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PAG - PAR - PAS - PAVLOV - PE - PER - PH - PIAGET - PL - POD - POR - PR - PREG - PRI - PROB - PROG - PROS - PSE - PSY - 100+ - PU
P (Valeur de...) : Voir Valeur de P, Test statistique et Probabilité.
P300 (P3) : Désigne le potentiel évoqué (p) mesuré dans le cerveau d'un sujet 300 ms après l'apparition d'un nouveau stimulus dans son champ visuel. Découverte par Chapman et Bragdon (1964). P300, N400 et nouveauté. = amplitude P3. P300.

  CHAPMAN, R.M. & BRAGDON, H.R. (1964). Evoked responses to numerical and non-numerical visual stimuli while problem solving. Nature, 203, 1155-1157. OTTON, L.J. & DONCHIN, E. (2000). Relationship between P300 amplitude and subsequent recall for distinctive events : Dependence on type of distinctiveness attribute. Psychophysiology, 37, 644-661.
DUNCAN-JOHNSON, C.C. (1981). P300 latency : a new metric of information processing. Psychophysiology 18, 207-215 MAGNIE, M., BERMON, S., MARTIN, F., MADANY-LOUNIS, M., SUISSE, G., MUHAMMAD, W. & DOLISI, C. (2000). P300, N400, aerobic fitness, and maximal aerobic exercise. Psychophysiology, 37, 369-377.
KARIS D., FABIANI, M. & DONCHIN, E. (1984). "P300" and memory : Individual differences in the von Restorff effect. Cognitive Psychology, 16 (2), 177-216. KOK, A. (2001). On the utility of P3 amplitude as a measure of processing capacity. Psychophysiology, 38 (3), 557-577.
FABIANI, M., KARIS, D. & DONCHIN, E. (1986). P300 and recall in an incidental memory paradigm. Psychophysiology, 23, 298-308. MYUNG-SUN, K, JAE-JIN, K. & JUN SOO, K (2001). Frontal P300 decrement and executive dysfunction in adolescents with conduct problems. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 32 (2), 93-106.
  IACONO, W.G., CARLSON, S.R., MALONE, S.M. & McGUE, M. (2002). P3 event-related potential amplitude and the risk for disinhibitory disorders in adolescent boys. Archives General Psychiatry, 59, 750-757. [PDF]
  GONSALVEZ, C.J. & POLICH, J. (2002). P300 amplitude is determined by target-to-target interval. Psychophysiology, 39, 388-396. [PDF]
DONCHIN, E. & COLES, M.G. (1988). Is the P300 component a manifestation of context updating ? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 11, 355-372. HILL, H., OTT, F. & WEISBROD, M. (2005). Soa-dependent n400 and p300 semantic priming effects using pseudoword primes and a delayed lexical decision. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 56, 209-221.
JOHNSON, R. (1989). Developpemental evidence for modality-dependent P300 generators : A normative study. Psychophysiology, 26, 651-670. SATO, A., YASUDA, A., OHIRA, H., MIYAWAKI, K., NISHIKAWA, M., KUMANO, H. & KUBOKI, T. (2005). Effects of value and reward magnitude on feedback negativity and P300. Neuroreport, 16, 407-411. [PDF]
  PATRICK, C.J., BERNAT, E.M., MALONE, S.M., IACONO, W.G., KRUEGER, R.F. & McGUE, M. (2006). P300 amplitude as a marker of externalizing in adolescent males. Psychophysiology, 43 (1), 84-92.
  IACONO, W.G. & McGUE, M. (2006). Association between P3 event-related brain potential amplitude and adolescent problem behavior. Psychophysiology, 43, 465-469.
  YOON, H.H., IACONO, W.G., MALONE, S.M. & McGUE, M. (2006). Using the brain P300 response to identify novel phenotypes reflecting genetic vulnerability for adolescent substance misuse. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1067-1087.
PICTON, T.W. (1992). The P300 wave of the human event-related potential. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 9, 456-479. POLICH, J. (2007). Updating P300 : an integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118 (10), 2128-2148. [PDF]
  YOON, H.H., IACONO, W.G., MALONE, S.M., BERNAT, E.M. & McGUE, M. (2006). The effects of childhood disruptive disorder comorbidity on P3 event-related brain potentials in preadolescents with ADHD. Biological Psychology, 79,329-336.
  IACONO, W.G. (2008). The forensic application of "Brain fingerprinting" : Why scientists should encourage the use of P300 memory detection methods. American Journal of Bioethics, 8, 30-32.
  IACONO, W.G. & MALONE, S.M. (2011). Developmental endophenotypes : Indexing genetic risk for substance abuse with the P300 brain event-related potential. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 239-247. [PDF]
HARMON-JONES, E., BARRATT, E.S. & WIGG, C. (1997). Impulsiveness, aggression, reading, and the P300 of the event-related potential. Personality & Individual Differences, 22, 439-445. [PDF] DELLE-VIGNE, D., CAMPANELLA, S., KAJOSCH, H., VERBANCK, P. & KORNREICH, C. (2011). Accroître la sensibilité de la P300 à l'aide d'un paradigme oddball émotionnel bimodal. Acta Psychiatica Belgica, 111 (1), 29-44.
POLICH, J. (1997). On the relationship between EEG and P300: Individual differences, aging, and ultradian rhythms. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 26, 299–317. YOON, H.H., MALONE, S.M., BURWELL, S.J., BERNAT, E.M. & IACONO, W.G. (2013). Association between P3 event-related potential amplitude and externalizing disorders : A time domain and time frequency investigation of 29-year-old adults. Psychophysiology, 50 (7), 595-609. [PDF]
Voir aussi Potentiel évoqué et Nouveauté
Paas Fred ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain et spécialiste de l'éducation et de la théorie de la charge cognitive. Collaborateur de Ayres, Kirschner et Sweller.
PAAS, F. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics : A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 429-434.
PAAS, F. & VAN MERRIENBOER, J.J.G. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills : A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (1), 122-133. [PDF]
PAAS, F., RENKL, A. & SWELLER, J. (2003). Cognitive load theory and instructional design : Recent developments. Educational Psychologist, 38, 1-4. [PDF]
PAAS, F., TUOVINEN, J., TABBERS, H. & VAN GERVEN, P.W.M. (2003). Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory. Educational Psychologist, 38, 63-71. [PDF]
PAAS, F., RENKL, A. & SWELLER, J. (2004). Cognitive load theory : Instructional implications of the interaction between information structures and cognitive architecture. Instructional Science, 32, 1-8. [PDF]
Pace Gary M. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain, spécialiste des comportements inadaptés et de l'estompage. Collaborateur de Dorsey, Iwata, Lerman, Miltenberger, Shore, Smith, Vollmer, Vorndran et Zarcone.

PACE, G.M, IVANCIC, M.T., EDWARDS, G.L., IWATA, B. & PAGE, T.J. (1985). Assessment of stimulus preference and reinforcer value with profoundly retarded individuals. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18 (3), 249-255. [PDF]
PACE, G.M., IWATA, B.A., EDWARDS, G.L. & McCOSH, K.C. (1986). Stimulus fading and transfer in the treatment of self-restraint and self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19 (4), 381-389. [PDF]
PACE, G.M., IWATA, B.A., COWDERY, G.E., ANDREE, P.J. & McINTYRE, T.(1993). Stimulus (instructional) fading during extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26 (2), 205-212. [PDF]
IWATA B.A., PACE, G.M., KALSHER, M.J., COWDERY, G.E. & CATALDO, M.F. (1990). Experimental analysis and extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23 (1), 11-27. [PDF]
PACE, G.M, IVANCIC, M.T. & JEFFERSON, G. (1994). Stimulus fading as treatment for obscenity in a brain-injured adult. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27 (2), 301-305. [PDF]
Pacifisme/pacifiste : Qui milite en faveur de la paix (et considère que la guerre est généralement la solution la moins intéressante à un conflit). /guerre, belliqueux, va-t-en-guerre. Pacifism.

  GLADYS, T. (1951). Further discussion on pacifists vs. psychologists. American Psychologist, 6 (8), 457-458.
 KELMAN, H.C. & GLADSTONE, A.I. (1952). Pacifism and psychology : Further comments. American Psychologist, 7, 159.
SCHELER, M. (1953). L'idée de paix et le pacifisme. Paris : Aubier-Montaigne.
LAKE, D. A. (1992). Powerful pacifists : Democratic states and war. American Political Science Review 86 (1), 24–37.
Voir aussi Guerre et Paix
Packer Craig (Fort Worth 1950-) : Biologiste américain et spécialiste de l'étude des lions et plus généralement de l'écosytème africain (savane). Étudiant de Goodall.
PACKER, C. & PUSEY, A.E. (1982). Cooperation and competition within coalitions of male lions : Kin selection or gam theory ? Nature, 296 (5859), 740-742. [PDF]
PACKER, C. & PUSEY, A.E. (1983). Adaptations of female lions to infanticide by incoming males. The American Naturalist, 121 (5), 716-728. [PDF]
PACKER, C., GILBERT, D, PUSEY, A. & O’BRIEN, S. (1991). A molecular genetic analysis of kinship and cooperation in African lions. Nature, 351, 562-565.
PACKER, C., LEWIS, S. & PUSEY, A. (1992). A comparative analysis of non-offspring nursing. Animal Behaviour, 43, 265-281. [PDF]
PACKER, C., BRINK, B.M., KISSUI, H., MALITI, H., KUSHNI, H. & CARO, T. (2011). The effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania. Ecology & Conservation Biology, 25, 142-153.
PAGE - PAGLIA - PAIRS - PAIVIO - PAIX - PALINSCAR - PALMER - PANACCIO - PANIQUE - PANKSEPP - PAPERT - PAR
Pagani Linda S. ( ) : Psychologue québécoise et spécialiste de l'éducation. Elle s'intéresse notamment aux conditions psychologiques, sociales et politiques du décrochage scolaire, ainsi qu'aux conditions qui favorisent la persévérance et la réussite scolaire. Elle enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Collaboratrice de Brook-Gunn, Janosz, Tremblay et Vitaro.
PAGANI, L.S., TREMBLAY, R.E., VITARO, F., KERR, A. & McDUFF, P. (1998). The impact of family transition on the development of delinquency in adolescent boys : a 9-year longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 39, 489-499.
PAGANI, L.S., TREMBLAY, R.E., VITARO, F., BOULERICE, B. & McDUFF, P. (2001). Effects of grade retention on academic performance and behavioral development. Development & Psychopathology, 13, 297-315.
PAGANI, L.S., FITZPATRICK, C., BARNETT, T.A. & DUBOW, E. (2010). Prospective associations between early childhood television exposure and academic, psychosocial, and physical well being by middle childhood. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 425-431.
PAGANI, L.S., FITZPATRICK, C. & PARENT, S. (2012). Relating kindergarten attention to subsequent developmental pathways of classroom engagement in elementary school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 715-725. [PDF]
PAGANI, L.S., FITZPATRICK, C. & BARNETT, T.A. (2013). Early childhood television viewing and kindergarten entry readiness. Pediatric Research, 74, 350-355. [PDF]
Page : Dans la notice d'un article scientifique (1) ou d'un chapitre de livre (2), désigne les pages du texte concerné. Dans le modèle de référence de l'American Psychological Association, cette information est placée à la fin de la notice, dans le cas d'un article scientifique, et entre le titre du livre et le lieu de l'édition, dans le cas d'un chapitre de livre. À noter que dans le format de citation APA, il n'est pas nécessaire d'indiquer le nombre de page d'un livre (3). Page.

