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 9, 383-399.
TRIENBENBACHER, S. (1998). Pets as transitional objects their role in children's emotional development. Psychological Reports, 82, 191-200.
FRIMAN, P.C. (1990). Concurrent habits. What would Linus do with his blanket if his thumb-sucking were treated ? American Journal of Diseases of Children, 144 (12), 1316-1318.
FRIMAN, P.C. (2000). "Transitional objects" as establishing operations for thumb sucking : A case study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34 (4), 507-509. [PDF]
Voir aussi Winnicott et Objet
Objet visuel : Tout objet que l'on parvient à voir, à se représenter grâce à une image. Objet virtuel et rotation mentale. Visual object.

 

SCHMID, A.M. & BAR, M. (2002). Selective involvement of prefrontal cortex in visual object recognition. Soc. Neurosci. Abstr. 161.8 (2002).

BAR, M.et al. Cortical mechanisms of explicit visual object recognition. Neuron 29, 529–535.
BAR, M. (2003). A cortical mechanism for triggering top-down facilitation in visual object recognition. Journal of Cognitive Neurosciences, 15 (4), 600-609.
BAR, M. (2004). Visual objects in context. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5 (8), 617-629. [PDF]
 
Voir aussi Objet
Objet virtuel : Tout objet que l'on parvient à imaginer, à se représenter, même de manière fugace et floue. Objet virtuel et rotation mentale. Virtual object.

  JAMES, K.H., HUMPHREY, G.K. & GOODALE, M.A (2001). Manipulating and recognizing virtual objects : Where the action is. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 111-120. [PDF]
JAMES, K.H., HUMPHREY, G.K., VILIS, T., BADDOUR, R., CORRIE, B. & GOODALE, M.A. (2002). "Active" and "passive" learning of three-dimensional object structure within an immersive virtual reality environment. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 34 (3), 383-390. [PDF]
Voir aussi Objet
Obligation : le terme a deux acceptions, selon le contexte : a) De façon générale, ce qu'un individu ou un groupe doit faire - en vertu de la morale, d'un code d'éthique/déontologie ou d'une loi - sous peine de sanction (morale, physique, monétaire, etc). b) En économie, l'obligation est une valeur mobilière. L'émetteur d'une obligation est l'emprunteur et le souscripteur ou le détenteur de cette obligation, le créancier.

Types d'obligation
Obligation de moyen Obligation légale Obligation morale
Obligation de résultat  
 


  ABOWITZ, D. (1990). Sociopolitical participation and the significance of social context : A model of competing interests and obligations. Social Science Quarterly, 71, 543-566.
TOOLEY, M. (1998). Values, obligation, and the asymmetry question. Bioethics, 1 (2), 111-124.
Voir aussi Morale

Obligation de moyen : Au sens légal, obligation faite a tout professionnel de fournir à son client ou à son patient les services prévus par le code des professions. EX: Un psychologue doit faire tout ce qui est en son possible pour aider et guérir son patient; il n'a cependant pas l'obligation de le guérir (obligation de résultat). *obligation morale.

  Voir aussi Obligation
Obligation de résultat : Au sens légal, obligation qui consiste à fournir un service de qualité, à la satisfaction du client. Les professionnels n'ont pas d'obligation de résultat (de guérir leurs patients dans le cas du psychologue ou du médecin), seulement une obligation de moyen. EX: Un plombier doit réparer votre chaudière au mazout, pas juste essayer de colmater la fuite; il a donc une obligation de résultat.

  Voir aussi Obligation
Obligation légale : Obligation faite par la loi, par un code. EX: Vous avez l'obligation légale d'aider une personne en danger. ( ): obligation de moyen, obligation de résultat.

  Voir aussi Obligation
Obligation morale : Ce qu'un individu se se sent obliger de faire. L'bligation découle de la conception dominante du bien et du mal d'un groupe, d'une société. EX: Vous avez l'obligation morale d'aider un vieillard qui n'est pas en danger mais qui sollicite votre aide.

  TOOLEY, M. (1998). Values, obligation, and the asymmetry question. Bioethics, 1 (2), 111-124.
BARRETT, W., WOSINSKA, W., BUTNER, PETROV, P., GORNIK-DUROS, M. & CIALDINI, R.B. (2004). Individual differences in the motivation to comply across cultures: the impact of social obligation. Personality & Individual Differences, 37, 19-31. [PDF]
Voir aussi Obligation
Obscurité : Darkness.

  PAGE, R.A. & MOSS, M.K. (1976). Environmental influences on aggression : The effects of darkness and proximity of victim. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 126-133.
GRILLON, C., PELLOWSKI, M., MERIKANGAS, K.R. & DAVIS, M. (1997). Darkness facilitates acoustic startle reflex in humans. Biological Psychiatry, 42, 453-460.
SCHALLER, M., PARK, J.H. & MUELLER, A. (2003). Fear of the dark : Interactive effects of beliefs about danger and ambient darkness on ethnic stereotypes. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 637-649. [PDF]
Voir aussi Phobie de la noirceur
Observabilité : En science, obligation faite aux chercheurs de tout mettre en oeuvre pour confronter leurs théories et leurs hypothèses à des phénomènes (naturels ou artificiels) directement ou indirectement observables. Il s'agit d'un des critères de scientificité de l'entreprise scientifique. Pour diverses raisons, certains phénomènes échappent à cette règle (inobservabilité). /inobservabilité.

  Raisons Solution
Inobservabilité Morale Questionner le sujet plutôt que de l'observer
Méthode ou technique trop intrusives Questionner le sujet plutôt que de l'observer ou diminuer le caractère intrusif de l'observation
Il serait trop long ou trop couteux de l'observer entièrement Observer une fraction du phénomène et généraliser les résultats à toute la population
Le phénomène est pour l'instant inobserbable Inférer son existence et observer ses manifestations (comportement, indice, symptome) jusqu'au jour où on découvrira une méthode/technique pour l'observer
Le phénomène est en soi invisible, donc théorique inobserbable Inférer son existence et observer ses manifestations (comportement, indice, symptome)

  Voir aussi inobservabilité
Observable : Se dit d'un phénomène dont on peut détecter l'existence/présence et décrire directement la nature et les propriétés par nos sens (notamment à l'oeil nu) ou, indirectement, grâce à un instrument plus précis qui amplifie nos sens (EX: microscope). /inobservable.

  MILLER, R.R. (1983). The multiple determinants of observing behavior. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 6, 710-711.
Observance des règles : Suivre des règles. Rule compliance.
Observance du traitement : Voir Adhésion au traitement. Compliance with treatment.
Observateur : Individu qui observe. Le concept varie selon : a) qu'il s'agit d'un organisme qui observe son environnement physique et social ou; b) d'un scientifique qui, au moyen de la méthode scientifique, étudie un phénomène naturel ou artificiel. Il peut s'agir du chercheur lui-même ou d'un assistant formé à cette fin. L'observateur travaille dans un laboratoire ou sur le terrain. Pour consigner ses observations, il peut utiliser une grille d'observation ou de consignation, un ordinateur de poche ou un simple calepin. On utilise également le terme pour désigner des non-scientifiques à qui l'on demande d'observer un sujet difficle à étudier (une mère qui observe son enfant; un enseignant, son élève). Observer.

Observer (comportement d'un organisme) Observer scientifiquement (un sujet/participant)
 

  a
JONES, E.E. & NISBETT, R.E. (1971). The actor and the observer : Divergent perceptions of the causes of behavior. In E.E. Jones, D.E. Kanouse, H.H. Kelley, R.E. Nisbett, S. Valins & B.W. Weiner (Eds.), Attribution : Perceiving the causes of behavior (pp. 37-52). Morristown, NJ : General Learning Press. [PDF]
MALLE, B.F. (2006). The actor-observer asymmetry in causal attribution : A (surprising) meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 895-919. [PDF]
MALLE, B.F., KNOBE, J. & NELSON, S.E (2007). Actor-observer asymmetries in explanations of behavior : New answers to an old question. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 93, 491-514. [PDF]
Voir aussi Comportement d'observation
b
ADRAIN, R. (1808). Research concerning the probabilities of the errors which happen in making observations. Analyst, 1, 93-109.
KELLEHER, R.T., RIDLE, W.C. & COOK, L. (1962). Observing responses in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5 (1), 3-13. [PDF]
Voir aussi Observer scientifiquement
Observation/Observer (scientifiquement) : Méthode de recherche qui consiste à consigner les comportements ou les caractéristiques d'un objet d'étude (humain ou animal) au moyen d'un instrument (observation indirecte) ou en dirigeant et en maintenant son attention vers cet objet (observation directe) afin d'en décrire fidèlement les propriétés. L'observation a lieu sur un site que le chercheur contrôle plus (laboratoire) ou moins (milieu naturel). L'observation est considérée comme une technique ou un outil de collecte de données lorsque qu'elle est jumelée avec la méthode expérimentale ou quasi-expérimentale. = observation objective, observation scientifique. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Observation, observational method, observational study, observational study.

Types d'observation
Observer à son insu Observation indirecte Observation par vidéo-caméra
Observation brute Observation invoquée Observation participante
Observation clinique Observation libre Observation provoquée
Observation continue Observation naturelle Observation systématique
Observation directe Observation objective Observation (Auto)
Observation en laboratoire   Inobservable/Inobservabilité
 

  ADRAIN, R. (1808). Research concerning the probabilities of the errors which happen in making observations. Analyst 1, 93-109. CASE, D.A., FANTINO, E. & WIXTED, J. (1985). Human observing : Maintained by negative informative stimuli only if correlated with improvement in response efficiency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43 (3), 289-300. [PDF]
DOWN, J.L.H. (1866). Observations on an ethnic classification of idiots. Clinical Lecture Reports, London Hospital, 3, 259-262. WRIGHT, C. (1986). Scientific realism, observation and the verification principle. In G. Macdonald, & C. Wright (Eds.), Fact, Science, and morality. Oxford : Basil Blackwell.
MORGAN, C.L. (1894). Observations on young pheasants. Nature, 50, 575-576.  
JAMES, W.T. (1952). Observations on behavior of new-born puppies : Methods of measurement and types of behavior involved. Pedagological Seminary & Journal of Genetic Psychology, 80, 65-73. BROWN, H. (1987). Observation and objectivity. New York : Oxford University Press.
CHOMBART DE LAUWE, P. (1960). Le rôle de l'observation en sociologie. Revue de l'Institut de Sociologie, 33 (1), 27-43. TOMASELLO, M., DAVIS-DAVSILVA, M. CAMAK, L. & BARD, K. (1987). Observational learning of tool-use by young chimpanzees. Human Evolution, 2 (2), 175-183.
KELLEHER, R.T., RIDLE, W.C. & COOK, L. (1962). Observing responses in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5 (1), 3-13. [PDF] JACOBS, W.J., BLACKBURN, J.R., BUTTRICK, M., HARPUR, T.J., KENNEDY, D., MANA, M.J., MacDONALD, M.A., McPHERSON, L.M., PAUL, D. & PFAUS, J.G. (1988). Observations. Psychobiology, 16, 3-19.
ASANO, S. & BARRETT, B.H. (1964). A periscope for behavior observation. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 7 (6), 430. [PDF] LEWIS, D. (1988). Statements Partly About Observation. Philosophical Papers, 17 (1), 31.
JOHN, E.R., CHESLER, P., BARTLETT, F. & VICTOR, I. (1968). Observational learning in cats. Science, 159, 1489-1491. BRODY, G.H. (1990). Effects of television viewing on family interactions : An observational study. Family Relations, 29 (2), 216-220.
WERRY, J.S. & QUAY, H.C. (1969). Observing the classroom behavior of elementary school children. Exceptional Child, 35 (6), 461-470. SHIMP, C.P. (1993). Observation and theory in behavior analysis. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 60 (2), 481-484. [PDF]
DINSMOOR, J.A., BROWNE, M.P. & LAWRENCE, C.E. (1972). A test of the negative discriminative stimulus as a reinforcer of observing. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 18 (1), 79-85. [PDF] CHARTRAND, E. et JULIEN, D. (1994). Système d'Observation des Dimensions d'Interaction (SODI): Validation canadienne française du Interaction Dimension Coding System. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Sciences/Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 26, 121-130.
ROMANCZYK, R.G., KENT, R.N., DIAMENT, C. & O'LEARY, K.D. (1973). Measuring the reliability of observational data : a reactive process. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6 (1), 175-184. [PDF] WALTHER, J.B. (1995) Relational aspects of computer-mediated communication: Experimental observations over time. Organization Science, 6 (2) 186–203.
ALTMANN, J. (1974). Observational study of behaviour : Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-267. TRYON, W.W. (1996). Observing contingencies : Taxonomy and methods. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 215-230.
NELSON, R.O., & BOWLES, P.E. (1975). The best of two worlds : Observation with norms. Journal of School Psychology, 13, 3-9.
FAGEN, R., CONTZ, J. & KUNIBE, E. (1997). Observing behavioral qualities. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 10, 167-179.
RUSSELL, M.B. & BERNAL, M.E. (1977). Temporal and climatic variables in naturalistic observation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10 (3), 399-405. [PDF] LINDBERG, A.C., KELLAND, A. & NICO, C.J. (1999). Effects of observational learning on acquisition of an operant response in horses. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 61, 187-199.
BOESCH, C. (1978). Nouvelles observations sur les chimpanzés de la forêt de Taï (Côte d'Ivoire). Terre et Vie 32, 195-201. HANDLER, M.W. & PUTNAN, R.F. (2000). Classroom observation system. Randolph, MA : The May Institute Inc.
WASIK, B.H. & LOVEN, M.D. (1980). Classroom observational data: Sources of inaccuracy and proposed solutions. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 211-227. LU, B., ZANUTO, E., HORNIK, R. & ROSENBAUM, P.R. (2001). Matching with doses in an observational study of a media campaign against drug abuse. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 96, 1245-1253.
HAYNES, S.N. & HORN, W.F. (1982). Reactivity in be- havioral observations : A methodological and conceptual critique. Behavioral Assessment, 4, 369-385. NAHALLAGE, C.A.D. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2006). Observations of meat eating by captive juvenile macaques. Laboratory Primate Newsletter, 45 (1), 1-4.
KOHN, R.C. (1982). Les enjeux de l'observation. Paris : PUF. YANG, H. (2006). A report of an ESL classroom observation in two language schools in Auckland. TESL Canada Journal, 23 (2), 1-11. [PDF]
FASSNACHT, G. (1982). Theory and practice of observing behaviour. London : Academic Press. VERHOFSTADT, L.L., BUYSSE, A. & ICKES, W. (2007). Social support in couples : An examination of gender differences using self-report and observational methods. Sex Roles, 57, 267-282.
DINSMOOR, J.A., MUELLER, K.L., MARTIN, L.T. & BOWE, C.A. (1982). The acquisition of observing. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 (3), 249-263. [PDF] COOK, T.D., SHADISH, W.R. & WONG, V.C. (2008). Three conditions under which experiments and observational studies produce comparable causal estimates : New findings from within-study comparisons. Journal of Policy Analysis & Management, 27, 724-750.
GERSTEN, R., CARNINE, D.W. & WILLIAMS, P. (1982). Measuring implementation of a structured educational model in an urban school district : An observational approach. Educational Evaluation & Policy Analysis, 4 (1), 67-79. WILLS, H.P., KAMPS, D., ABBOTT, M., BANNISTER, H. & HANSEN, B. (2010). Classroom observations and effects of reading interventions for students at risk for emotional and behavioral disorders. Behavioral Disorders, 35 (2), 103-119.
FODOR, J.A. (1984). Observation reconsidered. Philosophy of Science, 51, 23-43. STIRLING, I. & ROSS, J.E. (2011). Observations of cannibalism by polar bears (Ursus maritimus) on summer and autumn sea ice at Svalbard, Norway. Arctic, 64, 478-482. [PDF]
VAUCLAIR, J. (1984). L'observation en éthologie. In M.-P. Michiels (Ed.), L'observation. Textes de base en psychologie (pp. 123-136). Paris : Delachaux et Niestlé. SCHOENFELD, A.H. (2013). Classroom observations in theory and practice. ZDM Mathematics Education, 45 (4), 607-621. [PDF]
Voir aussi Paramètre dune réponse observée
Observation (Auto) : Technique d'observation, souvent utilisée pour remplacer les questionnaires/entrevues ou dans le cadre d'une thérapie behaviorale, qui consiste à demander au client de noter, au moyen d'une grille, l'apparition de ses comportements, leurs conséquences immédiates (contingences), ainsi que le contexte dans lequel appararaissent ces comportements (= stimulus discriminatif). On utilise cette technique lorsque l'observation directe des réponses du client se révèle impossible en raison de leur inaccessibilité (comportement privé = idée noire, idéation suicidaire, etc.), de leur caractère intime (EX : comportements sexuels) ou de leur coût (longue période de temps, trop d'individus à observer, etc). Self-observation.

  REICH, J.P. (1939). A case of psychoanalytic self-observation. Psychoanalytic Review, 26, 470-484.
Observation/Observer (Comportement d'...) : Chez la plupart des organismes, comportement qui consiste à examiner un stimulus (objet, congénère, proie, prédateur) pour en découvrir les caractéristiques (renforçante ou punitive). Observing behavior, observing response.

  WYCKOFF, L.B. (1952). The role of observing responses in discrimination learning. Psychological Review, 59, 431-442. PERONE, M. & BARON, A. (1980). Reinforcement of human observing behavior by a stimulus correlated with extinction or increased effort. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 34 (3), 239-261. [PDF]
PROKASY, W.F. (1956). The acquisition of observing responses in the absence of differential external rein- forcement. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 49, 131-134.  
HOLLAND, J.G. (1957). Technique for behavioral analysis of human observing. Science, 125, 348-350.  
KELLEHER, R.T., RIDDLE, W.C. & COOK, L. (1962). Observing responses in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5, 3-13. BOWE, C.A. & DINSMOOR, J.A. (1981). Temporal vs. spatial information as a reinforcer of observing. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 17, 33-36.
LEVIS, D.J. & PERKINS, C.C.(1965). Acquisition of ob- serving responses (Ro) with water reward. Psychological Reports, 16, 114. DINSMOOR, J.A., MUELLER, K.L., MARTIN, L.T. & BOWE, C.A. (1982). The acquisition of observing. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 38 (3), 249-263. [PDF]
DARDANO, J. (1965). Modification of observing behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 8 (4), 207-218. [PDF] BOWE, C.A. & DINSMOOR, J.A. (1983). Observing and conditioned reinforcement. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 6, 693-704.
MITCHELL, K.M., PERKINS, N.P. & PERKINS, C.C. (1965). Conditions affecting acquisition of observing respons- es in the absence of differential reward. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 60, 435-437.  
 KENDALL, S.B. (1965). The distribution of observing responses in a mixed FI-FR schedule. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 8 (5), 305-312. [PDF]  
 HENDRY, D.P. & DILLOW, P.V. (1966). Observing behavior during interval schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 9 (4), 337-349. [PDF]  
 STEINER, J. (1967). Observing responses and uncertainty reduction. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 18-29. SHULL, R.L. (1983). Selective observing when the experimenter controls the duration of observing bouts. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 6, 715.
 McMICHAEL, J.S., LANZETTA, J. & DRISCOLL, J. (1967). In frequent reward facilitates observing responses in rats. Psychonomic Science, 9, 23-24. DINSMOOR, J.A. (1983). Observing and conditioned reinforcement. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 6, 693-728.
WYCKOFF, L.B. (1969). The role of observing responses in discrimination learning. In Hendry D. P. (Ed.), Conditioned reinforcement (pp. 237-260). Homewood, Ill.: Dorsey. BRANCH, M. (1983). Observing observing. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 6, 705.
WILTON, R.N. & CLEMENTS, R.O. (1971). The role of information in the emission of observing responses : A test of two hypotheses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 16, 161-166. BOWE, C.A. & DINSMOOR, J.A. (1983). Spatial and temporal relations in conditionned reinforcement and observing behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 39 (2), 227-240. [PDF]
WILTON, R.N. & CLEMENTS, R.O. (1971). Observing responses and informative stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 15 (2), 99-204. [PDF] CASE, D.A., FANTINO, E. & WIXTED, J. (1985). Human observing : Maintained by negative informative stimuli only if correlated with improvement in response efficiency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43 (3), 289–300. [PDF]
DINSMOOR, J.A., BROWNE, M.P. & LAWRENCE, C.E. (1972). A test of the negative discriminative stimulus as a reinforcer of observing. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 18 (1), 79-85. [PDF] DINSMOOR, J.A. (1985). The role of observing and attention in establishing stimulus control. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43 (3), 365-381. [PDF]
LIEBERMAN, D.A. (1972). Secondary reinforcement and information as determinants of observing behavior in monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Learning & Motivation, 3, 341-358. DALY, H.B. (1985). Observing response acquisition: Preference for unpredictable appetitive rewards obtained under conditions predicted by DMOD. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 11, 294-316.
HIROTA, T.T. (1972). The Wyckoff observing response : a reappraisal. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 18 (2), 263-276. [PDF] DINSMOOR, J.A, BOWE, C.A., GREEN, L. & HANSON, J. (1988). Information on response requireents compared with information on food density as a reinforcer of observing in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 49 (2), 229-237. [PDF]
AUGE, R.J. (1973). Extinction of observing behavior. Psychological Reports, 33 (2), CASE, D.A. & FANTINO, E. (1989). Instructions and re- inforcement in the observing behavior of adults and children. Learning & Motivation, 20, 373-412.
JENKINS, H.M. & BOAKES, R.A. (1973). Observing stimulus sources that signal food or no food. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (2), 197-207. [PDF] PERONE, M. & KAMINSKI, B.J. (1992). Conditioned reinforcement of human observing behavior by descriptive and arbitrary verbal stimuli. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 58 (3), 557–575. [PDF]
 KENDALL, S.B. (1973). Effects of two procedures for varying information on observing responses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20, 73-83. [PDF] GAYNOR, S.T. & SHULL, R.L. (2002). The generality of selective observing. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 77 (2), 171-187. [PDF]
BRANCH, M.N. (1973). Observing responses in pigeons : Effects of schedule component duration and schedule value. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (3), 417-428. SHAHAN, T.A. (2002). Observing behavior : Effects of rate and magnitude of primary reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78 (2), 161-178. [PDF]
 KENDALL, S.B. (1973). Effect of varying negative trial duration on observing responses. University of Western Ontario Research Bulletin, 259. ESCOBAR, R. & BRUNER, C.A. (2002). Effects of reinforce- ment frequency and extinction-component duration within a mixed schedule of reinforcement on observing responses in rats. Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 28, 41–46.
AUGE, R.J. (1973). Effects of stimulus duration on observing behavior maintained by differential reinforcement magnitude. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (3), 429-438. [PDF]  
MULVANEY, D.E., DINSMOOR, J.A., JWAIDEH, A.R. & HUGHES, L.H. (1974). Punishment of observing by the negative discriminative stimulus. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 21 (1), 37-44. [PDF] ESCOBAR, R. & BRUNER, C.A. (2008). Effects of the contiguity between the extinction and the reinforcement components in observing-response procedures. Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 34, 333-347. [PDF] et [PDF]
AUGE, R.J. (1974). Context, observing behavior, and conditioned reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (3), 525-533. [PDF] ESCOBAR, R. & BRUNER, C.A. (2009). Observing responses and serial stimuli : Searching for the reinforcing properties of the S−. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78 (2), 161-178. [PDF]
BLANCHARD, G. (1975). The effect of S-on observing behavior. Learning & Motivation, 6, 1-10.

ESCOBAR, R. (2010). Travel distance and stimulus duration on observing responses by rats. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 1, (1), 79-91. [PDF]

Voir aussi Comportement, Vision et Yeux
Observations (Les...) : Produit verbal ou chiffré qui résulte d'une observation scientifique. O-data.

  Voir aussi Observation
Observation (Site d'...) : Lieu où se déroule les observations d'une recherche. Il peut s'agir d'un laboratoire, mais généralement l'expression désigne le milieu naturel des sujets.

  Voir aussi Observation
Observation brute : Produit verbal ou chiffré de l'observation scientifique d'un seul observateur.

  Voir aussi Observation
Observation clinique : Observation plus ou moins systématique faite par un thérapeute dans le cadre d'une thérapie. Il va de soi que la validité interne et externe de ces obseravtions est moindre que les observations réalisées dans un cadre scientifique. Néanmoins, elles peuvent engendrer des hypothèses intéressantes et orienter la recherche. EX: Pourquoi y a-t-il plus de femmes que d'hommes qui consultent un psychologue? Il convient de préciser que les observations cliniques ont une valeur en soi, eu égard aux objectifs poursuivis par la thérapie; leur fonction première n'est pas de produire de nouvelles connaissances scientifiques, mais bien de permettre au thérapeute d'aider et de guérir son client/patient/malade.

  NEZU, A.M. (1998). "Just the facts...". The Behavior Therapist, 21, 57-59.
Voir aussi Observation
Observation continue : Forme d'observation directe qui consiste à noter dans une grille d'observation tous les comportements pertinents qui se produisent lors d'une séance d'observations. La durée d'observation est alors équivalence à la durée de la séance. Cette procédure est utilisé lorsque les séances sont courtesou que le nombre de comporteent à observer est petit. /observation par échantillonnage.

  Voir aussi Observation
Observation directe : Méthode scientifique d'observation qui repose sur les sens (expérience), donc faite sans l'aide d'instruments d'observation ou de mesure. EX: Un chercheur note sur sa grille d'observation les comportements d'un groupe d'enfants. /observation indirecte. Direct observation.

  HUTT, S.J. & HUTT, C. (1970). Direct observation and measurement of behavior. Sprinfield, Illinois: Charles C. Thomas. DESLAURIERS, J.-P. & MAYER, R. (2000). L'observation directe. Dans R. Mayer, F. Ouellet, M.-C. Saint-Jacques & D. Turcotte (Éds), Méthodes de recherche en intervention sociale (p. 135-158). Montréal : Gaëtan Morin.
ROSENSHINE, B. & FURST, N. (1973). The use of direct observation to study teaching. In R. Travers (Ed.), Second handbook of research on teaching (pp. 122-183). Chicago : Rand McNally.  
FOSTER, S.L. & CONE, J.D. (1980). Current issues in direct observation. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 313-338.  
REED, M.L. & EDELROCK, C. (1983). Reliability and validity of the direct observation form of the Child Behavior Checklist. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 11, 521-530.  
STANLEY, S.O. & GREENWOOD, C.R. (1983). Assessing opportunity to respond in clss room environments through direct observations : How much opportunity to respond does the minority, disadvantaged student receive in school ? Exceptional Children, 49, 370-373. TENENBAUM, G., KIRKER, B. & MATTSON, J. (2000). An investigation of the dynamics of aggression : direct observations in ice hockey and basket-ball. Research Quarterly for Exercice & Sport, 71, 373-386.
HOGE, R.D. (1985). The validity of direct observation measures of pupil classroom behavior. Review of Educational Research, 55 (4), 469-483. [PDF] BAER, D. M., HARRISON, R., FRADENBURG, L., PETERSEN, D. & MILLA, S. (2005). Some pragmatics in the valid and reliable recording of directly observed behavior. Research on Social Work Practice, 15 (6), 440-451.
BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Observation directe du comportement. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 1-34). St-Hyacinthe : Édisem. GEE, C. & SULLIVAN, P. (2006). Using A direct observation approach to study aggressive behaviour in hockey : Some preliminary findings. Athletic Insight, 8 (1), 16-31. [PDF]
LAPERRIÈRE, A. (1993/2003). L'observation directe. Dans B. Gauthier (Dir.), Recherche sociale. De la problématique à la collecte des données (4e éd.) (p. 269-291). St-Foy : Presses de l'Université du Québec. LEWIS, T.J., SCOTT, T.M., WEHBY, J.H. & WILLS, H.P. (2014). Direct observation of teacher and student behavior in school settings : Trends, issues and future directions. Behavioral Disorders, 39 (4), 190-200.
BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Démarche scientifique et cycle de la recherche. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 1-34). St-Hyacynthe : Edisem. Voir aussi Instruments d'observation
Observation en laboratoire : Observation scientifique réalisée en laboratoire. = observation expérimentale, observation contrôlée. /observation naturelle.

  KELLEHER, R.T., RIDLE, W.C. & COOK, L. (1962). Observing responses in pigeons. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5, 3-13. [PDF]
BRANCH, M.N. (1973). Observing responses in pigeons : effects of schedule component duration and schedule value. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 5 (3), 417-428. [PDF]
Voir aussi Observation scientifique et Laboratoire
Observation en milieu naturel : Observation faite dans le milieu naturel de l'organisme plutôt qu'en laboratoire. = observation sur le terrain, en milieu naturel, en condition naturelle. *observation naturelle *observation participante. /observation en laboratoire. Naturalistic observation, observation of behaviors in free settings.

  LOVAAS, O.I. FREITAG, G., GOLD, V. & KASSORLA, I.C. (1965). Recording apparatus and procedure for observation of behaviors of children in free play settings. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 2, 108-120. GOOD, T.L (1981). Classroom observations : Potential and problems. In W. Duckett (Ed.), Observation and the evaluation of teaching. Bloomington, IN : Phi Delta Kappa.
GOOD, T.L. & BROPHY, J.E. (1970). Teacher-child dyadic interactions : A new method of classroom observation. Journal of School Psychology, 8 (2), 131-137. BOUSHA, D.M. & TWENTYMAN, C.T. (1984). Mother-child interactional style in abuse, neglect, and control groups : Naturalistic observations in the home. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 93, 106-114.
JOHNSON, S.M. & BOLDSTAD, A.D. (1973). Methodological issues in naturalistic observation : Some problems and solutions for field research. In L.A. Hamerlynck, L.C. Handy & E.J. Mash (Eds.), Behavior change : methodology, concepts, and practice (pp. 7-67). Champaign, Ilinoise : Research Press. GELLER, E.S., RUSS, N.W. & ALTOMARI, M.G. (1986). Naturalistic observations of beer drinking among college students. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19 (4), 391-396. [PDF]
CUTLER, R.E. & STORM, T. (1975). Observational study of alcohol consumption in natural settings : The Vancouver beer parlor. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 36 (9), 1173-1183. DAVIS, M.Z. (1986). Observation in natural settings. Dans W. C. Chenitz & J.M. Swanson (Eds.), From practice to grounded theory : Qualitative research in nursing (pp. 48-65). Menlo Park, CA : Addison-Wesley.
RUSSELL, M.B. & BERNAL, M.E. (1977). Temporal and climatic variables in naturalistic observation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10 (3), 399-405. [PDF] DOWNS, A.C. & LYONS, P.M. (1990). Natural observations of the links between attractiveness and initial legal judgments. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 17, 541-547.
VERHOFSTADT, L.L., BUYSSE, A. & ICKES, W. (2007). Social support in couples: An examination of gender differences using self-report and observational methods. Sex Roles, 57, 267-282.
Voir aussi Milieu naturel, Condition naturelle et Observation
 
Observation indirecte : Méthode scientifique d'observation qui repose sur un instrument de mesure ou d'évaluation qui sert à traduire de manière physique le comportement ou la caractéristique observée.. EX: Un thermomètre ou un électroencéphalogramme. /observation directe.

  BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Observation directe du comportement. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 277-309). St-Hyacynthe : Edisem.
Observation invoquée : Observation d'une variable invoquée (ou assignéee).

  Voir aussi Observation et Variable invoquée
Observation libre : Méthode qui consiste à noter tous les comportements qui apparaissent dans une situation donnée. On observe librement au moyen d'une grille d'observation ouverte. /observation systématique.

  Voir aussi Observation
Observation naturelle : Voir Observation en milieu naturel.
Observation objective : Se dit d'une observation qui respecte les quatre principes suivants : 1) Accord interjuge : une observation objective repose sur l'accord entre deux observateurs (principe du truth by agreement), et non seulement sur les observations d'une seule personne (observation brute); 2) Reproductibilité de l'observation : une observation objective doit pouvoir être faite à plusieurs reprises, et non une seule fois (régularité des phénomènes); 3) Neutralité de l'observateur : une observation est objective si le checheur s'assure que l'activité d'observation en elle-mê me ne modifie pas le comportement ou les caractéristiques de l'objet d'étude. Dans le meilleur des cas, l'observation se fait à l'insu du sujet; 4) Dimension publique : l'observation doit être rendue disponible à l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique sous forme de livre, d'article scientifique ou de conférence, afin que l'on puisse en prendre connaissance et juger du respect des trois critères ci-haut mentionnés. Observational study.