1
BÉLANGER, J. (1978). Images et réalités du béhaviorisme. Philosophiques, 5 (1), 3-110.
2
BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Démarche scientifique et cycle de la recherche. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 1-34). St-Hyacinthe : Édisem.
3

SKINNER, B.F. (1971). L'analyse expérimentale du comportement. Paris : Seuil.


Page (En bas de...) : Voir Citer en bas de page.
Page blanche : L'expression a deux acceptions : a) On utilise cette expression pour décrire les difficultés ou les hésitations à commencer la rédaction d'un texte. = syndrome de la page blanche. b) L'expression renvoie également au principe de tabula rasa.
   
Paglia Camille Anna (Endicott États-Unis 1947-) : Féminisme et essayiste américaine.
PAGLIA, C.A. (1990). Sexual personae : Art and decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson. New Haven : Yale UP.
PAGLIA, C.A. (1992). Sex, art, and American culture : Essays. New York : Vintage.
PAGLIA, C.A. (1994). Vamps & tramps : New essays. New York : Vintage.
 
Pain : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la douleur. Éditeur : Elsevier.
GEIGER, G., TODD., D.D., CLARK, H.B., MILLER, R.P. & KORI, S.H. (1992). The effects of feedback and contingent reinforcement on the exercise behavior of chronic pain patients. Pain, 49 (2), 179-185.

Pairs : Individus qui possèdent le même statut social que l'individu qui fait l'objet d'une analyse, d'une évaluation, d'un traitement, et qui sont susceptibles d'influencer cet individu-cible. L'influence des pairs se fait sentir dans de nombreux domaines, notamment : les opinions, la sexualité, la consommation d'alcool et de drogues, la conduite automobile, la motivation scolaire, l'habillement et la mode, etc. Sartre a dit «Pas besoin de gril, l'enfer, c'est les Autres». = influence des amis, influence des autres. Peer influence. EX: Les pairs d'une anorexique sont ses ami-e-s, les autres adolescent-e-s de son âge. = semblable. *ami. Pairs, tutorat et influence sociale. Peers, peer influence, peer status.

Pairs
Aide par les pairs/Tutorat Enseignement de la lecture par les pairs Influence des pairs
Comité de lecture/Comité de pairs Enseignement par les pairs Exclusion sociale par les pairs
    Observation d'un enseignant par ses pairs
 

  HOLLANDER, E.P. (1956). The friendship factor in peer nominations. Personnel Psychology, 9, 435–447.  
KOHN, M. (1966). The child as a determinant of his peers approach to him. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 109, 91-100. WITT, S.D. (2000). The influence of peers on children's socialization to gender roles. Early Child Development & Care, 162, 1-7.
HARTUP, W.W., GLAZER, J. & CHARLESWORTH, R. (1967). Peer reinforcement and sociometric status. Child Development, 38, 1017-1024. BOBO, J.K. & HUSTEN, C. (2000). Sociocultural influences on smoking and drinking. Alcool Research & Health, 24 (4), 225-232. [PDF]
SINGLETON, L.C. & ASHER, S.R. (1977). Peer preference and social interaction among third-grade children in an integrated school district. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 330-336. HUBBARD, J.A. (2001). Emotion expression processes in children's peer interaction : The role of peer rejection, aggression, and gender. Child Development, 72, 1426-1438.
STRAIN, P.S., SHORES, R.E. & TIMM, M.A. (1977). Effects of peer social initiations on the behavior of withdrawn preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10 (2), 289-298. [PDF] GREGURAS, G.J., ROBIE, C. & BORN, M. (2001). Applying the social relations model to self and peer evaluations. Journal of Management Development, 20 (6), 508-525. [PDF]
LADD, G.W. & ODEN, S.L. (1979). The relationship between peer acceptance and children’s ideas about helpfulness. Child Development, 50, 402-408. COSTELLO, J., PATEMAN, B., PUSEY, H. & LONGSHAW, K. (2001). Peer review of classroom teaching : An interim report. Nurse Education Today, 21, 444-454.
STRAIN, P.S., KERR, M.M. & RAGLAND, E.U. (1979). Effects of peer-mediated social initiationsand prompt reinforcement procedures on the social behavior of autistic children. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 9, 41-54.  
STRAYER, R.R. (1980). Social ecology of the preschool peer group. In W.A. Collins (Dir.), Development of cognition, affect and social relations (Vol. 13, pp. 165-196). Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum.  
SUDA, W. & FOUTS, G. (1980). Effect of peer presence on introverted and extroverted children. Child Development, 51, 1272-1275. SHERIDAN, S.M., BUHS, E.S. & WARNES, E.D. (2003). Childhood peer relationships in context. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 285-292. [PDF]
LOVE, K.G. (1981). Comparison of peer assessment methods : Reliability, validity, friendship bias, and user reaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66 (4), 451-457.  
WHEELER, V. & LADD, G.W. (1982). Assessment of children's self efficacy for social interactions with peers. Developmental Psychology, 18, 795-805. GIFFORD-SMITH, M.E. & BROWNELL, C.A. (2003). Childhood peer relationships : social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 235-284. [PDF]
DODGE, K.A., SCHLUNDT, D.C., SCHOCKEN, I. & DELUGACH, J.D. (1983). Social competence and children's sociometric status: The role of peer group entry strategies. Merrill- Palmer Quarterly, 29, 309-336. LADD, G.W. & TROOP-GORDON, W. (2003). The role of chronic peer adversity in the development of children's psychological adjustment problems. Child Development, 74, 1325-1348. [PDF]
WHALEN, C.K., HENKER, B., DOTEMOTO, S. & HINSHAW, S.P. (1983). Child and adolescent perceptions of normal and atypical peers.Child Development, 54, 1588-1598. CHENG, T.O. (2004). Peer, parental, and commercial influences on cigarette smoking among Chinese youths. Journal of the National Medical Association, 96 (5), 691-692. [PDF]
ODOM, S.L. & STRAIN, P.S. (1984). Peer mediates approches to promoting chilfren interaction : A review. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 544- 557. HAY, D.F., PAYNE, A. & CHADWICK, A. (2004). Peer relations in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45 (1), 84-108. [PDF]
  CARRON, A.V. & BURKE, S.M. (2005). Context and physical activity : The influence of others. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 1 (2), 23-31. [PDF]
STREMMEL, A. & LADD, G.W. (1985). Children’s selective use of peer informants : Criteria for making information-seeking decisions. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 146, 541-550. McAULIFFE, M.D., HUBBARD, J.A. & ROMANO, L.J. (2005). The impact of teacher behavior on children's peer relations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 665-677.
HYMEL, S. (1986). Interpretations of peer behavior : affective bias in childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 57, 431-445. TROOP-GORDON, W. & LADD, G.W. (2005). Trajectories of peer vctimization and perceptions of the self and schoolmates : Precursors to internalizing and externalizing problems. Child Development, 76 (5), 1072-1091. [PDF]
PARKER, J.G. & ASHER, S.R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment—are low-accepted children at risk. Psychological Buletin, 102 (3), 57-89. SMITH, T.E. & LEAPER, C. (2006). Self-perceived gender typicality and the peer context during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 91-104.
PALINSCAR, A.S., BROWN, A.L. & MARTIN, S. (1987). Peer interaction in reading comprehension instruction. Educational Psychologist, 22 (3/4), 231-253. HEILBRON, N. & PRINSTEIN, M.J. (2008). Peer influence and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury : A theoretical review of mechanisms and moderators. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 12, 169-177. [PDF]
ROOT, L.S. (1987). Faculty evaluation : Reliability of peer assessments of research, teaching, and service. Research in Higher Education, 26, 71–84.  
WEINER, J. (1987). Peer status of children and adolescents : A review of the literature. Learning Disabilities Research, 2, 62-79. STEARNS, E., DODGE, K.A. & NICHOLSON, M. (2008). Peer contextual influences on the growth of authority-acceptance problems in early eementary school. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 54 (2), 208-231. [PDF]
PERRI, M.G., McADOO, W.G., McALLISTER, D.A., JORDAN, R.C., LAUER, J.B., YANCY, D.Z. & NEZU, A.M. (1987). Effects of peer support and therapist contact on long-term weight loss. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 615-617. CARRELL, S.E., MALMSTROM, F.V. & WEST, J.E. (2008). Peer effects in academic cheating. Journal Human Resources, 43 (1), 173-207. [PDF]
WHALEN, C.K., HENKER, B., BUHRMESTER, D., HINSHAW, S.P. HUBER, A. & LASKI, K. (1989). Does stimulant medication improve the peer status of hyperactive children ? Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 57, 545-549. MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., RUBIN, R.M. & McAULIFFE, M D. (2008). The relation between childhood aggression and depressive symptoms: The unique and joint mediating roles of peer rejection and peer victimization. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 316-340.
DODGE, K.A., COIE, J.D., PETIT, G.S. & PRICE, J.M. (1990). Peer status and aggression in boys' groups : Developmental and contextual analyses. Child Development, 61, 1289-1309. BEAVER, K.M., SCHUTT, J.E., BOUTWELL, B.B., RATCHFORD, M., ROBERTS, K. & BARNES, J.C. (2009). Genetic and environmental influences on levels of self-control and delinquent peer affiliation : Results from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 36, 41-60. [PDF]
ASENDORPF, J. (1990). Beyond social withdrawal : Shyness, unsociability, and peer avoidance. Human Development, 33, 250-259. RUBIN, K.H., KENNEDY, A. & BOWKER, J. (2010). Parents, peers, and social withdrawal in childhood : A relationship perspective. New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development, 127, 79-94. [PDF]
CHEN, X., RUBIN, K.H. & SUN, Y. (1992). Social reputation and peer relationships in Chinese and Canadian children : A cross-cultural study. Child Development, 63, 1336-1343. VILLANTI, A., BOULAY, M. & JUON H. (2011). Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage. Addictive Behaviors, 36 (1-2), 133-136. [PDF]
MATTHYS, W., VAN LOO, P., PACHEN, V., DE VRIES, H.,VAN HOOFF, J.A.RA.M. & VAN ENGELAND, H. (1994). Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 25, 183-195. HAUN, D.B.M. & TOMASELLO, M. (2011). Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children. Child Development, 82 (6), 1759-1767. [PDF]
SIMPSON, J.A. (1994). Pair bonding as an organizational model for integrating research on close relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 58-61. VÉZINA, J., HÉBERT, M., POULIN F., LAVOIE, F., VITARO, F. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (2011). Risky lifestyle as a mediator between association with deviant peers and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 40, 814-824.
MATTHYS, W., DE VRIES, H., HECTORS, A., VEERBEEK, M., HEIDMANN, W., GOUD, M., VAN HOOFF, J.A.RA.M. & VAN ENGELAND, H. (1995). Differences between conduct disordered and normal control children in their tendencies to escalate or neutralize conilicts when interacting with nomial peers Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 26, 29-41. KOEGEL, L.K., KURIAKOSE, S., SINGH, A.K. & KOEGEL, R.L. (2012). Improving generalization of peer socialization in inclusive school settings using initiations training. Behavior Modification, 36 (3), 361-377. [PDF]
WENTZEL, K.R. & CALDWELL, K. (1997). Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership : Relations to academic achievement in middle school. Child Development, 68, 1198-1209. MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., BARNIGHT, L.J. & THOMSON, A.K. (2012). Emotion expression processes in children's peer interaction: The role of peer rejection, aggression, and gender. Child Development, 72, 1426-1438.
RYS, G.S. & BEAR, G.C. (1997). Relational aggression and peer relations : Gender and developmental issues. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43, 87-106. MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., BARNIGHT, L.J. & THOMSON, A.K (2014). Fifth-grade children's daily experiences of peer victimization and negative emotions: Moderating effects of sex and peer rejection. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 1089-1102.
TASSI, F. & SCHNEIDER, B.H. (1997). Task-oriented versus other-referenced competition : Differential implications for children's peer relations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 (17), 1557-1580. BRENDGEN, M., GIRARD, A., VITARO, F., DIONNE, G. & BOIVIN, M. (2016). Personal and familial predictors of peer victimization trajectories from primary to secondary school. Developmental Psychology, 52 (7), 1103-1114.
WENTZEL, K.R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school : The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (2), 202-209. [PDF] MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., SALLEE, M.L., BARNIGHT, L.J. LINES, M.D. & RUBIN, R.M. (2016). Dyadic accuracy and bias in preadolescents' perceived peer relations: Associations with aggression, depression, and peer victimization. Journal of Personal & Social Relationships, 33, 892-916.
GERRARD, M., GIBBONS, F.X., ZHAO, L., RUSSELLl, D.W. & EIS-BERGAN, M. (1999). The effect of peers' alcohol consumption on parental influence : A cognitive mediational model. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 32-44.  
Voir aussi Tutorat et Individu rejeté
Pairs (Comité de...) : Voir Comité de lecture.
Pairs (Influence des...) : Voir Pairs.
Pairs (Observation par les...) : Voir Observation par les pairs.
Pairs (Rejet des...) : Voir Exclusion sociale et Isolement social.
Paivio Allan Urho (1925-) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain d'origine canadienne. Il propose l'existence de deux systèmes de représentation (représentation verbale et images mentales) pour expliquer le fonctionnement de la pensée.
PAIVIO, A. (1963). Learning of adjective-noun paired associates as a function of adjective-noun word order and noun abstractedness. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 17, 370-379.
PAIVIO, A. (1965). Abstractness, imagery and meaningfulness in paired associate learning. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 4, 32-38.
PAIVIO, A. (1969). Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychological Review, 76, 241-263.
PAIVIO, A. (1975). Imagery and synchronic thinking. Canadian Psychological Review, 16, 147-163.
PAIVIO, A. (1991). Dual coding theory : Retrospect and current status. Canadian Journal of psychology, 45 (3), 255-287.
Paix : Absence de guerre ou diminution de la tension et de violence au sein d'un groupe (ou entre des groupes), entre deux pays/sociétés ou plus, sur un territoire donné. Relations internationales, conflits et paix. Peace.

  KEYNES, J.M. (1920). Economic consequences of the peace. London : Macmillan. NEURINGER, A. (1988). Personal paths to peace. Behavior Analysis & Social Action, 6, 51-56.
PIAGET, J. (1934). Une éducation pour la paix est-elle possible ? Bulletin de l'Enseignement de la Société des Nations, 1, 17-23. [PDF] KELMAN, H.C. (1991). A behavioral science perspective on the study of war and peace. In R. Jessor (Ed.), Perspectives on behavioral science : The Colorado lectures (pp. 245-275). Boulder, CO : Westview Press. [PDF]
KELMAN, H.C. (1954). A proposed framework for the study of war and peace. Bulletin of the Research Exchange on the Prevention of War, 2 (6), 3-13. DEUTSCH, M. (1993). Educating for a peaceful world. American Psychologist, 48, 510-517. [PDF]
RICH, A. PLATT, J.R. (1966). How to keep the peace. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 14. BEER, F., SINCLAIR, G., HEALY, A. & BOURNE, L. (1995). Peace agreement, intractable conflict, escalation trajectory : A psychological laboratory experiment. International Studies Quarterly, 39 (3), 297-312.
TINBERGEN, N. (1968). On war and peace in animals and man : An ethologist's approach to the biology of aggression. Science, 160, 1411-1418. WEINE, S.M. (1999). Against evil. Peace and conflict. Journal of Peace Psychology, 5 (4), 357-364.
GALTUNG, J. (1969). Violence, peace, and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6, 167-191 CAIRNS, E. & HEWSTONE, M. (2002). The impact of peacemaking in Northern Ireland on intergroup behaviour. In G. Salomon & B. Nevo (Eds.), The nature and study of peace education (pp. 217-228). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.
ABELSON, R.P. & ZIMBARDO, P.G. (1970). Canvassing for peace : A manual for volunteers. Ann Arbor, MI : Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. NEPSTAD, S.E. (2004). Religion, violence, and peacemaking. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 43, 297-301.
SUEDFELD, P. (1977). War, peace, and integrative complexity : Un speeches on the Middle East problem, 1947-1976. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 21 (3), 427-442. DIENER, E. & TOV, W. (2007). Subjective well-being and peace. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 421-440.
KELMAN, H.C. (1981). Reflections on the history and status of peace research. Conflict Management & Peace Science, 5 (2), 95-110. [PDF] TOV, W., DIENER, E., NG, W., KESEBIR, P. & HARTER, J. (2009). The social and economic context of peace and happiness. In R.S. Wyer, C.-Y. Chiu & Y.Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding culture : Theory, research, and application. New York : Taylor & Francis Group. [PDF]
ULMAN, J.D. (1986). Working class strategies for world peace. Behavior Analysis & Social Action, 5, 36-43. BLACK, S.E., DEVEREUX, P.J. & SALVANES, K.G. (2013). Under pressure ? The effect of peers on outcomes of young adults. Journal of Labor Economics, 31 (1), 119-153. [PDF]
Voir aussi Conflit, Pacifisme et Guerre
Pakistan : Pays.
  SUEDFELD, P. & JHANGIANI, R. (2009). Cognitive management in an enduring international rivalry : The case of India and Pakistan. Political Psychology, 30, 937-951.
Voir aussi Pays
Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences : Revue scientifique de neurologie. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
THOMAS, P., BRACKEN, P. & YASMENN, S. (2007). Explanatory models for mental illness : Limitations and dangers in a global context. Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences, 176, 176-181. [PDF]

Palinopsie : Trouble de la perception visuelle caractérisé par la persistance anormale des images après la disparition du stimulus à l'origine de ces images. Palinopsia.

  BENDER, M.B., FELDMAN, M. & SOBIN, A.J. (1968). Palinopsia. Brain, 91 (2), 321-338.
KAWASAKI, A. & PURVIN, V. (1996). Persistant palinopsia following ingestion of LSD. Archives of Ophtalmology, 114 (1), 47-50.
POMERANZ, H.D. & LESSELL, S. (2000). Palinopsia and polyopia in the absence of drugs or cerebral disease. Neurology, 54, 855-859.
EVANS, R.W. (2006). Reversible palinopsia and the Alice in Wonderland syndrome associated with topiramate use in migraineurs. Headache : The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 46 (5), 815-818.
GERSZTENKORN, D. & LEE, A.G. (2014). Palinopsia revamped : A systematic review of the literature. Survey of Ophthalmology, 60, 1-35.
Paléontologie/Paléontologue : Science qui étudie les fossiles des espèces disparues. ( ): Coppens, Cuvier,> Eldredge, Gould, Larson, Leakey, Legros Clark,Picq, Simpson, Teilhard de Chardin, Waddington. Paleantology.

  AGER, D.V. (1963). Principles of paleoecology : An introduction to the study of how and where animals and plants lived in the past. New York : McGraw-Hil.
SHIMADA, K., CURRIE, P.J., SCOTT, E. & SUMIDA, S.S. (2014). The greatest challenge to 21st century paleontology : When commercialization of fossils threatens the science. Palaeontologia Electronica, 17 (1), 1-4. [PDF]
Palestine : État et Conflit Israélo-Plaestinnien. Palestine, Palestinian.

  KELMAN, H.C. (1978). Israelis and Palestinians : Psychological prerequisites for mutual acceptance. International Security, 3 (1), 162-186. [PDF)
KELMAN, H.C. (1983). Conversations with Arafat : A social-pscyhological assessment of the propects for Israeli-Palestinian peace. American Psychologist, 38, 203-216. [PDF)
KELMAN, H.C. (1987). The political psychology of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict : How can we overcome the barriers to a negotiated solution ? Political Psychology, 8 (3), 347-363. [PDF]
AOUN, S. (2002). La problématique de l'état-nation au Moyen Orient : le cas de l'État palestinien. Dans H. Hassan-Yari (Dir.), Le processus de paix au Moyen Orient. Montréal : L'Harmattan.
SAJID, A. (2005). Islamophobia : A new word for an old fear. Palestine - Israel. Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 12 (2), 31-40.
KELMAN, H.C. (2011). A one-country / two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Middle East Policy Journal, 18 (1), 27-41. [PDF]
Voir aussi État et Conflit Israélo-Plaestinnien.
Paley William (Peterborough 1743-1805 Bishopwearmouth) : Théologien anglais. Il a développé un argument créationiste (the watchmaker analogy), que Jacobrésume ainsi : [...] la principale preuve de l'existence de Dieu a longtemps été l'argument d'intention. Développé notamment par Paley dans sa théologie naturelle, publiée plusieurs années avant L'Origine des espèces, cet argument est le suivant. Si vous trouvez une montre, vous ne doutez pas qu'elle a été fabriquée par un horloger. De même, si vous considérez un organisme un peu complexe, avec l'évidente finalité de tous ses organes, comment ne pas conclure qu'il a été produit par la volonté d'un Créateur ? Car il serait simplement absurde, dit Paley, de supposer que l'oeil d'un mammifère, par exemple, avec la précision deson optique et sa géométrie, aurait pu se former par un pur hasard.
PALEY, W. (1803). Théologie naturelle.
 
 
 
 
Palincsar Annemarie Sullivan ( ) : Socioconstructiviste américaine, spécialisée en éducation, en apprentissage scolaire et en métacognition. Collaboratrice de Brown et Campione.
PALINCSAR, A.S., OGLE, D.S., JONES, B.B. & CARR, E.G. (1986). Teaching reading as thinking. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
PALINCSAR, A.S., RANSOM, K. & DERBER, S. (1989). Collaborative research and development of reciprocal teaching. Educational Leadership, 46 (4), 37-40.
PALINCSAR, A.S. & KLENK, L. (1992). Fostering literacy learning in supportive contexts. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25 (4), 211-229.
PALINCSAR, A.S., BROWN, L.A. & CAMPIONE, J.C. (1993). First-grade dialogues for knowledge acquisition and use. In E.A. Forman, N. Minick & C. Addison Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning (pp. 45-51). New York : Oxford University Press.
PALINCSAR, A.S. (1998). Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 345-375. [PDF]
Pallidum : Voir Globus pallidus.
Palmer David C. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain qui s'intéresse à l'apprentissage, et plus particulièrement au renforcement automatique. Collaborateur de Burgos, Donahoe, Michael et Sundberg.
PALMER, D.C., DONAHOE, J.W. & CROWLEY, M.A. (1985). Discriminated inter-response times : Role of autoshaped responses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 44 (3), 301-313. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. & DONAHOE, J.W. (1992). Essentialism and selectionism in cognitive science and behavior analysis. American Psychologist, 47, 1344-1358. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. (1998). On Skinner's rejection of S-R psychology. The Behavior Analyst, 21 (1), 93-96. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. (1999). A call for tutorials on alternative approaches to the study of verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 16, 45-58. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. (2010). Behavior under the microscope : Increasing the resolution of our experimental procedures. Behavior Analysis, 33 (1), 37-45. [PDF]
Palo Alto : Voir École de Palo Alto.
Palpitations : Palpitations et trouble panique. Palpitation.