Principes d'une observation objective
1 Accord interjuge
2 Reproductibilité
3 Neutralité de l'observateur
4 Dimension publique

  COCHRAN, W.G. (1965). The planning of observational studies of human populations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 128, 234-265.
Voir aussi Observation
Observation par échantillonnage : Forme d'observation directe qui consiste à noter dans une grille d'observation tous les comportements pertinents qui se produisent lors d'une période de temps, plutôt qu'en contiu pendant toue la séance d'observation. Time-sample measures of behavior

  ALTMANN, J. (1974). Observational study of behaviour : Sampling methods. Behaviour, 49, 227-267. [PDF]
POWELL, J., MARTINDALE, A. & KULP, S. (1975). An evaluation of time-sample measures of behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8 (4), 463-469. [PDF]
LEHNER, P.N. (1992). Sampling methods in behavior research. Poultry Science, 71 (4), 643-649.
BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Observation directe du comportement. M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la démarche scientifique (p. 277-310). Saint-Hyacinthe : Edisem. Voir aussi Observation
Observation par les pairs (enseignant/professeur) : Forme d'observation directe faite par un pair et qui consiste à noter sur une grille d'observation tous les comportements pertinents d'un enseignant/professeur qui se produisent en classe lors d'une cours. Peer observation of classroom teaching.
  COHEN, P.A. & McKEACHIE, W.J. (1980). The role of colleagues in the evaluation of teaching. Improving College & University Teaching, 28, 147-154. HAMMERSLEY-FLETCHER, L. & ORSMOND, P. (2005). Re ecting on re ective practices within peer observation. Studies in Higher Education, 30 (2), 213-224.
FULLERTON, H. (1993). Observation of teaching : Guidelines for observers. Birmingham : SEDA Publications. ADSHEAD, L., WHITE, P.T., STEPHENSON, A. (2006). Introducing peer observation of teaching to GP teachers : a questionnaire study. Medical Teacher, 28, (2), 68-73.
WEBB, J. & McENERNEY, K. (1995). The view from the back of the classroom : A faculty-based peer observation program. Journal on Excellence in College Teaching, 6 (3), 145-160. SIDDIQUI, Z., JONAS-DWYER, D. & CARR, S. (2007). Twelve tips for peer observation of teaching. Medical Teacher, 29, 297-300.
LUDWICK, R., DIECKMAN, B.C., HERDTNER, S., DUGAN, M. & ROCHE, M. (1998). Documenting the scholarship of clinical teaching through peer review. Nurse Educator, 23 (6), 17-20. SWINGLEHURST, D., RUSSELL, J. & GREENHALGH, T. (2008). Peer observation of teaching in the online environment : An action research approach. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 24, 383-393.
CHISM, N.V.N. (1999). Peer review of teaching : A sourcebook. Bolton, MA : Anker. BENNETT, S. & BARP, D. (2008). Peer observation - a case for doing it online. Teaching in Higher Education, 13 (5), 559-570.
MARTIN, G. & DOUBLE, J. (1998). Developing higher education teaching skills through peer observation and collaborative reflection.Innovations in Education and Training International, 35 (2), 161-170. PRESSICK-KILBORN, K. & TE RIELE, K. (2008). Learning from reciprocal peer observation : A collaborative self-study. Studying Teacher Education, 4 (1), 61-75.
COSH, J. (1998). Peer observation in higher education a reflective approach. Innovations in Education and Training International, 35 (2), 171-176. BENNETT, S. & SANTY, J. (2009). A window on our teaching practice : Enhancing individual online teaching quality through online peer observation and support. A UK case study. Nurse Education in Practice 9, 403-406.
BOUD, D. (1999). Situating academic development in professional development work : Using peer learning. International Journal for Academic Development, 4 (1), 3-10. SHORTLAND, S. (2010). Feedback within peer observation : Continuing professional development and unexpected consequences. Innovations in Education & Teaching International, 47 (3), 295-304.
COSTELLO, J., PATEMAN, B., PUSEY, H. & LONGSHAW, K. (2001). Peer review of classroom teaching : An interim report. Nurse Education Today, 21, 444-454. FINN, K., CHIAPPA, V., PUIG, A. & HUNT, D.P. (2011). How to become a better clinical teacher : a collaborative peer observation process. Medical Teacher, 33 (2), 151-155.
MacKINNON, M. (2001). Using observational feedback to promote academic development. The International Journal for Academic Development, 6 (1), 21-28. HENDRY, G. & OLIVER, G. (2012). Seeing is believing : The bene ts of peer observation. Journal of University Teaching & Learning Practice, 9 (1), 1-9.
BELL. M. (2001). Supported reflective practice : a programme of peer observation and feedback for academic teaching development. International Journal for Academic Development, 6 (1), 29-39. [PDF] SULLIVAN, P., BUCKLE, A., NICKY, G. & ATKINSON, S. (2012). Peer observation of teaching as a faculty development tool. BMC Medical Education, 12 (26), 2-6.[PDF]
WILKERSON, L. & LEWIS, J. (2002). Classroom observation : The observer as collaborator. In K.H. Gillespie, L.R. Hilsen & E.C. Wadsworth (Eds.), A guide to faculty development : Practical advice, examples and resources (pp. 74-81). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass/Anker.  
SHORTLAND, S. (2004). Observing teaching in HE: A case study of classroom observation within peer observation. International Journal of Educational Management, 4 (2).  
HAMMERSLEY-FLETCHER, L. & ORSMOND, P. (2004). Evaluating our peers : Is peer observation a meaningful process ? Studies in Higher Education, 29 (4), 489-503. HAROER, F. & NICOLSON, M. (2013) Online peer observation : It's value in teacher professional development, support and well-being. International Journal for Academic Development, 18 (3), 264-275.
BERK, R.A., NAUMANN, P.L. & APPLING, S.E. (2004). Beyond student ratings : Peer observation of classroom and clinical teaching. International Journal of Nursing Education Scholarship, 1 (1), 1-26. [PDF] YIEND, J., WELLER, S. & KINCHIN, I. (2014). Peer observation of teaching : the interaction between peer review and developmental models of practice. Journal of Further & Higher Education, 38 (4), 465-484.
Voir aussi Évaluation des pairs et Évaluation des enseignants
 
Observation par vidéo-caméra : Technique d'observation et d'évaluation du comportement, qui consiste à recourir à un vidéo pour enregistrer une performance - individuelle ou de groupe - afin de l'analyser, de mettre en évidence les erreurs ou les faiblesses dans l'éxécution et, dans certains cas, de les corriger. On l'utilise lorsque les unités d'observation sont difficiles à observer en temps réel, comme les expressions faciales, ou lorsque la présence des observateurs influence les sujets de la recherche. car elle permet d'enregistrer les activités d'un organisme à son insu, aussi bien en laboratoire qu'en condition naturelle. Observation par vidéo, rétroaction et sport. Video feedback, videotaping feedback, video record, self-recording.

  BRODEN, M., HALL, R.V. & MITTS, B. (1971). The effect of self-recording on the classroom behavior of two eighth-grade students.Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7 (3), 191-199. [PDF] PENNER, L.A., OROM., ALBRETCH, T. FRANKS, M., FOSTER, T. & RUCKDECHEL, J.C. (2007). Camera-related behaviors during video recorded medical interactions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 31, 99-117. [PDF]
 McKENZIE, T.L. & RUHALL, B.S. (1974). Effects of self-recording on attendance and performance in a competitive swimming training environment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 7 (2), 199-206. [PDF] RUTZ, C., BLUFF, L.A., WEIR, A.A.S. & KACELNIK, A. (2007). Video cameras on wild birds. Science, 318, 765.
RIKLI, R. & SMITH, G. (1980). Videotape feedback effects on tennis serving form. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 50 (3), 895-901.  
HAZEN, A., JOHNSTONE, C., MARTIN, G.L. & SRIKAMES- WARAN, S. (1990). A videotaping feedback package for improving skills of youth competitive swimmers. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 213-227. FRITZ, J.N., IWATA, B.A., ROLIDER, N.U., CAMP, E.M. & NEIDERT, P.L. (2012). Analysis of self-recording in self-management interventions for stereotypy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45 (1), 55-68. [PDF]
Voir aussi Rétroaction, Observation et Vidéo
Observation participante : Méthode d'observation sur le terrain développée par Malinowski, et qui consiste à observer les individus d'un groupe (social) auquel on s'est plus ou moins récemment intégré. Cette observation peut se faire ou non à l'insu des individus du groupe. Parce que cette méthode contrevient à certains principes de l'observation objective, on la qualifie de subjective, ce qui ne signifie pas qu'elle soit dépourvue d'intérê t, ou que sa valeur soit sujette à caution, mais plutôt que l'on ne peut en tirer des conclusions aussi fiables qu'en laboratoire. Les observations et les impressions recueillies grâce à cette méthode sont rarement traduites en chiffre, pour cette raison on les qualifie de qualitatives. = observation subjective. /observation objective. Participant observation.

  KLUCKHOHN, C. (1940). The participant observer technique in small communities. American Journal of Sociology, 46, 331-343. SPRADLEY, J. P. (1980). Participant observation. New York : Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
MILLER, S.M. (1952). The participant observer and "over-rapport". American Sociological Review, 17, 97-99. BECKER, H.S. & GEER, B. (1982). Participant observation : The analysis of qualitative field data. Dans R.G. Burgess (Ed.), Field research : A sourcebook and field manual. London : George Allen & Unwin.
MENSH, I.N. & HENRY, J. (1953). Direct observation and psychological tests in anthropological field work. American Anthropologist, 55, 461-480. PLATT, J. (1983). The development of the "participant observation" method in sociology : Origin myth and history. Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences, 19, 379-393.
MELBIN M. (1954). An interaction recording device for participant observers. Human Organization, 13 (2), 29-33. BASTIN, R. (1985). Participant observation in social analysis. Dans R. Walker (Ed.), Applied qualitative research (pp. 92-100). Aldershot, UK : Gower.
VIDICH, A.J. (1955). Participant observation and the collection and interpretation of data. American Journal of Sociology, 60 (4), 354-360. AKTOUF, O. (1985). La méthode de l'observation participante. Dans A. Chanlat & M. Dufour (Éds), La rupture entre l'entreprise et les hommes (p. 243- 285). Paris : Éditions d'Organisation.
SCHWARTZ, M.S. & GREEN-SCHWARTZ, C. (1955). Problems in participant observation. American Journal of Sociology, 60 (4), 343-354. BECKER, H.S. (1987). Problèmes d'inférence et de preuve dans l'observation participante. Cahiers du Centre de Recherches Sociologiques, (5), 57-82.
KOLAJA, J. (1956). Contribution to the theory of participant observation. Social Forces, 35 (2), 159-163. FORTIN, A. (1988). L'observation participante : Au coeur de l'altérité. Dans J.-P. Deslauriers (Éd.), Les méthodes de la recherche qualitative (p. 23-33). Québec : Presses de l'Université du Québec.
DEAN, J.P. (1956). Participant observation and interviewing. Dans J.T. Doby (Ed.), An introduction to social research (p. 225-252). Harrisburg : Stackpole. JORGENSEN, D.L. (1989). Participant observation : A methodology for human studies. Newbury Park, CA : Sage.
BECKER, H.S. & GEER, B. (1957). Participant observation and interviewing : A comparison. Human Organization, 16 (3), 28-33. COENEN-HUTHER, J. (1995). Observation participante et théorie sociologique. Paris : L'Harmattan.
BABCHUCK, N. (1962). The role of the researcher as participant observer and participant as observer in the field situation. Human Organization, 21 (3), 225-228. ASHWORTH, P. D. (1995). The meaning of "participation" in participant observation. Qualitative Health Research, 5 (3), 366-387.
BRUYN, S.T. (1963). The methodology of participant observation. Human Organization, 22 (3), 224-235. SAVAGE, J. (2000). Participant observation : Standing in the shoes of others. Qualitative Health Research, 10 (3), 324-339.
PEARSALL, M. (1965). Participant observation as role and method in behavioral research. Nursing Research, 14, 37-47. CORBIN, J.M. (2002). Participant observations of a participant observer. In G.D. Rowles and N.E. Schoenberg (Eds.), Qualitative gerontology : A contemporary perspective (pp. 93-108). New York : Springer.
OLESON, V.L.& WHITTAKER, E. (1967). Role-making in participant observation: Process in the researcher-actor relationship. Human Organization, 26, 273-281. DEWALT, K.M. & DEWALT, B.R. (2002). Participant observation. Walnut Creek, CA : AltaMira Press.
WAX, R.H. (1968). Observation : Participant observation. In International encyclopedia of the social sciences. (Vol. 11 pp. 238-240). London : Collier- Macmillan. ATKINSON, P.A. & COFFEY, A. (2002). Revisiting the relationship between participant observation and interviewing. Dans J.F. Gubrium and J.A. Holstein (Eds.), Handbook of interview research. Context & method (pp. 801-814). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
BECKER, H.S. & GEER, B. (1969). Participant observation and interviewing : A comparison. Dans G.J. McCall & J.L. Simmons (Eds.), Issues in participant observation : A text and a reader (pp. 322-331). Reading, MA : Addison-Wesley. BECKER, H.S. (2003). Inférence et preuve en observation participante. Fiabilité des données et validité des hypothèses. Dans D. Céfaï (Éd.), L'enquête de terrain (p. 350-362). Paris : La Découverte.
JACOBS, G. (Ed.). (1970). The participant observer. New York : G. Braziller. GOLD, R.I. (2003). Jeux de rôles sur le terrain. Observation et participation dans l'enquête sociologique. Dans D. Céfaï (Éd.), L'enquête de terrain (p. 340-349). Paris : La Découverte.
SCHWARTZ, G. & MERTEN, D. (1971). Participant observation and the discovery of meaning. Philosophy of the Social Science, 1, 279-298.  
BOGDAN, R.C. (1972). Participant observation in organizational settings. Syracuse, NY : Syracuse University Press. DELAMONT, S. (2004). Ethnography and participant observation. Dans C. Seale, G. Gobo, J.F. Gubrium & D. Silverman (Eds.), Qualitative research practice (p. 217-229). London : Sage.
CLASTR, D.S. & SCHWARTZ, H. (1972). Strategies of participation in participant observation. Sociological Methods and Research, 1 (1), 65-96. WADDINGTON, D. (2004). Participant observation. Dans C. Cassell & G. Symon (Eds.), Essential guide qualitative methods in organizational research (p. 154-164). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
GLASER, E.M. & BAKER, T.E. (1973). A look at participant observation. Evaluation, 1(3), 46-49.  
FRIEDRICHS, J. & LÜDKTE, H. (1975). Participant observation : Theory and practice. Farnborough : Saxon House.  
BOURDIEU, P. (1978). Sur l'objectivation participante. Réponse à quelques objections. Actes de la Recherche en Sciences Sociales, 23, 67-69.  
Voir aussi Observation
Observation provoquée : Observation dans un plan exprimentale d'une variable provoquée.

  Voir aussi Observation
Observation systématique : Méthode scientifique empirique par laquelle le chercheur observe et enregistre systématiquement le comportement ou les caractéristiques de l'objet d'étude, sans intervenir. On observe systématiquement au moyen d'une grille d'observation fermée, tant en laboratoire que sur le terrain. = observation structurée. /observation libre. Systematic observational method, systematic observation.

  WEICK, K.E. (1968). Systematic observational methods. In G. Lindsley & E. Aronson (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (Vol 2, pp. 357-451). London : Addison-Wesley.
KASHTI,Y., ARIELI, M. & HAREL, Y. (1984). Classroom seating as a definition of situation : Observations in an elementary school in one development town. Urban Education, 19, 161-181.
BLOOM, G.A., CRUMPTON, R. & ANDERSON, J.E. (1999). A systematic observation study of the teaching behaviors of an expert basketball coach. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 157-170. [PDF]
BLATCHFORD, P., BURKE, J., FARQUHAR, C., PLEWIS, I. & TIZARD, B. (1987). A systematic observation study of children's behaviour at infant school. Research Papers in Education, 2,1,47-62.
SYRIOPOULO-DELLI, C.K. (2011). Systematic observation of children with pervasive developmental disorders. Review of European Studies Vol. 3, No. 1, 54-59. [PDF]
Voir aussi Observation
Observée (Paramètre d'une réponse...) : Voir paramètre.
Observer à son insu : Observer des participants sans les prevenir qu'ils font partie d'une recherche, donc sans que ces participants le sachent avant le début de la recherche ou s'en rendent compte lors du déroulement.

  Voir aussi Observation
Obsession/Obsessif : Idées noires récursives, que l'on ne parvient ni à embellir ni à oublier, et dont le contenu concerne souvent des détails de la vie. Obsession et trouble obsessif-compulsif. = pensée obsessive, pensée intrusive, idée fixe, idée noire. Obsession, Obsessive thoughts, obsessional thinking.

  JANET, P. (1903). Les obsessions et la psychasthénie. Paris : Alcan. RACHMAN, S.J. (1997). A cognitive theory of obsessions. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 35 (9), 793-802.
BORNSTEIN, B. (1953). Fragment of an analysis of an obsessional child : The first six months of analysis. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 8, 313-332. RACHMAN, S.J. (1998). A cognitive theory of obsessions : elaborations. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 36 (4), 385-401.
SANDLER, J. & JOFFÉ, W.G. (1965). Notes on obsessional manifestations in children. The Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 20, 425-438. SOLYOM, L., GARZA-PEREZ, B.L., LEDWIGE, B. & SOLYOM, L.L. (1972). Paradoxical intention in the treatment of obsessive thoughts : A pilot study. Comprehensive Psychiatry 13 (3), 291-297.
SALZMAN, L. (1965). Obsessions and phobias. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 2, 1-25. KOZAK, K.A., GREIST, J.H., JEFFERSON, J.W., KATZELNICK, D.J. & HENK, H.J. (1998). Behavioral versus pharmacological treatments of obsessive compulsive disorder : A meta-analysis. Psychopharmacology, 136 (3), 205-216.
BARNETT, J. (1966). On cognitive disorders in the obsessional. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 2, 122-133. PURDON, C. & CLARK, D.A. (2000). White bears and other elusive intrusions : Assessing the relevance of thought suppression for obsessional phenomena. Behavior Modification, 24, 425-453.
SALZMAN, L. (1968). The obsessive personality: Origins, dynamics, and therapy. Jason Aronson Publishers.  
ADAMS, P.L. (1972). Family characteristics of obsessive children. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128 (11), 1414-1417.  
MARKS, I.M. (1977). Phobias and obsessions : Clinical phenomena in search of a laboratory model. In J.D. Maser & M.E.P. Seligman (Eds.), Psychopathology : Experimental models. San Francisco : Freeman. FREESTON, M.H., LÉGER, E. & LADOUCEUR, R. (2001). Cognitive therapy of obsessive thoughts. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 8, 61-78.
RACHMAN, S.J. & DE SILVA, P. (1978). Normal and abnormal obsessions. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 16, 233-248. NEWTH, S. & RACHMAN, S. (2001). The concealment of obsessions. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39 (4), 457-464.
SALZMAN, L. (1979). Psychotherapy of the obsessional. American Journal of Psychiatry, 33 (1), 32-40  
SALZMAN, L. (1979). Psychoanalytic therapy of the obsessional patient. Current Psychiatric Therapies, 22, 53-59.  
SALZMAN, L. (1980). Treatment of the obessive personality. Jason Aronson. WANG, A. & CLARK, D.A. (2002). Haunting thoughts : The problem of obsessive mental intrusions. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy : An International Quarterly, 16, 193-208.
RACHMAN, S. (1981). Unwanted intrusive cognitions. Advances in Behaviour Research & Therapy, 3, 89-99. RACHMAN, S.J. (2003). The treatment of obsessions. Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press.
FREESTON, M.H., LADOUCEUR, R., GAGNON, F. & THIBODEAU, N. (1993). Beliefs about obsessional thoughts. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 15, 1-21. PURDON, C.A. & CLARK, D.A. (2005). Overcoming obsessive thoughts : How to gain control of your OCD. Oakland, CA : New Harbinger.
RACHMAN, S.J. (1993). Obsessions, responsibility and guilt. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 31, 149-154. REDISH, A.D. & JOHNSON, A. (2007). A computational model of craving and obsession. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 1104: 324-339. [PDF]
TALLIS, F. (1995). The characteristics of obsessional thinking : Difficulty demonstrating the obvious ? Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 2, 24-39. SALKOVSKIS, P.M. & MILLAR, J. (2016). Still cognitive after all these years ? Perspectives for a cognitive behavioural theory of obsessions and where we are 30 years later. Australian Psychologist, 51 (1), 14-17.
Voir aussi Trouble obsessif-compulsif
Obsession et compulsion : Voir Trouble obsessif-compulsif.
Obstacle épistémologique : Concept proposé par Bachelard pour désigner les facteurs psychologiques (et souvent inconscient) qui nuisent à la compréhension d'un phénomène scientifique. Obstacle, vertus épistémiques et problème scientifique.= obstacle épistémique. Epistemological barrier.
  BACHELARD, G. (1938/86). La formation de l'esprit scientifique : contribution à une psychanalyse de la connaissance objective. Paris : Vrin.
SKINNER, B.F. (1975). Progress and obstacles to progress in the sciences. Oxford : Clarendon Press.
O’DONOHUE, W., CALLAGHAN, G.M. & RUCKSTUHL, L.E. (1998). Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. The Behavior Analyst, 21 (2), 307-320. [PDF]
OCKAM (RASOIR) - OCYTOCINE - ODEUR - O'DONOHUE - ODORAT - O'DRISCOLL - OEDIPE - OEIL - OESTROGÈNE - OF
Occupational & Environmental Medicine : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire.
BABISCH, W., ISING, H. & GALLAGHER, J.E.J. (2003). Health status as a potential effect modifier of the relation between noise annoyance and incidence of ischaemic heart disease. Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 60, 739-745.

Occupational Therapy International : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages aux thérapies.
AUSTI, V., SHAH, S. & MUNCER, S. (2005). Teacher stress and coping strategies used to reduce stress. Occupational Therapy International, 12 (2), 63-80.

Occuper de soi (S') : Tendance à faire les choses soi-mê me plutôt que t'attendre que les autres le fassent pour nous. EX: Se faire un sandwich plutôt que de commander une pizza, se faire un pansement ou avaler deux aspirines plutôt que de se rendre à l'urgence, lire un livre sur les marteaux plutôt que de suivre un cours du soir en menuiserie, chercher un mot dans ce lexique plutôt que d'attendre que le professeur en donne la définition en classe. Self-service.

   
Océanie : Continent. Oceania.

Continents
Afrique
Amérique
Asie
Europe
Océanie

   
Voir aussi Pays
Ochberg Franck M. (New York 1940-) : Psychiatre américain, spécialisé dans l'étude et le traitement du trouble de stress post-traumatique. Il a mis en évidence le syndrome de Stockolm.
OCHBERG, F.M. (1978). The victim of terrorism : Psychiatric considerations. Terrorism, 1, 147-168.
OCHBERG, F.M. (1982). A case study : Gerard Vaders. In F.M. Ochberg & D.A. Soskis (Eds.), Victims of terrorism (pp. 9-35). Boulder, Colorado : Westview Press.
OCHBERG, F.M. (1988). Post-traumatic therapy and victims of violence. New York : Brunner/Mazel.
Ockham Guillaume d' (Ockham Surrey Angleterre vers 1285-1350 Munich) : Philosophe et moine franciscain anglais. On lui attribue cette fameuse citation : « Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity», autrement dit «Les concepts ne devraient être créés ou ajoutés à une théorie/explication que si on ne peut faire autrement». Cette citation est à l'origine du principe qui porte son nom. = Guillaume d'Occam, Guillaume d'Ockcam. Professeur de Buridan. Ockham William of.
OCKHAM, W. (1321-1323). Exposition sur les réfutations sophistiques.
 
MOODY, E.A. (1967). William of Ockham. In P. Edwards (Ed.). The encyclopedia of philosophy (Vol. 8. pp. 306-317). New York : Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc.
ADAMS, M.M. (1987). William Ockham : Volume 1. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press.
MAURER, A. (1999). The philosophy of William of Ockham in the light of its principles. Toronto : Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.
Ockham (Rasoir d'...) : Principe épistémologique de parcimonie formulé par le moine franciscain et philosophe du 14e siècle William d'Ockham, selon lequel une explication doit reposer sur le plus petit nombre de concepts possible. Ce principe stipule que : «Les entités ne devraient pas être multipliées sans nécessité». Dit autrement, à pouvoir explicatif égal, une théorie simple est préférable à une théorie complexe. Il aurait dit : «Frustra fit per plura quod potest fieri per pauciora» (il est inutile de faire avec plus ce que l'on peut faire avec moins); «Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem» (les entités ne devraient pas être multipliées sans nécessité). Rasoir d'Ockham et Canon de Morgan. = rasoir d'Occkam, rasoir, d'Occam, principe d'Occkam, principe d'occam. *principe de parcimonie, principe d'économie. Ockam's razor, Ockam's principle.
  THOBURN, W.M. (1915). Occam's razor. Mind, 24, 287-288. MAURER, A. (1984). Ockham's razor and Chatton's anti-razor. Medieval Studies, 46, 463-475.
BURNS, C.D. (1915). Occam's razor. Mind, 24, 592.  
THOBURN, W.M. (1918). The myth of Occam's Razor. Mind, 27 (107), 345-353. MYUNG, I.J. & PITT, M.A. (1997). Applying Occam's razor in modeling cognition : A Bayesian approach. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 4 (1), 79-95.
MENGER, K. (1960). A counterpart of Ockham's razor in pure and applied mathematics : Ontological uses. Synthese, 12, 415. PANACCIO, C. (1999). Le discours intérieur. De Platon à Guillaume d'Ockham. Paris : Éditions du Seuil.
ARIEW, R. (1976). Ockham's razor : A historical and philosophical analysis of Ockham's principle of parsimony. Champaign-Urbana : University of Illinois. RODRIGUEZ-FERNANDEZ, J.L. (1999). Ockham's razor. Endeavour, 23, 121-125.
WALSH, D. (1979). "Occam's razor" : A principle of intellectual elegance. American Philosophical Quarterly, 16, 241-244. FOUSSIAS, G. & REMINGTON, G. (2010). Negative symptoms in schizophrenia : Avolition and Occam's razor. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 36 (2), 359-369. [PDF]
Voir aussi Principe de parcimonie et Canon de Morgan
Octopamine : Neurotransmetteur.Octopamine.

  DASARI, S. & COOPER, R.L. (2004). Technical note Modulation of sensory-CNS-motor circuits by serotonin, octopamine, and dopamine in semi-intact drosophila larva. Neuroscience Research, 48, 221-227. [PDF]
Voir aussi Neurotransmetteur
Ocytocine : Hormone produite par l'hypothalamus et sécrétée par l'hypophyse. Elle agit également comme neurotransmetteur. Oxytocin.
  KEVERNE, E.B. & KENDRICK, K.M. (1994). Maternal-behavior in sheep and its neuroendocrine regulation. Acta Paediatrica, 83, 47-56. KOSFELD, M., HEINRICHS, M., ZAK, P.J., FISCHBCHER, U. & FEHR, E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature 435, 673-676. [PDF]
MCCARTHY, M.M. (1995). Estrogen modulation of oxytocin and its relation to behavior. In R. Ivell & A. Russell (Eds.), Cellular and molecular approaches in medicine and research oxytocin (Vol. 395, pp. 235-246). New York : Plenum. WALLNER, B. DITTAMI, J. & MACHATSCHKE, I. (2006). Social stimuli cause changes of plasma oxytocin and behavior in guinea pigs. Biology Research, 39 (2), 251-258.
WITT, D.M. (1997). Oxytocin-mediated sociocexual behavior. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 807, 287-301. CAMPBELL, A. (2008). Attachment, aggression and affiliation : The role of oxytocin in female social behaviour. Biological Psychology, 77 (1), 1-10
UVNÄS-MOBERG K (1998). Antistress pattern induced by oxytocin. News in Physiological Sciences, 13, 22-25. LUCHT, M.J., BARNOW, S., SONNENFELD, C. ROSENBERGER, A., JOERGEN-GRABE, H., SCHROEDER, W., VÖLZKE H., FREYBERGER, H.J. & HERRMANN, F.H. (2009). Associations between the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) and affect, loneliness and intelligence in normal subjects. Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, 33, 860-866. [PDF]
BALES, K.L. & CARTER, C.S., 2003. Sex differences and developmental effects of oxytocin on aggression and social behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster). Hormones & Behavior 44, 178-184. THEODORIDOU, A., ROWE, A.C., PENTON-VOAK, I.S. & ROGERS, P.J. (2009). Oxytocin and social perception: Oxytocin increases perceived facial trustworthiness and attractiveness. Hormones & Behavior, 56, 128-132.
UVNÄS MOBERG, K. (2003). The oxytocin factor. Tapping the hormone of calm, love, and healing. Cambridge MA : Da Capo Press. NORMAN, G.J., CACIOPPO, J.T., MORRIS, J.S., KARELINA, K. MALARKEY, W.B., DEVRIES, A.C. & BERNTSON, G.G. (2011). Selective influences of oxytocin on the evaluative processing of social stimuli. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25, 1313-1319.
KEVERNE, E.B. & CURLEY, J.P. (2004). Vasopressin, oxytocin and social behaviour. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 14 (6), 777-783. [PDF] SAPHIRE-BERNSTEIN, S., WAY, B.M., KIM, H.S., SHERMAN, D.K. & TAYLOR, S.E. (2011). Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is related to psychological resources. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108, 15118-15122. [PDF]
KOSFELD, M., HEINRICHS, M., ZAK, P.J., FISHBACHER, U. & FEHR, E. (2005). Oxytocin increases trust in humans. Nature, 435, 673-676. KUMSTA, R. & HEINRICHS, M. (2012). Oxytocin, stress and social behavior : neurogenetics of the human oxytocin system. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23, 1-6. [PDF]
  BEETZ, A., UVNÄS-MOBERG, K., JULIUS, H. & KOTRSCHA, K. (2012). Psychosocial and psychophysiological effects of human-animal interactions : the possible role of oxytocin. Frontiers in Psychology, 3, 234. [PDF]
  HOGE, E.A., ANDERSON, E., LAWSON, E.A., BUI, E., FISCHER, L.E., KHADGE, S.D., FELDMAN-BARRETT, L. & SIMON, N.M. (2014). Gender moderates the effect of oxytocin on social judgments. Human Psychopharmacology : Clinical & Experimental, 29, 299-304. [PDF]
Voir aussi Hormone, Hypothalamus et Neurotransmetteur
 