  BILGI, C. & CAMPBELL, R. (1979). Cardiovascular effects of tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. Canadian Family Physician, 25, 619-620, 622, 624-625. [PDF]
 MAYOU, R., SPRIGINGS, D., BIRKHEAD, J. & PRICE, J. (2002). Arandomized controlled trial of a brief educational and psychological intervention for patients presenting to a cardiac clinic with palpitation. Psychological Medicine, 32, 699-706.
Panaccio Claude ( ) : Philosophe, épistémologue québécois et spécialiste d'Ockham. Il enseigne à l'Université du Québec à Montréal.
 PANACCIO, C. (1991). Les mots, les concepts et les choses. Paris/Montréal : Vrin/Bellarmin.
 PANACCIO, C. (1992). Les mots, les concepts et les choses. La sémantique de Guillaume d'Occam et le nominalisme d'aujourd'hui. Montréal/Paris : Bellarmin/Vrin.
 PANACCIO, C. (1999). Le discours intérieur. De Platon à Guillaume d'Ockham. Paris : Seuil
 PANACCIO, C. (2007). Mental language and tradition encounters in medieval philosophy : Anselm, Albert and Ockham. Vivarium, 45, 269-282.
 PANACCIO, C. (2009). Le savoir selon Guillaume d'Okcham . Dans R. Nadeau (Dir.), Philosophies de la connaissance (p. 91-109). PUL/Vrin.
Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) : Mammifère de la famille des ursidés. Panda.
   MAPLE, T.L. (2000). Saving the giant panda. Atlanta : Longstreet Press.
 MAPLE, T.L. (2003). Behavioral and developmental consequences of early rearing experience for captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 117, 235-245.
 KELLING, A.S., SNYDER, R.J., GARDNER, W., MARR, M.J., BLOOMSMITH, M.A. & MAPLE, T.L. (2006). Color vision in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Learning & Behavior, 34 (2), 154-161.
BURNIE, D. (Dir.) (2001). Animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi.
Panel d'experts/Juges : En méthodologie,individus choisis par le chercheur pour juger de certains aspects de sa recherche avant sa réalisation (déroulement, outil de collecte, etc.). EX : On demande au panel de juger du degré de beauté d'individus photographiés, photos qui seront ensuite présentées aux participants afin de mesurer ou de neutraliser l'influence de cette variable. = comité d'experts, juges, jury. Panel.

  ARKES, H.R., HACKETT, C. & BOEHM, L. (1989). The generality of the relation between familiarity and judged validity. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2, 81-94.
ARKES, H.R., BOEHM, L.E. & XU, G. (1991). The determinants of judged validity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 576-605
LEVINE, E.L. & BAKER, D.P. (1992). Panel appraisals as a criterion in test validation : A demonstration in a law enforcement occupation. Journal of Business & Psychology, 7, 173-188.
Panique : Peur vive et soudaine, qui empêche d'agir effficacement. EX: À la vue d'un accident de voiture avec blessés, certaines personnes paniquent et omettent d'appeler des secours. Parfois le peur est non fondée (aucun danger réel, aucun objet menaçant), on utilise alors le mot trouble panique pour désigner ce problème psychologique. Panic.

  BARLOW, D.H., VERMILYEA, J., BLANCHARD, E., VERMILYEA, B., DINARDO, P. & CERNY, J.A. (1985). The phenomenon of panic. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 320-328. CRASKE M.G. & BARLOW, D.H. (1988). A review of the relationship between panic and avoidance. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 667-685.
AGRAS, W.S. (1985). Panic : Facing fears, phobias, and anxiety. N.Y. : W.H. Freeman & Co. CRASKE M.G., RAPEE, R.M. & BARLOW, D.H. (1988). The significance of panic- expectancy for individual patterns of avoidance. Behavior Therapy, 19, 577-592
ADLER, C., CRASKE, M.G. & BARLOW, D.H. (1987). Relaxation induced panic : When resting isn't peaceful. Journal of Integrative Psychiatry, 5 (2), 94- 112. CRASKE M.G. (1988). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of panic. In A.J. Frances & R.E. Hales (Eds.), Review of psychiatry (Vol. 7, pp. 121-137). Washington, D.C. : American Psychiatric Press, Inc.
CRASKE M.G., SANDERSON, W. & BARLOW, D.H. (1987). The relationships among panic, fear and avoidance. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 1, 153-160. ADLER, C., CRASKE, M.G., KIRSHENBAUM S. & BARLOW, D.H. (1989). "Fear of panic" : An investigation of its role in panic occurrence, phobic avoidance, and treatment outcome. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 27, 391-396.
BARLOW, D.H. & CRASKE M.G. (1988). The phenomenology of panic. In S.J. Rachman & J.D. Maser (Eds.), Panic : Psychological perspectives (pp. 11-36). Hillsdale, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. CRASKE M.G. & BARLOW, D.H. (1989). Nocturnal panic. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 177, 160-167.
  HOFMANN, S.G. (1999). Relationship between panic and schizophrenia. Depression & Anxiety, 9, 101-106.
  HOFMANN, S.G. (2004). The cognitive model of panic. In M.A. Reinecke and D.A. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive therapy across the lifespan : Evidence and practice (pp. 117-136). Cambridge, U. K.: Cambridge University Press.
Voir aussi Trouble panique
Pankratz Loren (Portland 1940-) : Psychologue américain et membre du Comittee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. Il s'intéresse notamment au syndrome de Munchaussen par procuration.
PANKRATZ, L. (1979). Procedures for the assessment and treatment of functional sensory deficits. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 47 (2), 409–410.
PANKRATZ, L. (1983). A new technique for the assessment and modification of feigned memory deficit. Perceptual and motor skills. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 57, 367–372
PANKRATZ, L. & KOFOED, L. (1988). The assessment and treatment of Geezers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259 (8), 1228–1229.
PANKRATZ, L. (2006). Persistent problems with the Munchausen syndrome by proxy label. Journal of American Academic Psychiatry & the Law, 34 (1), 90-95. [PDF]
PANKRATZ, L. ( 2010). Persistent problems with the "separation test" in Munchausen syndrome by proxy. The Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 38, 307-323. [PDF]
Panksepp Jaak (Tartu Estonie 1943-) : Neuropsychologue et éthologiste américain d'origine estonienne, spécialisé dans l'étude des déterminants biogénétiques - notamment l'hypothlamus - des émotions et de l'hyperactivité. Collaborateur de Knutson et Solms.
PANKSEPP, J. (1981). The ontogeny of play in rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 14 (4), 327-332.
PANKSEPP, J., SIVIY, S. & NORMANSHELL, L. (1984). The psychobiology of play : theoretical and methodological perspectives. Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews, 8, 465-492.
PANKSEPP, J., KNUTSON, B. & BURGDORF, J. (2002). The role of brain emotional systems in addictions : A neuro-evolutionary perspective and new "self-report" animal model. Addiction, 97, 459-469. [PDF]
PANKSEPP, J. (2005). Affective consciousness : Core emotional feelings in animals and humans. Consciousness & Cognition, 14 (1), 30-80. [PDF]
PANKSEPP, J. & PANKSEPP, J.P. (2006). The seven sins of evolutionary psychology. Evolution & Cognition, 6 (2), 108-131. [PDF]
 
TRACY, J.L. & RANDLES, D. (2011). Four models of basic emotions : A review of Ekman and Cordaro, Izard, Levenson, and Panksepp and Watt. Emotion Review, 3 (4), 397-405. [PDF]
Papert Seymour (Pretoria 1928-) : Mathématicien sudafricain et chef de file de perspective cognitive européenne et de intelligence artificielle. Il a développé un langage informatique destiné aux enfants : le logo. Il s'est également intéressé à l'utilisation des ordinateurs en milieu scolaire. Il a dit : « Cybernetics is based on a serious study of ways the best use of limited knowledge ». Étudiant de Piaget. Collaborateur de Cellérier et Minsky.
PAPERT, S. (1973). Uses of technology to enhance education. Logo Memo 8. Cambridge : Artificial Intelligence Laboratory : Massachusetts Institute of Technology .
PAPERT, S. (1980/81). Mindstorms : children, computers and powerful ideas / Jaillissement de l'esprit: ordinateurs et apprentissage. New York/Paris : Basic Books/Flammarion.
PAPERT, S. (1991). Situating constructivism. In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism : Research reports and essays, 1985-1990 (pp. 1-11). Norwood, NJ : Ablex.
PAPERT, S. (1993). The children's machine : Rethinking school in the age of the computer/L'enfant et la machine à connaître. Repenser l'école à l'ère de l'ordinateur. New York : Basic Books/Paris : Dunod.
PAPERT, S. (1998). Does easy do it ? Children, games and learning. Game Developer, 87-88. [LIRE]
Papez James Wenceslas (Morovia 1883-1958 Glencoe) : Médecin américain d'origine tchèque et spécialiste des déterminants neurobiolgiques des émotions.
 
PAPEZ, J.W. (1937). A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, 38, 725- 743. [PDF]
 
 
 
 
BHATTACHARYY, K.B. (2017). James Wenceslaus Papez, his circuit, and emotion. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 20(3), 207-210. [LIRE]
Pappenheim Bertha (1856-1936) : Elle dirigea un orphelinat à Frankfort et fonda la Ligue des femmes juives. Elle s'intéressa également à la prostitution. Mieux connu en psychologie sous le nom d'Anna O., l'une des plus célèbres patientes de Breuer.
 
 
Papillon : Insecte. Butterfly.

  NAIR, A.V., MITRA, P. & ADITYA, S. (2014). Studies on the diversity and abundance of butterfly (Lepidoptera: Rhopalocera) fauna in and around Sarojini Naidu college campus, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Journal of Entomology & Zoology Studies, 2 (4), 129-134. [PDF]
THOMAS, J.A. (2016). Butterfly communities under threat. Science, 353, (6296), 216-218.
Paquette Daniel ( ) : Psychologue québécois et spécialiste de l'étude de l'agression et de l'attachement, notamment la relation entre les pères et leur enfants. Il enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Collaborateur de Tremblay et Vitaro.
PAQUETTE, D. (1994). Fighting and playfighting in captive adolescent chimpanzees. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 49-65.
PAQUETTE, D., CHARBONNEAU, R., DUBEAU, D., BIGRAS, M. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (2003). Prevalence of father-child rough-and-tumble play and physical aggression in preschool children. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18 (2), 171-189. [PDF]
PAQUETTE, D. (2004). La relation père-enfant et l'ouverture au monde. Enfance, 2, 205-225.
PAQUETTE, D. (2004). Theorizing the father-child relationship : mechamisms and developmental outcomes. Human Development, 47 (4), 193-219.
PAQUETTE, D. & BIGRAS, M. (2010). The risky situation : a procedure for assessing the father-child activation relationship. Early Child Development & Care, 180 (1), 31-48.
PARADIGME - PARADOXE - PARAMÈTRE - PARAPSYCHOLOGIE - PARENT - PARESSE SOCIALE - PARKINSON - PAROLE - PARTICIPANT - PAS
Para : Préfixe qui signifie à côté, non-officiel.

Para-
Paralangage Paranormal Paraprofessionel
Paramètre d'une réponse Paraphilie Parapsychologie
Paramètre statistique Paraphrase/Paraphraser Parasomnie
Parallèle Paraphrénie Parasuicide
 
Parachutage politique : Stratégie mise de l'avant par certains partis politiques qui consiste, à la veille d'une élection, à larguer un candidat et son équipe en sol étranger, c-à-d dans un comté ou une circonscription que le candidat connaît peu ou pas, ni d'Adam ni d'Eve.