Odeur : Odeur qui émane d'un objet, notamment de certaines glandes du corps, et que l'on peut sentir par le nez. Odeur, odorat et mémoire olfactive. = senteur. Odors.
  AMOORE, J.E. (1970). Molecular basis of odor. Springfield, IL : Thomas. SCHAB, F.R. (1990). Odors and the remembrance of things past. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 16, 648-655.
ENGEN, T., KUISMA, J.E. & EIMAS, P.D. (1973). Short-term memory of odors. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 99 (2), 222-225.  
BERGLUND, B., BERGLUND, U., ENGEN, T. & EKMAN, G. (1973). Multidimensional analysis of twenty-one odors. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 14, 131-137. SCHAB, F.R. (1991). Odor memory : Taking stock. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 242-251.
ENGEN, T. & ROSS, B.M. (1973). Long-term-memory of odors with and without verbal descriptions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 100 (2), 221-227. LAWLESS, H. (1991). Effects of odors on mood and behavior : Aromatherapy and related effects. In D.G. Laing DG, R.L. Doty & W. Breipohl (Eds), The human sense of smell. (pp. 361-387). Berlin, Germany : Springer-Verlag.
AMOORE, J.E. (1975). Four primary odor modalities of man : Experimental evidence and possible significance. In D.A. Denton & J.P. Coghlan (Eds.), Olfaction and taste (pp. 283-289). New York : Academic Press. BUCK, L. & AXEL, R. (1991). A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors : A molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell, 65, 175-187.
LAWLESS, H.T. & CAIN, W.S. (1975). Recognition memory for odors. Chemical Senses, 1, 331-337. BREED, M.D. (1993). Odour detection in bees. Nature, 362, 120.
WALLACE, P. (1977). Individual discrimination of humans by odor. Physiology & Behavior, 19, 577-579. LEHRNER, J.P. (1993). Gender differences in long-term odor recognition memory: Verbal versus sensory influences and the consistency of label use. Chemical Senses, 18, 17-26
HOLD, B. & SCHLEIDT, M. (1977). The importance of human odour in non-verbal communication. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 43, 225-238. ROYET, J.P., PAUGAM-MOISY, H., ROUBY, C., ZIGHED, D., NICOLOYANNIS, N., AMGHAR, S. & SICARD, G. (1996). Is short term odour recognition predictable from odour profile ? Chemical Senses, 21, 553-566.
SAHLEY, C.L., GELPERIN, A. & RUDY, J.W. (1981). One-trial associative learning modifies food odor preferences of a terrestrial mollusc. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 78, 640-642. BAEYENS, F., WRZESNIEWSKI, A., DE HOUWER J. & EELEN, P. (1996). Toilet rooms, body messages, and smells : Two field studies on human evaluative odor conditioning. Current Psychology, 15, 77-96.
CHASTRETTE, M. (1981). An approach to a classification of odours using physicochemical parameters. Chemical Senses, 6, 157-163. BARON, R.A. (1997). The sweet smell of... helping : Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 (5), 498-503.
DOTY, R.L., GREEN, P.A., RAM, C. & YANKELL, S.L. (1982). Communication of gender from human breath odors: Relationship to perceived intensity and pleasantness. Hormones & Behavior, 16, 13-22. AGGLETON, J.P. & WASKETT, L. (1999). The ability of odours to serve as state-dependent cues for real-world memories : Can Viking smells aid the recall of Viking experiences ? British Journal of Psychology, 90, 1-7. [PDF]
REVIAL, M.F., SICARD, G., DUCHAMP, A. & HOLLEY, A. (1982). New studies on odour discrimination in the frog's olfactory receptor cells : I Experimental results. Chemical Senses, 7, 175-194. RIKOWSKI, A. & GRAMMER, K. (1999). Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 869-874.
HOPP, S. & TIMBERLAKE, W. (1983). Odor cue determinants of urine marking in male rats (rattus norvegicus). Behavioral & Neural Biology, 37, 162-172. ASMUS, C.L. & BELL P.A. (1999). Effects of environmental odor and coping style on negative affect, anger, arousal, and escape. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 245-260.
RABIN, M.D. & CAIN, W.S. (1984). Odor recognition : Familiarity, identifiability, and encoding consistency. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10 (2), 316-325. CHU, S. & DOWNES, J.J. (2000). Odour-evoked autobiographical memories : Psychological investigations of Proustian phenomena. Chemical Senses, 25, 111-116.
  SINGH, D. & BRONSTAD, P.M. (2001). Female body odor is a potential cue to ovulation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biology, 268, 797-801. [PDF]
DOTY, R.L., SHAMAN, P., APPLEBAUM, S.L., GIBERSON, R., SIKORSKI, L. & ROSENBERG, L. (1984). Smell identification ability : Changes with age. Science, 226, 1441-1443 ROSENKRANZ, J.A. & GRACE, A.A. (2002). Dopamine-mediated modulation of odour-evoked amygdala potentials during pavlovian conditioning. Nature, 417, 282-287. [PDF]
  CHEBAT, J.-C. & MICHON, R. (2003). Impact of ambient odors on mall shoppers’ emotions, cognition, and spending A test of competitive causal theories. Journal of Business Research, 56, 529-539. [PDF]
  ZUCCO, G.M. (2003). Anomalies in cognition : Olfactory memory. European Psychologist, 8 (2), 77-86. [PDF]
  HAVLICEK, J., ROBERTS, S.C. & FLEGR, J. (2005). Women’s preference for dominant male odour : Effects of menstrual cycle and relationship status. Biology Letters, 1, 256-259.
CERNOCH, J.M. & PORTER, R.H. (1985). Recognition of maternal axillary odors by infants. Child Development, 56, 1593-1598. MARTINS, Y., PRETI, G., CRABTREE, C.R., RUNYAN, T., VAINIUS, A.A. & WYSOCKI, C.J. (2005). Preference for human body odors is influenced by gender and sexual orientation. Psychological Science, 16 (9), 694-701.
  FRANK, R., RYBALSKY, K., BREARTON, M. & MANNEA, E. (2011). Odor recognition memory as a function of odor naming performance. Chemical Senses, 36, 29-41.
DOTY, R.L., APPLEBAUM, S., ZUSHO, H. & SETTLE, R.G. (1985). Sex differences in odor identification ability : A cross-cultural analysis. Neuropsychologia, 23, 667-672 TONNEAU, F., ORTIZ, R. & CABRERA, F. (2012). Hamsters' (Mesocricetus auratus) memory in a radial maze analog : the role of spatial versus olfactory cues. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 126 (1), 82-86.
ENGEN, T. (1987). Remembering odors and their names. American Scientist, 75, 497-503. GILDERSLEEVE, K.A., HASELTON, M.G., LARSON, C.M., PILLSWORTH, E.G. (2012). Body odor attractiveness as a cue of impending ovulation in women : Evidence from a study using hormone-confirmed ovulation. Hormones & Behavior, 61, 157-166. [PDF]
CESSNA, T.C. & FRANK, R.A. (2013). Does odor knowledge or an odor naming strategy mediate the relationship between odor naming and recognition memory ? Chemosensory Perception, 6 (1), 36-44.
Voir aussi Odeur corporelle et Odorat
Odeur corporelle : Odeur qui émane du corps, de certaines glandes (odeur naturelle) ou d'un parfum (odeur artificielle). Body odour, body message.

  AMOORE, J.E. (1975). Four primary odor modalities of man : Experimental evidence and possible significance. In D.A. Denton & J.P. Coghlan (Eds.), Olfaction and taste (pp. 283-289). New York : Academic Press. SINGH, D. & BRONSTAD, P.M. (2001). Female body odor is a potential cue to ovulation. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Biology, 268, 797-801.
WALLACE, P. (1977). Individual discrimination of humans by odor. Physiology & Behavior, 19, 577-579.  
BARON, R.A. (1981). The role of olfaction in human social behavior : Effects of a pleasant scent on attraction and social perception. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 611-617.  
DOTY, R.L., GREEN, P.A., RAM, C. & YANKELL, S.L. (1982). Communication of gender from human breath odors: Relationship to perceived intensity and pleasantness. Hormones & Behavior, 16, 13-22.  
HOPP, S. & TIMBERLAKE, W. (1983). Odor cue determinants of urine marking in male rats (rattus norvegicus). Behavioral & Neural Biology, 37, 162-172.  
BARON, R.A. (1985). The « sweet smell of success ? » The impact of pleasant artificial scents (perfume or cologne) on evaluations of job applications. Journal of Applied Psychology, 68, 709-715.  
DOTY, R.L., SHAMAN, P., APPLEBAUM, S.L., GIBERSON, R., SIKORSKI, L. & ROSENBERG, L. (1984). Smell identification ability : Changes with age. Science, 226, 1441-1443  
CERNOCH, J.M. & PORTER, R.H. (1985). Recognition of maternal axillary odors by infants. Child Development, 56, 1593-1598.  
BUCK, L. & AXEL, R. (1991). A novel multigene family may encode odorant receptors : A molecular basis for odor recognition. Cell, 65, 175-187. THORNHILL, R., GANGESTAD, S.W., MILLER, R., SCHEYD, G., MCCOLLOUGH, J.K. & FRANKLIN, M. (2003). Major histocompatibility complex genes, symmetry, and body scent attractiveness in men and women. Behavioral Ecology, 14, (5), 668-678. [PDF]
GOLDMAN, W.P. & SEAMON, J.G. (1992). Very long-term memory for odors : Retention of odor-name associations. American Journal of Psychology, 105, 549-563. MARTINS, Y., PRETI, G., CRABTREE, C.R., RUNYAN, T., VAINIUS, A.A. & WYSOCKI, C.J. (2005). Preference for human body odors is influenced by gender and sexual orientation. Psychological Science, 16 (9), 694-701.
BARON, R.A. & THOMLEY, J. (1994). A whiffof reality : Positive affect as a potential mediator of the effects of pleasant fragrances on task performance and helping. Environment Behavior, 26, 766-784. HAVLICEK, J., ROBERTS, S.C. & FLEGR, J. (2005). Women's preference for dominant male odour : Effects of menstrual cycle and relationship status. Biology Letters, 1, 256-259.
BAEYENS, F., WRZESNIEWSKI, A., DE HOUWER J. & EELEN, P. (1996). Toilet rooms, body messages, and smells : Two field studies on human evaluative odor conditioning. Current Psychology, 15, 77-96. [PDF] ROBERTS, S.C., GOSLING, L.M., SPECTOR, T.D., MILLER, P., PENN, D.J. & PETRIE, M. (2005). Body odor similarity in noncohabiting twins. Chemical Senses, 30, 1-6.
WEDEKIND, C. & FÜRI, S. (1997). Body odor preference in men and women : do they aim for specific MHC combinations or simply heterozygosity ? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 264, 1471-1479.  
BARON, R.A. (1997). The sweet smell of... helping : Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 (5), 498-503. [PDF]  
AGGLETON, J.P. & WASKETT, L. (1999).The ability of odours to serve as state-dependent cues for real-world memories : Can Viking smells aid the recall of Viking experiences ? British Journal of Psychology, 90, 1-7. [PDF] GILDERSLEEVE, K.A., HASELTON, M.G., LARSON, C.M. & PILLSWORTH, E.G. (2012). Body odor attractiveness as a cue of impending ovulation in women : Evidence from a study using hormone-confirmed ovulation. Hormones & Behavior, 61, 157-166. [PDF]
RIKOWSKI, A. & GRAMMER, K. (1999). Human body odour, symmetry and attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B, 266, 869-874. [PDF]  
Voir aussi Odeur et Odorat
Odeur d'ammoniac : Utilisé comme punition positive dans la thérapie par aversion. Olfactory aversion therapy.

  COLSON, C.E. (1972). Olfactory aversion therapy for homosexual behavior. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 3 (3), 185-187
Voir aussi Thérapie par aversion
O'Donnell John M. ( ) : Historien des sciences américain.

O'DONNELL, J. (1979). The crisis of experimentalism in the 1920s : E.G. Boring and his uses of history. American Psychologist, 34 (4), 289-295.
O'DONNELL, J. (1985). The origins of behaviorism : American psychology, 1870-1920. New York : NYU Press.
 
 
BURNHAM, J. (1986). The origins of behaviorism : American psychology, 1870-1920 by John M. O'Donnell. Isis: A Journal of the History of Science, 77, 532-533.
LOGUE, W. (1986). Echoes from the past : A review of John M. O'Donnell's the origins of behaviorism. The Behavior Analyst, 9 (2), 199-203. [PDF]
PAULY, P.J. (1987). John M. O'Donnell. The origins of behaviorism : American psychology, 1870-1920. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 23, (3), 236-238.
O'Donohue William T. (1957-) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude du traitement des agressions sexuelles et de la maltraitance. Collaborateur de Hayes, Hayes, Krasner, Lilienfeld et Wilson.
O'DONOHUE, W.T. & ELLIOTT, A. (1991). A model for the clinical assessment of the sexually abused child. Behavioral Assessment, 13, 325-339.
O'DONOHUE, W.T. (1991). Assessment of the effects of child sexual abuse. Behavioral Assessment, 13, 321-324.
O'DONOHUE, W.T. & ELLIOTT, A. (1992). The treatment of the sexually abused child. Journal of Child Clinical Psychology, 21, 218-228.
O'DONOHUE, W., CALLAGHAN, G.M. & RUCKSTUHL, L.E. (1998). Epistemological barriers to radical behaviorism. The Behavior Analyst, 21 (2), 307-320. [PDF]
O'DONOHUE, W.T., FERGUSON, K.E. & NAUGLE, A.E. (2003). The structure of the cognitive revolution : An examination from the philosophy of science. The Behavior Analyst, 26, (1), 85-110. [PDF]
Odorat : Un des cinq sens qui, grâce au nez, permet de sentir, de distinguer les odeurs. Odorat, Organe de Jacobson et Odeur corporelle. = olfaction. Olfaction.

Sens
Goût
Ouïe
Odorat
Toucher
Vision

  ALBERTS, J.R. & GALEF, B.G. (1973). Olfactory cues and movement : Stimuli mediating intraspecific aggression in the wild Norway rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 85, 233-242. AXEL R. (1995). The molecular logic of smell. Scientific American, 273 (4), 154-159.
SLOTNICK, B.M. & KATZ, H.M. (1974). Olfactory learning- set formation in rats. Science, 185, 796-798. BENDE, M. & NORDIN, S. (1997). Perceptual learning in olfaction : Professional wine tasters versus controls. Physiology & Behavior, 62, 1065-1070
AMOORE, J.E. (1975). Four primary odor modalities of man : Experimental evidence and possible significance. In D.A. Denton & J.P. Coghlan (Eds.), Olfaction and taste (pp. 283-289). New York : Academic Press. HERZ, R.S. (1997). The effects of cue distinctiveness on odor-based context-dependent memory. Memory & Cognition, 25 (3), 375-380.
ROYET, J.P. & PAGER, J. (1981). Olfactory bulb responsiveness to an aversive or novel food odor in the unrestrained rat. Brain Research Bulletin, 7, 375-378. NICKELLl, W.T. (1997). Basic anatomy and physiology of olfaction. In A.M. Seiden (Ed.), Taste and smell disorders (pp. 20-37). New York : Thieme.
BARON, R.A. (1981). The role of olfaction in human social behavior : Effects of a pleasant scent on attraction and social perception. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 611-617. GANGESTAD, S.W. & THORNHILL, R. (1998). Menstrual cycle variation in women's preference for the scent of symmetrical men. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, London, B, 265, 927-933.
RICHARDSON, J.T.E. & ZUCCO, G.M. (1989). Cognition and olfaction : A review. Psychological Bulletin, 105 (3), 352-360. ROSENBLUTH, R., GROSSMAN, E.S. & KAITZ, M. (2000). Performance of early-blind and sighted children on olfactory tasks. Perception, 29 (1), 101-110.
SCHAB, F.R. (1990). Odors and the remembrance of things past. ournal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 16, 648-655. THORNHILL, R., GANGESTAD, S.W., MILLER, R., SCHEYD, G., MCCULLOUGH, J. & FRANKLIN, M. (2003). MHC, symmetry and body scent attractiveness in men and women (Homo sapiens). Behavioral Ecology, 14, 668-678.
SCHAB, F.R. (1991). Odor memory : Taking stock. Psychological Bulletin, 109, 242-251. SZETEI, V., MIKLOSI, A., TOPAL, J. & CSÀNYI, V. (2003). When dogs seem to lose their nose : an investigation on the use of visual and olfactory cues in communicative context between dog and owner. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 83, 141-152.
MILLER, S.L. & MANER, J.K. (2010). Scent of a woman : Men’s testosterone responses to olfactory ovulation cues. Psychological Science, 21, 276-283.
  STEVENSON, R.J. & MEHMET, M. (2010). Differential context effects between sweet tastes and smells. Attention, Perception & Psychophysics, 72, 2304-2313.
Voir aussi Parfum, Odeur, Organe de Jacobson et Odeur corporelle
 
O'Driscoll Michael P. ( ) : Psychologue organisationnelle nouveau-zélandais et spécialiste de l'étude du stress et du bien-être au travail.
O'DRISCOLL, M.P. & BEEHR, T. (2000). Moderating effects of perceived control and need for clarity on the relationship between role stressors and employee affective reactions. Journal of Social Psychology, 140, 151-159.
O'DRISCOLL, M.P. & DEWE, P.J. (2001). Mediators and moderators of stressor-strain linkages. In P. Perrewe & D. Ganster (Eds.), Research in occupational stress and well being : Exploring theoretical mechanisms and perspectives (Vol. 1, pp. 257-287). JAI Press.
O'DRISCOLL, M.P. & BROUGH, P. (2003). Job stress and burnout. In M.P. O’Driscoll, P.J. Taylor & T. Kalliath (Eds.), Organisational psychology in Australia and New Zealand (pp. 188-211). Melbourne : Oxford University Press.
O'DRISCOLL, M.P., TAYLOR, P. & KALLIATH, T. (Eds.) (2003). Organizational psychology in Australia and New Zealand. Melbourne : Oxford University Press.
DEWE, P.J., O'DRISCOLL, M.P. & COOPER, C.L. (2012). Theories of psychological stress at work. In R.J. Gatchel and I.Z. Schultz (Eds.), Handbook of occupational health and wellness/Handbooks in Health, Work, and Disability (pp. 23-38). Springer. [PDF]
Oedipe : Voir Complexe d'Oedipe et Freud.
Oedipe-roi : Pièce du théâtre de Sophocle, un tragédien grec, qui a inspiré Freud et l'ensemble de la psychanalyse. Oedipe-roi et complexe d'Oedipe. Oedipus Rex.
  GREEN, A. (1969). Un œil en trop. Le complexe d'Oedipe dans la tragédie. Paris : Éditions de Minuit.
SIEGLER, A.L. (1983). The Oedipus myth and the Oedipus complex : Intersecting realms, shared structures. International Review of Psycho-analysis, 10, 205-214.
BEMPORAD, J. (1995). Oedipus Rex and Oedipus complex. Journal of American Academy of Psychoanalysis, 23, 493-500.
Voir aussi Freud
Oeil : Voir Yeux.
Oeil (Mouvement de l'...) : Voir Yeux. Eye mouvement.
Oeil (Se mettre un doigt dans... ) : Voir se blesser les yeux. Eye poking.
Oestrogène: Hormone sexuelle sécrétée en plus grande quantité par les femmes que par les hommes. Estrogen.

  DIAMOND, M., LACUNA, A. & WONG, C. (1995). Sex behavior after neonatal progesterone, testosterone, estrogen or antiandrogens hormones. Behavior, 4 (1-2), 73-88. LEUNER, B., MENDOLIA, S. & SHORS, T.J. (2004). High levels of estrogen enhance associative learning in the female rat. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29 (7), 883-890.
HENDERSON, V.W., WATT, L. & BUCKWALTER, J.G. (1996). Cognitive skills associated with estrogen replacement in women with Alzheimer's disease. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 21, 421-430.  
ROOF, R.L. & HALL, E.D. (2000). Gender differences in acute CNS trauma and stroke : Neuroprotective effects of estrogen and progesterone. Journal of Neurotrauma, 17, 367. SHORS, T.J. (2004). Estrogen and learning : Strategy over parsimony. Learning & Memory, 12, 84-85.
MAHE, V. & DUMAINE, A. (2001). Oestrogen withdrawal associated psychoses. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 104, 323-331. MARKOU, A., DUKA, T. & PRELEVIC, G.M. (2005). Estrogens and brain function. Hormones, 4 (1), 9-17. [PDF]
SHERWIN, B.B. (2002). Estrogen and cognitive aging in women. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 23, 527-534. CHAMPAGNE, F.A. & CURLEY, J.P. (2005). Maternal regulation of estrogen receptor a methylation. Current Opinion in Pharmacology, 8, 1-5. [PDF]
ZHOU, W., CUNNINGHAM, K.A. & THOMAS, M. L. (2002). Estrogen regulation of gene expression in the brain : A possible mechanism altering the response to psychostimulants in female rats. Molecular Brain Research, 100, 75-83. CHAMPAGNE, F.A., WEAVER, I.C., DIORIO, J., DYMOV, S., SZYF, M. & MEANEY, M. (2006). Maternal care associated with methylation of the estrogen receptor-alpha1b promoter and estrogen receptor-alpha expression in the medial preoptic area of female offspring. Endocrinology, 147, 2909-2915. [PDF]
CUTTER, W.J., NORBURY, R. & MURPHY, D.G.M. Oestrogen, brain function, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 74 (7), 837-840. [PDF] KULKARNI, J., DE CASTELLA. A., FITZGERALD, P.B., GURVICH, C.T., BAILEY, M., BARTHOLOMEUSZ, C. & BURGER, H. (2008). Estrogen in severe mental illness : a potential new treatment approach. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(8), 955-960.
SHARPE, R.M. (2003). The "oestrogen hypothesis" - Where do we stand now ? International Journal of Andrology, 26, 2-15. WU, M.V., MANOLI, D.S., FRASER, E.J., COATS, J.K, TOLLKUHN, J. HONDA, S.-I., HARADA, N. & SHAH, N.M. (2009). Estrogen masculinizes neural pathways and sex-specific behaviors. Cell, 139 (1), 61-72. [PDF]
RIECHLER-RÖSSLER, A. (2003). Oestrogens and schizophrenia. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 16, 1-13.  
Voir aussi Hormone
Oettingen Gabriele (Munich 1953-) : Psychologue et biologiste allemande, spécialisée dans l'étude de la régulation des émotions et des intentions. Collaborateur de Gollwitzer, Sheeran et Webb.
OETTINGEN, G. (1985). The influence of the kindergarten teacher on sex differences in behavior. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 8, 3-13. [PDF]
OETTINGEN, G. (1997). Culture and future thought. Culture & Psychology, 3, 353-381.
OETTINGEN, G., PAK, H., & CHNETTER, K. (2001). Self-regulation of goal setting: Turning free fantasies about the future into binding goals. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80, 736-753.
OETTINGEN, G. (2012). Future thought and behavior change. European Review of Social Psychology, 23, 1-63. [PDF]
OETTINGEN, G. & SCHWÖRER, B. (2013). Mind wandering via mental contrasting as a tool for behavior change. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 [562], 1-5. [PDF]
Oeuf et de la poule (Principe de l'...) : Principe qui pose le problème de l'origine d'un phénomène, de sa cause première. = causalité circulaire. = origine d'un phénomène. Hen-and-egg problem.
  GREGORY, R.L. (1968). The evolution of eyes and brains - a hen-and-egg problem. In S.J. Freedman (Ed.), The neuropsychology of spatially orientated behaviour (pp. 7-17). Homewood : Dorsey Press.
Voir aussi Causalité circulaire
OFFICE DES PROFESSIONS DU QUÉBEC - OGDEN - ÖHMAN - OISEAU - O'KEEFE - OKOLO - OKOUCHI - OL
Office des professions du Québec : Au Québec, organisme gouvernemental voué à la protection du public, qui chapeaute les ordres professionnels, notamment l'Ordre des Psychologues du Québec. L'Office doit s'assurer que les clients des professionnels, y compris les psychologues, sont protégés par chaque ordre et par un fonctionnement optimal du système professionnel. L'Office publie un code des professions qui détermine les conditions de pratique de l'ensemble des professions.
  TARDIF, M. et GAUTHIER, C. (Dirs.) (1999). Pour ou contre un ordre professionnel des enseignantes et des enseignants au Québec. Québec : Les Presses de l'Université Laval.
GOUVERNEMENT DU QUÉBEC (2011). Code des professions du Québec. [LIRE].
Offre de soin : Expression bureaucratique calquée sur l'expression "l'offre et la demande", qui désigne l'ensemble des services disponibles dans un quartier, dans une société pour soigner ses malades/patients.

 
Ogden
Jane Ogden Robert Morris Ogden Thomas Ogden
 
Ogden Jane ( ) : Psychologue anglaise et spécialiste des comportements alimentaires, de l'obésité et de l'image du corps.
OGDEN, J. & WARDLE, J. (1990). Cognitive restraint and sensitivity to cues for hunger and satiety. Physiology & Behaviour, 47, 477-481.
OGDEN, J. & FOX, P. (1994). An examination of the use of smoking for weight control in restrained and unrestrained eaters. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16, 177-186.
OGDEN, J. & ELDER, C. (1998). The role of family status and ethnic group on body image and eating behaviour. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 23 (3), 308-315.
OGDEN, J., STAVRINAKI, M. & STUBBS, J. (2009). Understanding the role of life events in weight loss and weight gain. Psychology Health & Medicine, 14, 239-249. [PDF]
OGDEN, J., LIAKOPOLOLOU, E., ANTILLIOU, G. & GOUGH, G. (2012). The meaning of food (MOF) : The development of a new measurement tool. European Eating Disorders Review, 20, 423-426. [PDF]
Ogden Robert Morris (1877-1959) : Psychologue gestaltiste américain. Étudiant de Külpe et Tichener.
 
 
 
 
 
Ogden Thomas H. (1946-) : Psychanalyste américain.
OGDEN, T. (1985). The mother, the infant and the matrix : Interpretations of aspects of the work of Donald Winnicott. Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 21, 346-371.
OGDEN, T. (1995). Analysing forms of aliveness and dead- ness of the transference-countertransference. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 76, 695-710. [PDF]
OGDEN, T. (1997). Reverie and mertaphor : Some thoughts on how i work as a psychoanalyst. Internaltional Journal of Psychoanalysis, 78, 719-732. [PDF]
OGDEN, T. (1997). Some thoughts on the use of language in psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 7, 1-22. [PDF]
OGDEN, T. (2004). This art of psychoanalysis. Dreaming undreamt dreams and interrupted cries. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 85 (4), 857-877.
Öhman Arne ( ) : Neuropsychologue norvégien et spécialiste de l'étude de l'anxiété, de la peur et des phobies. Collaborateur de Hygge, Lader, Mineka, Olsson et Öst.
ÖHMAN, A., ERIXSON, G. & LOFTBERG, I. (1975). Phobias and preparedness : Phobic versus neutral pictures as conditioned stimuli for human autonomic responses. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 41-45
ÖHMAN, A. (1986). Face the beast, and fear the face : Animal and social fears as prototypes for evolutionary analysis of emotion. Psychophysiology, 23, 123-45.
ÖHMAN, A. & MINEKA, S. (2001). Fears, phobias, and preparedness : Toward an evolved module of fear and fear learning. Psychological Review, 108 (3), 483-520. [PDF]
ÖHMAN, A. (2002). Automaticity and the amygdala : non-conscious responses to emotional faces. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 62-66.
ÖHMAN, A. & MINEKA, S. (2003). The malicious serpent : snakes as a prototypical stimulus for an evolved module of fear. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12 (1), 5-9. [PDF]
 
LEVENSON, R.W. (2003). For distinguished contributions to psychophysiology : Arne Öhman. Psychophysiology, 40, 317-321. [PDF]
Oie : Oiseau.

  GAUTHIER, G. & TARDIF, J. (1991). Female feeding and male vigilance during nesting in greater snow geese. Condor, 93, 701-711.
GAUTHIER, G., BÊTY, J, GIROUX, J. & ROCHEFORT, L. (2004). Trophic interactions in a high artic snow geese colony. Integrative & Comparative Biology, 44, 119-129.
DESNOYERS, M., GAUTHIER, G. & LEFEBVRE, J. (2012). Stable associations within flocks of greater snow geese (Chen caerulescens atlantica) : Do they exist beyond family bonds? Auk, 129 (4), 611-622.
GAUTHIER, G., GIROUX, J.-F., REED, A., BÉCHET, A. & BÉLANGER, L. (2012). Interactions between land use, habitat use, and population increase in greater snow geese : what are the consequences for natural wetlands ? Global Change Biology, 11 (6), 856-868.
Voir aussi Animal et Oiseau
Oiseau : Classe d'animaux. L'ornithologie est l'étude scientifique du comportement des oiseaux. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Bird.

Les oiseaux
Aigle Geai bleu Oie
Caille Harfang Perroquet Pigeon
Canard Hibou Perruche Poule
Corbeau Moineau Pic-bois Tourterelle
Corneille    
Étourneau Mouette Pie Vacher
 


Règne animal
  Embranchement  
  Classe  
  Ordre  
  Famille  
  Genre  
  Espèce  
  Population  


  BARRINGTON, D. (1773). Experiments and observations on the singing of birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 63, 249-291. BAKER, M.C. & CUNNINGHAM, M.A. (1985). The biology of bird- song dialects. Behavioural & Brain Sciences, 8, 85-134.
LORENZ, K. (1937). The companion in the brd's world. The Auk, 54 (1), 245-273. [PDF] ROBINSON, S.K. (1986). Benefits, costs, and determinants of dominance in a polygynous oriole. Animal Behaviour, 34, 241-255.
FISHER, J. & HINDE, R.A. (1949). The opening of milk bottles by birds. British Birds, 42, 347-357. WINGFIELD, J.C., BALL, G.F., DUFTY, A.M., HEGNER, R.E. & RAMENOFSKY, M. (1987). Testosterone and aggression in birds. American Scientist, 75 (6), 602-608. [PDF]
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KLOPFER, P.H. (1958). Influence of social interaction on learning rates in birds. Science, 128, 963. SUBOSKMI, D. (1989). Recognition learning in birds. In P.P.G. Bateson and P.H. Klopfer (Eds.), Perspectives in ethology : Whither ethology. (Vol. 8. pp. 137-171). Plenum Press,New York, New York.
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GINSBURG, N. (1960). Conditioned vocalization in the Budgerigar. Journal of comparative physioloigal Psychology, 53, 183-186. LICKLITER, R. (1989). Species-specific auditory preference of bobwhite quail chicks is altered by social interaction with siblings. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 103, 221-226.
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LACK, D. (1971). Ecological isolation in birds. Cambridge, Mass. and Blackwell, Oxford : Harvard University Press. BRITTINGHAM, M.C. & TEMPLE, S.A. (1992). Does winter bird feeding promote dependency ? Journal of Field Ornithology, 63 (2), 190-194. [PDF]
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DAVIES, N.B. (1978). Territorial defence in the speckled wood butterfly, Pararge aegeria : the resident always wins. Animal Behaviour, 26, 138-147. LIPP, H.P., PLESKACHEVA, M.G., GOSSWEILER, H., RICCERI, L., SIRNOV, A.A., GARIN, N.N., PEREPIOKINA, O.P., VORONKOV, D.N., KUPTOV, P.A. & DELL'OMO, G. (2001). A large outdoor radial maze for comparative studies in birds and mammals. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 25, 83-99. [PDF]
KREBS, J.R., KACELNIK, A. & TAYLOR, P (1978). Tests of optimal sampling by foraging great tits. Nature, 275, 27-31.  BOND, A.B., KAMIL, A.C. & BALDA, R.P. (2003). Social complexity and transitive inference in corvids. Animal Behaviour, 65, 479-487. [PDF]
BALPH, M.H. (1979). Flock stability in relation to social dominance and agonistic behavior in wintering dark-eyed juncos. Auk, 96, 714-722.  GEARY, D.C. (2004). Why to the birds and bees do it ? In D. Rothenberg & W.J. Pryor (Eds.), Writing the future : Progress and evolution (pp. 51-58). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
WYLES, J.S., KUNKEL, J.G. & WILSON, A.C. (1983). Birds, behavior, and anatomical evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 80, 4394-4397. ZENTALL, T.R. (2004). Action imitation in birds. Learning & Behavior, 32, 15-23. [PDF]
KACELNIK, A. (1984). Central place foraging in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) I : Patch residence time. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53, 283-299. LEFEBVRE, L., READER, S.M. & SOL, D. (2004). Brains, Innovations and evolution in birds and primates. Brain, Behavior & Evolution, 63, 233-246. [PDF]
  SHERRY, D.F. & HOSHOOLEY, J.S. (2007). Neurobiology of spatial behavior. In K.A. (Ed.), Otter the ecology and behavior of chickadees and titmice : an integrated approach (pp. 9–23). Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press.
  BIRKHEAD, T. (2008) The wisdom of birds. London : Bloomsbury.
  SHERRY, D.F. & HOSHOOLEY, J.S. (2010). Seasonal hippocampal plasticity in food-storing birds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B : Biological, 365, 933-943. [PDF]
  SCHULZE-HAGEN, K. & BIRKHEAD, T.R. (2015). The ethology and life history of birds : the forgotten contributions of Oskar, Magdalena and Katharina Heinroth. Journal of Ornithology, 156, 9-18. [PDF]
BURNIE, D. (Dir.) (2001). Animal/Le règne animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley /Saint-Laurent : Erpi. Voir aussi Animal
Okasha Ahmed ( ) : Psychiatre égyptien et spécialiste de l'étude du trouble obsessionel-compulsif (TOC).
OKASHA, A. (2000). The prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms in a sample of Egyptian psychiatric patients. L'Encephale, 26 (4), 4-10.
OKASHA, A., LOTAIEF, F., ASHOUR, A.M., EL MAHALAWY, N., SEIF, E.D.A. & EL-KHOLY, G. (2000). The prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms in a sample of Egyptian psychiatric patients. L'Encephale, 26 (4), 4-10.
OKASHA, A. RAGHEB, K., ATTIA, A.H., SEIF, E.D.A..OKASHA, T. ISMAIL, R. (2001). Prevalence of obsessive compulsive symptoms (OCS) in a sample of Egyptian adolescents. Encephale, 27, 8-14.
OKASHA, A. (2004). OCD in Egyptian adolescents : The effect of culture and religion. Psychiatric Times, 21 (5), 1-5.
OKASHA, A. (2004) Mental Health Services in the Arab World. World Psychiatry, 11, 52-54.
O'keefe
Daniel J. O'Keefe John O'Keefe
 
O'Keefe Daniel J. ( ) : Spécialiste de la communication américain. Il s'intéresse notamment à la persuasion sociale, notamment au rôle de la culpabilité dans ce phénomène.
O’KEEFE, D.J. & GROSSBERG, L. (1975). Theoretical clarity and interpretive social science. Quarterly Journal of Speech, 61, 320-322. [PDF]
O’KEEFE, D.J. (1977). Two concepts of argument. Journal of the American Forensic Association, 13, 121-128. [PDF]
O'KEEFE, D.J. & FIGGE, M. (1999). Guilt and expected guilt in the door-in-the-face technique. Communication Monographs, 66, 312-324. [PDF]
O'KEEFE, D.J. (2001). An odds-ratio-based meta-analysisi of research on the door-in-the-face influence strategy. Communication Reports, 14 (1), 31-38. [PDF]
O'KEEFE, D.J. (2011). The asymmetry of predictive and descriptive capabilities in quantitative communication research : Implications for hypothesis development and testing. Communication Methods & Measures, 5, 113-125. [PDF]
O'Keefe John ( ) : Neuropsychologue anglais et spécialiste de l'étude de l'hippocampe. Collaborateur de Morris et Nadel.
O'KEEFE, J. & DOSTROVSKY, J. (1971). The hippocampus as a spatial map. Preliminary evidence from unit activity in the freely-moving rat. Brain Research, 34, 171-175.
O'KEEFE, J. (1976). Place units in the hippocampus of freely moving rat. Experimental Neurology, 51, 78-109.
O'KEEFE, J. & CONWAY, D.H. (1978). Hippocampal place units in the frely moving rat : why they fire where they fire. Experimental Brain Research, 32, 573-590. [PDF]
O'KEEFE, J. & SPEAKMAN, A. (1987). Single unit activity in the rat hippocampus during a spatial memory task. Experimental Brain Research, 68, 1-27.
O'KEEFE, J. (1999). Do hippocampal pyramidal cells signal non-spatial as well as spatial information ? Hippocampus, 9, 352-364.
Okolo Cynthia M. ( ) : Psychopédagogue américaine et spécialiste de l'enseignement de l'histoire. Collaboratrice de Ferretti et Gersten.
OKOLO, C.M., BARTLETT, S. & SHAW, S. (1978). Communication between professionals concerning medication for the hyperactive child. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 11, 647-650.
OKOLO, C.M., FERRETTI, R.P. & MacCARTHUR, C.D. (2001). Teaching history ininclusive classrooms : Technology-based practices and tools. Technology in Action, 1 (1), 1-8. [PDF]
OKOLO, C.M., ENGLERT, C.S., BOUCK, E.C. & HEUTSCHE, A.M. (2006). The Virtual History Museum : A web-based environment for improving history instruction. Journal of Special Education Technology, 21 (1), 48-50.
OKOLO, C.M., FERRETTI, R.P. & MacCARTHUR, C.D. (2007). Talking about history : Discussion in a middle-school inclusive classroom. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 40 (2), 154-166.
OKOLO, C.M., ENGLERT, C.S., BOUCK, E.C., HEUTSCHE, A.M. & WANG, H. (2011). The Virtual History Museum : Learning American History in diverse eight grade classrooms. Remedial & Special Education, 32, 417-428.
Okouchi Hiroto ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste japonais et spécialiste de l'étude du conditionnement opérant, notmment de l'histoire des contingences. Collaborateur de Lattal.
OKOUCHI. H. (2003). Stimulus generalization of behavioral history. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 80 (2), 173-186. [PDF]
OKOUCHI. H. SONGMI, K. (2006). Differential reinforcement of human self-reports about schedule performances. The Psychological Record, 54 (2), 461-478. [PDF]
OKOUCHI. H. (2006). An experimental analysis of another privacy. The Psychological Record, 56 (2), 245-257. [PDF]
OKOUCHI. H. & LATTAL, K.A. (2006). An analysis of reinforcement history effects. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 86 (1), 31-42. [PDF]
OKOUCHI. H. (2010). An exploration of remote history effects in humans II : The effects under fixed-interval, variable-inteval, and fixed-ratio schedules. Psychological Record, 60 (1), 27-42. [PDF]
OLDS - O'LEARY - OLIVIER - OLKIN - OLLENDICK - OLSON - OLWEUS - OMBRAGE VERBALE - ONTO - 11 SEPTEMBRE - OP
Olanzapine : Neuroleptique atypique. Olanzapine et schizophrénie. = Zyprexa. Olanzapine


  BEASLEY, A.M., SANGER, T., SATTERLEE, W., TOLLEFSON, G., TRAN, P. & HAMILTON, S. (1996). Olanzapine versus placebo : Results of a double-blind, fixed-dose olanzapine trial. Psychopharmacology, 124 (1-2), 159-167. McEVOY J, LIEBERMAN, J., STROUP, T., DAVIS, S., MELTZER, H., ROSENHECK, R., SWARTZ, M., PERKNS, D., KEEFE, R., DAVIS, C., SEVERE, J. & HSIAO, J. (2006). Effectiveness of clozapine versus olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia who did not respond to prior atypical antipsychotic treatment. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 600-610. [PDF]
WALKER, Z., GRACE, J., OVERSHOT, R., ESATARASINGHE, S., SWAN, A., KATONA, C.L. & MCKEITH, I.G. (1999). Olanzapine in dementia with Lewy bodies : a clinical study. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 14, 459-466.  
PARKER, G. (2002). Olanzapine augmentation in the treatment of melancholia : the trajectory of improvement in rapid responders. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 87-89. STROUP, T., LIEBERMAN, J., McEVOY J., SWATZ, M., DAVI, D., ROSENHECK, R., PERKINS, D., KEEFE, R., DAVIS, C., SEVERE, J. & HSIAO, J. (2006). Effectiveness of olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone and ziprasidone in patients with chronic schizophrenia following discontinuation of a previous atypical antipsychotic. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 611-622. [PDF]
STEWART, R.S. & NEJTEK, V.A. (2003). An open-label, flexible-dose study of olanzapine in the treatment of trichotillomania. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 64, 49-52. HERES, S., DAVIS, J., MAINO, K., JETZINGER, E., KISSLING, W. & LEUCHT, S. (2006). Why olanzapine beats risperidone, risperidone beats quetiapine, and quetiapine beats olanzapine : An exploratory analysis of head-to-head comparison studies of second-generation antipsychotics. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 185-194. [PDF]
MCINTYRE, R.S., MANCINI, D.A., SRINIVASAN, J., MCCANN, S., KONARSKI, J.Z. & KENNEDY, S.H. (2004). The antidepressant effects of risperidone and olanzapine in bipolar disorder. Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 11, 218-226. [PDF] KOMOSSA, K., RUMMEL-KLUGE, C., HUNGER, H., SCHMID, F. SCHWARZ, S., DUGGAN, L., KISSLING, W. & LEUCHT, S. (2007). Olanzapine versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, 3, 1-269. [PDF]
DUGGAN, L., FENTON, M., RATHBONE, J., DARDENNES, R., EL-DOSOKY, A. & INDRAN, S. (2005). Olanzapine for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Issue 2 - DOI: 10.1002/ 14651858.CD001359 KRYZHANOVSKAYA, L., SCHULZ, S.C., MCDOUGLE, C., FRAZIER, J., DITTMANN, R., ROBERTSON-PLOUCH, C., BAUER, T., WEN XU, W., WEI WANG, W., CARLSON, J. & TOHEN, M. (2009). Olanzapine versus placebo in adolescents with schizophrenia : A 6-Week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48 (1), 60-70. [PDF]
PARKER, G. & BROTCHIE, H. & PARKER, K. (2005). Is combination Olanzapine and antidepressant medication associated with a more rapid response trajectory than antidepressant alone ? American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 796-798. [PDF] VAN AMERINGEN, M., MANCINI, C., PATTERSON, B., BENNETT, M. & OAKMAN, J. (2010). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of olanzapine in the treatment of trichotillomania. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 61, 1336-1343.
Voir aussi Schizophrénie et Neuroleptique
Olatunji Bunmi O. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste, spécialisé dans l'étude de la peur et du dégoût. Collaborateur de Abramovitz, Lohr, Haidt, Tolin et Zlomke.
OLATUNJI, B.O., SAWCHUK, C.N. LOHR, J.M. & DE JONG, P.J. (2004). Disgust domains in the prediction of contamination fear. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 42, 93-104.
OLATUNJI, B.O., WILLIAMS, N.L., LOHR, J.M. & SAWCHUK, C.N. (2005). The structure of disgust : Domain specificity in relation to contamination ideation and excessive washing. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 43, 1069-1086.
OLATUNJI, B.O., LOHR, J.M., SAWCHUK, C.N. & PATTEN, K. (2007). Fear and disgust responding in heterogeneous blood-injection-injury phobia. Journal of Psychopathology & Behavioral Assessment, 29, 1-8.
OLATUNJI, B.O., TOLIN, D.F., SAWCHUK, C.N., WILLIAMS, N.L., ABRAMOVITZ, J.S., LOHR, J.M. & ELWOOD, S.S. (20070). The Disgust Scale : Item analysis, factor structure, and suggestions for refinement. Psychological Assessment, 19 (3), 281-297. [PDF]
OLATUNJI, B.O., TOMARKE, A. & DAVID, B. (2013). Disgust propensity potentiates evaluative learning of aversion. Emotion, 13, 881-890.
Olbrisch Mary Helen (Oak Park 1952-) : Psychiatre américaine spécialisée dans l'étude des effets psychologiques du don d'organe et de la transplantation.
OLBRISCH, M.E. & LEVENSON, J.L. (1990). Out of the blue : Psychological profile of an unsolicited organ donor. Clinical Transplantation, 4, 55-57.
OLBRISCH, M.E. & LEVENSON, J.L. (1991). Psychosocial evaluation of cardiac transplant candidates: An international survey of process, criteria and outcomes. Journal of Heart & Lung Transplantation, 10, 948-955.
OLBRISCH, M.E. & LEVENSON, J.L. (1995). Psychosocial assessment of organ transplant candidates : Current status of methodological and philosophical issues. Psychosomatics, 36, 236-243.
OLBRISCH, M.E. (1996). Ethical issues in psychological evaluation of patients for organ transplant surgery. Rehabilitation Psychology, 41, 53-71.
OLBRISCH, M.E., BENEDICT, S.M., ASHE, K. & LEVENSON, J.L. (2002). Assessment and care of organ transplant patients. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70 (3), 771-783. [PDF]
Olds
James Olds Virginia E. O'Leary
 
Olds David ( ) : Psychiatre et pédiatre américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des soins à domicile.
OLDS, D.L., HENDERSON, C.R., CHAMBERLIN, R. & TATELBAUM, R. (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect : A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 78 (1), 65-78.
OLDS, D.L., HENDERSON, C.R., TATELBAUM, R. & CHAMBERLIN, R. (1988). Improving the life-course development of socially disadvantaged mothers : A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1436-1445.
OLDS, D.L. & KITZMAN, H. (1990). Can home visitation improve the health of women and children at environmental risk ? Pediatrics, 86 (1), 108-116.
OLDS, D.L. & KITZMAN, H. (1993). Review of research on home visiting for pregnant women and parents of young children. The Future of Children, 3 (3), 553-592. [PDF]
OLDS, D.L. & KITZMAN, H. COLE, R. & ROBINSON, J. (1997). Theoretical foundations of a program of home visitation for pregnant women and parents of young children. Journal of Community Psychology, 25 (1), 9-25.
Olds James (Chicago 1922-1976) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain. On lui doit la découverte, avec Milner, du "centre du plaisir" (ou neurocircuit de la récompense/renforcement). Étudiant de Hebb et Solomon. Collaborateur de Milner.
OLDS, J. & MILNER, P.M. (1955). Positive reinforcement produced by electrical stimulation of septal area and other regions of rat brain. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 47, 419-427.
OLDS, J. (1956). "Reward" from brain stimulation in the rat. Science, 122, 878
OLDS, J. (1956). Self-stimulation of the brain. Science, 127, 315-324.
OLDS, J. (1967). The limbic system and behavioural reinforcement. Progress in Brain Research, 27, 144-164.
OLDS, J. (1974). The creation of learning and memory. Engineering & Science, 37 (3), 12-17.
 
SOHEIBEL, M. & SOHEIBEL, A. (1976). James Olds 1922-1976. A Tribute. Engineering & Science, 39, 24-25. [PDF]
JACQUES, S. (1979). Brain stimulation and reward : "pleasure centers" after twenty-five years. Neurosurgery, 5 (2), 277-283. [PDF]
BAUMEISTER, A.A. (2006). Serendipity and the cerebral localization of pleasure. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 15, 92-98. [PDF]
O'Leary
Daniel K. O'Leary Virginia E. O'Leary
 
O'Leary K. Daniel ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des thérapies de couple, de l'hyperactivité, de la modification du comportement, notamment de l'économie de jetons. Collaborateur de Beach, Becker, Finchman, Israel, Nathan, Kraemer et Wilson.
O’LEARY, K.D. (1968). The effects of self-instruction on immoral behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 6,297-301.
O'LEARY, K.D., BECKER, W.C., EVANS, M.B. & SAUDARGAS, R.A. (1969). A token reinforcement program in a public school : a replication and systematic analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2 (1), 3-13. [PDF]
O’LEARY, K.D. & DRABMAN, R. (1971). Token reinforcement programs in the classroom : A review. Psychological Bulletin, 75, 379-398.
O’LEARY, K.D., FINCHAM, F.D. & TURKEVITZ, H. (1983). Assessment of positive feelings toward spouse. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 51, 949-951. [PDF]
O'LEARY, K.D. & SLEP, A.M.S. (2003). A dyadic longitudinal model of adolescent dating aggression. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32 (3), 314-327.
O'Leary Virginia E. ( ) : Psychosociologue et féministe américaine. = Virginia Fisher. Collaboratrice de Unger et Wallston.
O'LEARY, V.E. & HOOD R.W. (1969). Latitudes of acceptance, rejection and non-commitment and attitudes toward self : A factor analytic study. Journal of Social Psychology, 79 (2), 283-284.
O'LEARY, V.E. & HAMMACK, B. (1975). Sex-role orientation and achievement context as determinants of the motive to avoid success. Sex Roles, 1 (3), 225-234.
O'LEARY, V.E. (Ed.) (1981). Feminist research : Problems and prospects. A feminist perspective. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 5 (4), 595-653.
O'LEARY, V.E., UNGER, R.K. & WALLSTON, B.S. (Eds.) (1985). Women gender and social psychology. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
O'LEARY, V.E. & ICKOVICS, J.R. (1991). Cracking the glass ceiling : Eliminating stereotyping and isolation. In U. Sekaran & F. Leong (Eds.), Woman power : Managing in times of demographic turbulence. Beverly Hills, CA : Sage.
Oléron Pierre (Alsace 1915-1995 Belfort) : Psychologue français. Il a critiqué la conception du langage Piaget. Étudiant de Fraisse et Pieron.
OLÉRON P. (1989). Langage et développement mental. Paris : Dessart.
OLÉRON P. (Dir.) (1981). Savoirs et savoir-faire psychologiques chez l'enfant. Bruxelles : Mardaga.
OLÉRON P. (1985). L'intelligence. Paris : PUF/Que sais-je ?
OLÉRON P. (1989). L'intelligence de l'Homme. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
OLÉRON P. (1996). Le raisonnement. Paris : PUF/Que sais-je ?
 
RICHELLE, M. (1985). Hommage à Pierre Oléron. Dans J. Bideaud and M. Richelle (Dirs.), Psychologie développementale, Problèmes et réalités (pp. 7-17). Bruxelles : Mardaga.
Olfaction : Voir Odorat.
Oligarchie : Du grec oligos, qui signifie "peu nombreux ou petit groupe" et arkhê qui veut dire "commandement ou direction". Pays dont le système politique est davantage contrôlé par un ou des groupes particuliers et puissants (multinationales, armée, bailleurs de fonds, grandes familles, etc) que par les représentants élus du peuple. Oligarchie et bloc au pouvoir. /démocratie.

  Voir aussi Bloc au pouvoir
Olivardia Roberto ( ) : Psychiatre américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'image corporelle etde la dysmorphie musculaire. Collaborateur de Pope.
OLIVARDIA, R., POPE, H.G., MANGWETH, B. & HUDSON, J.I. (1995). Eating disorders in college men. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1279-1285.
OLIVARDIA, R. & POPE, H.G., (1997). Eating disorders in men : Prevalence, recognition, and treatment. Directions in Psychiatry, 17, 41-51.
OLIVARDIA, R., POPE, H.G. & HUDSON, J.I. (2000). Muscle dysmorphia in male weightlifters : A case-control study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 1291-1296.
OLIVARDIA, R. (2001). Mirror, mirror on the wall, who's the largest of them all ? The features and phenomenology of muscle dysmorphia. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 9, 254-259.
OLIVARDIA, R., POPE, H.G., BORWIECKI, J.J. & COHANE, G.H. (2004). Biceps and body image : The relationship between muscularity and self-esteem, depression, and eating disorder symptoms. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5 (2), 112-120. [PDF]
Olive/Oliver/Olivier
Thierry Olive Richard L. Oliver Christiane Olivier
 
Olive Thierry ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain d'origine française, spécialisée dans l'étude des processus cognitifs responsables de la production écrite, notamment de la rédaction de texte. Collaborateur de Kellog et Piolat.
OLIVE, T. & KELLOGG, R.T. (2002). Concurrent activation of high- and low-level production processes in written composition. Memory & Cognition, 30 (4), 594-600. [PDF]
OLIVE, T. & PIOLAT, A. (2003). Activation des processus rédactionnels et qualité des textes. Le Langage et l'Homme, 38 (2), 191-206. [PDF]
OLIVE, T. (2004). Working memory in writing : Empirical evidences from the dual-task technique. European Psychologist, 9, 32-42. [PDF]
OLIVE, T. & PIOLAT, A. (2005). Le rôle de la mémoire de travail dans la production de textes. Psychologie Française, 50, 373-390. [PDF]
OLIVE, T., FAVART, M., BEAUVAIS, C. & BEAUVAIS, L. (2009). Children's cognitive effort and fluency in writing : Effect of genre and of handwriting automatisation. Learning & Instruction, 19, 299-308. [PDF]
Oliver Richard L. ( ) : Spécialiste de la mise en marché et de la mesure de la satisfaction des consommateurs.
OLIVER, R.L. (1977). Effect of expectation and disconfirmation on postexposure product evaluations : An alternative interpretation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 62, 480-486.
OLIVER, R.L. (1980). A cognitive model of the antecedents and consequences of satisfaction decisions. Journal of Marketing Research, 17, 460-469.
ANDERSON, E. & OLIVER, R.L. (1987). Perspectives on behavior-based versus outcome-based salesforce control systems. Journal of Marketing, 51, 76-88.
OLIVER, R.L. (1993). Cognitive, affective, and attribute bases of the satisfaction response. Journal of Consumer Research, 20, 418-430.
OLIVER, R.L. (1999). Whence consumer loyalty ? Journal of Marketing, 63 (S), 33-44. [PDF]
Olivier Christiane ( ) : Psychanalyste et féministe française. Elle a critiqué la conception de la femme de Freud. Étudiante de Piaget et Anzieu. Analysée par Lacan et Dolto.
OLIVIER, C. (1980). Les enfants de Jocaste. Paris : Denoël.
OLIVIER, C. (1994). Les fils d'Oreste. Paris : Flammarion.
OLIVIER, C. (1996/2000). Les filles d'Eve. Paris : Denoël.
OLIVIER, C. (2001). L'ogre intérieur : de la violence personnelle et familiale. Paris : Livre de Poche.
OLIVIER, C. (2007). Enfant-rois, plus jamais ça. Paris : Publibook.
Olkin Ingram (Waterbury 11924-2016 Palo Alto) : Statisticien américain et spécialiste de l'éducation et de la méta-analyse. Collaborateur de Hedges.
GIBBONS, J.D., OLKIN, I. & SOBELL, M. (1977). Selecting and ordering populations : A new statistical methodology. New York : John Wiley & Sons.
OLKIN, I., MADOW, W.G. & RUBIN, D.B. (1983). Incomplete data in sample surveys : Theory and bibliographies. New York : Academic Press.
HEDGES, L.V. & OLKIN, I. (1985). Statistical methods for meta-analysis. New York : Academic Press.
OLKIN, I. & FINN, J.D. (1995). Correlations redux. Psychological Bulletin, 118, 155-164.
BRAVATA, D.N. & OLKIN, I. (2001). Simple pooling versus combining in meta-analysis. Evaluations & the Health Professions, 24 (2), 218-230.
 
SAMPSON, A.R. (2007). A conversation with Ingram Olkin. Statistical Science, 22 (3), 450-475. [PDF]
 Ollendick Thomas H. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des techniques de modification du comportement chez les adolescents, notamment la surcorrection. Collaborateur de Matson, Shapiro et Öst.
OLLENDICK, T.H. & MATSON, J.L. (1978). Overcorrection : An overview. Behavior Therapy, 9, 830-842.
OLLENDICK, T.H., MATSON, J.L., ESVELDT-DAWSON, K. & SHAPIRO, S. (1980). Increasing spelling achievement : an analysis of treatment procedures utilizing an alternating treatments design. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 13 (4), 645-654. [PDF]
OLLENDICK, T.H., DAILEY, D. & SHAPIRO, E.S. (1983). Vicarious reinforcement : Expected and unexpected effects. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16 (4), 485-491. [PDF]
OLLENDICK, T.H. & KING, N.J. (2000). Empirically supported treatments for children and adolescents. In P.C. Kendall (Ed.), Child and adolescent therapy : Cognitive-behavioral procedures. New York : Guilford Press. [PDF]
OLLENDICK, T.H., RAISHEVICH, N., DAVIS, T.E., SIRBU, C. & OST, L-G. (2011). Specific phobia in youth : Phenomenology and psychological characteristics. Behavior Therapy, 41 (1), 133-141. [PDF]
Olson/Olsson
James M. Olson Michael A. Olson Andreas Olsson
Mancur J. Olson Richard K. Olson  
 
Olson James M. (1953-) : Psychosociologue canadien, spécialisé dans l'étude des attitudes, de la discrimination raciale et des attentes. Collaborateur de Maio, Higgins, Hodson, Kuiper, Roese, Ross, Schermer, Vernon et Zanna.
OLSON, J.M. & ZANNA, M.P. (1987). Understanding and promoting exercise : A social psychological perspective. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 78 (S), 1-7.
OLSON, J.M. & ZANNA, M.P. (1993). Attitudes and attitude change. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 117-154.
OLSON, J.M., ROESE, N.J. & ZANNA, M.P. (1996). Expectancies. In E.T. Higgins & A.W. Kruglanski (Eds.), Social psychology : Handbook of basic principles (pp. 211-238). New York : Guilford.
OLSON, J.M., VERNON, P.A., HARRIS, J.A. & LANG, K.L. (2001). The heritability of attitudes : A study of twins. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 80 (6), 845-860. [PDF]
OLSON, J.M., GOFFIN, R.D. & HAYNES, G.A. (2007). Relative versus absolute measures of attitudes : Implications for predicting diverse attitude-relevant criteria. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 93, 907-925.
Olson Mancur J. (Grand Forks États-Unis 1932-1998) : Économiste et sociologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des dilemmes et de la théorie des jeux et ardent défenseur de la théorie du «public choice».
OLSON, M.J. (1965/1978). The logic of collective action : Public goods and the theory of groups. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. / La logique de l'action collective. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
OLSON, M.J. (1975). No-growth society. London : Woburn Press.
OLSON, M.J. (1982). The rise and decline of nations : economic growth, stagflation, and social rigidities. New Have : Yale University Press.
OLSON, M.J. (1990). How bright are the northern lights ? Institute of Economic Research, Lund University.
OLSON, M.J. (2000). Power and prosperity : Outgrowing communist and capitalist dictatorships. Oxford University Press.
Olson Michael A. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des préjugés. Collaborateur de Fazio.
OLSON, M.A. & FAZIO, R.H. (2001). Implicit attitude formation through classical conditioning. Psychological Science, 12, 413-417.
OLSON, M.A. & FAZIO, R.H. (2003). Relations between implicit measures of prejudice : What are we measuring ? Psychological Science, 14, 36-39.
OLSON, M.A. & FAZIO, R.H. (2004). Trait inferences as a function of automatically-activated racial attitudes and motivation to control prejudiced reactions. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 26, 1-11. [PDF]
OLSON, M.A. & FAZIO, R.H. (2006). Reducing automatically-activated racial prejudice through implicit evaluative conditioning. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 421-433. [HTM]
OLSON, M.A., KENDRICK, R.V. & FAZIO, R.H. (2009). Implicit covariation learning in evaluative vs. non-evaluative dimensions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 398-403.
Olson Richard K. ( ) : Psychologue américain, d'origine norvégienne, spécialisé dans l'étude de la dyslexie. Collaborateur de Defries, Pennington et Willcutt.
OLSON, R.K. (1965). Generalization to similar and opposite words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 328-331.
OLSON, R.K., WISE, B.W. & RACK, J.P. (1989). Dyslexia : Deficits, genetic aeitology and computer based remediation. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 10 (4), 530 544.
OLSON, R.K., FORSBERG, H., & WISE, B. (1994). Genes, environment, and the development of orthographic skills. In V.W. Berninger (Ed.), The varieties of orthographic knowledge I : Theoretical and developmental issues (pp. 27-71). Dordrecht, The Netherlands : Kluwer Academic Publishers.
OLSON, R.K. (2002). Dyslexia : Nature and nurture. Dyslexia, 8, 143-159.
OLSON, R.K. (2007). Introduction to the special issue on genes, environment, and reading. Reading & Writing : An Interdisciplinary Journal, 20, 1-11.
Olsson Andreas ( ) : Psychologue suédois et spécialiste de l'étude de la peur coditionnée. Collaborateur de Banaji, Bonanno, Delgado, Öhman, Phelps et Sidanius.
OLSSON, A., EBERT, J.P., BANAJI, M.R. & PHELPS, E.A. (2005). The role of social groups in the persistence of learned fear. Science, 309 (5735), 785-787. [PDF]
OLSSON, A. & PHELPS, E.A. (2007). Social learning of fear. Nature Neuroscience, 10, 1095-1102.
OLSSON, A. & OCHSNER, K.N. (2008). The relationship between emotion and social cognition. Trends in Cognitive Science, 12, 65-71.
OLSSON, A., CARMONA, S., BOLGER, N., DOWNEY, G. & OCHSNER, K.N. (2013). Learning biases underlying individual differences in sensitivity to social rejection. Emotion, 13 (4), 616-621.
OLSSON, A., KROSS, E., NORDBERG, S., WEINBERG, A., WEBER, J., SCHMER-GALUNDER, S., FOSSELLA, J., WAGER, T., BONANNO, G.A. & OCHSNER, K.N. (2014). Neural and genetic markers of vulnerability to posttraumatic stress symptoms among survivors of the World Trade Center attacks. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 10, 863-868. [PDF]
Oltmanns Thomas F. ( ) : Psychologue canadien et spécialiste de l'étude des troubles de la personnalité. Collaborateur de Gottesman, Klonsky et Turkheimer.
OLTMANNS, T.F., TURKHEIMER, E. & STRAUSS, M.E. (1998). Peer assessment of personality traits and pathology. Assessment, 5, 53-65.
OLTMANNS, T.F., FRIEDMAN, J.N., FIEDLER, E.R. & TURKHEIMER, E. (2004). Perceptions of people with personality disorders based on thin slices of behavior. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 216-229.
OLTMANNS, T.F., GLEASON, M.E.J., KLONSKY, E.D. & TURKHEIMER, E. (2005). Meta-perception for pathological personality traits : Do we know when others think that we are difficult ? Consciousness & Cognition, 14, 739-751. [PDF]
OLTMANNS, T.F. & TURKHEIMER, E. (2009). Person perception and personality pathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 32-36.
OLTMANNS, T.F. & BALSIS, S. (2011). Personality pathology in later life: Questions about the measurement, course, and impact of disorders. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 7, 321-349. [PDF]
Olton David S. (Montclair 1943-1994 Bethesda) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la mémoire spatiale. Il est aussi l'inventeur du labyrinthe radial. Collaborateur de Church et Meck.
OLTON, D.S. & SAMUELSON, R.J. (1976). Remembrance of places passed : Spatial memory in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes 2 (2), 97-116.
OLTON, D.S., COLLISON, C. & WERZ, M.A. (1977). Spatial memory and radial arm maze performance of rats. Learning & Motivation 8 (3), 289-314.
OLTON, D.S. (1979). Mazes, maps, and memory. American Psychologist, 34, 583-596.
OLTON, D.S., MECK, W.H. & CHURCH, R.M. (1987). Separation of hippocampal and amygdaloid involvement in temporal memory dysfunctions. Brain Research, 404, 180-188.
OLTON D.S. (1990). Dementia : animal models of the cognitive impairments following damage to the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Brain Research Bulletin, 25 (3), 499-502.
Olweus Dan (Suède) : Psychologue suédois, d'origine norvégienne, spécialisé dans l'étude de la violence, notamment en milieu scolaire. On lui doit le concept d'harcèlement à l'école (bullying).
OLWEUS, D. (1977). Aggression and peer acceptance in adolescent boys : Two short-term longitudinal studies of ratings. Child Development, 48, 1301-13.
OLWEUS, D. (1978). Stability of aggressive reaction patterns in males : A review. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 852-75.
OLWEUS, D. (1993). Bullying at school : What we know and what we can do. Oxford : Blackwell Publishers.
OLWEUS, D. & LIMBER, S. (1999). Blueprints for violence prevention : Bullying Prevention Program. Boulder : University of Colorado, Institute of Behavioral Science.
OLWEUS, D. (2001). Olweus’ core program against bullying and antisocial behavior : A teacher handbook. Bergen, Norway : Research Center for Health promotion.
Olympiques : Voir Sport.