  MASSICOTTE, L. & BLAIS, A. (2003). Me voilà : trouvez-moi un comté. Expériences canadiennes en matière de parachutage politique. Dans B. Dolez et M. Hastings (Eds.), Le parachutage politique. Paris : L'Harmattan.
Parade (sexuelle) : Rituel comportemental servant de prélude à l’accouplement chez de nombreuses espèces animales.

 
Paradigme : Au sens large, paradigme signifie nouvelle perspective, façon différente de voir les choses. De manière plus précise, ce concept, développé par Kuhn, désigne la théorie dominante qui règne dans une science à une époque donnée. Le paradigme est un ensemble de concepts, de méthodes et de procédés scientifiques, bref de façons de faire nouvelles qui permettent de résoudre des problèmes que les paradigmes antérieurs n'étaient par parvenus à résoudre de manière satisfaisante (anomalie). EX: la théorie de la relativité d'Einstein est un paradigme qui explique des phénomènes que la théorie de Newton était incapable d'expliquer ou même d'envisager; idem pour la théorie de Darwin qui a remplacé le paradigme créationniste. N.D.L.R. Sauf dans certains états américains ! Certains historiens et épistémologues des sciences considèrent qu'il n'existe pas de paradigme en psychologie; d'autres prétendent que le cognitivisme serait devenu le nouveau paradigme de cette science, en succédant au béhaviorisme à la fin des années 60. Il y a donc là matière à débat. Au sens large, on utilise également ce terme comme synonyme de nouvelle perspective. = nouvelle perspective, nouvelle vision des choses, révolution scientifique. Paradigm, scientific revolution, mode of thought, scientific trend.
  LEWIN, K. (1931). The conflict between Aristotelian and Galileian modes of thought in contemporary psychology. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 5, 141-177. VARGAS, E.A. (1991). Behaviorology : Its paradigm. In W. Ishaq (Ed.). Human behavior in today's world (pp. 139-147). New York : Praeger.
BRUNER, J.S. & POSTMAN, L. (1949). On the perception of incongruity : A paradigm. Journal of Personality, 18, 206-223 ULMAN, J.D. (1992). Behaviorology and psychology are incommensurable paradigms : A rejoinder to Staats. Behaviorological Commentaries, 2, 23-28.
KUHN, T.S. (1962/1983). The structure of scientific revolutions / La structure des révolutions scientifiques. Chicago : University of Chicago/Paris : Flammarion. FRIMAN, P.C., ALLEN, K.D., KERWIN, M.L.E. & LARZELERE, R. (1993). A citation analysis of the Kuhnian displacement thesis. American Psychologist, 48 (6), 658-664.
WARREN, N. (1971). Is a scientific revolution taking place in psychology ? Doubts and reservations. Science Studies, 4, 407-413. ROBINS, R.W. & CRAIK, K.H. (1994). A more appropriate test of the Kuhnian displacement thesis. American Psychologist, 49 (9), 815-816. [PDF]
WEIMER, W.B. & PALERMO, D.S. (1973). Paradigms and normal science in psychology. Science Studies, 3, 211-244. LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. (1998). Essai sur les paradigmes de la psychiatrie moderne. Paris : Éditions du Temps.
MASTERMAN, M. (1974). The nature of a paradigm. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave. (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge (pp. 59-89). Cambridge, UK : University Press. ROBINSON, D.N. (2000). Paradigms and "the myth of framework" : how science progresses. Theory & Psychology, 10, 39-47.
PERRY, N. (1977). A comparative analysis of "Paradigm" proliferation. British Journal of Sociology, 28, 38-50. PEPLAU, L.A. & GARNETS, L.D. (2000). A new paradigm for understanding women's sexuality and sexual orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (2), 329-350. [PDF]
KUHN, T.S. (1977/90). The essential tension /La tension essentielle : Tradition et changement dans les Sciences. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. MILLER, G.A. (2003). The cognitive revolution : A historical perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (3), 141. [PDF]
TRYON, W.W. (1977). Another example of a paradigm clash : A reply to Bixenstein's "criticisms". American Psychologist, 32, 575-576. TRACY, J.L., ROBINS, R.W. & GOSLING, S.D. (2004). Tracking trends in psychological science : An empirical analysis of the history of psychology. In T.C. Dalton & R.B. Evans (Eds.), The life cycle of psychological ideas. (pp. 105-130). New York : Kluwer Academic. [PDF]
BANDURA, A. (1978). On paradigms and recycled ideologies. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 2, 79-103. [PDF] NICHOLSON, N. & WHITE, R. (2006). Darwinism : A new paradigm for organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 111-119. [PDF]
GUTTING, G. (1980). Paradigms and revolutions. Notre Dame : University of Notre Dame Press. VAN HAAFTEN, W. (2007). Conceptual change and paradigm change : What's the difference ? Theory Psychology 17, 59-85.
HENLEY, T.B. (1989). Meehl revisited : A look at paradigms in psychology. Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology, 9 (1), 30-36. MORGAN, D.L. (2007). Paradigms lost and pragmatism regained : Methodological implications of combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 48-76.
Voir aussi Kuhn
Paradis fiscal : Pays ou territoire dont les niveaux d'imposition pour les particuliers et les entreprises sont nulle ou faible.

  DENEAULT, A. (2014). Paradis fiscaux : La fillière canadienne : Barbade, Caïmans, Bahamas, Nouvelle-Écosse, Ontario... Montréal : Écosociété.
DENEAULT, A. (2016). Une escroquerie légalisée : Précis sur les "paradis fiscaux". Montréal : Écosociété.
Paradoxe : Du grec para, qui signifie «contre» et doxa, qui veut dire «opinion». En logique, raisonnement ou problème sans solution. EX: Paradoxe du barbier. De façon générale, le paradoxe désigne deux propositions contradictoires en apparence incompatibles. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Paradox.
Paradoxes
Paradoxe auditif Paradoxe de l'âne de Buridan Paradoxe du menteur
Paradoxe de condorcet Paradoxe de la valeur C Paradoxe de Simpson
Paradoxe de Ellsberg Paradoxe du barbier Pari de Pascal
 

  MEEHL, P.E. (1950). A most peculiar paradox. Philosophical Studies, 1, 47-48. [PDF] ABELSON, R.P. (1985). A variance explanation paradox : When a little is a Lot. Psychological Bulletin, 97 (1), 129-133. [PDF]
QUINE, W.V.O (1966). The ways of paradox. Harvard UP. JACKENDOFF, R. (1991). The paradox of language acquisition. Teaching Thinking & Problem Solving, 13 (5), 1-6.
WATLAWICK, P., WEAKLAND, J. & FISH, R. (1975/81). Changements, paradoxes et psychothérapies. Paris : Éditions du Seuil/Collection Points. YABLO, S. (1997). Paradox without self-reference. Analysis, 53, 251-252. [PDF]
  DEUTSCH, D. (2002). A musical paradox. Music Perception, 3 (3), 275-280. [PDF]
GUPTA, A. (1982). Truth and Paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 11, 1-60. BIRNBAUM, M.H. (2008). New paradoxes of risky decision making. Psychological Review, 115 (2), 463-501. [PDF]
YABLO, S. (1982). Grounding, dependence, and paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 11, 117-137. FLYNN, J.R. (1984).The "Flynn Effect" and Flynn's paradox. Intelligence, 41 (6), 851-857.
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Paradoxe auditif : Paradoxe découvert par Condorcet.
  DEUTSCH, D. (2002). A musical paradox. Music Perception, 3 (3), 275-280. [PDF]
Paradoxe de Condorcet : Paradoxe découvert par Condorcet.
  BOLAND, P.J. (1989). Majority systems and the Condorcet jury theorem. The Statistician, 38, 181-189.
Paradoxe de Ellsberg : Paradoxe découvert par Ellsberg. Ellsberg paradox.
  SEGAL, U. (1987). The Ellsberg paradox and risk aversion : An anticipated utility approach. International Economic Review, 28 (1), 175–202.
Paradoxe de l'âne de Buridan : Allégorie sur l'hésitation, la rationalité et l'absurdité de la vie. Un âne, à équidistance entre deux bottes de foin identiques (A et B), ne trouve aucune raison de choisir la botte A plutôt que la B et finira en raison de son hésitation par mourir de faim; s'il avait choisi la botte de foin au hasard, où s'il avait été moins rationnel, il aurait survécu à cette épreuve. Ce dilemme oppose parfois une botte de foin (ou picotin d'avoine) et un sceau d'eau et (donc deux besoins d'importance égale). Contrairement à ce que l'on pourrait croire, ce dilemme n'a pas été formulé par Buridan.

 
Paradoxe de la valeur C : C pour codant. Désigne l'absence ou la faible corrélation entre la complexité apparente des êtres vivants et la taille de leur génome. Paradoxe de la valeur C et gène non-codant.
   OHNO, S. (1972). So much "junk DNA" in our genome. Evolution of Genetic Systems, 23, 366-370.
Paradoxe de Simpson :

 
Paradoxe du barbier : Paradoxe découvert par Russel.
 
Paradoxe du menteur : Koyré a proposé une solution à ce paradoxe.
 
Paralangage : Voir Langage (Para).
Parallaxe de mouvement : Indice monoculaire de profondeur qui relève du fait que lorsqu'un individu est en mouvement, les objets rapprochés semblent se déplacer plus rapidement que les objets éloignés. La vitesse apparente de déplacement d'un objet nous informe donc sur la distance de cet objet.

  TOZAWA, J. TORII, S. & MOCHIZUKI, T. (2006). Effects of motion parallax and perspective cues on perceived size and distance. Perception, 10, 89-93.
Parallèle : Le terme a deux acceptions : a) Opération mentale qui consiste à comparer deux objets, semblables à certains égards, afin que les propriétés de l'un d'entre eux puissent servir à mieux décrire et expliquer les propriétés de l'autre. EX : Plusieurs psychologues tracent un parallèle entre un ordinateur (objet 1) et un cerveau (objet 2), notamment sur le plan de la mémoire (propriété de 1 et 2). En science, on appelle ces parallèles des modèles. Parallel. b) Le terme est également utilisé pour désigner le fonctionnement de deux choses, physiquement proches, qui ne rencontrent jamais mais se déroulent au même endroit souvent au même moment (simultanément). EX : Plusieurs psychologues croient que le cerveau est capable de traiter indépendamment deux informations distinctes on dira alors en parallèle ).
  a
PRINGLE, J.W.S. (1951). On the parallel between learning and evolution. Behaviour, 3, 174-215.
 
b
Voir Traitement parallèle de l'information
Paralysie du sommeil : Voir Sommeil (Paralysie).
Paramécie (Paramecium Caudatum) : Protozoaire.

  ARMUS, H.L. & MONTGOMERY, A.R. (2001). Aversive and attractive properties of electrical stimulation for Paramecium Caudatum. Psychological Reports, 89, 342-344.
ARMUS, H.L., MONTGOMERY, A.R. & GURNEY, R.L. (2006). Discrimination learning and extinction in paramecia (P. caudatum). Psychological Reports, 98, 705-711.
ARMUS, H.L., MONTGOMERY, A.R. & JELLISON, J.L. (2006). Discrimination learning in pramecia (P. caudatum). The Psychological Record, 56, 489-498. [PDF]
Voir aussi Paramécie
Paramètre (d'une réponse) : Les paramètres sont les aspects ou les dimensions mesurables d'un indicateur (un comportement, une réponse physiologique, etc.). EX: Mesurer le nombre de fois (fréquence) qu'un enfant pleure (comportement) en une journée (intervalle de temps). ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Parameter.