  GOULD, D., GUINAN, D., GREENLEAF, C., MEDBERY, R. & PETERSON, K. (1999). Factors affecting Olympic performance : Perceptions of athletes and coaches from more and less successful teams. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 371-394. WEISS, J.A. & DIOMOND, T. (2005). Brief report : Stress in parents of adult children with intellectual disabilities attending Special Olympics competition. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 18, 263-270.
 BALMER, N.J., NEVILL, A.M. & WILLIAMS, A.M. (2001). Home advantage in the Winter Olympics (1908-1998). Journal of Sports Sciences, 19, 129-139. WEISS, J.A. (2008). The role of Special Olympics for mothers of adult athletes with intellectual disability. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 113 (4), 241-253.
GREENLEAF, C., GOULD, D., & DIEFFENBACH, K. (2001). Factors influencing Olympic performance : Interviews with Atlanta and Nagano U.S. Olympians. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 13, 154-184. WEISS, J.A. & BEBKO, J. (2009). Participation in Special Olympics and change in athlete self-concept and actual competence over 42-months. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 14, 1-8.
 BALMER, N.J., NEVILL, A.M. & WILLIAMS, A.M. (2003). Modelling home advantage in the Summer Olympic Games. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21 (6), 469-478.  BALMER, N.J., PLEASENCE, P. & NEVILL, A.M. (2012). Evolution and Revolution : Gauging the Impact of Technological and Technical Innovation on Olympic Performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30 (11), 1075-1083.
  SARKAR, M., FLETCHER, D. & BROWN, D.J. (2015). "What doesn't kill me": Adversity-related experiences are vital in the development of superior Olympic performance. Journal of Science & Medicine in Sport, 18 (4), 475-479. [PDF]
Voir aussi Champion, Athlète et Sport
Ombrage verbal : Tendance à reconnaître avec moins d'exactitude (ombrage) un objet ou un individu que l'on vient tout juste de décrire verbalement. = effet d'ombrage verbale. Verbal overshadowing.
    MEISSMER, C.A. & BRIGHAM, J.C. (2001). A meta-analysis of the verbal overshadowing effect in face identification. Applied Cognitive, 15, 603-616. [PDF]
PIGOT, M. & BRIGHAM, J.C. (1985). Relationship between accuracy of prior description and facial recognition. Journal of Applied Psychology, 70, 547-555. MEISSMER, C.A., BRIGHAM, J.C. & KELLEY, C.M. (2001). The influence of retrieval processes in verbal overshadowing. Memory & Cognition, 29, 176-186.
  MEMON, A. & BARTLETT, J. (2002). The effects of verbalization on face recognition in young and older adults. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 635-650
SCHOOLER, J.W. & ENGLSTER-SCHOOLER, T.Y. (1990). Verbal overshadowing of visual memories : some things are better left unsaid. Cognitive Psychology, 22, 36-71. [PDF] MEISSMER, C.A. (2002). Applied aspects of the instructional bias effect in verbal overshadowing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 911-928.
SCHOOLER, J.W., OHLSSON, S. & BROOKS, K. (1993). Thoughts beyond words : when language overshadows insight. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 122, 166-183. MacLIN, M.K. (2002). The effects of exemplar and prototype descriptors on verbal overshadowing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 929-936.
  FIORE, S.M. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (2002). How did you get here from there ? Verbal overshadowing of spatial mental models. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 897-910.
  BROWN, C., & LLOYD-JONES, T.J. (2002). Verbal overshadowing in a multiple face presentation paradigm: Effects of description instruction. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 873-885.
  KITAGAMI, S., SATO, W. & YOSHIKAWA, S. (2002). The influence of test-set similarity in verbal overshadowing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 963-972.
  FINGER, K. (2002). Mazes and music : Using perceptual processing to release verbal overshadowing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 887-896.
MELCHER, J. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (1996). The misremembrance of wines past : Verbal and perceptual expertise differentially mediate verbal overshadowing of taste. The Journal of Memory & Language, 35, 231-245. [PDF] MEMON, A. & BARTLETT, J. (2002). The effects of verbalization on face recognition in young and older adults. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 635-650.
DODSON, C.S., JOHNSON, M.K. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (1997). The verbal overshadowing effect : Why descriptions impair face recognition. Memory & Cognition, 25, 129-139. PERFECT, T.J., HUNT, L.J. & HARRIS, C.M. (2002). Verbal overshadowing in voice recognition. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16, 973-980.
  CLIFFORD, B.R. (2003). The verbal overshadowing effect: In search of a chimera. In M.Vanderhallen, G. Verwaeke, P.J. van Koppen & J. Goethals (Eds.), Much ado about crime : Chapters on psychology and law (pp. 151-162). Brussels : Politei.
SCHOOLER, J.W., FIORE, S.M. & BRANDIMONTE, M.A. (1997). At a loss from words : Verbal overshadowing of perceptual memories. In D.L. Medin (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation: Ad- vances in research and theory (Vol. 37, pp. 293-340). London : Academic Press. BROWN, C., & LLOYD-JONES, T.J. (2003). Verbal overshadowing of multiple face and car recognition : Effects of within- versus across-category verbal descriptions. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 183-201.
  CLARE, J. & LEWANDOSWSKY, S. (2004). Verbalizing facial memory: Criterion effects in verbal overshadowing. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 30, 739-755.
WESTERMAN, D.L. & LARSEN, J.D. (1997). Verbal-overshadowing effect: Evidence for a general shift in processing. American Journal of Psychology, 110, 417-428. LANE, S.M. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (2004). Skimming the surface. Verbal overshadowing of analogical retrieval. Psychological Science, 15, 715-719.
  ITOH, Y. (2005). The facilitating effect of verbalization on the recognition memory of incidentally learned faces. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 421-433.
RYAN, R.S. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (1998). Whom do words hurt ? Individual differences in susceptibility to verbal overshadowing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 12, 105-125. VANAGS, T., CAROLL, M. & PERFECT, T.J. (2005). Verbal overshadowing : A sound theory in voice recognition ? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 19, 1127-1144.
  LLOYD-JONES, T.J., BROWN, C. & CLARKE, S. (2006). Verbal overshadowing of perceptual discrimination. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13 (2), 269-274. [PDF]
  SAUERLAND, M., HOLUB, F.E. & SPORER, S.L. (2008). Person descriptions and person identifications : Verbal overshadowing or recognition criterion shift ? European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 20, 497-528.
  CHIN, J.M. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (2008). Why do words hurt ? Content, process, and criterion shift accounts of verbal overshadowing. European Journal of Cognitive Psychology, 20 (3), 396-413. [PDF]
  BROWN, C., BRANDIMONTE, M.A., WICKHAM, L.H.V., BOSCO, A. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (2014). When do words hurt ? A multiprocess view of the effects of verbalization on visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 40 (5), 1244-1256.
FINGER, K. & PEZDEK, K. (1999). The effect of verbal description on face identification accuracy : "release form verbal overshadowing". Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 340-348. DEFRASNE-AIT-SAID, E., MAQUESTIAUX, F. & DIDIERJEAN, A. (2014). Verbal overshadowing of memories for fencing movements Is mediated by expertise. PLoS ONE 9 (2), e89276. doi:10.1371 [PDF]
Voir aussi Police et Reconnaissance du visage
Omega : Dernière lettre de l'alphabet grec, utilisée dans plusieurs contextes pour désigner le dernier élément d'une suite ordonnée ou d'une hiérarchie.

  MECH, L.D. (1999). Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77 (8), 1196-1203.
Voir aussi Hiérarchie et Rang social
 
Omega - Journal of Death & Dying : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la mort, du deuil et de la perte d'un être cher. Éditeur : Baywood Publishing Company.
LCH, K.J. & BERGEN, M. B. (2000). Adolescent parent mourning reactions associated with stillbirth or neonatal death. Omega, 43, 435-451.

Omni : Préfixe qui signifie partout.

Omni-
Omniprésence Omnivore  
     
 
Omniprésence : Propriété d'un objet que l'on observe en de nombreux endroits ou partout, dans certains cas. Omniprésence et ubiquité. Omnipresence.

   
 
Omnivore : Qui se nourrit aussi bien d'herbe, de légumes et de fruits (herbivore) que de viande (carnivore). Omnivore.

  TELEKI, G. (1973). The omnivorous chimpanzee. Scientific American, 228 (1), 32-42.
HARDING, R.S.O. (1981). An order of omnivores : non human primate diets in the wild. In R.S. Harding & G. Teleki (Eds.), Omnivorous primates. Gathering and hunting in human evolution (pp. 191-214). New-York : Columbia University Press.
 
On line : Anglicisme. Voir à distance.
Onanisme : Pathologie associée à la masturbation.

  TISSOT, S.A.D. (1766). L'onanisme. Dissertation sur les maladies produites par la masturbation. Paris : Garnier et frères. / Onanism, or a treatise upon the disorders of masturbation. London : J. Pridden.
STEKEL, W. (1951). Onanisme et homosexualité : la parapathie homosexuelle. Paris : Gallimard.
Onde :

Types d'onde
Onde alpha Onde cérébrale Onde négative
Onde beta Onde delta Onde positive
    Onde Thêta
 
Onde alpha : Type d'onde cérébrale dont l'amplitue oscille entre 8-14 Hz, qui caractérise l'état de vieille diffus et la relaxation et la méditation. Découvert par Berger. Alpha rythm, Berger wave.

  BERGER, H. (1929) Über das elektrenkephalogramm des menschen/On the human elec- troencephalogram. Archiv für Psychiatrie und Nervenkrankheiten, 87 (1), 527-570.
ANDERSEN, P. & ANDERSON, S. (1968). Physiological basis of the alpha rhythm. New York: AppletonCentury-Crofts.
LIPPOLD, O. (1970): Origin of the alpha rhythm. Nature, 226, 616-618.
RAYMOND, J., VARNEY, C., PARKINSON, L.A. & GRUZELIER, J.H. (2005). The effect of alpha /theta neurofeedback on personality and mood. Cognitive Brain Research, 23, 287-292.
KIRSCHFELD, K. (2005). The physical basis of alpha waves in the electroencephalogram and the origin of the "Berger effect". Biological Cybernetics, 92 (3), 177-185.
ISA, I.S., ZAINUDDIN, B.S., HUSSAIN, Z. & SULAIMAN, S.N. (2014). Preliminary study on analyzing EEG alpha brainwave signal activities based on visual stimulation. Procedia Computer Science, 42, 85-92. [PDF]
Voir aussi Alpha et Onde cérébrale
Onde bêta : Onde cérébrale dont l'amplitue oscille entre 14–30 Hz, qui caractérise l'état de veilla active, la conscience. Beta rhytm.

  ZHANG, Y. CHEN, Y., BRESSLER, S.L. & DING, M. (2008). Response preparation and inhibition : the role of the cortical sensorimotor beta rhythm. Neuroscience, 156 (1), 238-246.
Voir aussi Bêta et Onde cérébrale
Onde cérébrale : Activité électrique des neurones. Onde cérérale, cerveau et électroencéphalogramme. = onde corticale. Brain wave, brainwave signal, neural oscillation.

Types d'onde cérébrale
Onde alpha Onde gamma Onde delta
Onde beta   Onde thêta
 
Type/Onde Fréquence État
Delta 0.5-4 Hz Sommeil profond, Coma
Thêta 4-8 Hz Somnolence, Rêve, hypnose, Sommeil paradoxal
Alpha 8-14 Hz Relaxation, Méditation
Bêta 14-30 Hz Veille active, Conscience
Gamma 25-100+ Hz et 12-15 Hz Fonction exécutive

  BALDI, K.A. (1991). The generation of brain waves. American Journal EEG Technology, 27, 187-190. [PDF]
MANIC, K.S., SAADHA, A., PIRPAHARAN, K. & ARAVIND, C.V. (2015). Characterisation and separation of brainwave signals. Journal of Engineering Science & Technology, (S), 32-44. [PDF]

 

Onde delta : Onde cérébrale dont l'amplitude oscille entre 0.5–4 Hz et qui caractérise le sommeil profond et le coma. = slow wave. Delta rhytm.

  WARREN, J. (2007). The slow wave. The head trip : Adventures on the wheel of consciousness. Random House.
DESTEXHE, A. & CONTRERAS, D. (2007). The fine structure of slow-wave sleep oscillations : from single neurons to large networks. In A. Hutt (Ed.), Sleep and anesthesia (pp. 60-105). Springer Series in Computational Neuroscience. [PDF]
WALKER, M.P. (2009). The role of slow wave sleep in memory processing. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 5, 20-26.
Voir aussi Delta et Onde cérébrale
Onde gamma : Onde cérébrale dont l'amplitude est de 25–100+ Hz. Gamma rhytm.

  VANDERWOLF, C.H. (2000). Are neocortical gamma waves related to consciousness ? Brain Research, 855 (2), 217-240.
HUGHES, J.R. (2008). Gamma, fast, and ultrafast waves of the brain : their relationships with epilepsy and behavior. Epilepsy & Behavior, 13 (1), 25-31.
Voir aussi Gamma et Onde cérébrale
Onde négative :

 
Onde positive :

 
Onde thêta : Onde cérébrale dont l'amplitude se situe entre 4 et 8 Hz et qui caractérise la somnolence, le rêve et les états induits par l'hypnose.Theta rhytm.

  RAYMOND, J., VARNEY, C., PARKINSON, L.A. & GRUZELIER, J.H. (2005). The effect of alpha /theta neurofeedback on personality and mood. Cognitive Brain Research, 23, 287-292.
Voir aussi Thêta et Onde cérébrale
Onfray Michel (Argentan France 1959-) : Philosophe français. Partisan du matérialisme et de l'athéisme et critique de la psychanalyse. Il a créé une université populaire à Caen.
ONFRAY, M. (1991/2003). L’art de jouir : Pour un matérialisme hédoniste. Paris : Grasset.
ONFRAY, M. (1991). La sculpture de soi : La morale esthétique. Paris : Grasset.
ONFRAY, M. (2001). Antimanuel de philosophie : Leçons socratiques et alternatives. Paris : Boréal.
ONFRAY, M. (2005). Traité d’athéologie. Paris : Grasset.
ONFRAY, M. (2007). Contre l'histoire de la philosophie. Paris : Grasset.
 
Ongle : Voir onychophagie.
Onychophagie : Habitude auto-mutilante qui consiste à se ronger les ongles. = Se ronger les ongles. Nail-biting.

  BIRCH, L.B. (1955). The incidence of nail-biting among school-children. British Journal of Social Psychology, l25, 123-28,1955. BOHNE, A., KEUTHEN, N. & WILHELMS, S. (2005). Pathologic hairpulling, skin picking, and nail biting. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 17 (4), 227-232.
HORNE, D.J. & WILKINSON, J. (1980). Habit reversal treatment for fingernail biting. Behaviour Reseach & Therapy, 18 (4), 287-291. WILLIAMS, T.I., ROSE, R. & CHISHOLM, S. (2006). What is the function of nail biting : An analog assessment study. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 45, (5), 989-995.
KLATTE, K.M. & DEARDOFF, P.A. (1981). Nail-biting and manifest anxiety of adults. Psychological Reports, 48, 82.  
LEONARD, H.L., LENANE, M.C., SWEDO, S.E., RETTEW, D.C. & RAPOPORT, J.L. (1991). A double- blind comparison of clomipramineand desipramine treatment of severe onychophagia (nail biting). Archives of General Psychiatry, 48, 821-827. PACAN, P., GRZESIAK, M., REICH, A. & SZEPIETOWSKI, J.C. (2009). Onychophagia as a spectrum of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 89, 278-280.
SILBER, K.P. & HAYNES, C.E. (1992). Treating nailbiting: A comparative analysis of mild aversion and competing response therapies. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 30, 15-22. LEE, D.Y. (2009). Chronic nail biting and irreversible shortening of the fingernails. Journal of European Academy of Dermatology & Venereology, 23: 185.
PENZEL, F. (1995). Skin picking and nail biting : Related habits. In Touch, 2 (11), 10-11. GHANIZADEH, A. (2011). Nail biting; Etiology, consequences and management. Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences, 36 (2), 73-79. [PDF]
ALLEN, K.W. (1996). Chronic nailbiting: A controlled comparison of competing response and mild aversion treatments. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 34 (3), 269-272. ROBERTS, S., O'CONNOR, K. & BÉLANGER, C. (2013). Emotion regulation and other psychological models for body-focused repetitive behaviors. Clinical Psychology Review, 33, 745-762. [PDF]
Voir aussi Habitude et Automutilation
Onirisme :

 
Onslow Mark ( ) : Psychologue australien et spécialiste du bégaiement.
ONSLOW, M., COSTA, L. & RUE, S. (1990). Direct early intervention with stuttering : Some preliminary data. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 55, 405-416.
ONSLOW, M., (1992). Choosing a treatment procedure for early stuttering: Issues and future directions. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 35, 983-993.
ONSLOW, M., ANDREWS, C. & LINCOLN, M. (1994). A control/experimental trial of an operant treatment for early stuttering. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 37, 1244-1259.
ONSLOW, M. & PACKMAN, A. (1999). Recovery from early stuttering with and without treatment : The need for consistent methods in collecting and interpreting data. Journal of Speech & Hearing Research, 42, 398-401.
ONSLOW, M., MENZIES, R. & PACKMAN, A. (2000). The Lidcomb Program : Development of a parent-conducted operant early intervention for stuttering. Behaviour Modification, 24, 658-681.
Onto : Préfixe. Du grec qui signifie "être ou existence".

Onto-
Ontogénèse/Ontogénétique Ontologie Ontoystème
 
Ontogenèse/Ontogénétique : Ontogenèse et phylogenèse. Ontogeny, ontogenesis.

  GESELL, A. (1946/54). The ontogenesis of infant behavior. In L. Carmichael (Ed.), Manual of child psychology. New York : Wiley. SPEAR, N.E. & RUDY, J.W. (1991). Tests of the ontogeny of learning and memory : Issues, methods, and results. In H.N. Shair, G.A. Barr & M.A. Hofer (Eds.), Developmental psychobiology : New methods and changing concepts (pp. 84-113). New York : Oxford University Press.
DIAMOND, M. (1965). A critical evaluation of the ontogeny of human sexual behavior. Quarterly Review of Biology, 40, 147-175. POVINELLI, D.J., RULF, A.B., LANDAU, K.R. & BIERSCHWALE, D.T. (1993). Self-recognition in chimpanzees : Distribution, ontogeny, and patterns of emergence. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 107, 347-372.
SKINNER, B.F. (1966). The phylogeny and ontogeny of behavior. Science, 153, 1205-1213. BATES, E. & ELMAN, J. (2000). The ontogeny and phylogeny of language : A neural network perspective. In S.T. Parker, J. Langer & M.L. McKinney (Eds.), Biology, brains, and behavior : The evolution of human development (pp. 89-130). Santa Fe, NM : School of American Research Press.
GOTTLIEB, G. (1971). Ontogenesis of sensory function in birds and mammals. In E. Tobach, L.R. Aronson, & E. Shaw (Eds.), The biopsychology of development (pp. 67-128). New York : Academic Press. TOMASELLO, M., CALL, J., WARREN, J., FROST, G.T., CARPENTER, M. & NAGELL, K. (1997). The ontogeny of chimpanzee gestural signals : A comparison across groups and generations. Evolution of Communication, 1, 223-259. [PDF]
CAMPBELL, B.A. & SPEAR, N.E. (1972). Ontogeny of memory. Psychological Review, 79, 215-236. DEPUTTE, B. et VAUCLAIR, J. (2001). Le long apprentissage de la vie sociale. Ontogenèse comportementale et sociale chez l’homme et les singes. In Y. Coppens & P. Picq (Eds.), L'origine de l'homme (pp. 242-287). Paris : Fayard.
  COLE, M. (2007). Phylogeny and cultural history in ontogeny. Journal of Physiology/Paris, 101, 236-246. [PDF]
CAIRNS, R.B. (1976). The ontogeny and phylogeny of social interactions. In M. Hahn & E.C. Simmel (Eds.), Evolution of communicative behaviors. New York : Academic Press. RIEDEL, J., SCHUMANN, K., KAMINSKI, J., CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (2008). The early ontogeny of human-dog communication. Animal Behaviour, 75, 1003-1014.
  WYNNE C.D.L., UDELL, M.A.R. & LORD, K.A. (2008). Ontogeny's impacts on human-dog communication. Animal Behaviour 76, 1-4. [PDF]
GOULD, S.J. (1977). Ontogeny and phylogeny. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. PASCALIS, O. & KELLY, D.J. (2009). The origins of face processing in humans : phylogeny and ontogeny. Perspect. Psychological Science, 4, 200-209.
MASON, W.A. (1978). Ontogeny of social systems. In D.E. Chivers & J. Herbert (Eds), Recent advances in primatology (Vol. 1, pp. 5-14). London : Academic Press. UDELL, M.A.R. & WYNNE, C.D.L. (2010). Ontogeny and phylogeny : both are essential to human-sensitive behavior in the genus Canis. Animal Behaviour, 79, 9-14. [PDF]
CAMPBELL, B.A. & ALBERTS, J.R. (1979). Ontogeny of long-term memory for learned taste versions. Behavioral & Neuralbiology, 25, 139-156. [PDF] MÉGUESDITCHIAM, A., COCHET, H. & VAUCLAIR, J. (2011). From gesture to language : ontogenetic and phylogenetic perspectives on gestural communication and its cerebral lateralization. In A. Vilain, J.L. Schwartz, C. Abry & J. Vauclair (Eds.), Primate communication and human language : Vocalisation, gestures, imitation and deixis in humans and non-humans (pp. 91-119). Amsterdam : John Benjamins. [PDF]
CAMPBELL, B.A. (1984). Reflections on the ontogeny of learning and memory. In R.V. Kail & N.E. Spear (Eds.), Comparative perspectives on the development of memory (pp. 23-35). New York, NY : Routledge. YANG, C. (2013). Ontogeny and phylogeny of language. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences U.S.A., 110, 6324-6327. [PDF]
Voir aussi Phylogenèse
Ontologie : Branche de la philosophie qui étudie la nature des choses, leurs propriétés. Ontology.

  QUINE, W.V.O. (1968). Ontological relativity. Journal of Philosophy, 65, 185-212. MALONE, J.C. (2001). Ontology recapitulates philology : Willard Quine, pragmatism, and radical behaviorism. Behavior & Philosophy, 29, 63-74. [PDF]
FEIBLEMAN, J.K. (1968). Ontology. New York : Greenwood Press. BARNES-HOLMES, D. (2005). Behavioral pragmatism is a-ontological, not antirealist : A reply to Tonneau. Behavior & Philosophy, 33, 67-79. [PDF]
QUINE, W.V.O. (1969). Ontological relativity and other essays. New York : Columbia University Press. KRÄGELOH, C.U. (2006). Pragmatism and a-ontologicalism in a science of behavior. The Behavior Analyst Today, 7 (3), 325-334. [PDF]
LACEY, H. (1971). Quine on the logic and ontology of time. Australasian Journal of Philosophy, 49, 47-67. GOLDMAN, A. (2007). A program for "naturalizing" metaphysics, with application to the ontology of events. The Monist, 90 (3), 457-470. [PDF]
HORGAN, T.E. (1976). Truth and ontology. Philosophical Papers, 15, 1-21. PÉREZ-ÀLVAREZ. M., SASS, L.A. & GARCIA-MONTES, J.M. (2008). More Aristotle, less DSM : The ontology of mental disorders in constructivist perspective. Philosophy, Psychiatry & Psychology, 15 (3), 211-225.
HORGAN, T.E. (1986). Psychologism, semantics, and ontology. Nous, 20, 21-31. VANDERBERG, B.R. (2010). Evidence, ontology, and psychological science: The lesson of hypnosis. Journal of Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology, 30, 51-65.
HORGAN, T.E. (1986). Truth and ontology. Philosophical Papers, 15, 1-21. BICKHARD, M.H. (2012). A process ontology for persons and their development. New Ideas in Psychology, 30 (1), 107-119.
BERGMANN, G. (1992). New foundations of ontology. Madison : University of Wisconsin Press. RIEKKI, T.J.J., LINDEMAN, M.J. & LIPSANEN, J. (2013). Conceptions about the mind-body problem and their relations to afterlife beliefs, paranormal beliefs, religiosity, and ontological confusions. Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 9, 112-120. [PDF]
  INGTHORSSON, R.D. (2013). The natural vs. the human sciences : myth, methodology and ontology. Discusiones Filosócas, 14 (22), 25-41. [PDF]
CAREY, S. (1992). Conceptual change within and across ontological categories: Examples from learning and discovery in science In R.N. Giere (Ed.), Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science (Vol. 15). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. SUROVELL, J. (2017). Language, ontology, and the Carnap-Quine debate. Philosophia, 45 (2), 811-833.
Voir aussi Philosophie
Ontosystème : Voir Système (onto).
Onwuegbuzie Anthony J. (Londres) : Mathématicien et méthodologiste d'origine anglaise, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'anxiété scolaire (enseignement des statistiques) du perfectionnisme et de la procrastination. Il s'intéresse également aux méthodes mixtes de recherche.
ONWUEGBUZIE, A.J. & AMAN, M. (1995). The effect of time and anxiety on statistics achievement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 63, 115-12SE4.
ONWUEGBUZIE, A.J., DAROS, D. & RYAN, J. (1997). The components of statistics anxiety : A phenomenological study. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 19 (4), 11-35.
ONWUEGBUZIE, A.J. & DALEY, C.E. (1998). Perfectionism and statistics anxiety. Personality & Individual Differences, 26, 1089-1102.
ONWUEGBUZIE, A.J. & WILSON, V.A. (2003). Statistics anxiety : Nature, etiology, antecedents, effects, and treatments - A comprehensive review of the literature.Teaching in Higher Education, 8 (2), 195-209.
ONWUEGBUZIE, A.J. & JOHNSON, R.B. (2006). The validity issue in mixed research. Research in the School, 13 (1), 48-63. [PDF]
Onze septembre 2001 : 11 septembre, théorie du complot et terrorisme. September 11, 2001, 9/11.

  PRIOR, M. (2002). Political knowledge after September 11. Political Science & Politics, 35, 523-529. MILAM, J., RITT-OLSON, A., TAN, S., UNGER, J. & NEZAMI, E. (2005). The September 11th 2001 terrorist attacks and reports of posttraumatic growth among a multi-ethnic sample of adolescents. Traumatology, 11, 233-246.
SINGH, A. (2002). «We are not the enemy» : Hate crimes against Arabs, Muslims, and those perceived to be Arab or Muslim after September 11. Human Rights Watch Report, 14, 6 (G). SADLER, M.S., LINEBERGER, M., CORRELL, J. & PARK, B. (2005). Emotions, attributions, and policy endorsement in response to the September 11th terrorist attacks. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 249-258.
SHERIDAN, L. (2002). Effects of the events of september 11th 2001 on discrimination and implicit racism in five religious and seven ethnic groups : A brief overview. Leicester : University of Leicester. AHMED, N.M. (2005). The war on truth : 9/11, Disinformation, and the anatomy of terrorism. Olive Branch Press. / La Guerre contre la vérité : 11 Septembre, désinformation et anatomie du terrorisme. Demi-Lune.
ANTONIUS, R. (2002). Un racisme "respectable" dans J. Renaud, L. Pietrantonio et G. Bourgeault (Dir.), Les relations ethniques en question : Ce qui a changé depuis le 11 septembre 2001 (p. 253-271). Montréal : Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal. BONANNO, G.A., RENNICKE, C. & DEKEL S. (2005). Self-enhancement among high-exposure survivors of the September 11th terrorist attack : Resilience or social maladjustment ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88, 984-998. [PDF]
CHOSSUDOVSKY, M. (2002). Guerre et mondialisation - La vérité derrière le 11 septembre. Écosociété / War on globalisation : The truth behind september 11. Global Outlook. SKITKA, L.J. (2005). Patriotism or nationalism ? Understanding post- September 11, 2001, flag-display behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1995-2011. [PDF]
COHEN, R., ALISON, E., McINTOSH, D., POULIN, M. & GILRIVAS, V. (2002). Nationwide Longitudinal Study of Psychological Responses to September 11. Journal of American Medical Association, 288, 1235-1244. LEVINE, L.J., WHALEN, C.K., HENKER, B. & JAMNER, L.D. (2005). Looking back on September 11, 2001: Appraised impact and memory for emotions in adolescents and adults. Journal of Adolescent Research, 20, 497-523. [PDF]
PRIOR, M. (2002). Political knowledge after September 11. Political Science & Politics, 35, 523-529. TAYOB, A. (2006). Muslim responses to integration demands in the Netherlands since 9/11. Human Architecture : Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge 5 (1), 73-90.
CHANLEY, V.A. (2002). Trust in government in the aftermath of 9/11 : Determinants and consequences. Political Psychology, 23, 469-483. SHERIDAN, L.P. (2006). Islamophobia pre-and post-September 11th, 2001. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 21, 317-336.
SILVER, R.C., HOLMAN, E.A., MCINTOSH, D.N., POULIN, M. & GILRIVAS, V. (2002). Nationwide longitudinal study of psychological responses to September 11. Journal of American Medical Association, 288, 1235-1244. PANAGOPOULOS, C. (2006). Arab and Muslim Americans and Islam in the aftermath of 9/11. Public Opinion Quarterly, 70, 608-624.
  FRALEY, R.C., FAZZARI, D.A., BONANNO, G.A. & DEKEL, S. (2006). Attachment and psychological adaptation in high exposure survivors of the September 11th attack on the World Trade Center. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 538-551.
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GALEA, S., AHERN, J., RESNICK, H., KILPATRICK, D., BUCUVALAS, M., GOLD, J. & VLAHOV, D. (2002). Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks in New York City. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 982-987. KAPLAN, J. (2006). Islamophobia in America ? September 11 and Islamophobic hate crime. Terrorism & Political Violence, 18, 1-33.
GALEA, S., AHERN, J., RESNICK, H., KILPATRICK, D., BUCUVALAS, M., GOLD, J. & VLAHOV, D. (2002). Psychological sequelae of the September 11 terrorist attacks on New York City. New England Journal of Medicine, 346, 982-987. NOOR, F.A. (2006). How Washington’s "war on terror" became everyone’s : Islamophobia and the impact of september 11 on the political terrain of south and southeast Asia. Human Architecture : Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge, 5 (1), 29-50.
FAIRBROTHER, G., STUBER, J., GALEA, S., FLEISCHMAN, A.R. & PFEFFERBASUM, B. (2003). Posttraumatic stress reactions in New York City children after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. Ambulatory Pediatrics, 3, 304-311. [PDF] SCOTT, P.D. (2007). The road to 9/11 : Wealth, empire and the future of America. University of California Press / La route vers le nouveau désordre mondial - 50 ans d'ambitions secrètes des États-Unis. Demi-Lune.
KVAVILASHVILI, L. MIRANI, J., SCHLAGMAN, S. & KORNBROT, D.E. (2003). Comparing flashbulb memories of September 11 and the death of Princess Diana : Effects of time delays and nationality. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 1017-1031. GANZEL, B., CASEY, B. J., GLOVER, G., VOSS, H.U. & TEMPLE, E. (2007). The aftermath of 9/11 : Effect of intensity and recency of trauma on outcome. Emotion, 7, 227-238.
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VLAHOV, D., GALEA, S., RESNICK, H., AHERN, J., BOSCARINOJ. A., BUCUVALAS, M., GOLD, J. & KILPATRICK, D. (2002). Increase use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155, 988-996. SAHAR, G. (2008). Patriotism, attributions for the 9/11 attacks, and support for war : Then and now. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 30, 189–197.
TAÏEB, E (2003). De quelques rumeurs après le 11 septembre 2001. Quaderni, 50-51, 5-22. CONWAY, A.R.A., SKITKA, L.J., HEMMERICH, J.A. & KERSHAW, T.C. (2008). Flashbulb memory for September 11, 2001. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 23, 605-623. [PDF]
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  NAIL, P.R. & McGREGOR, I. (2009). Conservative shift among liberals and conservatives following 9/11/01. Social Justice Research, 22, 231–240.
DUMONT, M., YZERBYT, V.Y., WIGBOLDUS, D. & GORDJIN, E. (2003). Social categorization and fear reactions to the September 11th terrorist attacks. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 29, 112-123. [PDF] KVAVILASHVILI, L., MIRANI, J., SCHLAGMAN, S., FOLEY, K. & KORNBROT, D.E. (2009). Consistency of flashbulb memories of September 11 over long delays : Implications for consolidation and wrong time slice hypotheses.Journal of Memory & Language, 61, 556-572. [PDF]
  JANOFF, R. & USOOF-THOWFEEK, R. (2009). Shifting moralities : Post-9/11 responses to shattered national assumptions. In M. Morgan (Ed.), The impact of 9-11: The day that changed everything ? (Vol. 5, pp. 81–96). New York, NY : Palgrave Macmillan.
PYSCZYNSKI, T., SOLOMON, S. & GREENBERG, J. (2003). In the wake of 9/11: The psychology of terror. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association. HIRST, W., PHELPS, E.A., BUCKNER, R.L., BUDSON, A.E., CUC, A., GABRIELI, J.D.E., SIMONS, J.S., BUDSON, A.E., JOHNSON, M.K., LYLE, K.B., LUSTIG, C., MATHER, M, MEKSIN, R., MITCHELL, K.J., OCHSNER, K.N. & SCHACTER, D.L. (2009). Long-term memory for the terrorist attack of September 11 : Flashbulb memories, event memories, and the factors that influence their retention. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 138 (2), 161-176. [PDF]
  KVAVILASHVILI, L., MIRANI, J., SCHLAGMAN, S. & KORNBROT, D.E. (2010). Effects of age on the phenomenology and consistency of flashbulb memories of September 11 and a staged control event. Psychology & Aging, 25, 391-404. [PDF]
  SWAMI, V., CHAMORRO-PREMIUZIC, T. & FURNHAM, A. (2010). Unanswered questions : A preliminary investigation of personality and individual difference predictors of 9/11 conspiracist beliefs. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 24, 749-761. [PDF]
  MANWELL, L.A. (2010). In denial of democracy: Social psychological implications for public discourse on state crimes against democracy post-9/11. American Behavioral Scientist, 53, 848-884.
DIXON, W.W. (2004). Film and television after 9/11. Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press. BARTLETT, J. & MILLER, C. (2011). A bestiary of the 9/11 truth movement : notes from the front line. Skeptical Inquirer, 35, 43-46.
SIDANIUS, J., HENRY, P.J., PRATTO, F. & LEVIN, S. (2004). Arab attributions for the attack on America : The case of Lebanese sub-elites. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 35, 403-416. MORGAN, G.S., WISNESKI, D.C. & SKITKA, L.J. (2011). The expulsion from Disneyland : The social psychological impact of 9/11. American Psychologist, 66 (6), 447-454. [PDF]
PYSCZYNSKI, T., SOLOMON, S. & GREENBERG, J. (2003). In the wake of 9/11: The psychology of terror. American Journal of Psychiatry, 160 (5), 1019. EISENBERG, N. & COHEN, R.C. (2011). Growing up in the shadow of terrorism : Youth in America after 9/11. American Psychologist, 66, 468-481.
GRIFFIN, D.R. (2004). The 9/11 Commission report : Omissions and distortions. Olive Branch Press. / Omissions et manipulations de la Commission d'enquête sur le 11 septembre. Demi-Lune. NERIA, Y., DIFRANDE, L. & ADAMS, B. (2011). Posttraumatic stress disorder following the September 11, 2001, terror attacks : A review of the literature among highly exposed populations. American Psychologist, 66, 429-446.
DAVIS, D.W. & SILVER, B.D. (2004). Civil liberties vs. security in the context of the terrorist attacks on America. American Journal of Political Science, 48, 28–46. SCHUSTER, M.A., STEIN, B.D., JAYCOX, L.H., COLLINS, R.L., MARSHALL, G.N., ELLIOTT, M.N. & BERRY, S.H. (211). A national survey of stress reactions after the -September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. New England Journal of Medicine, 345, 1507-1512.
SKITKA, L.J., BAUMAN, C.W. & MULLEN, E. (2004). Political tolerance and coming to psychological closure following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks: A model comparison approach. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 743-756. HUDDY, L. & FELDMAN, S. (2011). Americans respond politically to 9/11 understanding the impact of the terrorist attacks and their aftermath. American Psychologist, 66 (6), 455-467. [PDF]
WHALEN, C.K., HENKER, B., KING, P.S., JMANER, L.D. & LEVINE, L. (2004). Adolescents react to the events of September 11, 2001: Focused versus ambient impact. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 32, 1-11. COHEN, R.C. & FISCHHCOFF, B. (2011). What should we expect after the next attack ? American Psychologist, 66 (6), 567-572. [PDF]
SHALEV, A.Y. (2004). Further lessons from 9/11: Does stress equal trauma? Psychiatry, 67, 174. COHEN, R.C. (2011). An Introduction to «9/11 : Ten years later». American Psychologist, 66, 1-2. [PDF]
SAROGLOU, V. & GALAND, P. (2004). Identities, values, and religion : A study among Muslim, other immigrant, and native Belgian young adults after the 9/11 attacks. Iden- tity, 4 (2), 97-132. [PDF] KHAN, M. & ECKLUND, K. (2011). Attitudes toward Muslim Americans Post-9/11. Journal of Muslim Mental Health, 7 (1), 1-16. [PDF]
HENRY, D.B., TOLAN, P. & GORMAN-SMITH, D. (2004). Have there been effects associated with the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks among inner-city parents and children ? Professional Psychology : Research & Practice, 3, 542-547. WOOD, M.J. & DOUGLAS, K.M. (2013). «What about building 7 ? » A social psychological study of online discussion of 9/11 conspiracy theories. Frontiers in Psychology, 4 (409), 1-9. [PDF]
DIXON, W.W. (2004). Film and television after 9/11. Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press. DEKEL, S., EIN-DOR, T., GORDON, K., ROSEN, J. & BONANNO, G.A. (2013). Cortisol and PTSD symptoms among male and female high-exposure 9/11 survivors. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 621-625. [PDF]
BLIGH, M.C, KOHLES, J.C. & MEINDL, J.R. (2004). Charisma under crisis : Presidential leadership, rhetoric, and media responses before and after the September 11th terrorist attacks. The Leadership Quarterly, 15 (2), 211-239. OLSSON, A., KROSS, E., NORDBERG, S., WEINBERG, A., WEBER, J., SCHMER-GALUNDER, S., FOSSELLA, J., WAGER, T., BONANNO, G.A. & OCHSNER, K.N. (2014). Neural and genetic markers of vulnerability to posttraumatic stress symptoms among survivors of the World Trade Center attacks. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 10, 863-868. [PDF]
  KROSNICK, J.A., STARK, T.H. & CHINAG, I.-C. (2016). The two core goals of political psychology. In Krosnick, J. A., Chiang, I.-C. & Stark, T. (Eds.), Political Psychology: New Explorations. Psychology Press. New York, New York. [PDF]
DAVIS, D.W. & SILVER, B.D. (2004). Civil liberties vs. security in the context of the terrorist attacks on America. American Journal of Political Science, 48, 28–46. THOMAS, R.K., KROSNICK, J.A. & SHOOK, N.J. (2016). Forever changed ? Some surprising findings about U.S. Public Opinion after the attacks of 9/11/2001 on the U.S. In J.A. Krosnick, I.-C. Chiang & T. Stark (Eds.), Political Pyschology: New Explorations. Psychology Press. New York, New York. [PDF]
Voir aussi Complot, Théorie du complot et Terrorisme
OPÉRANT - OPÉRATION - OPÉRATIONNALISATION - OPINION - OPTIMISME - OPTIMUM/OPTIMALITÉ - OR
Open Access : Certains articles disponibles sur ce site en format pdf sont distribués sous les termes de la licence Creative Common Attribution-Noncommercial, ce qui permet tout usage, distribution et reproduction sur tout support, à titre non commercial, à condition que les auteurs d’origine et la source soient mentionnés.

 
Open Journal of Medical Psychology : Revue scientifique de psychologie et de médecine béhaviorale. Éditeur : Psychology Press.
SCHOULTE, J., SUSSMAN, Z., TALLMAN, B., DEB, M., CORNICK, C. & ALTMAIE, E. (2012). Is there growth in grief : measuring posttraumatic growth in the grief response. Open Journal of Medical Psychology, 1 (3), 38-43. [PDF]

Open Learning : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui consacre ses pages à l'apprentissage assisté par ordinateur. Éditeur : Psychology Press.
ANDERSON, B. & SIMPSON, M. (2007). Ethical issues in online education. Open Learning, 129-138.

Opérant : Voir Conditionnement opérant.
Opérateur booléen : Terme logique qui permet de liéer logiquement des propositions. EX: ET et OU sont des opérateurs booléens. Opérateur, logique booléenne et Boole. Boolean operator.
   TRAILL, R.R. (1970). Boolean operators : a critique of their conceptual usefulness in modelling adaptable neural nets. Progress of Cybernetics, 2, 861-871.
Voir aussi Code binaire
Opération : Suite d'actions logiquement oganisées en vue de produire ou transformer un objet.

Types d'opération
Opération (Méthodologie) Opération concrète Opération mathématique
Opération cognitve/mentale Opération formelle  
 

 
Opération (méthodologique) : En méthodologie, ensemble des décisions et des gestes ordonnés et systématiques que prend et pose un scientifique afin de mener à bien sa recherche. Certaines de ces opérations sont imposées par la démarche scientifique (EX: il faut toujours recenser les écrits avant de mettre sur pieds sur une recherche), alors que d'autres relèvent des particularités de l'objet d'étude (EX: Mesurer plutôt qu'évaluer). Ces opérations font l'objet d'un examen critique de la part du chercheur lors de l'nterpértation de ses résultats. Le mot opération est plus souvent utilisé dans un contexte expérimental. S'il englobe toutes les étapes d'une recherche, il semble plus usité lors de la collecte de données. = ce que fait un chercheur pendant sa recherche, procédure, stratégie. ( ):, neutraliser, manipuler.

Opérations méthodologiques
Analyser des données Évaluer Opérationnaliser
Collecter des donnéees Formuler une hypothèse Poser un problème
Communiquer Interpréter des résultats Recenser les écrits
  Manipuler une variable  
Contrebalancer Mesurer Rédiger
Échantillonner des sujets Neutraliser les variables parasites  
 

 
Opération cognitive : Suite plus ou moins ordonnée d'habiletés cognitives qui produisent un effet donné (prise de décision, solution à un problème, question, calcul, comportement, etc.). = opération mentale, acte mental. ( ): opération concrète, opération formelle. Cognitive operation.

  BERLYNE, D.E. & PIAGET, J. (1960). Théorie du comportement et opération. Paris : Presses de l'Université de France.
LAUTREY, J., DE RIBAUPIERRE, A. & RIEBEN, L. (1981). Le développement opératoire peut-il prendre des formes différentes chez des enfants différents ? Journal de Psychologie Normale et Pathologique, 4, 422-443.
JOHNSON, M.K., RAYE, C.L., FOLEY, H.J. & FOLEY, M. (1981). Cognitive operations and decision bias in reality monitoring. American Journal of Psychology, 94, 37-64.
DE RIBAUPIERRE, A. (1983). Un modèle néo-piagétien : la Théorie des opérateurs constructifs de Pascual-Leone. Cahiers de Psychologie Cognitive, 3, 327-356.
POSNER, M.I., PETERSEN, S.E., FOX, P.T. & RAICHLE, M.E. (1988). Localization of cognitive operations in the human brain. Science, 240, 1627-1631.
CRUTCHER, R.J. & HEALY, A.F. (1989). Cognitive operations and the generation effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 15, 669-675.
Voir aussi Habiletés cognitive et fonction exécutive
Opération concrète : Chez Piaget... Concrete operational thought.

  PIAGET, J. (1941). Le mécanisme du développement mental et les lois du groupement des opérations : esquisse d'une théorie opératoire de l'intelligence. Archives de psychologie, 28, (112), 215-285.
PIAGET, J. (1949). Le problème neurologique de l'intériorisation des actions en opérations réversibles. Archives de Psychologie, 32 (128), 241-258. [PDF]
PIAGET, J. (1952). Essai sur les transformations de les operations logiques. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
TOMLINSON-KEASEY, C., EISERT, D., KAHLE, L., HARDY-BROWN, K. & KEASEY, B. (1979). The structure of concrete operational thought. Child Development, 50 (4), 1153-1163.
RICCO, R. (1993). Revising the logic of operations as a relevance logic : From hypothesis testing to explanation. Human Development, 36, 125-146.
RAMOS-CHRISTIAN, V., SCHLESER; R. & VARN, M.E. (2008). Math fluency : Accuracy versus speed in preoperational and concrete operational first and second grade children. Early Childhood Education Journal, 35 (6), 543-549. [PDF]
Opération formelle : Chez Piaget... Formal operation.

  PIAGET, J. (1941). Le mécanisme du développement mental et les lois du groupement des opérations : esquisse d'une théorie opératoire de l'intelligence. Archives de Psychologie, 28 (112), 215-285. DE RIBAUPIERRE, A. & PASCUAL-LEONE, J. (1979). Formal operations and M power : A neo-piagetian investigation. New Directions for Child Development, 5, 1-43.
PIAGET, J. (1949). Le problème neurologique de l'intériorisation des actions en opérations réversibles. Archives de Psychologie, 32 (128), 241-258. [PDF] TOMLINSON-KEASEY, C. (1982). Structures, functions and stages : A trio of unresolved issues in formal operations. In S. Modgil & C. Modgil (Eds.), Jean Piaget : Consensus and controversy (pp. 131-153). London : Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
PIAGET, J. (1950). La réversibilité de la pensée et les opérations logiques. Bulletin de la Société Française de Philosophie, 44 (4), 137-164. KALIO, E. & & HELKAMA, K. (1991). Formal operations and postformal reasoning: A replication. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology 32 (1), 18-21
PIAGET, J. (1952). Essai sur les transformations de les operations logiques. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.  
Voir aussi Stade des opérations formelles
Opération mathématique : Ensemble des opérations cognitives excéutées sur des nombres lorsqu'un sujet compte ou utilise les chiffres pour résoudre un problème (habileté mathématique), et que l'on acquiert à l'école. Opération mathématique, dyscalculie et enseignement des mathématiques. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Addition, division, multiplication, subtraction.

Opérations élémentaires
Addition
Division
Multiplication
Soustraction


   
Addition
PIAGET, J. (1937). Les relations d'égalité résultant de l'addition et de la soustraction logiques constituent-elles un groupe ? L'Enseignement Mathématique, 36 (1/2), 99-108. [PDF] WYNN, K. (2000). Findings of addition and subtraction in infants are robust and consistent : A reply to Wakeley, Rivera and Langer. Child Development, 71, 1535-1536. [PDF]
VERGNAUD, G. & DURAND C. (1976). Structures additives et complexité psychogénétique. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 36, 28-43.  
SIEGLER, R.S. & SHRAGER, J. (1984). Strategy choices in addition and subtraction : How do children know what to do? In C. Sophian (Eds.), Origins of cognitive skills (pp. 229-293). Hillsdale, N.J. : Erlbaum. STADLER, M.A., GEARY, D.C. & HOGAN, M.E. (2001). Negative priming from activation of counting and addition knowledge. Psychological Research, 65, 24-27.
VERGNAUD, G. (1986). Psychologie du développement cognitif et didactique des mathématiques: un exemple, les structures additives. Grand N, 38, 21-40. COHEN, L.B. & MARKS, K.S. (2002). How infants process addition and subtraction events. Developmental Science, 5 (2), 186-212. [PDF]
WADAN, K.F., GEARY, D.C., CORMIER, P. & LITTLE, T.D. (1989). A componential model for mental addition. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 15, 898-919. McCRINK, K. & WYNN, K. (2004). Large-number addition and subtraction by 9-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 15, 776-781. [PDF]
GEARY, D.C. & BURLINGHAM-DUBREE, M. (1989). External validation of the strategy choice model for addition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 47, 175-192. GEARY, D.C., HOARD, M.K. & BYRD-CRAVEN, J. (2004). Strategy choices in simple and complex addition : Contributions of working memory and counting knowledge for children with mathematical disability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 88, 121-151. [PDF]
VERGNAUD, G. (1990). Développement et fonctionnement cognitifs dans le champ conceptuel des structures additives. In S. Netchine-Grynberg (Ed). Développement et fonctionnement cognitifs (p.261-277). Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. ZUR, O. & GELMAN, R. (2004). Young children can add and subtract by predicting and checking. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 121-137. [PDF]
WYNN, K. (1992). Addition and subtraction by human infants. Nature, 358, 749-750. [PDF] CLEARFIELD, M.W. & WESTFAHL, S. M-C. (2006). Familiarization in infants' perception of addition problems. Journal of Cognition & Development, 7 (1), 27-43.
GEARY, D.C., BROWN, S.C. & SAMRANAYAKE, V.A. (1991). Cognitive addition : A short lingitudial study of strategy choise and speed-of-processing differences in normal and mathematically disabled children. Developmental Psychology, 27 (5), 7787-7797. [PDF] IMBO, I. & VANDIERENDONCK, A. (2008). Practice effects on strategy selection and strategy efficiency in simple mental arithmetic. Psychological Research, 72, 528-541. [PDF]
WYNN, K. (1992). Addition and subtraction by human infants. Nature, 358, 749-750. [PDF] IMBO, I. & LEFEVRE, J.A. (2009). Cultural differences in complex addition : efficient Chinese versus adaptive Belgians and Canadians. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35 (6), 1465-1476. [PDF]
DESJARDINS, E.A. (1993). Teaching addition and subtraction word problems. Journal of Precision Teaching, 10 (2), 25-28. SCHENIDER, M. & STERN, E. (2009). The inverse relation of addition and subtraction: a knowledge integration perspective. Mathematical Thinking & Learning, 11, 92-101.
FRENSCH, P.A. & GEARY, D.C. (1993). Effects of practice on compo- nent processes in complex mental addition. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 19, 433-456. NUNES, T., BRYANT, P., HALLETT, D., BELL, D. & EVANS, D. (2009). Teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. Mathematical Thinking & Learning, 11(1-2), 61-78.
CAMPBELL, J.I.D. (1995). Mechanisms of simple addition and multiplication : A modified network-interference theory and simulation. Mathematical Cognition, 1 (1), 21-164. EVANS, M.J., BERAN, M.J. & ADDESSI, E. (2010). Can nonhuman primates use tokens to represent and sum quantities? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 124, 369–380. [PDF]
GEARY, D.C. (1996). The problem size effect in mental addition : Developmental and cross-national trends. Mathematical Cognition, 2, 63-93. [PDF] BEYGI, A., PADAKANNAYA, P. & GOWRAMMA, I. (2010). A remedial intervention for addition and subtraction in children with dyscalculia. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 36 (1), 9-17. [PDF]
LEFEVRE, J.-A., SADESKY, G.S. & BISANZ, J. (1996). Selection of procedures in mental addition : Reassessing the problem size effect in adults. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 22, 216-230. [PDF] IRIE, N. & HASEGAWA, T. (2012). Summation by Asian Elephants (Elephas maximus). Behavioral Sciences, 2, 50-56. [PDF]
ADAMS, J.W. & HITCH, G.J. (1997). Working memory and children's mental addition. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 67, 21-38. IMBO, I. & LEFEVRE, J.A. (2009). Cultural differences in complex addition : efficient Chinese versus adaptive Belgians and Canadians. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 35 (6), 1465-1476.
  GROBECKER, B.B. & BOND, T. (1999). Children's construction of addition. Archives de Psychologie, 67, 95-122. PFAFF, E., McLAUGLIN, T.F., NEYMAN, J. & EVERSON, M. (2013). The effects of direct instruction flashcards with math racetrack with addition facts for an elementary school student with ADHDI. International Journal of Basic & Applied Science, 2 (1), 124-130. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Enseignement des mathématiques, Habileté mathématique et Compter
   
 
  Division
GUNDERSON, A.G. (1955). Thought-patterns of young children in learning multiplication and division. Elementary School Journal, 55, 453-461.  
ZWENG, M.J. (1964). Division problems and the concept of rate. Arithmetic Teacher, 11, 547-556. SQUIRE, S. & BRYANT, P.E. (2002). The influence of sharing on children's initial concept of division Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 81 (1), 1- 43.
BOURGEOIS, R. & NELSON, D. (1977). Young children's behavior in solving division problems. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 23, 178-185. SQUIRE, S. & BRYANT, P.E. (2002). From sharing to dividing : young children's understanding of division. Developmental Science, 5 (4), 452-466.
MULLIGAN, J. (1992). Children's solutions to multiplication and division word problems : a longitudinal study. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 4 (4), 24-41.  
GREER, B. (1992). Multiplication and division as models of situations. In D.A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 276-295). New York : Macmillan.  
SIMON, M.A. (1993). Prospective elementary teachers' knowledge of division. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 24 (3), 233-254. SQUIRE, S. & BRYANT, P.E. (2003). Children's understanding and misunderstanding of the inverse relation in division. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 507-526.
CIPOLLOTI, L. & de LACY COSTELLO, A. (1995). Selective impairment for simple division. Cortex, 31, 433-449. SQUIRE, S. & BRYANT, P.E. (2003). Children's models of division. Cognitive Development, 8 (3), 355-376. [PDF]
STERN, E. & MEVARECH, Z. (1996). Children's understanding of successive divisions in different contexts. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 1, 153-172. [PDF] SQUIRE, S. & BRYANT, P.E. (2003). Children's understanding and misunderstanding of the inverse relation in division. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 22, 507-526.
CORREA, J., NUNES, T. & BRYANT, P. (1998). Young children's understanding of division: The relationship between division terms in a noncomputational task. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90, 321- 329.  
Voir aussi Enseignement des mathématiques, Habileté mathématique et Compter
Multiplication
GUNDERSON, A.G. (1955). Thought-patterns of young children in learning multiplication and division. Elementary School Journal, 55, 453-461. LEMAIRE, P. & SIEGLER, R.S. (1995). Four aspects of strategic change : Contributions to children's learning of multiplication. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 124, 83-97. [PDF]
DANSEREAU, D. & GREGG, L.W. (1966). An information processing analysis of mental multiplication. Psychonomic Science, 6, 71-72. STADING, M., WILLIAMS, R.L. & McLAUGLIN, T.F. (1996). Effects of a copy, cover, and compare procedure on multiplication facts mastery with a third grad girl with learning disabilities in a home setting. Education & Treatment of Children, 19, 425-434.
PARKMAN, J.M. (1972). Temporal aspects of simple multiplication and comparison. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 95, 437-444. WILSON, R. & MAJSTEREK, D. (1996). The effects of computer-assisted versus teacher directed instruction on the multiplication performance of elementary students with learning disabilities. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 29, 382-390.
FELTON, S. (1974). A multiplication process. Academic Therapy, 9 (3), 249-251.  
VERGNAUD, G. & DURAND C. (1976). Structures additives et complexité psychogénétique. Revue Française de Pédagogie, 36, 28-43.  
CARNINE, D.W. (1980). Preteaching versus concurrent teaching of the component skills of a multiplication algorithm. Journal of Research in Mathematics Education, 11 (5), 375-378. WOOD, D.K., FRANK, A.R. & WACKER, D.P. (1998). Teaching multiplication facts to students with learning disabilities. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 323-338. [PDF]
STAZYK, E.H., ASHCRAFT, M.H. & HAMANN, M.S. (1982). A network approach to simple multiplication. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 8, 320-335.  
VERGNAUD, G. (1983). Multiplicative structures. In R. Lesh, M. Landau (Eds.), Acquisition of mathematics concepts and processes (pp. 127-174). Orlando, Fla.: Academic Press. ATANABE, A., NUNES, T., BRYANT, P. & V.D. HEUVEL-PANHUIZEN, M. (2000) Assessing young children's understanding of multiplicative reasoning. BPS Developmental Psychology Section News Letter, 55, 7-15.
LAMPERT, M. (1986). Knowing, doing, and teaching multiplication. Cognition and Instruction, 3 (4), 305-342.  
VAN HOUTEN, R. & ROLIDER, A. (1990). The use of color mediation techniques to teach number identification and single digit multiplication problems to children with learning problems. Education & Treatment of Children, 13, 216-225. PARK, J. & NUNES, T. (2001). The development of the concept of multiplication. Cognitive Development, 16, 1-11.
CAMPBELL, J.I. & GRAHAM, D.J. (1985). Mental multiplication skill : Structure, process, and acquisition. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 39, 338-366. THOMPSON, P.W. & SALDANHA, L. A. (2003). Fractions and multiplicative reasoning. In J. Kilpatrick, W.G. Martin & D. Schifter (Eds.), A research companion to Principles and standards for school mathematics (pp. 95-113). Reston, VA : National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.
FISCHBEIN, E., DEIR, M., NELLO, M.S. & MARINO, M.S. (1985). The role of implicit models in solving verbal problems in multiplication and division. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 16 (1), 3-17. AMBROSE, R., BAEK, J.-M. & CARPENTER, T.P. (2003). Children's invention of multidigit multiplication and division algorithms. In A.J. Baroody, A. Dowker (Eds.), The development of arithmetic concepts and skills : Constructing adaptive expertise (pp. 305-336). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.
CHIANG, B. (1986). Initial learning and transfer effects of microcomputer drills an LD students' multiplication skills. Learning Disability Quaterly, 19, 118-123. SQUIRE, S., DAVIES, C. & BRYANT, P.E. (2004). Does the cue help ? Children's understanding of multiplicative concepts in different problem contexts. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 74 (4), 515-532.
LAMPERT, M. (1986). Knowing, doing, and teaching multiplication. Cognition & Instruction, 3, 305-342. YOUNG-LOVERIDGE, J. (2005). Fostering multiplicative thinking us- ing array-based materials. Australian Mathematics Teacher, 61 (3), 34-40.
KASHIGAWI, A., KASHIGAWI, T. & HASEGAWA, T. (1987). Improvement of deficits in mnemonic rhyme for multiplication in Japanese aphasics. Neuropsychologia, 25, 443-447. BECKER, A., McLAUGHLIN, T.F., WEWBER, K.P. & GOWER, J. (2008). The effects of copy, cover, and compare with and without error drill on multiplication fact fluency and accuracy. Electronic Journal of Research in Educational Psychology, 18, 747–760.
VERGNAUD, G. (1988) Multiplicative structures. in H. Hiebert & M. Behr (Eds.) Research agenda in mathematics education : Number concepts and operations in the middle grades (pp. 141-161). Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum.  
STEFFE, L. (1988). Children's construction of number sequences and multiplying schemes. In J. Hiebert & M. Behr (Eds.), Number concepts and operations in the middle grades (Vol 2, pp.119-140). Reston, Virginia: ErlbaumlNCTM. IMBO, I. & VANDIERENDONCK, A. (2008). Practice effects on strategy selection and strategy efficiency in simple mental arithmetic. Psychological Research, 72, 528-541. [PDF]
SKINNER, C.H., BEATTY, K.L., TURCO, T.L. & RASAVAGE, C. (1989). Cover, copy & compare : a method for increasing multiplication performance. School Psychology Review, 18, 412-420. LO, J.-J., GRANT, T.J. & FLOWERS, J. (2008). Challenges in deepening prospective teachers' understanding of multiplication through justication. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 11 (1), 5-22
MULLIGAN, J. (1992). Children's solutions to multiplication and division word problems : a longitudinal study. Mathematics Education Research Journal, 4 (4), 24-41. BRASCH, T.L., WILLIAMS, R.L. & McLAUGHLIN, T.F. (2008). The effects of a direct instruction flashcard system on multiplication fact mastery by two high school students with ADHD and ODD. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 30 (1), 51–59.
SKINNER, C.H., SHAPIRO, E.S., TURCO, T.L. & COLE, C.L. (1992). A comparison of self and peer-delivered immediate corrective feedback on multiplication performance. Journal of School Psychology, 30, 101-116. PIERCE, K., McLAUGHLIN, T.F., NEYMAN, J. & KING, K. (2012). The gradual and differential effects of direct instruction flashcards with and without a DRH contingency on basic multiplication facts for two students with severe behaviors disorders. I-manager's. Journal on Educational Psychology, 6 (2), 35-44.
GREENE, G. (1992). Multiplication facts : Memorization made easy. Intervention in School & Clinic, 27 (3), 150-154. BAKKER, M., VAN DEN HEUVEL-PANHUIZEN, M. & ROBITZSCH, A. (2014). First-graders' knowledge of multiplicative reasoning before formal instruction in this domain. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 39 (1), 59-73.
GREER, B. (1992). Multiplication and division as models of situations. In D. A. Grouws (Ed.), Handbook of research on mathematics teaching and learning (pp. 276-295). New York: Macmillan. LARSSON, K. (2015). Connections for learning multiplication. Conference: International Symposium for Elementary Mathematics Teaching, At Prague. [PDF]
VERGNAUD, G. (1994). Multiplicative conceptual field: What and why? In G. Harel, J. Confrey (Eds.), The development of multiplicative reasoning in the learning of mathematics (pp. 41-59). Albany : State University of New York. HARRIS, M., HELLING, J., THOMPSON, L., NEYMAN, J., McLAUGHLIN, T.F., HATCH, K. & JACK, M. (2015). The effects of a direct instruction flashcard system to teach two students with disabilities multiplication facts. International Journal of Applied Research, 1 (3), 66-70. [PDF]
Voir aussi Enseignement des mathématiques, Habileté mathématique et Compter
Soustraction
PIAGET, J. (1937). Les relations d'égalité résultant de l'addition et de la soustraction logiques constituent-elles un groupe ? L'Enseignement Mathématique, 36 (1/2), 99-108. [PDF] GEARY, D.C., FRENCSH, P.A. & WILEY, J.G. (1993). Simple and complex mental subtraction : Strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in younger and older adults. Psychology & Aging, 8, 242-256. [PDF]
COX, L.S. (1975). Diagnosing and remediating systematic errorrs in addition and substraction computations. The Arithmetic Teacher, 22 (2), 151-156. DESJARDINS, E.A. (1993). Teaching addition and subtraction word problems. Journal of Precision Teaching, 10 (2), 25-28.
YOUNG, R.M. & O'SHEA, T. (1981). Errors in children's subtraction. Cognitive Science, 5 153-177. WYNN, K. (2000). Findings of addition and subtraction in infants are robust and consistent : A reply to Wakeley, Rivera and Langer. Child Development, 71, 1535-1536. [PDF]
WYNN, K. (1992). Addition and subtraction by human infants. Nature, 358, 749-750. [PDF] COHEN, L.B. & MARKS, K.S. (2002). How infants process addition and subtraction events. Developmental Science, 5 (2), 186-212. [PDF]
VAN HOUTEN, R. (1993). Rote vs. rules : A comparison of two teaching and correction strategies for teaching basic subtraction facts. Education & Treatment of Children, Vol 16 (2), 147-159. McCRINK, K. & WYNN, K. (2004). Large-number addition and subtraction by 9-month-old infants. Psychological Science, 15, 776-781. [PDF]
GEARY, D.C., FRENCSH, P.A. & WILEY, J.G. (1993). Simple and complex mental subtraction : Strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in younger and older adults. Psychology & Aging, 8, 242-256. [PDF] ZUR, O. & GELMAN, R. (2004). Young children can add and subtract by predicting and checking. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19, 121-137. [PDF]
  SCHENIDER, M. & STERN, E. (2009). The inverse relation of addition and subtraction: a knowledge integration perspective. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 11, 92-101.
  NUNES, T. & BRYANT, P., HALLETT, D., BELL, D. & EVANS, D. (2009). Teaching children about the inverse relation between addition and subtraction. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 11(1-2), 61-78.
VAN HOUTEN, R. (1993). Rote vs. rules : A comparison of two teaching and correction strategies for teaching basic subtraction facts. Education & Treatment of Children, 16 (2), 147-159. BEYGI, A., PADAKANNAYA, P. & GOWRAMMA, I. (2010). A remedial intervention for addition and subtraction in children with dyscalculia. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 36 (1), 9-17. [PDF]
Voir aussi Enseignement des mathématiques, Habileté mathématique et Compter
Operations Research Letters : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des processus de décision. Éditeur : Elsevier.
DANTZIG, G.B. (1982). Reminiscences about the origins of linear programming. Operations Research Letters, 1 (2), 43-48.

Opérationnalisation/Opérationnaliser : En méthodologie, opération qui consiste à traduire une hypothèse ou un concept en des termes observables et mesurables. Autrement dit, il faut rendre concret et mesurable ce qui est abstrait. La phase d'opérationnlisation d'un conccept consiste à traduire ce concept en variable mesurable, puis en indicateur de cette variable. EX: opérationnaliser «agresssion» par «mordre, pousser, tirer les cheveux, etc.». L'opérationnalisation permet d'observer indirectement des phénomèmes théoriquement ou techniquement inobservables. = rendre concret, observable ou mesurable. Opérationnalisation et oprérationnalisme. Operational analysis, operationism.
Phase de conceptualisation Phase d'opérationnalisation
Théorie Concept/Définition Variable mesurée ou Y Indicateurs de cette variable
Théorie de l'agression X Agression : Tout comportement qui a pour fonction de blesser ou menacer autrui Comportements agressifs mordre, pousser, tirer les cheveux, frapper, etc.


  STEVENS, S.S. (1935). The operational basis of psychological concept. American Journal of Psychological Review, 42, 517-27. / American Journal of Psychology, 47, 323-330. KINGMA, J. (1982). A criterion problem : the use of different operationalization in seriation research. Perceptual & Motor Skillds, 55, 13003-1316.
STEVENS, S.S. (1935). The operational basis of psychology. American Journal of Psychology, 47, 323-330. MULLEN, B. (1983). Operationalizing the effect of the group on the individual : A self-attention perspective. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 19, 295-322.
TOLMAN, E.C. (1936). An operational analysis of "demands". Erkenntnis, 6, 383-392. HINELINE, P.N. (1984). What, then, is Skinner's operationism ? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 7, 560.
McGEOCH, J.A. (1937). A critique of operational definitions. Psychological Bulletin, 34, 703-704. SEARS, D.O. & KINDER, D.R. (1985). Whites' opposition to busing : On conceptualizing and operationalizing group. Journal of Prsonality & Social Psychology, 48 (5), 1141-1147. [PDF]
BRIDGMAN, P.W. (1938). Operational analysis. Philosophy of Science, 5, 114-131.  
BERGMANN, G. & SPENCE, K.W. (1941). Operationism and theory in psychology. Psychological Review, 48 1-14.  
ISRAEL, H.E. (1945). Two difficulties in operational thinking. Psychological Review, 52, 260-261. HOX, J.J. & DE JONG-GIERVELD, J.J. (Eds.) (1990). Operationalization and research strategy. Lisse, NL: Swets & Zeitlinger.
BORING, E.G. (1945). The use of operational definitions in science. Psychological Review, 52, 243-245.  
BRIDGMAN, P.W. (1945). Some general principles of operational analysis. Psychological Review, 52, 246-249.  WAKEFIELD, J.C. (1993). Limits of operationalization : A critique of Spitzer and Endicott's (1978). definition of mental disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 160-172.
SKINNER, B.F. (1945). The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review, 52 (5), 270-277. BICKHARD, M.H. (2001). The tragedy of operationalism. Theory & Psychology, 11 (1), 35-44.
COMREY, A.L. (1950). An operational approach to some problems in psychological measurement. Psychological Review, 57, 217-228. RIBES-INESTA, E. (2003). What is defined in operational definitions ? The case of operant psychology. Behavior & Philosophy, 31 (1), 111-126. [PDF]
GARNER, W.R., HAKE, H.W. & ERICKSON, C.W. (1956). Operationism and the concept of perception. Psychological Review, 63, 149-159. BISHOP, S.R., LAU, M., SHAPIRO, S., CARLSON, L., ANDERSON, N.D., SEGAL, Z.V., SPECA, M., VELTING, D. & DEVINS, G. (2004). Mindfulness : A proposed operational definition. Clinical Psychology : Science & Practice, 11 (3), 230-241. [PDF]
ELLIS, A. (1956). An operational reformulation of some of the basic principles of psychoanalysis. In H. Feigl & M. Scriven (Eds.), The foundations of science and the concepts of psychology and psychoanalysis. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press. KURT, A. & PAULHUS, D.L. (2008). Moderators of the adaptiveness of self-enhancement : Operationalization, motivational domain, adjustment facet, and evaluator. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 839–853.
Voir aussi Opérationnalisme, Indicateur et Définition opérationelle
 
Opérationnalisme : Doctrine philosophique qui soutient que tous les concepts scientifiques doivent être observables et mesurables. L'opérationnalisme est l'un des principes proposés par le Cercle de Vienne. Operationalism, operationism.