Exemples Indicateurs Paramètres
Pleurer Fréquence
Comportement d'aide Durée

Les paramètres
Absence/présence Intensité Latence
Amplitude Intervalle de temps Précision
Fréquence Durée Séquence ou ordre

  FAGEN, R.M. & YOUNG, D.Y. (1978). Temporal patterns of behaviour : Durations, intervals, latencies and sequences. In P.W. Colgan (Ed.), Quantitative ethology (pp. 79-114). New York : Wiley.
Paramètre statistique : Ce sont les aspects ou les dimensions mesurables d'une distribution. EX: La moyenne est un paramètre de la distribution normale.

 
Paranoïa/Paranoïaque : Du grec para qui signifie «coté» et nous qui signifie «esprit». Délire fondé sur une perception erronée de la réalité; et qui se caractérise par les sympômes suivants : méfiance extrême à l'égard des autres et sentiment de persécution (Ils sont là, derrière la porte, sous ma peau...), une surestimation démesurée et pathologique de soi-même (Je suis le plus beau, le meilleur, etc.), une susceptibilité à fleur de peau (Une petite erreur, moi... Impossible !), un jugement erroné. (Le Québec ne sera jamais un pays, tout le monde sait ça). Paranoïa, Personnalité paranoïaque et schizophrénie paranoïaque.
Paranoïa
Délire paranoïque Personnalité paranoïaque Schizophrénie paranoïaque
 

  ROSENFELD, H. (1949). Remarks on the relation of male homosexuality to paranoia, paranoid anxiety and narcissism. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 30, 36-47.
LEMERT, E. (1962). Paranoia and the dynamics of exclusion. Sociometry, 25 (1), 2-20
KENDLER, K.S. (1980). The nosologic validity of paranoia (simple delusional disorder) : A review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 699-706.
CARSTENSEN, L.L. & FREMOUW, W.J. (1981). The demonstration of a behavioral intervention for late life paranoia. The Gerontologist, 21, 329-333.
CHADWICK, P.D.J., BIRCHWOOD, M.J. & TROWER, P. (1996). Cognitive therapy for delusions, voices and paranoia. Chichester, UK : Wiley.
COMBS, D.R., TIEGREEN, J. & NELSON, A. (2007). The use of behavioral experiments to modify delusion and paranoia : Clinical guidelines and Recommendations. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, 3 (1), 30-37. [PDF]
CHADWICK, P.D.J., HUGHES, S., RUSSELL, D., RUSSELL, I. & DAGNA, D. (2009). Mindfulness groups for distressing voices and paranoia : a replication and feasibility trial. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37, 403-412.
Voir Personnalité paranoïaque, Exclusion et Délire
Paranormal : Voir Phénomène paranormal ou Parapsychologie.
Paraphilie : Terme proposé en 1980 (DSM-III) pour remplacer l'expression déviance sexuelle. Il désigne l'ensemble de comportements sexuels caractérisé par le choix préférentiel et répétitif, parfois exclusif, d'objets, de rituels ou de situations atypiques comme moyen d'excitation et d'obtention d'un plaisir sexuel. = déviance sexuelle, perversion, plaisir sexuel atypique. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Paraphilia, paraphilic disorder, sexual deviance, sexual aberration.
Types de paraphilie
Coprophalie Frotteurisme Pictophilie
Éonisme Mésomorphilie Somnophilie
    Trouble hypersexuel
Exhibitionnisme Mysophilie Urophilie
Coprophalie Nécrophilie Voyeurisme
Fétichisme Pédophilie Zoophilie
 

  KRAFFT-EBING, R.F. (1886/32). Psychopathia sexualis. Physicians and Surgeons Book Company. ABEL, G.G. & OSBORN, C.A. (2000). The paraphilias. In M.G. Gelder, J.J. Lopez-Ibor & N. Andreasen (Eds.), New Oxford textbook of psychiatry (pp. 897-913). New York : Oxford.
STEKEL, W. (1930). Sexual aberrations : The phenomenon of fetishism in relation to sex. Liveright Publishing. MOSER, C.A. (2001). Paraphilia : Another confused sexological concept In P.J. Kleinplatz (Ed.), New directions in sex therapy-innovations and alternatives. Brunner-Routledge.
ELLIS, A. (1952). Perversions and neurosis. International Journal of Sexology, 55, 135-138. SPITZER, R.L. & WAKEFIELD, J.C. (2002). Why pedophilia is a disorder of sexual attraction at least sometimes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 499-500.
STOLLER, R.J. (1978). La perversion forme érotique de la haine. Paris : Payot. WEIDERMAN, M. (2003). Paraphilia and fetishism. The Family Journal, 11 (3), 315-321. [PDF]
MONEY, J. (1986). Lovemaps: Clinical concepts of sexual/erotic health and pathology, paraphilia, and gender transposition in childhood, adolescence, and maturity. New York : Irvington. MOSER, C.A. & KLEINPLATZ, P.J. (2005). DSM-IV-TR and the paraphilias : An argument for removal. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 17 (3/4), 91-109.
  FIRST, M.B. & FRANCES, A. (2008). Issues for DSM-5 : Unintended consequences of small changes: The case of paraphilias [Editorial]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1240-1241.
  DECLUE, G. (2009). Paraphilia NOS and sexual disorder NOS. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 1, 1-29.
GABBARD, G.O. (1990). Dynamic approaches to the paraphilias. Directions in Psychiatry, 10 (6), 1-8. HINDERLITER, A.C. (2010). Defining paraphilia : excluding exclusion. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 2, 241-271. [PDF]
FEDOROFF, J.P. (1992). Buspirone hydrochloride in the treatment of an atypical paraphilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 21, 403-408. THORNTON, D. (2010). Evidence regarding the need for a diagnostic category for a coercive paraphilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 411-418.
BRADFORD, J.M.W., BOULET, J. & PAWLAK, A. (1992). The paraphilias : A multiplicity of deviant behaviours. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 104-108. QUINSEY, V.L. (2010). Coercive paraphilic disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 405-410. [PDF]
LAWS, D.L. & O'DONOHUE, W. (Eds.) (1997). Sexual deviance : Theory, assessment, and treatment. Guilford Press. MARSH, B.L., ODLAUG, B.A.,THOMARIOS, N., DAVIS, A.A., BUCHANAN, B.S., MEYER, C.S. & GRANT, J.E. (2010). Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 22 (2), 129-134. [PDF]
TRUDEL, G. (1988). Les dysfonctions sexuelles. Montréal. Les Presses de l'Université du Québec. Voir aussi Déviance sexuelle et Plaisir sexuel
Paraphrase/Paraphraser : Consiste à transformer la structure d'une phrase (syntaxe) ou d'un texte, sans en modifier le sens, donc en préservant l'idée à l'origine de cette phrase et, en science, en citant la source de cette idée. Paraphraser, écrire et plagier. = reformuler, dire dans ses mots. Paraphrasing.
  GLEITMAN, L. & GLEITMAN, H. (1970). Phrase and paraphrase. New York : W.W. Norton.
ROIG, M. (1999). When college students' attempts at paraphrasing become instances of potential plagiarism. Psychological Reports, 84 (3), 973-982.
ROIG, M. (2001). Plagiarism and paraphrasing criteria of college and university professors. Ethics & Behavior, 11 (3), 307-324.
SHIRLEY, S. (2004). The art of paraphrase. Teaching English in the two-year college 22 (2), 186-189.
BARRY, E.S. (2006). Can paraphrasing practice help students define plagiarism ? College Student Journal, 4 (2), 377-384.
Voir aussi Tricherie et Écrire
Paraphrénie : Type de psychose chronique non-dissociative qui se caractérise par des délires concentrés dans certaines sphères d'activités de la vie quotidienne.

  KAY, D.W.K. & ROTH, M. (1961). Environmental and hereditary factors in schizophrenias of old-age (late paraphrenia) and their bearing ongeneral problem of causation in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science, 107, 649.
HERBERT, M.E. & JACOBSON, S. (1967). Late paraphrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 461-469.
IMEIDA, O.P., HOWARD, R.J. & LEVY, R. (1992). Late paraphrenia : a review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7,543-548.
IMEIDA, O.P., HOWARD, R.J., LEVY, R. & DAVID, A S. (1995). Psychotic states arising in late life (late paraphrenia) : The role of risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 215-228.
ROTH, M. & KAY, D.W.K. (1998). Late paraphrenia : A variant of schizophrenia manifest in late life or an organic clinical syndrome ? A review of recent evidence. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13,775-784.
RAVINDRAN, A.V., YATHAM, L.N. & MUNRO, A. (1999). Paraphrenia redefined. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/ Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 44, 133-137.
CASANOVA, M.F. (2010). The pathology of paraphrenia. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12 (3), 196-20.
Voir aussi Psychose et Délire
Paraprofessionnel : Voir Professionnel (Para).
Parapsychologie : Voir Psychologie (Para). ESP.
Parasite/Parasitisme : Relation entre deux organismes (ou plus) d'espèces différentes qui est bénéfique pour l'un d'eux (le parasite) et désavantageuse pour l'autre (l'hôte). Parasitisme et commensalisme. Parasitism.

  WINFREE, R. (1999). Cuckoos, cowbirds and the persistence of brood parasitism. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14, 338-343.
Voir aussi Commensalisme
Paraskevidékatriaphobie : Phobie du chiffre 13.

 
Parasomnie : Ensemble de comportements involontaires qui se manifestent lors du sommeil, et qui peuvent parfois être ou devenir pathologiques. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Parasomnia.

Les parasomnies
Bruxisme Énurésie Somniloquie
Cauchemar Somnambulisme Terreur nocturne
 

  LABERGE, L., TREMBLAY, R.E., VITARO, F & MONTPLAISIR, J. (2000). Development of parasomnias from childhood to early adolescence. Pediatrics, 106 (1), 67-74.
HUBLIN, C. & KAPRIO, J. (2003). Genetic aspects and genetic epidemiology of parasomnias. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7 (5), 413-421.
Voir aussi Sommeil
Parasuicide : Voir Suicide (Para).
Parcelle (de nourriture) : Lieu où se concentrent les ressources du milieu. Ces parcelles peuvent être fixes (EX : un point d'eau) ou mobiles (EX : un troupeau de caribous pour une meute de loups). = source pontuel. Patch.

  GALEF, B.G. & WIGMORE, S.W. (1983). Transfer of information concerning distant food : a test of the "information centre" hypothesis. Animal Behaviour, 31, 748-758.
KACELNIK, A. (1984). Central place foraging in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) I : Patch residence time. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53, 283-299.
FAHRIG, L. & MERRIAM, G. (1985). Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology, 66, 1762-1768.
FAHRIG, L. & PALOHEIMO, J.E. (1988). Determinants of local population size in patchy habitats. Theoretical Population Biology 34,194-213.
BOWERS, M.A., GREGARIO, K., BRAME, C.J., MATTER, S.F. & DOOLEY, J.L. (1966). Use of space and habitats by meadow voles at home range, patch and landscape scales. Oecologia, 105, 107-115.
BENDER, D.J. CONTRERAS, A.T. & FAHRIG, L. (1998). Habitat loss and population decline : a meta-analysis of the patch size effect. Ecology, 79, 517-533.
BOWMAN, J., CAPPUCINNO, N. & FAHRIG, L. (2002). Patch size and population density : the effect of immigration behavior. Conservation Ecology, 6 (1).
Voir Ressource et Approvisionnement alimentaire
Parcimonie : Voir Principe de parcimonie.
Pardon : Forgiveness.