  BORING, E.G. (1936). Temporal perception and operationism. American Journal of Psychology, 48, 519-522. LEAHEY, T.H. (1980). The myth of operationism. Journal of Mind & Behavior, 1, 127-143.
LINDSAY, R.B. (1937). A critique of operationalism in physics. Philosophy of Science, 4, 456-470. FLANAGAN, O.J. (1980). Skinnerian metaphysics and the problem of operationism. Behaviorism, 8, 1-13.
BEGRMANN, G. & SPENCE, K.W. (1941). Operationism and theory in psychology. Psycological Review, 48, 1-14. KENDLER, H.H. (1981). The reality of operationism. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 2, 331-341.
BORING, E.G. BRIDGMAN, P.W., FEIGL, H., ISRAEL, H.E., PRATT, C.C. & SKINNER, B.F. (1945). Symposium on operationism. Psychological Review, 52, 241-294. LEAHEY, T.H. (1981). Operationism still isn't real : A temporary reply to Kendler. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 2, 343-348.
BORING, E.G. (1945). The use of operational definitions in science. Psychological Review, 52, 243-245. KENDLER, H.H. (1983). Operationism : A recipe for reducing confusion and ambiguity. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 4, 91-97.
PRATT, C.C. (1945). Operationism in psychology. Psychological Review, 52, 232-269. LEAHEY, T.H. (1983). Operationism and ideology : A reply to Kendler. Journal of Mind and Behavior, 4, 81-90.
FEIGL, H. (1945). Operationism and scientific method. Psychological Review, 52, 250-259. HINELINE, P.N. (1984). What, then, is Skinner's operationism ? Commentary. The Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 7, 560.
BORING, E.G., BRIDGMAN, P., FEIGL, H., ISRAEL, H., PRATT, C. & SKINNER, B.F. (1945). Symposium on operationism. Psychological Review, 52, 241-294. MOORE, J.C. (1984). On Skinner's radical operationism. The Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 7, 564-565.
SKINNER, B.F. (1945). The operational analysis of psychological terms. Psychological Review, 52, 270-277. RINGEN J.D. (1985). B.F. Skinner's operationism. The Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 7, 567-568.
LANGFELD, H.S. (1945). Introduction to symposium on operationism. Psychological Review, 52, 241-248. MOORE, J.C. (1985). Some historical and conceptual relations among logical positivism, operationism, and behaviorism. The Behavior Analyst, 8, 53-63. [PDF]
BRIDGMAN, P.W. (1954). The present state of operationalism. In P.G. Frank (Ed.), The validation of scientific theories (pp. 74-79). Boston : Beacon Press. ROSENWALD, G.C. (1986). Why operationism won't go away : Extra-scientific incentives of social-psychological research. Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 16, 303-330.
GARNER, W.R., HAKE, H.W. & ERIKSEN, C.W. (1956). Operationism and the concept of perception. Psychological Review, 63, 149-159. HACKENBERG, T.D. (1988). Operationism, mechanism and psychological reality : The second coming of linguistic relativity. The Psychological Record, 38, 187-201.
LINDSAY, R. B. (1961). Operationalism in physics. In P.G. Frank (Ed.), The validation of scientific theories (pp. 69-75). New York : Collier Books.  
BERGMANN, G. (1961). Sense and non sense in operationism and relativ- operationismp,. 46-56. In P. G. Frank [ed.], The validationof scientifictheories. C'ollier Books,New York ROGERS, T.B. (1989). Operationism in psychology : A discussion of the contextual antecedents and an historical interpretation of its longevity. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 25, 139-153.
HEMPEL, C.G. (1961). A logical appraisal of operationism. In P. Frank (Ed.), The validation of scientific theories (pp. 56-69). New York : Collier. GREEN, C.D. (1992). Of immortal mythological beasts : Operationism in psychology. Theory & Psychology 2, 287-316. [LIRE]
BRIDGMAN, P.W. (1961). The present state of operationism. In P. Frank (Ed.), The validation of scientific theories (pp. 75-80). New York : Collier. HOUTS, A. C. (1994). Operational analysis, behavior analysis, and epistemology in science and technology studies. Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 20, 101-143.
GRÜNBAUM, A. (1961). Operationism and relativity. In P.G. Frank (Ed.), The validation of scientific theories (pp. 83-92). New York : Collier Book. GRACE, R.C. (2001). On the failure of operationism. Theory & Psychology, 11, 5-33.
STEVENS, S.S. (1963). Operationism and logical positivism. In M. H. Marx (Ed.), Theories in contemporary psychology (pp. 47-76). New York : MacMillan. GREEN, C.D. (2001). Operationism again : What did Bridgman say? What did Bridgman need ? Theory & Psychology 11, 45-51.
BUNGE, M. (1963). The ambivalent legacy of operationism. Philosophia Naturalis, 25, 337-345. GRACE, R.C. (2001). The pragmatics of operationism : A reply. Theory & Psychology, 11, 67-74.
SCHLESINGER, G. (1967). Operationalism. In The encyclopedia of philosophy (Vol. 5, pp. 543-547). New York : Macmillan & Free Press.  
HULL, D.L. (1968). The operational imperative : Sense and nonsense in operationism. Systematic Zoology, 17 (4), 438-457. [PDF]  
DAY, W.F. (1969). On certain similarities between the philosophical investigations of Ludwig Wittgenstein and the operationism of B.F. Skinner. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (3), 489-506. [PDF]  
MOORE, J. (1975). On the principle of operationism in a science of behavior. Behaviorism, 3, 120-138.  
Voir aussi Opérationnalisme et Définition opérationnelle
 
Opinion : Ce que pense et dit un individu à propos de ceci ou de cela. Contrairement à la croyance, qui se fonde sur la conviction que l'on a raison, l'opinion repose sur une impression ou un raisonnement qui peut est remis en question, voire falsifié.Opinion.

Types d'opinion
Opinion (en général) Opinion politique Opinion publique
 

 
HINCKLEY, E.D. (1932). The influence of individual opinion on construction of an attitude scale. Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 283-295. [LIRE]  
HYMAN, H.H. & SHATSLEY, P.B. (1950). The current status of American public opinion. In J.C. Payne (Ed.), The teaching of contemporary affairs : 21st yearbook of the National Council of Social Studies (pp. 11-34). New York : National Council of Social Studies. BLONDIAUX, L. (1991). L'invention des sondages d'opinion. Revue Française de Science Politique, 41 (6), 756-780.
MOSCOVICI, S. (1953). Remarques sur les problèmes structuraux dans l'étude des opinions. Bulletin de Psychologie, 190 (6), 420-428. KELLER, D., GRAF, S. & SCHROEDER, B. (1992). Measuring the change of attitudes and opinions. Journal of Precision Teaching, 9 (1), 51-52.
KELMAN, H.C. & HOVLAND, C.I. (1955). Reinstatement' of the communicator in delayed measurement of opinion change. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 48, 327-335.  
ASCH, S.E. (1955). Opinions and social pressure. Scientific American, 193 (5), 31-35. [PDF]  
SMITH, M.B., BRUNER, J.S. & WHITE, R.W. (1956). Opinions and personality. New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  
RAVEN, B.H. (1959). Social influence on opinions and the communication of related content. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 58, 119-128. MUGNY, G. (1997). Convertir. Comment changer les opinions. Sciences Humaines, 74, 22-28.
KELMAN, H.C. (1961). Processes of opinion change. Public Opinion Quarterly, 25, 57-78. [PDF] BLONDIAUX, L. (1998). La fabrique de l'opinion. Une histoire sociale des sondages. Paris : Seuil.
ROSNOW, R.L. & LANA, R.E. (1968). Effects of pretest-treatment interval on opinion change. Psychological Reports, 22, 1035-1036. OSKAMP, S. & SCHULTZ, P.W. (2005). Attitudes and opinions. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
FISHBEIN, M. & AJZEN, I. (1972). Attitudes and opinions. Annual Review of Psychology, 23, 487-544. WEAVER, K., GARCIA, S.M., SCHWART, N. & MILLER, D.T. (2007). Inferring the popularity of an opinion from its familiarity : A repetitive voice can sound like a chorus. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 92, 821-833.
MARJORIBANKS, K. (1981). Sex-related differences in socio-political attitudes : A replication. Educational Studies, 7, 1-6. MILLER, D.T. & MORRISSON, K.R. (2009). Expressing deviant opinions : Believing you are in the majority helps. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 740-747
TARDE, G. (1989). L'opinion et la foule. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. JONES, T. (2014). Students' cell phone addiction and their opinions. The Elon Journal of Undergraduate Research in Communications, 5 (1), 74-79. [PDF]
BURGOON, M. (1989). The effects of message variables on opinion and attitude change. In J. Bradac (Ed.), Messages in communication sciences : Contemporary approaches to the study of effects (pp. 129-164). Newbury Park, CA : Sage.  
Voir aussi Croyance
Opinion politique : Opinion, vote et sondage. Political attitude, socio-political attitude.

  HATEMI, P.K., GILLESPIE, N.A., EAVES, L.J., MAHER, B.S., WEBB, B.T., HEATH, A.C., MEDLAND, S.E., SMYTH, D.C., BEEBY, H.N., GORDON, S.D., MONTGOMERY, G.W., ZHU, G., BYRNE, E.M. & MARTIN, N.G. (2011). Genome-wide a analysis of political attitudes. Journal of Politics, 73 (1), 1-15. [PDF] GERBER, A., KARLAN, D. & BERGAN, D. (2009). Does the media matter ? A field experiment measuring the effect of newspapers on voting behavior and political opinions. American Economic Journal : Applieds Economics, 1 (2), 35-52. [PDF]
MARJORIBANKS, K. (1981). Sex-related differences in socio-political attitudes : A replication. Educational Studies, 7, 1-6. GASTIL, J., BRAMAN, D., KAHAN, D. & SLOVIC, P. (2011). The cultural orientation of mass political opinion. PS : Political Science & Politics, 44, 711-714.
PRATTO, F., SIDANIUS, J., STALLWORTH, L.M. & MALLE, B.F. (1994). Social dominance orientation : A personality variable predicting social and political attitudes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 67, 741-763. [PDF] DODD, M.D., BALZER, A., JACOBS, C.M., GRUSZCZYNSKI, M.W., SMITH, K.B. & HIBBING, J.R. (2012). The political left rolls with the good and the political right confronts the bad: connecting physiology and cognition to preferences. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B : Biological Sciences, 367 (1589), 640-649.
  FESSLER, D.M.T., PISOR A.C. & HOLBROOK, C. (2017). Political orientation predicts credulity regarding putative hazards. Psychological Science, 28 (5), 651-660. [PDF]
Voir aussi Vote, Gauche, Droite et Sondage
Opinion publique : Ce que croient et disent les membres d'un groupe, d'une société au sujet de ceci ou de cela. Désigne souvent ce que croit l'ensemble ou la majorité de la population. Sondage et opinion public. Public opinion, mass opinion.

    PETERSON, W.A. & GESIT, N.P. (1951). Rumor and public opinion. American Journal of Socology, 57 (2), 159-167.
LIPPMAN, W. (1922). Public opinion. New York : Harcourt-Brace. KELMAN, H.C. (1954). Public opinion and foreign policy decisions. Bulletin of the Research Exchange on the Prevention of War, 2 (4), 2-8.
HOLCOMBE, A.N. (1925). The measurement of public opinion. Round Table on Political Statistics at the Second National Conference on the Science of Politics, 8-12. [LIRE] WITNEY, S.B. (1959). Public opinion about science and scientists. Public Opinion Quarterly, 23, 382-388.
THURSTONE, L.L. (1926). Aspects of public opinion. American Political Science Review, 20, 126-127. [LIRE] NOËLLE- NEUMANN, E. (1974). The spiral of silence. Journal of Communication, 24, 43-54.
BERNAYS, E. (1927). Verdict of public opinion on propaganda. New York : Universal Trade Press Syndicate. BOURDIEU, P. (1984). L'opinion publique n'existe pas. Dans Questions de sociologie (p. 222-235). Paris : Les Éditions de Minuit.
ALLPORT, F.H. (1937). Toward a science of public opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 1 (1), 7-23. [PDF] PAGE, B.I., SHAPIRO, R.Y. & DEMPSEY, G.R. (1987). What moves public opinion ? American Political Science Review, 81 (1), 23-44. [PDF]
GALLUP, G.H. (1939). Public opinion in a democracy. Princeton : Princeton university. ZALLER, J. (1992). The nature and origins of mass opinions. Cambridge University Press.
  HARTLEY, T. & RUSSETT, B. (1992). Public opinion and the common defense : Who governs military spending in the united states ? American Political Science Review, 86 (4), 905-915.
CANTRIL, H. & MENEFFE, S.C. (1944). Gauging public opinion. Science & Society, 8 (4), 375-377. LUHMANN, N. (2001). L’opinion publique. Politix, 55.
BERELSON, B., LAZARSFELD, P.F. & McPHEE, P. (1948). Voting : a study of opinion formation in a presidential campaign. Chicago : Chicago University press. GANDY, O.H. (2003). Public opinion surveys and the formation of privacy. Journal of Social Issues, 59 (2), 283-289. [PDF]
DOOB, L.W. (1948). Public opinion and propaganda. New York : Holt. ASKEVIS-LEHERPEUX, F. (2005). For and against : perceived entitativity of supportive and oppositional opinion groups. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 8 (1), 27-37. [PDF]
  BAUM, M.A. & POTTER, P.B.K. POTTER (2008). The relationships between mass media, public opinion, and foreign policy : Toward a theoretical synthesis. Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 39-65.
  BAUM, M.A. & GROELING, T. (2009). Shot by the messenger : Partisan cues and public opinion regarding national security and war. Political Behavior 31 (2), 157-186.
  TOMZ, M. & WEEKS, J.L.P. (2013). Public opinion and the democratic peace. American Political Science Review, 107 (4), 849-865. [PDF]
Voir aussi Voter, Élection, Rumeur et Sondage
Opinéduq : Banque de données qui contient des informations relatives à des sondages d'opinion menés au Québec depuis 1943 et portant entièrement ou partiellement sur le thème de l'éducation.
 
Opium :
Opportunisme/Opportuniste : Consiste à saisir les occasions, sans égard à ses propres principes ou aux conséquences indésirables sur autrui, dans le seul objectif d'en tirer profit, souvent dans les plus brefs délais.
  WILLIAMSON, O.E. (1993). Opportunism and its critics. Managerial & Decision Economics, 14, 97-107.
MOSCHANDREAS, M. (1997). The role of opportunism in transaction cost economics. Journal of Economic Issues, 31, 39-55.
CHEN, C.C., PENG, M.W. & SAPARITO, P.A. (2002). Individualism, collectivism, and opportunism : A cultural perspective on transaction cost economics. Journal of Management, 28 (4), 567-583. [PDF]
Opposition : En science, le mot a au moins trois usages voisins : a) En psychologie, en politique et en sociologie, il désigne le rapport de force qui s'établit entre deux individus (ou deux groupes), tant sur le plan verbal (opinions aux antipodes) que physique (opposition armée). L'intensité de l'opposition varie en fonction de la nature des enjeux, de la dynamique des groupes et des stratégies et de la personalité des membres de ces groupes. Chez les enfants, l'opposition systématique et agressive peut se transformer en trouble de l'opposition avec provocation. = contre-pouvoir, désaccord, dispute, conflit, lutte, guerre. b) Par extension, en politique, le terme renvoie aux individus du groupe parlementaire qui forment l'opposition officielle, qui s'oppose formellement au parti au pouvoir qui forme le gouvernement. Opposition, contre-pouvoir et pouvoir législatif. = l'opposition, partis de l'opposition, opposition officielle, cabinet fantôme. c) Finalement, en logique, ce terme renvoie à la contradiction entre deux propositions ou deux idées. = contraire, contradiction, opinions aux antipodes.
  a
Voir aussi Comportement d'opposition et Trouble de l'opposition avec provocation
b
Voir aussi Contre-pouvoir et Pouvoir législatif
c
Voir aussi Dilemme
Oppression/Opprimer : Consiste à exercer son pouvoir pour dominer autrui, généralement dans le contexte d'une relation fortement asymétrique dans laquelle le dominant ne fait aucune concession au dominé. Oppression.

  KING, M. (1975). Oppression and power : The unique status of Blackwomen in the American political system. Social Science Quarterly, 56, 117-128.
Optimisme : État de celui qui entre deux possibilités - ça va foirer ou ça va marcher - penche le plus souvent pour la seconde. Optimisme et théorie de l'optimisme dispositionel. = qui voit la vie avec des lunettes roses. /pessimisme. Optimism.
  WEINSTEIN, N.D. (1980). Unrealistic optimism about future life events. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 39 (5), 806-820. [PDF]  
WEINSTEIN, N.D. (1983). Reducing unrealistic optimism about illness susceptibility. Health Psychology, 2 (1), 11-20. CHANG, E.C. (1998). Dispositional optimism and primary and secondary appraisal of a stressor : Controlling for confounding influences and relations to coping and psychological and physical adjustment. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 1109-1120.
SCHEIER, M.F. & CARVER, C.S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health : Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4, 219-247. HELWEG-LARSEN, M. (1999). (The lack of) optimistic biases in response to the 1994 Northridge earthquake : The role of personal experience. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 21,119-129.
SCHEIER, M.F., WEINTRAUB, J.K. & CARVER, C.S. (1986). Coping with stress : Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51,1257-1264. SCHEIER M.F., MATTHEWS, K.A., OWENS, J.F., SCHULZ, R., BRIDGES, M.W., MAGOVERN, G.J. & CARVER, C.S. (1999). Optimism and rehospitalization following coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Archives of Internal Medicine, 159, 829-835. [PDF]
WEINSTEIN, N.D. (1987). Unrealistic optimism about susceptibility to health problems : Conclusions from a community-wide sample. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 10, 481-500. VAN LAAR, C (2001). Declining optimism in ethnic minority students: The role of attributions and self-esteem. In F. Salili, C. Chiu, & Y.Yi Hong, Student motivation : The culture and context of learning. New York : Plenum.
DEMBER W.M., MARTIN, S.H., HUMMER, M.K., HOWE, S.R. & MELTON, R.S. (1989). The measurement of optimism and pessimism. Current Psychology : Research & Reviews, 8, 102-119. HOORENS, V. & SMITS, T. (2001). Why do controllable events elicit stronger comparative optimisms than uncontrollable events ? Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale/International Review of Social Psychology, 14 (4), 11-43.
WEINSTEIN, R.S. (1989). Optimistic biases about personal risks. Science, 246 (4935), 1232-1233. [PDF] NEZLEK, J.B. & ZEBROWSKI, B.D. (2001). Implications for the dimensionality of unrealistic optimism for the study of perceived health risks. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 20, 521-537.
RIM, Y. (1990). Optimism and coping styles. Personality & Individual Differences, 11, 89-90. SCHEIER, M.F., CARVER, C.S. & BRIDGES, M.W. (2001). Optimism, pessimism, and psychological well-being. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism : Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 189-216). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
SELIGMAN, M.E.P. (1990/98). Learned optimism. New York : Pocket Books /Simon and Schuster. SHEPPERD, J.A., CARROLL, P., GRACE, J. & TERRY, M. (2002). Exploring the causes of comparative optimism. Psychologica Belgica, 42, 65-98.
MARSHALL G.N. & LANG, E.L. (1990). Optimism, self-mastery, and symptoms of depression in women. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 59, 132-139. KLEIN, C.T.F. & HELWEG-LARSEN, M. (2002). Perceived control and the optimistic bias : A meta-analytic review. Psychology & Health, 17, 437-446.
LAY, C.H. & BURNS P. (1991). Intentions and behavior in studying for an examination : The role of trait procrastination and its interaction with optimism. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6, 605–617. PETERSON, C. & BOSSIO, L.M. (2002). Optimism and physical well-being. In E.C. Chang (Ed.), Optimism and pessimism : Implications for theory, research, and practice (pp. 127-145). Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
SCHEIER, M.F. & CARVER, C.S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being : Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 16, 201-228. MADEY, S.F. & GOMEZ, R. (2003). Reduced optimism for perceived age-related medical conditions.Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 25, 213-219.
MARSHALL, G.N., WORTMAN, C.B., KUSULAS, J.W., HERVIGL. K. & VICKERS, R.R. (1992). Distinguishing optimism from pessimism : Relations to fundamental dimensions of mood and personality. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 62, 1067-1074. KRUGER, J. & BURRUS, J. (2004). Egocentrism and focalism in unrealistic optimism (ad pessimism). Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 332-340.
CARVER, C.S., POZO, C. & HARRIS, S.D (1993). How coping mediates the effect of optimism on distress. Journal of Personality Social Psychology, 65, 375-390. WEINSTEIN, N.D., SLOVIC, P. & GIBSON, G. (2004). Accuracy and optimism in smokers' beliefs about quitting. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 6, 375-380.
CHANG, E.C., D’ZURILLA, T.J. & MAYDEU-OLIVARES, A. (1994). Assessing the dimensionality of optimism and pessimism using a multimeasure approach. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 18, 143-160. TUTEN, T.L. & NEIDERMAYER, P.E. (2004). Performance, satisfaction and turnover in call centers : The effects of stress and optimism. Journal of Business Research, 57 (1), 26-34.
SCHEIER, M.F., CARVER, C.S. & BRIDGES, M.W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem) : A reevaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 67, 1063-1078. BRUININKS, P. & MALLE, B.F. (2005). Positive affect toward the future : Distinguishing hope from optimism and related affective states. Motivation & Emotion, 29, 327-355.
WHALEN, C.K., HENKER, B., O'NEIL, R., HOLLINGSHEAD, J., HOLMAN, A. & MOORE, B. (1994). Optimism in children's judgments of health and environmental risks. Health Psychology, 13, 319-325. CARVER, C.S., SMITH, R.G., ANTONI, M.H., PETRONIS, V. M., WEISS, S. & DERHAGOPIAN, R P. (2005). Optimistic personality and psychosocial well-being during treatment predict psychosocial well-being among long-term survivors of breast cancer. Health Psychology, 24, 508-516.
SELIGMAN, M.E.P., REIVICH, K., JAYCOX, L. & GILHAM, J. (1995). The optimistic child. New York : Houghton Mifflin. NES, L.S. & SEGERSTROM, S.C. (2006). Dispositional optimism and coping : A meta-analytic review. Personality & Social Psychological Review, 10, 235-251.
ANDERSSON, G. (1996). (1996). The benefits of optimism : a meta-analytic review of the Life Orientation Test. Personality & Individual Differences, 21, 719-725. KADOUS, K., KRISCHE, S.D. & SEDOR, L.M. (2006). Using counter-explanation to limit analysts’ forecast optimism. The Accounting Review, 81, 377-397.
ANDERSSON, G. (1996). The benefits of optimism : a meta-analytic review of the Life Orientation Test. Personality & Individual Differences, 21, 719-725. SWEENY, K. CARROLL, P.J. & SHEPPERD, J.A. (2006). Thinking about the future : Is optimism always best ? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15, 302-306. [PDF]
KLAR, Y., MEDDING, A. & SAREL, D. (1996). Nonunique invulnerability: Singular versus distributional probabilities and unrealistic optimism in comparative risk judgments. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 67, 229-245. CHRISTOPHERSON, K.M. & WEATHERLY, J.N. (2006). The effect of visual complexity when playing a slot-machine simulation : The role of computer experience, computer anxiety, and optimism. Computers in Human Behavior, 22, 1072-1079.
SHEPPERD, J.A., OUELLETTE, J.A. & FERNANDEZ, J.K. (1996). Abandoning unrealistic optimism : Performance estimates and the temporal proximity of self-relevant feedback. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 70 (4), 844-855. [PDF] RASMUSSEN, H.N., WROSCH, C., SCHEIER, M.F. & CARVER, C.S. (2006). Self-regulation processes and health : The importance of optimism and goal adjustment. Journal of Personality, 74, 1721-1747.
ZAKAY, D. (1996). The relativism of unrealistic optimism. Acta Psychologica, 93, 121-131. ANOLI, L., REALDON, O., RASPELLI, S. & ASCOLESE, A. (2008). Regularities in meaning patterning within optimism and pessimism. Gestalt Theory, 30 (1), 311-320.
ANDERSSON, G. (1996). The role of optimism in patients with tinnitus and in patients with hearing impairment. Psychology & Health, 11, 697-707. HOORENS, V., SMITS, T. & SHEPPERD, J.A. (2008). Comparative optimism in the spontaneous generation of future life-events. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 441-451. [PDF]
BUEHLER, R., GRIFFIN, D. & MacDONALD, H. (1997). The role of motivated reasoning in optimistic time predictions. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 238-247. SWEENY, K. & SHEPPERD, J.A. (2010). The costs of optimism and the benefits of pessimism : Timing matters. Emotion, 10, 750-753.
HIGGINS, N.C., ST-AMAND, M. & POOLE, G.D. (1997). The controllability of negative life experiences mediates unrealistic optimism. Social Indicators Research, 42, 299-323. [PDF] BLAIS, A. & RHEAULT, L. (2011). Optimists and skeptics : Why do people believe in the value of their single vote ? Electoral Studies, 30 (1), 77-82.
ROBINON-WHELEN, S., KIM, C., MacCALLUM, R.C. & KIECOLT-GLASER, J.K. (1997). Distinguishing optimism from pessimism in older adults : Is it more important to be optimistic or not to be pessimistic ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 1345-1353. SHEPPERD, J.A. KLEIN, W.M.P., WATERS, E.A. & WEINSTEIN, N.D. (2013). Taking stock of unrealistic optimism. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 8, 395-411
Voir aussi Pessimisme
Optimum/Optimalité/Optimiser/Optimisation : Exploitation maximale d'une ressource en fonction de sa disponibilité et des contraintes du milieu social et physique. Cette exploitation est realisée grâce à un ensemble de comportements planifiés gouvernés par des règles chez les humains et sans doute chez d'autres primates) et façonnées par l'évolution chez les autres espèces animales. optimality, maximization.

  CODY, M.L. (1974). Optimization in ecology. Science, 183, 1156-1164. HEYMAN G.M. & TANZ, L. (1995). How to teach a pigeon to maximize overall reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 64 (3), 277-298. [PDF]
BAUM, W.M. (1981). Optimization and the matching law as accounts of instrumental behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 36 (3), 387-403. [PDF] ORZACK, S. & SOBER, E. (Eds.). (2001). Optimality and adaptation. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
VAUGHAN, W. (1981). Melioration, matching, and maximization.Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 36 (2), 141-149. [PDF] HSEE, C.K., YU, F., ZHANG, J. & ZHANG, Y. (2003). Medium maximization. Journal of Consumer Research, 30, 1-14. [PDF]
GREEN, L., RACHLIN, H. & HANSON, J. (1983). Matching and maximizing with concurrent ratio-interval schedules. Journal of the Experimental Analysisof Behavior, 40, 217-224.[PDF]  
WILLIAMS, B.A. (1985).Choice behavior in a discrete trial concurren tVI-VR : A test of maximizing theories and matching. Learning & Motivation, 16, 423-443  
Voir aussi Ressource et Évolution
Optimum de Pareto : Situation ou jeu décrit initialement par Pareto, où toute personne (joueur/acteur) qui améliore son sort (ou ses gains) le fait nécessairement ou détriment de quelqu'un d'autre (perte). Pareto efficiency.
  TULLOCK, G. (1968). Pareto optimality with risk aversion. Western Economic Journal, 6, 227-282.
Option : Dans une situation de choix, il existe au moins deux options. = possibilité, alternative. Option.

 
ORDINATEUR - ORDONNÉE - ORDRE - ORGANISATION - ORGANISME - ORGASME - ORIENTATION - ORNE - ORSILLO - ORTON - OS
Oral/Orateur : Qui parle en public, livre un discours à une foule. = parler en public, communication orale. Public-speaking behavior.

  CARNEGIE, D. (1971). How to develop self-confidence and influence people by public speaking. New York : Pocket Books.
FAWCETT, S.B. & MILLER, L.K. (1975). Training public-speaking behavior : an experimental analysis and social validation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8 (2), 125-135. [PDF]
NELSON, P., TITSWORTH, B.S. & PEARSON, J. (2007). Public speaking : A guide for the engaged communicator. New York: McGraw Hill.
BOURDAGES, J. & VIGNOLA, M-J. (2009). Évaluation des habiletés de communication orale chez des élèves de l’élémentaire utilisant AIM. The Canadian Modern Language Review, 65 (5), 731-755.
BROECKELMAN-POST, M., TITSWORTH, B.S. & BRAZEAL, L. (2011). The effects of using peer workshops on speech quality, public speaking anxiety, and classroom climate. Basic Communication Course Annual, 23, 220-247.
Orang-outan (Pongo pygmaeus/Pongo abelii) : Singe de la famille des hominidés. Orang-utan, orangutan.
 