  CANZONERI, N., GEVA, N. & VEDLITZ, A. (1999). The role of forgiveness in intergroup conflict resolution. Journal of Intergroup Relations, 26 (3), 26-47.
 
   
 
Paréidolie : Du grec para qui signifie «à côté de», et eidôlon ou eidos qui veut dire « apparence, forme». Type d’illusion qui consiste à reconnaître des formes familières dans des objets (ou des ensembles d'objets) qui ne possèdent pas réellement ces formes. EX: Voir une ourse (forme famillière) en regardant les étoiles (constellation d'objets). Pareidolia, illusory face perception.

  FONTENELLE, L.F. (2008). Pareidolias in obsessive-compulsive disorder : neglected symptoms that may respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Neurocase, 14 (5), 414-418.
RIEKKI, T., LINDEMAN, M., ALENEFF, M., HALME, A. & NUORTIMO, A. (2013). Paranormal and religious believers are more prone to illusory face perception than skeptics and non-believers. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27 (2), 150-155.
 
Parent = Fonction sociale OU Parent = Nom propre
 

Parent : Père et/ou mère qui s'occupe de ses enfants, leur prodigue des soins, au sein ou non d'une famille. Cette personne est souvent le géniteur et est habituellement un adulte (sinon voir fille-mère), qui vit en couple (sinon voir divorce). Parent et habileté parentale. Parent, parenthood.

Types de parent
Parent adoptif Parent habile Parent thérapeute
Parent biologique Parent homosexuel Parent violent
Parent divorcé ou séparé Parent seul Soins des parents
 
Rôles et fonctions du parent
Implication des parents Sollicitude parentale Soins des parents
Discipline parentale Style parental Soutien aux parents
    Tolérance parentale
 

  ZUCKERMAN, M., BARRETT, B.H. & BRAGIEL, R.M. (1960). The parental attitudes of parents of child guidance cases : I. Comparisons with normals, investigations of socioeconomic and family constellation factors, and relations to parents' reactions to the clinics. Child Development, 31, 401-417. WENTZEL, K.R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school : The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (2), 202-209. [PDF]
ROTHBART, M.K. & MACCOBY, E.E. (1966). Parents' differential reactions to sons and daughters. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 4, 237-243. JENSON, C., GREEN, R., SINGH, N., BEST, A. & ELLIS, C. (1998). Parental attributions of the causes of their children's behavior. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 7 (2), 205-215.
RYBACK, D. & STAATS, A.W. (1970). Parents as behavior therapy-technicians in treating reading deficits (dyslexia). Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 1, 109-117. GAVIN, K.M. & GREENFIELD, D.B. (1998). A comparison of levels of involvement for parents with at-risk African American kindergarten children in classrooms with high versus low teacher encouragement. Journal of Black Psychology, 24 (4), 403-417.
BATES, P. (1977). The search for reinforcers to train and maintain effective parent behaviors. Rehabilitation Literature, 9, 291-295. GELMAN, S.A., COLEY, J.D., ROSENGREN, K.R., HARTMANN, E.E. & PAPPAS, A.S. (1998). Beyond labeling : The role of parental input in the acquisition of richly-structured categories. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (1), 1-148.
BORNSTEIN, P.H & HAMILTON, S.B. (1978). Positive parental praise : Increasing reactivity and accuracy of self-observation. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 6, 503-509. JENSON, C., GREEN, R., SINGH, N., BEST, A. & ELLIS, C. (1998). Parental attnbutions of the causes of their children's behavior. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 7 (2), 205-215.
WRIGHT, R. (1978). Parent power : A guide to responsible child rearing. New York : Psychological Dimensions. WOODWARD, L., TAYLOR, E. & DOWDNEY, L. (1998). The parenting and family functioning of children with hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 39 (2), 161-169.
FAGOT, B.I. (1978). The influence of sex of child on parental reactions to toddler children. Child Development, 49, 459-465. NATHANSON, A.I. (1999). Identifying and explaining the relationship between parental mediation and children's aggression. Communication Research, 26, 124-143.
EYBERG, S.M. & MATARZZO, R.G. (1980). Training parents as therapists : A comparison between individual parent-child interaction training and parent group didactic training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 492-499. BAINHAM, A., DAY, S., SLATER, S. & RICHARDS, M. (Eds.) (1999). What is a parent ? Oxford : Oxford University Press.
YOGMAN, M.W. (1981). Games fathers and mothers play with their infants. Infant Mental Health Journal, 2, 241-248. GRIFFITHS, M.D. (2003). Videogames : Advice for teachers and parents. Education & Health, 21, 48-49.
BELSKY, J. (1984). The determinants of parenting : A process model. Child Development, 55, 83-90. COLLINS, W.A., MACOBY, E.E., STEINBERG, L., HETHERINGTON, E.M. & BORNSTEIN, M.H. (2000). Contemporary research on parenting the case for nature and nurture. American Psychologist, 55 (2), 218-232. [PDF]
SOBOL, M., ASHBOURNE, D., EARN, B. & CUNNINGHAM, C. (1989). Parents' attributions for achieving cornpliance from Attention-deficit-disordered children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17 (3), 359-369. KLONSKY, E.D., OLTMANNS, T.F., TURKHEIMER, E. & FIEDLER, E. (2000). Recollections of conflict with parents and family support in the personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 311-322. [PDF]
GLASCOE, F.P., ALTEMEIER, W.K. & MacLEAN, W.E. (1989). The importance of parents’ concerns about their child's development. American Journal of Disease of Children, 143, 855-858. MATTHEY, S., BARNETT, B., UNGER, J. & WATERS, B. (2000). Paternal and maternal depressed mood during the transition to parenthood. Journal of Affective Disorders, 60 (2), 75-85.
MASH, E. & JOHNSTON, C. (1990). Determinants of parenting stress : Illustrations from families of hyperactive children and families of physically abused children. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19 (4), 313-328. MELHUISH, E.C. (2001). The quest for quality in early day care preschool experience continues. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25 (1), 1-6.
GLASCOE, F.P. & MacLEAN, W.E. (1990). How parents appraise their child's development. Family Relations, 39, 280-283. GLASCOE, F.P. (2000). Evidence-based approach to developmental and behavioural surveillance using parents' concerns. Child : Care, Health Development, 26 (2), 137-149.
MARSH, H.W. (1990). Two-parent, step-parent, and single-parent families : Changes in achievement, attitudes and behaviors during the last two years of high school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 82, 327-340. BOOTH, A. & AMATO, P.R. (2001). Parental predivorce relations and offspring postdivorce well-being. Journal of Marriage & Family, 63, 197-212.
GLASCOE, F.P., MacLEAN, W.E. & STONE, W.L. (1991). The importance of parents' concerns about their child's behavior. Clinical Pediatrics, 30, 8-11. WENTZEL, K.R. (2002). Are effective teachers like good parents ? Interpersonal predictors of school adjustment in early adolescence. Child Development, 73, 287-301. [PDF]
AMATO, P.R. & BOOTH, A. (1991). The consequences of parental divorce and marital unhappiness for adult well-being. Social Forces, 69, 895-914. ZNOJ, H.J. & KELLER, D. (2002). Mourning parents : considering safeguards and their relation to health. Death Studies, 26, 545-565. [PDF]
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BLATT S. J. & HOMANN, E. (1992). Parent-child interaction in the etiology of dependent and self-critical depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 12, 47-91 GRIFFITHS, M.D. (2003). Videogames : Advice for teachers and parents. Education & Health, 21 (3), 48-49. [PDF]
PISTERMAN, S., FIRESTONE, P., MCGRATH, P., GOODMAN, J.T., WEBSTER, K., MALLORY, R. & GOFFIN B. (1992). The effects of parent training on parenting stress and sense of competence. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 4 (1), 41-58. [PDF] BRESTAN, E.V., EYBERG, S.M., ALGINA, J., JOHNSON, S.B. & BOGGS, S.R. (2003). How annoying is it ? Defining parental tolerance for child misbehavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 25, 1-15. [PDF]
DOWNEY D. & POWELL, B. (1993). Do children in single-parent households fare better living with same-sex parents ? Journal of Marriage & the Family, 55, 55-71. KAIYZ, M. & KATZIR, D. (2004). Temporal changes in the affective experience of new fathers and their spouses. Infant Mental Health Journal, 25 (6), 540-555.
SMOLL, F. (1993). Enhancing coach parent relationships in youth sports. In J. Williams (Éd.), Applied Sport Psychology (pp. 58-67). Palo Alto, Mayfield. BURLAND, K. et DAVIDSON, J. (2004). Rôle des parents dans le développement du musicien classique professionnel. Revue STAPS, 64, 89-108.
ECCLES, J.S. & HAROLD, R.D. (1993). Parent-school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers' College Record, 94, 568-587. MORAES, L.C., SALMELA, J.H., RABELO, A. et VIANNA, N. (2004). Le rôle des parents dans le développement des jeu- nes joueurs de football et de tennis brésiliens. Revue STAPS, 64, 109-126.
ARNOLD, D.S., O'LEARY, S.G., WOLFF, L.S. & ACKER, M.M. (1993). The Parenting Scale : A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5 (2), 137-144. KUO, A.A., FRANKE, T.M., REGALDO, M. & HALFON, N. (2004). Parent report of reading to young children. Pediatrics, 113 (6), 1944-1951. [PDF] + [PDF]
GLASCOE, F.P. (1994). It’s not what it seems : The relationship between parents’ concerns and children’s cognitive status. Clinical Pediatrics, 33, 292-298. PERLESZ, A., & McNAIR, R. (2004). Lesbian parenting : Insiders' voices. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25 (2), 129-140.
BAKER, D.B. (1994). Parenting stress and ADHD : A cornpaison of mothers and fathers. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 46-50. GOLDSTEIN, S.E., DAVIS-KEAN, P.E. & ECCLES, J.S. (2005). Parents, peers, and problem behavior : A longitudinal investigation of the impact of relationship perceptions and characteristics on the development of adolescent problem behavior. Developmental Psychology, 41 (2), 401-413.
AMATO, P.R. (1994). Life-span adjustment of children to their parents’ divorce. Children & Divorce, 4 (1), 143-164. [PDF] SPERA, A (2005). Review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17 (2), 125-146. [PDF]
WALKER, L., GARBER, J. & VAN SLYKE, D. (1995). Do parents excuse the misbehavior of children with physical or emotional symptoms ? An investigation of the pediatric sick role. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 20 (3), 329-345. WIGHT, D., WILLIAMSON, L. & HENDERSON, M. (2006). Parental influences on young people's sexual behaviour : A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Adolescence, 29 (4), 473-494.
GLASCOE, F.P. & SANDLER, H. (1995). Value of parents’ estimates of children's developmental ages. Journal of Pediatrics, 127, 831-835. GROLNICK, W.S. & SEAL, K. (2008). Pressured parents, stressed-out kids : Dealing with the competition while raising a successful child. Amherst, NY : Prometheus Books.
HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. & SANDLER, H.M. (1996). Parental involvement in children's education : Why does it make a difference ? Teachers College Record, 97 (2), 311-331. [PDF] FAIRLOUGH, A. (2008). Growing up with a lesbian or gay parent : Young people's perspectives. Health & Social Care in the Community 16 (5), 521–528.
JOINER, T. & WAGNER, K. (1996). Parental, child-centered attributions and outcorne : A meta-anal ytic review with conceptual and methodological implications. Journal of Abnormal Child Psvchology, 24 (1), 37-52. McNAIR, R., BROWN, R., PERLESZ, A., LINDSAY, J., DE VAUS, D. & PITTS, M. (2008). Lesbian parents negotiating the health care system in Australia. Health Care for Women International, 29 (2), 91-114.
GOLOMBOK, S. & TASKER, F. (1996). Do parents influence the sexual orientation of their children? Findings from a longitudinal study of lesbian families. Developmental Psychology, 32 (1), 3-11. DIXON, M.A. & WARNER, S.M. (2008). More than just letting them play : Parental influence on women’s lifetime sport involvement. Sociology of Sport Journal, 25, 538-559. [PDF]
GLASCOE, F.P. (1997). Do parents’ discuss concerns about children'development : With health care providers? Ambulatory Child Health, 2, 349-356. SIMONS-BARTON, B. & CHEN, R. (2009). Peer and parent influences on school engagement among early adolescents. Youth & Society, 41 (1), 3-25. [PDF]
  PRINZIE, P., STAMS, G.J.J., DEKOVIC, M., REIJNJES, A.H. & BELSKY, J. (2009). The relations between parents' Big Five personality factors and parenting : A meta-analytic review. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 97, 351-362.
  GRIFFITHS, M. (2009). Online computer gaming: Advice for parents and teachers. Education & Health, 27 (1), 3-6. [PDF]
JOHNSTON, C. & FREEMAN, W. (1997). Attributions for child behavior in parents of children without behavior disorders and children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychoiogy, 65 (4), 636-645. HABER, M.G. & TORO, P.A. (2009). Parent-adolescent violence and later behavioral health problems among homeless and housed youth. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 79 (3), 305-318. [PDF]
LYKKEN, D.T. (1997). Incompetent parenting : Its causes and cures. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 27, 129-137. RUBIN, K.H., KENNEDY, A. & BOWKER, J. (2010). Parents, peers, andsocial withdrawal in childhood : A relationship perspective. New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development, 127, 79-94. [PDF]
JACOB, T. & JOHNSON, S. (1997). Parenting influences on the development of alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol Health & Research World, 21 (3), 205-209. [PDF] SADEH, A., TIKOTZKY, L. & SCHER, A. (2010). Parenting and infant sleep. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14, 89-96. [PDF]
  GRIFFITHS, M.D. & KUSS, D.J. (2010). Adolescent social networking : Should parents and teachers be worried ? Education & Health, 29 (2), 23-25. [PDF]
COTE, L. & AZAR, S. (1997). Child age, parent and child gender and domain differences in parents' attributions and responses to children's outcomes. Sex Roles, 36, 23-50. GLASCOE, F.P. & LEEW, S. (2010). Parenting behaviors, perceptions and psychosocial risk : Impact on child development. Pediatrics, 125, 313-319. [PDF]
  VILLANTI, A., BOULAY, M. & JUON H. (2011). Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage. Addictive Behaviors, 36 (1-2), 133-136. [PDF]
GLASCOE, F.P. (1997). Do parents discuss concerns about children’s development with health care providers ? Ambulatory Child Health, 2, 349-356. FOSCO, G.M., STORMSHAK, E.A. & WINTER, C. (2012). Family relationships and parental monitoring during middle school as predictors of early adolescent problem behavior. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 41 (2), 202-213. [PDF]
  BESNARD, T., VERLAAN, P., CAPUANO, F., POULIN, F. et VITARO, F. (2011). Les pratiques parentales des parents d'enfants en difficultés de comportement : Effets de la dyade parent-enfant. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 43, 254-266. [PDF]
ANDREW J.A., HOPS, H. & DUNCAN, S.C. (1997). Adolescent modeling of parent substance use : The moderating effect of the relationship with the parent. Journal of Family Psychology, 11 (3), 259–270. NELSON, S.K., KUSHLEV, K., ENGLISH, T., DUNN, E.W. & LYUBOMIRSKY, S. (2013). In defense of parenthood : Children are associated with more joy than misery. Psychological Science, 24 (1), 3-10. [PDF]
  NELSON, S.K., KUSHLEV, K. & LYUBOMIRSKY, S. (2014). The pains and pleasures of parenting : When, why, and how is parenthood associated with more or less well-being ? Psychological Bulletin, 140, 846-895. [PDF]
  AZNAR, N. & TENENBAUM, H.R. (2016). Parent' child positive touch : Gender, age, and task differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 40 (4), 317-333. [PDF]
Voir aussi Père et Mère
Parents (Pratique, discipline, autorité et encadrement des...) : Ensemble de règles mis en oeuvre par les parents afin d'inculquer, maintenir, surveiller et corriger les comportements de leurs enfants. = éducation parentale, supervison parentale, pratique parentale. Parental discipline, control parents, parenting, parent tutoring, parent monitoring, parent surveillance.