SUAREZ, S. & GALLUP, G.G. (1981). Self-recognition in chimpanzees and orangutans, but not gorillas. Journal of Human Evolution, 10, 157-188. BERING, J., BJORKLUND, D.F. & RAGAN, P. (2000). Deferred imitation of object-related actions in human reared juvenile chimpanzees and orangutans. Developmental Psychobiology, 36, 218-232.
FOX, E. (1981). Homosexual behavior in wild Sumatran orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus abelii). American Journal of Primatology, 55 (3), 177-181. WARREN, K.S., VERSCHOOR, E.J., LANGENHUIJZEN, S., HERIYANTO, SWAN, R.A., VIGILANT, L. & HEENEY J.L. (2001). Speciation and intrasubspecific variation of Bornean orangutans, Pongo pygmaeus pygmaeus. Molecular Biology & Evolution, 18, 472-480.
GALDIKAS, B.M.F. (1982). Orang-Utan tool use at Tanjung Putting Reserve, Central Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan Tengah).Journal of Human Evolution, 10, 19-33. SHUMAKER, R.W., PALKOVICH, A.M., BECK, B.B., GUAGNANO, G.A. & MOROWITZ, H. (2001). Spontaneous use of magnitude discrimination and ordination by the orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 115, 385-391.
  ZHANG, Y. & RYDER, O.A. (2001). Genetic divergence of orangutan subspecies (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Molecular Evolution, 52, 516-526.
  CALL, J. (2003). Spatial rotations and transpositions in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Primates, 44, 347-357.
MILES, H.L. (1990). The cognitive foundations for reference in a signing orang-utan. In S.T. Parker, and K.R. Gibson (Eds.), Language and intelligence in monkeys and apes (511-539). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. VONK, J. (2002). Can orangutans (Pongo abelii) and gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) acquire concepts for social relationships call-capucin-outil ? International Journal of Comparative Cognition, 15, 257-277. [PDF]
  VAN SCHAIK, C.P., ANCRENAZ, M., BORGEN, G., GALDIKAS, B., KNOTT, C.D., SINGLETON, I., SUZUKI, A., UTAMI, S.S. & MERRILL, M. (2003). Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science, 299, (5603), 102-105.
ROGERS, L.J. & KAPLAN, G. (1994). A new form of tool use by orang-utans in Sabah, East Malaysia. Folia Primatologica, 63, 50-52. VAN SCHAICK, C.P., ANCRENACZ, M., BORGEN, G., GALDIKAS, B., KNOTT, C.D., SINGLETON, I., SUZUKI, A., UTAM, S.S. & MERRILL, M. (2003). Orangutan cultures and the evolution of material culture. Science, 299, 102-105.
KAPLAN, G. & ROGERS, L.J. (1994). Orang-utans in Borneo. University of New England Press. HANUS, D., CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (2004). Quantity based judgments by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and bonobos (Pan paniscus). Folia Primatologica, 74 (4),
ROGERS, L.J. & KAPLAN, G. (1998). Orangutans. In G. Greenberg and M.M. Haraway (Eds.), Encyclopedia of comparative psychology (pp. 465-4730). New York : Garland Publishing. VONK, J. & MacDONALD, S.E. (2004). Levels of abstraction in orangutan (Pongo abelii) categorization. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 118, 3-13. [PDF]
CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (1994). The social learning of tool use by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Human Evolution, 9, 297-313. MULCAHY, N.J., CALL, J. & DUNBAR, R.I.M. (2005). Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) encode relevant problem features in a tool-using task. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 119, 23-32
VISALBERGHI, E, FRAGASZY, D.M. & SAVAGE- RUMBAUGH, S.E. (1995). Performance in a tool-using task by common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), bonobos (Pan paniscus), an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus), and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 109 (1), 52-60. WEISS, A., KING, J.E. & PERKINS, L. (2006). Personality and subjective well-being in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus and Pongo abeli). Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 90 (3), 501-511. [PDF]
VAN SCHAIK, C.P., FOX, E.A. & SITOMPUL, A.F. (1996). Manufacture and use of tools in wild Sumatran orangutans - implications or human evolution. Naturwissenschaften, 83 (4), 186-188. HANUS, D. & CALL, J. (2007). Discrete quantity judgments in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) : The Effect of Presenting whole sets versus item-by-item. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 121 (3), 241-249. [PDF]
CALL, J. & ROCHAT, P. (1996). Liquid conservation in orangutans. Individual differences and perceptual strategies Journal of Comparative Psychology, 100, 219-232. MENDES, N., HANUS, D. & CALL, J. (2007). Raising the level : orangutans use water as a tool. Biology letters, 3, 453-455.
  SUDA-KING, C. (2008). Do orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) know when they do not remember ? Animal Cognition, 11,21–42.
CALL, J. & ROCHAT, P. (1997). Perceptual strategies in the estimation of physical quantities by orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 111, 315-329. OSVATH M & OSVATH, H. (2008). Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and orang-utan (Pongo abelii) forethought : Self-control and pre- experience in the face of future tool use. Animal Cognition, 11, 661-674.
   CLAY, A.E., BLOOMSMITH, M.A., MARR, J.M. & MAPLE, T.L. (2009). Systematic investigation of the stability of food preferences in captive orangutans : Implications for positive reinforcement training. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 12 (4), 306-313.
CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (1998). Distinguishing intentional from accidental actions in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus), chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and human children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 112, 192-206. WEISS, A., INOUE-MURAYAMA, M., KING, J.E., ADAMS, M.J. & MATSUZAWA, T. (2012). All too human ? Chimpanzee and orang-utan personalities are not anthropomorphic projections. Animal Behaviour, 83, 1355-1365. [PDF]
  HERRMANN, E., KEUPP, S., HARE, B., VAISH, A. & TOMASELLO, M. (2013). Direct and indirect reputation formation in nonhuman great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus) and human children (Homo sapiens). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 127 (1), 63-75. [PDF]
SEMENDEFERI, K. (1999). The frontal lobes of the great apes with a focus on the gorilla and the orangutan. In R.M.H.M.S. Parker (Ed.), The mentalities of gorillas and orangutans (pp. 70-95). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. WEISS, A. & KING, J.E. (2015). Great ape origins of personality maturation and sex differences : A study of orangutans and chimpanzees. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 108 (4), 648-664.
  NATER, A., MATTLE-GREMINGER, M.P., NURCAHYO, A., NOWAK, G.M. DE MANUEL, M., DESAI, T., GROVES, C., PYBUS M. & SONAY, T.B. (2017). Morphometric, behavioral, and genomic evidence for a new Orangutan specie. Current Biology, 27 (22), 3487-3498.
DAWKINS, R. (2004/07). The ancestor's tale : A pilgrimage to the dawn of evolution. New York : Houghton Mifflin. / Il était une fois l'évolution. Paris : Hachette. Voir aussi Animal et Singe
Orange : Voir Couleur.
Ordinal/Ordinale : Voir Échelle ordinale.
Ordinalité : Propriétés des nombres. Caractère de ce qui peut être ordonné c-à-d mis en rang, en relation. L'ordinalité, cardinalité et le nombre. = ordre. Ordination, sorting.

   BRAINERD, C.J. & FRASER, M. (1975). A further test of the ordinal theory of number development. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 127, 141-152.
 BRAINERD, C.J. (1976). Measuring the ordination ordination ---» cardination sequence. Psychological Reports, 88, 1266.
 MATSUZAWA, T. (1986). Spontaneous sorting in man and chimpanzee. Primate Report, 14, 180.
CLIFF, N. (1993). Dominance statistics : Ordinal analyses to answer ordinal questions. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 494-509.
ORLOV, T., YAKOVLEV, B., HOCHSTEIN, S. & ZOHARY, E. (2000). Macaque monkeys categorize images by their ordinal number. Nature, 404, 77-80.
 BRANNON, E.M. (2002). The development of ordinal numerical knowledge in infancy. Cognition, 83, 223-240.
 CANTLON, J., FINK, R. & BRANNON, E.M. (2007). Heterogeneity differentially affects children’s performance in a matching and ordinal numerical task. Developmental Science, 10 (4), 431-440.
Ordinateur : a) La thèse centrale du cognitivisme américain se fonde sur l'analogie entre le cerveau virtuel et le fonctionnement d'un ordinateur. Pour les tenants de cette thèse, le cerveau traite l'information comme une machine binaire. = analogie humain-machine. information-processing metaphor, computer program. b) En thérapie, l'ordinateur est une machine de plus en plus utilisée pour simuler la réalité du contexte thérapeutique ou tout simplement pour communiquer avec le patient/client via internet. Ordinateur, thérapie à distance et cyberpsychologie. Internet intervention, cyberpsychology, virtual therapy, internet therapy, teletherapy. c) L'ordinateur est aussi utilisé pour favoriser les apprentissages à l'école (site internet pédagogique, jeu-questionnaire, etc.), dans les classes. Ordinateur, TIC et apprentissage assisté par ordinateur. = multi-média. d) Autres usages. = machine binaire, calculateur. Computer, laptop, laptop internet.
  a
DREYFUS, H.L. (1967). Why computers must have bodies In order to be intelligent. Review of Metaphysics, 21 (1), 13-32.
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CHURCHLAND, P.M. & CHURCHLAND, P.S. (1990). Could a machine think ? Scientific American, 262, 32-37.
TIBERGHIEN, G. et JEANNEROD, M. (1995). Pour la science cognitive. La métaphore cognitive est-elle scientifiquement fondée ? Revue Internationale de Psychopathologie, 18, 173-203.
Voir aussi Analogie fonctionnelle, Traitement de l'information et Métaphore
b
LAWRENCE, G.H. (1986). Using computers for the treatment of psychological problems. Computers in Human Behavior, 2, 43-62.
PROFFITT, D.R. & KAISER, M.K. (1986). The use of computer graphics animation in motion perception research. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 18, 487-492.
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BUHRAM, M., GORDH, T. & ANDERSSON, G. (2016). Internet interventions for chronic pain including headache : a systematic review. Internet Interventions, 4, 17-34. [PDF]
Voir aussi Thérapie à distance et Cyberpsychologie
c
PAPERT, S. (1973). Uses of technology to enhance education. Logo Memo 8. Cambridge : Artificial Intelligence Laboratory : Massachusetts Institute of Technology .  SIEGELE, D. & FOSTER, T. (2001). Laptop computers and multimedia and presentation software : their effects on student achievement in anatomy and physiology. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34, 29-37.
TESSIER, B. (1979). Parallèles de l'évolution dans les activités scolaires et para-scolaires chez un enfant utilisant le programme d'ordinateur Logo. La Revue Canadienne de Psycho-Éducation, 8 (1), 21-30. GRACE-MARTIN M. & GAY, G. (2001). Web browsing, mobile computing and academic performance. Educational Technology & Society, 4, 95-107. [PDF]
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KULIK, J.A., KULIK, C.L.C. & BANGERT-DROWNS, R.L. (1984). Effectiveness of computer-based education in elementary schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 1, 59-74. DEMB, A., ERICKSON, D. & HAWKINS-WILDING, S. (2004). The laptop alternative : Student reactions and strategic implications. Computers & Education, 43 (4), 383-401.
LEPPER, M.R. (1985). Microcomputers in education. Motivational & social issues, in American Psychologist, vol. 40, 1-18. MARTENS, R.L., GULIKERS, J. & BASTIAENS, T. (2004). The impact of intrinsic motivation on e-learning in authentic computer tasks. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20(5), 368-376. [PDF]
BRAUN, C. & GOUPIL, J., GIROUX, J. & CHAGNON, Y. (1986). Adolescents and microcomputers: Sex differences, proxemics, task and stimulus variables. Journal of Psychology, 120, 529-542. WEAVER, B.E. & NILSON, L.B. (2005). Laptops in class : What are they good for ? What can you do with them ? New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 101, 3-13.
KULIK, C-L.C., KULIK, J.A. & SHWALB, B.J. (1986). The effectiveness of computer-based adult education : A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 2 (2), 235-252. WEAVER, B.E. (2005). Laptops in the humanities : Classroom walls come tumbling down. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 101, 81-88.
  STEPHENS, B.R. (2005). Laptops in psychology : Conducting flexible in-class research and writing laboratories. New directions for teaching & learning, 101, 15-26.
KULIK, J.A. & KULIK, C-L.C. (1987). Review of recent research literature on computer-based instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 12, 222-230. KERAWALLA, L. & CROOK, C. (2005). From promises to practices: The fate of educational software in the home. Technology, Pedagogy & Education, 14 (1), 107-125.
  BARAK, M., LIPSON, A. & LERMAN, S. (2006). Wireless laptops as means for promoting active learning in large lecture halls. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 38 (3), 245-263. [PDF]
  YOUNG, J.R. (2006). The fight for classroom attention : Professor vs. laptop. Chronicle of Higher Education, 52 (39), 27-29.
  WAGNER, B., KNAEVELSRUD, C., & MAERCKER, A. (2006). Internet-based cognitive-behavioral therapy for complicated grief : A randomized controlled trial. Death Studies, 30, 429-453. [PDF]
WOODWARD, J. & CARNINE, D.W. (1987). Antecedent knowledge and intelligent computer-assisted instruction. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 21, 131-139. BAZELEY, P. (2006). The contribution of computer software to integrating qualitative and quantitative data analyses. Research in the Schools, 13 (1), 64-74. [PDF]
LEPPER, M.R. & GURTNER, J. (1989). Children and computers: Child development and education approaching the twenty-first century. American Psychologist, 44, 170-178. LOWERISON, G., SCLATER, J., SCHMID, R.F. & ABRAMI, P. (2006). Student perceived effectiveness of computer technology use in post-secondary classrooms. Computers & Education, 47 (4), 465-489.
  YAMAMOTO, K. (2007). Banning laptops in the classroom : Is it worth the hassle ? Journal of Legal Education, 57, 477-520.
  RAY, R.D. & BELDEN, N. (2007). Teaching college level content and reading comprehensions skills simultaneously via an artificially intelligent adaptive computerized instructional system. The Psychological Record, 57, 201-218. [PDF]
  MAXWELL, N.G. (2007). From Facebook to Folsom Prison Blues : How banning laptops in the classroom made me a better law school teacher. Richmond Journal of Law & Technology, 14 (2), 1-43. [PDF]
PIOLAT, A. & BLAYE, A. (1991). Effects of word processing and writing aids on revision processes. In M. Carretero, M. Pope, R. Simons & J.I. Pozo (Eds.), Learning and instruction (Vol. III, pp. 379-399). European Research in an International Context. Oxford : Pergamon Press. FRIED, C.B. (2008). In-class laptop use and its effects on student learning. Computers & Education, 50, 906-914. [PDF]
PIOLAT, A. (1991). Écrit-on mieux avec un ordinateur ? In M. Fayol, J.E. Gombert, H. Abdi & D. Zagar (Eds.), La production d'écrits de l'école maternelle au collège (pp. 123-136). Dijon : MAFPEN, CRDP. MAYER, R.E. (2008). Applying the science of learning : Evidence-based principles for the design of multimedia instruction. American Psychologist, 63 (8), 760-769. [PDF]
KULIK, C-L.C. & KULIK, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based instruction : An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 75-94. TONDEUR, J., HERMANS, R., VAN BRAAK, J. & VALCKE, M. (2008). Exploring the link between teachers’ educational belief profiles and different types of computer use in the classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 24 (6), 2541-2553. [PDF]
SNYDER, G. (1992). Fluency via computer. Performance Management Magazine, 10, 25-28. WURST, C., SMARKOLA, C. & GAFFNEY, M.A. (2008). Ubiquitous laptop usage in higher education: effects on student achievement, student satisfaction, and constructivist measures in honors and traditional classrooms. Computers & Education, 51 (4), 1766-1783. [PDF]
HAUGLAND, S.W. (1992). The effect of computer software on preschool children’s developmental gains. Journal of Computing in Childhood Education 3, 15-30. SAMSON, P.J. (2010). Deliberate engagement of laptops in large lecture classes to improve attentiveness and engagement. Computers in Education Journal, 20 (2), 22-37. [PDF]
CUBAN, L. (1993). Computers meet classroom : Classroom wins. Teachers College Record, 95 (2), 185-211. CUMMINS, R. (2010). What is it like to be a computer ? In The World in the Head. Oxford University Press. [PDF]
TODMAN, J. & DICK, G. (1993). Primary children and teachers’ attitudes to computers. Computers & Education, 20(2), 199–203. LAURICELLA, S. & KAY, R. (2010). Assessing laptop use in higher education classrooms : The Laptop Effectiveness Scale (LES). Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 26 (2), 151-163. [PDF]
BROSNAN, M.J. & DAVIDSON, M.J. (1994). Computerphobia : Is It a particularly female phenomenon ? The Psychologist, 7 (2), 73-78. WOOD, E., ZIVCAKOVA, L., GENTILE, P., ARCHER, K., DE PSQUALE, D. & NOSKO, A. (2011). Examining the impact of off-task multi-tasking with technology on real-time classroom learning. Computers & Education, 58, 365-374. [PDF]
LANDAUER, T.K. (1995). The trouble with computers : Usefulness, usability and productivity. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. ZHU, E., KAPLAN, M., DERSHIMER, R.C. & BERGOM, I. (2011). Use of laptops in the classroom: research and best practices. Center for Research on Learning & Teaching /Occasional Papers, 30, 1-6. [PDF]
DASSA, C., VASQUEZ-ABAD, J. & AJAR, D. (1993). Formative assessment in a classroom setting : From practice to computer innovations. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 39, 111-125. HASHEM, K. & MIODUSER, D. (2011). Promoting complex systems learning through : the use of computer modeling. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology, 59, 388-393. [PDF]
McDADE, C.E., BROWN, J.M. & VANCE, R. (1993). Can computer-based precision learning increase test scores ? Journal of Precision Teaching, 10 (2), 75-78. KAY, R.H. & LAURICELLA, S. (2011). Exploring the benefits and challenges of using laptop computers in higher education classrooms : A formative analysis. Canadian Journal of Learning & Technology, 37, 1–18. [PDF]
SCARDAMALIA, M. & BEREITER, C. (1994). Computer support for knowledge-building communities. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 3 (3), 265-283. [PDF] APTER, B.J.B. (2012). Do computerised training programmes designed to improve working memory work ? Educational Psychology in Practise : Theory, Research & Practice in Educational Psychology, 28 (3), 257-272.
BUTTON, G.J., COULTER, J., LEE, J.R.E. & SHARROCK, W. (1995). Computers, minds & conduct. Blackwell Publishers. SANA, F., WESTON, T. & CEPEDA, N.J. (2013). Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers. Computers & Education, 62, 24-31. [PDF]
CHANDLER, P. & SWELLER, J. (1996). Cognitive load while learning to use a computer program. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 10, 151-170. CHEN, J., WHITE, S., McCLOSKEY, M., SOROUI, J. & CHUN, Y. (2011). Effects of computer versus paper administration of an adult functional writing assessment. Assessing Writing, 16, 49-71.
NEWMAN, D.R., WEBB, B. & COCHRANE, C. (1997). Evaluating the quality of learning in computer supported cooperative learning. Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 48 (6), 484-495. SANA, F., WESTON, T. & CEPEDA, N. J. (2013). Laptop multitask- ing hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers. Computers & Education, 62, 24-31.
NINNESS, C., ELLIS, J., SHERMAN, S. & SCHOTTA, C. (1998). Augmenting computer interactive self-assessment with and without feedback. The Psychological Record, 48, 601-616. [PDF] RAVIZZA, S.M., HAMBRICK, D.Z. & FENN, K.M. (2014). Non-academic Internet use in the classroom is negatively related to classroom learning regardless of intellectual ability. Computers & Education, 78, 109-114. [PDF]
NINNESS, C., ELLIS, J. & NINNESS, S.K., (1999). Self-assessment as a reinforcer during computer interactive math performance : An experimental analysis. Behavior Modification, 23, 403-418. RAVIZZA, S.M., UITVLUGT, M.G. & FENN, K.M. (2016). Logged In and zoned out : How laptop internet use relates to classroom learning. Psychological Science, 28 (2), 171-180. [PDF]
Voir aussi Apprentissage assisté par ordinateur, TIC, Multitâche et Vidéo éducatif
d
 KNIGHT, K. (1966). Changes in ccomputer performance. Datamation, 12 (9), 40-54. SHAFFER, H.J., HALL, M.N. & VANDER BILT, J. (2000). "Computer addiction" : A critical consideration. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 70, 162-168.
 KNIGHT, K. (1968). Evolving computer performance, 1963-1967. Datamation 14 (1), 31-35.  
NORMAN, D.A. (1973). A computer in your briefcase. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 5, 83-87.  
 RANKIN, R. & TEPPER, T. (1978). Retention and delay of feedback in a computer assisted instruction task. Journal of Experimental Education, 46, 67-70. GUÉGUEN, N. (2002). Foot-in-the-door and computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 18 (1), 11-15. [PDF]
KIESLER S., SIEGAL, J. & McGUIRE, T.W. (1984). Social psychological aspects of computer-mediated com- munication. American Psychologist, 39, 1123-1134. GUÉGUEN, N., FISHER-LOKOU, J. & LÉPY, N. (2003). Le "sexe" de l'ordinateur et son effet sur l'évaluation : Le rôle du genre d'une interface vocale sur l'évaluation des qualités interactives d'un logiciel. Revue d'Interaction Homme-Machine : Psychologie de l'Interaction Homme-Machine, 4 (2), 51-66. [PDF]
KULIK, C-L.C., KULIK, J.A. & SHWALB, B.J. (1986). The effectiveness of computer-based adult education : A meta-analysis. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 2 (2), 235-252.  
 ARTHUR W. & HART, D. (1990). Empirical relationships between cognitive ability and computer familiarity. Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 22, 457-463.  
BADAGLIACCO, J.M. (1990). Gender and race differences in computing attitudes and experience. Social Science Computer Review, 8 (1), 42-63. WASHULL, S.B. (2005). Predicting success in online psychology courses : Self-discipline and motivation. Teaching of Psychology, 32 (3), 190-208.
ROBINSON-STAVELEY, K. & COOPER, J. (1990). Mere presence, gender, and reactions to computers : Studying human-computer interaction in the social context. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 26, 168-183. BEERS, P.J., BOSHUIZEN, H.P.A., KIRSCHNER, P.A. & GIJSELAERS, W.H. (2005). Computer support for knowledge construction in collaborative learning environments. Computers in Human Behavior, 21, 623-643. [PDF]
KULIK, C-L.C. & KULIK, J.A. (1991). Effectiveness of computer-based instruction : An updated analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 7, 75-94. [PDF]  
 DUBE, W.V. (1991). Computer software for stimulus control research with Macintosh computers. Experimental Analysis of Human Behavior Bulletin, 9, 28-30. NORDHAUS, W.D. (2007). Two centuries of productivity growth in computing. The Journal of Economic History, vol. 67 (1), 128-159. [PDF]
 CLARIANA, R.B., ROSS, S.M. & MORRIS, G.R. (1992). The effects of different strategies using computer-administered multiple-choice questions as instruction. Educational Technology Research & Development, 39, 156-169.  
MARKHAM, M.R. (1993). An interface for controlling external devices via the IBM PC/XT/AT parallel port. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 25, 477-478. [PDF] BOCCARD, N. (2011). On the growth of computational services. Social Science Research Network, 1-10. [PDF]
BUSCH, T. (1995). Gender differences in self-efficacy and attitudes toward computers. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 12, 147-158.  
BROSNAN, M. (1998). ‘The role of psychological gender in the computer-related attitudes and attainments of primary school children (aged 6–11). Computers & Education, 30 (3–4), 203-208. FREY, C.B. & OSBORNE, M.A. (2013). The future of employment : how susceptible are jobs to computerisation ? Oxford Martin School, 1-72. [PDF]
COUPER, M.P., BAKER, R.P., BETHLEHEM, J., CLARK, C.Z.F., MARTIN, J., NICHOLLS, W.L. & O'REILLY, J.M. (Dirs.) (1998). Computer assisted survey information collection. New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc. UHLS, Y.T., MICHIKYAN, M., MORRIS, J., GARCIAD, SD., SMALL, G.W., ZGOUROU, E. & GREENFIELD, P.M. (2014). Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. (2014). Computers in Human Behavior, 39, 387-392
LAJOIE, J. (1998). Les moteurs de recherche du réseau Internet comme indicateurs des besoins intimes. Revue Québecoise de Psychologie, 19 (2), 207-229. MORRIS, D. & TRUSHELL J. (2014). Computer programming, ICT and gender in the classroom : a male-dominated domain or a female preserve ? Research in Teacher Education, 4 (1), 4–9. [PDF]
 
Ordinateur (Analogie de l'...) : Voir Analogie humain-ordinateur et Explication métaphorique
Ordonnance : Court document (souvent une feuille) rédigé par un médecin à l'adresse d'un pharmacien, qui prescrit au malade un médicament ainsi que sa posologie. L'ordonnance est le support de la prescription. = papier du médecin. *prescription.

 
Ordonnnée : L'ordonnée est une coordonnée qui correspond à l'axe vertical d'un plan. De pair avec l'abscisse, elle permet de déterminer un point dans cet l'espace. Voir aussi variable y. = axe des y, coordonnée y. /abscisse.

   
  Ordonnée ------»  
   
   
   
  «---------------- abscisse
   
Ordonnner : Opération cognitive en deux temps qui consiste d'abord à comparer des objets selon au moins une de leurs propriétés (s'ils ne sont pas identiques), puis à les placer en ordre du plus petit au plus grand (ou en fonction d'un autre critère), suivant le résultat de l'évaluation ou de la mesure de cette propriété qui permet de les distinguer et de les sérier. = sérier, sériation. Sorting, ordering.

  ELKIND, D. (1964). Discirmination, seriation, and numeration of size and dimensional differences in young choldren ; Piaget replication study VI. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 104, 276-296. BEGAN, J.R. & JESKA, P. (1980). An information-processing model of some seriation tatsk. Canadian Psychologist, 14, 167-196.
  KINGMA, J. (1982). A criterion problem : the use of different operationalization in seriation research. Perceptual & Motor Skillds, 55, 13003-1316.
BRYANT, P.E. (1967). The causes of failures in children to sort by two different dimensions on successive trials. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 37, 320-328. KINGMA, J. & ROELINGA, U. (1983). Task sensitivity and the sequence of development in seriation, ordinal correspondence, and cardination. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 110, 181-205.
KANDALL, D.G. (1971). A mathematical approach to seriation. Philosophical Transaclions of the Royal Society of London, . A, 269, 125-134 KINGMA, J. (1983). Seriation, correspondence, and transitivity. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75 (5), 763-771.
SIEGEL, L.S. (1972). Development of the concept of seriation. Developmental Psychology 6 (1), 135-137. KINGMA, J. (1984). The influence of task in seriation research : adding irrelevant cues to the stimulus materials. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 144, 241-253.
  KINGMA, J. & REUVEKAMP, J. (1984). The construction of a developmental scale for seriation. Educational & Psychological Measurment, 44, 1-23.
  KINGMA, J. & LOTH, F.L. (1984). The valisation of a developmental scale for seriation. Educational & Psychological Measurment, 45, 321-328.
  D'AMATO, M.R. & COLOMBO, M. (1988). Representation of serial order in monkeys (Cebus apella). Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14, 131-139.
YOUNG, R. (1976). Seriation by children : An artificial inelligence analysisi of a Piagetian task. Basel : Birkhauser. MARESCHAL, D. & SHULTZ, T.R. (1993). A connectionist model of the development of seriation. Proceedings of the fifteenth annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society, 676-681. [PDF]
  TOMIC, W. & KINGMA, J. (1993). The relationship between seriation and number line comprehension : A validation study. Curriculum & Reaching, 12 (2), 59-69. [PDF]
  BRANNON, E.M. & TERRACE, H.S. (1998). Ordering of the numerosities 1-9 by monkeys. Science, 282, 746-749. [PDF]
  BIRO, D. & MATSUZAWA, T. (1999). Numerical ordering in a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): Planning, executing, and monitoring. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 113 (2), 178-185, [PDF]
GILLIÉRON, C. (1976). Décalage et sériation. Archives de Psychologie, 44. MARESCHAL, D. & SHULTZ, T.R. (1999). Developpement of children's seriation : A connectionist approach. Connection Science, 11 (2), 149-186. [PDF]
  COLOMBO, M. & FROST, N. (2001). Representation of serial order in humans : A comparison to the findings with monkeys (Cebus apella). Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8 (2), 262-269. [PDF]
GILLIÉRON, C. (1977). Serial order and vicariant order : the limits of isomophism. Archives de Psychologie, 45, 183-204. PEPPERBERG, I.M. (2006). Ordinality and inferential abilities of a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120, 205-216. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Habileté cognitive
 
Ordre : Organisation particulière de la matière, des éléments ou des propriétés d'un tout. Désigne également une association de professionnels. /chaos. Order

Types d'ordre
Ordre d'une séquence de comportement Ordre de naissance Ordre des psychologues du Québec
Ordre taxinomique Ordre de présentation Ordre social
     

  PRIGOGINE, I., & NICOLIS, G. (1971). Biological order, structure and instabilities. Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics, 4, 107-148.
DANCHIN, A. (1978). Ordre et dynamique du vivant. Chemins de la biologie moléculaire. Paris : Le Seuil.
BOUDON, R. (1984). La place du désordre. Critique des théories du changement social. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
PRIGOGINE, I. & STENGERS, I. (1984). Order out of chaos. New York : Bantam Books.
YATES, F.E. (1989).Self-organizing systems : The emergence of order. New York : Plenum.
Ordre (d'une séquence de comportements) : Paramètre d'un indicateur qui prend en compte l'ordre dans laquelle apparaisse une série de comportements. Dans une grille d'observation, on note chaque comportement par une lettre. = séquence de comportement, script.

Comportements Sujet 1 Sujet 2 Sujet 3
A = regarde A-B-C-D-E A-D-B-C-E A-B-C-D-E
B = sourire
C = saluer
D = se rapprocher
E = adresser la parole

 
Ordre (taxinomique) : EX: Les primates. Voir Rangs taxinomiques.

Règne
  Embranchement  
  Classe  
  Ordre  
  Famille  
  Genre  
  Espèce  
  Population  


  BURNIE, D. (Dir.) (2001). Animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi.
Ordre de naissance : Rang, correpondant à la sucession des naissances, qu'un enfant occupe au sein de sa famille (aîné, cadet, benjamin). Selon certaines études, le rang aurait une influence sur un certain nombre de facteurs psychologique, comme l'intelligence et la personnalité. Ordre de naissance, taille de la famille et intelligence. = effet d'orde des naissances, rang au sein de la famille. Birth order, position in family, first born predominance, ordinal position, sibling position, family configuration.
  ARTHUR, W.D. (1926). The relation of IQ to position in family. Journal of Educational Psychology, 17, 541-550. SNELL, W., HARGROVE, W.E. & FALBO, T (1986). Birth order and achievement motivation configurations in women and men. Individual Psychology : Journal of Adierian Theory, Research & Practice, 42, 32-38.
ADLER, A. (1937). Position in family constellation influences life style. International Journal of Individual Psychology, 3, 211-227. BEHRMAN, J.R. & TAUBMAN, P. (1986). Birth order, schooling, an dearnings. Journal of Labor Economics, 4 (S3), 121-145.
BAKAN, D. (1949). The relationship between alcoholism and birth- rank.Quarterly Journal of Studies of Alcohol, 70, 434-400. DENDERSKY, M. & LEWIS, M. (1986). The impact of birth order on mother-infant interactions in preterm and sick infants. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 7, 242-246.
LEES, J.P. & STEWARD, A.H. (1957). Family or sibship position and scbolastic ability : An interpretation. Sociological Review, 5 (1), 73-190.  
SAMPSON, E.E. (1962). Birth order, need achievement and conformity. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 64, 155-159. McCANN, S., & STEIN, L. (1987). Frightening dreams and birth order. Individual Psychology: Journal of Adierian Theory Research & Practice, 43, 56-58.
WELLER, L. (1962). The relationship of birth order to anxiety: A replication of the Schachter findings. Sociometry, 25 (4), 415-418.  
CONNERS C.K. (1963). Birth order and needs of affiliation. Journal of Personality 37, 409-416. PULAKOS, J. (1987). The effects of birth order on perceived family roles. Individual Psychology: Journal of Adierian Theory, Research & Practice, 43, 319-328.
SCHACHTER, S. (1963). Birth order, eminence and higher education. American Sociological Review, 28 (5), 757-768. BRYANT, B. (1987). Birth-order as a factor in the development of vocational preference. Individual Psychology: Journal of Adierian Theory, Research & Practice, 43, 56-58.
SELLS, S.B. & ROFF, M. (1963). Peer acceptance-rejection and birth order. American Psychologist, 18, 355. RUNCO, M.A. & BAHLEDA, M.D. (1987). Birth order and divergent thinking. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 148, 119-125.
SMITH, E.E. & GOODCHILDS, J.D. (1963). Some personality and behavioral factors related to birth order. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47 (5), 300-303.  
DEMBER, W.N. (1964). Birth order and need affiliation. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 68, 556-557. STEIN, S., DE MIRANDA, S. & STEIN, A. (1988). Birth order, substance abuse, and criminality. Individual Psychology: Journal of Adierian Theory, Research & Practice, 44, 500-506.
WELLER, L. (1964). The relationship of brth order to cohesiveness. Journal of Social Psychology, 63, 249-254.  
LEVINGER, G. (1964). Birth order and need for achievement. Psychological Reports, 16, 73-74. [PDF] PHILLIPS, A., BEDEIAN, A.G., MOSSHOLDER, K.W. & TOULIATOS, J. (1988). Birth-order and selected work-related personality variables. Individual Psychology : Journal of Adierian Theory, Research and Practice, 44, 492-
HALL, E. (1965). Ordinal position and success in engagement and marriage. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 21, 154-158.  
KO, Y. & SUN, L. (1965). Ordinal position and the bebavior of visiting the cbild guidance clinic. Acta Psychologia Taiwanica, 7, 1016-1062. GATES, L., LINEBERGER, M.R., CROCKETT, J., & HUBBARD, J. (1988). Birth order and its relationship to depression, anxiety, and self-concept test scores in children. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 149, 29-34.
ALTUS, W.D. (1965). Birth order and academic primogeniture. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 2, 872-876. ALLRED, H. & PODUSKA, B. (1988). Birth order and happiness. Individual Psychology : Journal of Adierian Theory, Research & Practice, 44, 346-354.
ALTUS, W.D. (1966). Birth order and its sequelae. Science, 151, 44-49.  
MURDOCK, PH. (1966). Birth order and age at marriage. British Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 5, 24-29. OLIVER, R.R., ARIES, E. & BATGOS, J. (1989). Self-other differentiation and the mother-child relationship : The effects of sex and birth order. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 750, 311-321.
DE LINT, J. (1966). Note on birth order and intelligence test performance. The Journal of Psychology, 66, 15-17. JOUBERT, C.E. (1989). Birth order and narcissism. Psychological Reports, 64, 721-722.
ROSENFELD, H. (1966). Relationships of ordinal position to affiliation and achievement motives : Direction and generality. Journal of Personality, 34, 467-479. EATON, W. O., CHIPPERFIELD, J.G. & SINGBEIL, C.E. (1989). Birth order and activity level in children. Developmental Psychology, 25, 668-672.
BECKER, S.W., LERNER, M.J. & CARROLL, J. (1966). Conformity as a function of birth order and type of group pressure : A verification. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 3, 242-244. TERRY, W.S. (1989). Birth order and prominence in the history of psychology. Psychological Record, 39, 333-337.
KOSOGU, Y. & TANAKA, M. (1967). Parent deprivation, birth order and alcoholism. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 37, 779  
DIMOND, R.E. & MÜNOZ, D.C. (1967). Ordinal position and self disclosure in high school students. Psychological Reports, 27, 829-833. McCANN, S., STEWIN, L.L. & SHORT, R.H. (1990). Frightening dream frequency and birth order. Individual Psychology : Journal of Adierian Theory Research & Practice, 46, 304-310.
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