  BAUMRIND, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37 (4), 887-907. [PDF] GLASCOE, F.P. & DWORKIN, P.H. (1995). The role of parents in the detection of developmental and behavioral problems. Pediatrics, 95 (6), 829-836.
TEDIN, K.L. (1974). The influence of parents on the political attitudes of adolescents. American Political Science Review 68, 1579-1592. O'LEARY, S.G. (1995). Parental discipline mistakes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4 (1), 11-13.
WELLER, L. & BERKOVITZ, E. (1975). Parental discipline and delayed gratification. Social Behavior & Personality, 3, 1229-232. HART, B. & RISLEY, T.R. (1995). Meaningful differences in everyday parenting and intellectual development in young American children. Baltimore : Brookes.
BAUMRIND, D. (1978). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth & Society, 9 (3), 239-276. WHITEBECK, L.B., HOYT, D.R. & ACKLEY, K.A. (1997). Families of homeless and runaway adolescents : A comparison of parent/caretaker and adolescent perspectives on parenting, family violence, and adolescent conduct. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21 (6), 517-528.
KANANAGH, K., YOUNGBLADE, L.M., REID, J.B. & FAGOT, B.I. (1988). Interactions between children and abusive versus control parents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 137-142. DEATER-DECKARD, K. & DODGE, K.A. (1997). Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited : Nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context, and gender. Psychological Inquiry, 8 (3), 161-175.
STEINBERG, L., ELMEN, J.D. & MOUNTS, N.S. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 1424-1436. RANDOLPH, J.J. & DYKMAN, B.M. (1998). Perceptions of parenting and depression-proneness in the offspring : Dysfunctional attitudes as a mediating mechanism. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 22, 377-400.
GLASCOE, F.P., MacLEAN, W.E. & STONE, W L. (1991). The importance of parents' concerns about their child's behavior. Clinical Pediatrics, 30, 8-11. GLASCOE, F.P. (1999). Toward a model for an evidenced-based approach to developmental/behavioral surveillance, promotion and patient education. Ambulatory Child Health, 5, 197-208.
BISHOP, S.J. & ROTHBAUM, F. (1992). Parents' acceptance of control needs and preschoolers' social behaviour : A longitudinal sudy. Canadian Journal of Behaviour Science, 24 (2), 171-185. HOOK, C.L. & DUPAUL, G.J. (1999). Parent tutoring for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Effects on reading performance and mother-child interactions. School Psychology Review, 28, 60-75.
ECCLES, J.S. & HAROLD, R.D. (1991). Parental-school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers College Record, 94, 568-587. GLASCOE, F.P. (2000). Evidence-based approach to developmental and behavioural surveillance using parents' concerns. Child : Care, Health & Development 26 (2), 137-149.
ARNOLD, D.S., O'LEARY, S.G., WOLFF, L.S. & ACKER, M.M. (1993). The Parenting Scale : A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5 (2), 137-144. GROTE D. (2001). Discipline without punishment. Across the Board, 38, 52-58.
GRUSEC, J.E. & GOODNOW, J.J. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30 (1),1-19. LOPEZ, N.L., SCHNEIDER, H.G. & DULA, C.S. (2002). Parent discipline scale: Discipline choice as a function of transgression type. North American Journal of Psychology, 4, 381-393.
  SORBRING, E., RODHOLM-FUNNEMARK, M. & PALMERUS, K. (2003). "Boys" and "girls" perceptions of parental discipline in transgression situations. Infant & Child Development, 12 (1), 53-69.
  GROLNICK, W.S. (2003). The psychology of parental control: How well-meant parenting backfires. Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  GURLAND, S.T. & GROLNICK, W.S. (2005). Perceived threat, controlling parenting, and children's achievement orientations. Motivation & Emotion, 29, 103-121.
  GROLNICK, W.S., PRICE, C.E., BEISWENGER, K. & SAUCK, C. C. (2007). Evaluative pressure in parents : Effects of situation, maternal, and child characteristics on autonomy-supportive versus controlling behavior. Developmental Psychology, 43, 991-1002.
  POMERANTZ, E.M. & WANG, Q. (2009). The role of parents' control in children's development in Western and East Asian countries. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18, 285-289.
  BESNARD, T., VERLAAN, P., CAPUANO, F., POULIN, F. et VITARO, F. (2011). Les pratiques parentales des parents d'enfants en difficultés de comportement : Effets de la dyade parent-enfant. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 43, 254-266. [PDF]
GLASCOE, F.P. (1994). It's not what it seems : The relationship between parents' concerns and children's cognitive status. Clinical Pediatrics, 33, 292-298. TAM, C.-L., LEE, T.-H., KUMARASURIAR, V. & HAR, W.-M. (2012). Parental authority, parent-child relationship and gender differences : A study of college students in the Malaysian context. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 6 (2), 182-189. [PDF]
LATHAM, G.I. (1994). The power of positive parenting.North Logan, UT : P & I Ink. SLESNICK, N., REED, S., LETCHER, A., KATAFIASZ, H., JONES, T. & BUETTNER, C. (2012). Predictors of parental monitoring among families with a runaway adolescent. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82 (1), 10-18. [PDF]
  WOODMAN, A.C. (2014). Trajectories of stress among parents of children with disabilities : A dyadic analysis. Family Relations, 63, 39–54.
  LANDRY, S.H. (2014). Le rôle des parents dans l’apprentissage des jeunes enfants. Dans Encyclopédie sur de développement des jeunes enfants (pp 1-6) [PDF]
Voir aussi Parent, Soins parentaux, Sollicitude parentale et Implication parentale
Parents (Implication/Participation des...) : Temps et efforts consacrés par les parents à l'éducation - notamment sur le plan scolaire - de leurs enfants. Ces efforts peuvent être plus ou moins soutenus et systématiques (Voir encadrement parental). Implication des parents, prépartion à l'école et influence familliale. = participation parentale, suivi parental, influence de la famille. Parent involvement, Parental contribution, parent engagement, parent support.

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WATSON, T., BROWN, M. ET SWICK, K. J. (1983). The relationship of parents support to children's school achievement. Child Welfare League of America, 62 (1), 175-180. VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2001). Interactive science homework : An experiment in home and school connections. NASSP Bulletin, 85 (627), 20-32.
EPSTEIN, J.L. (1984). Effects on parents of teacher practices in parent involvement. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University, Center for Social Organization of Schools. SANDERS, M.G. (2001). How parental liaisons can help bridge home and school. Journal of Educational Research, 101, 287-297. [PDF]
SILVERN, S. (1985). Parent involvement and reading achievement : A review of research and implications for practice. Childhood Education, 62, 44-49. AMADOR, N., FALBO, T. & LEIN, L. (2001). Parental involvement during the transition to high school. Journal of Adolescent Research, 16 (5), 511-529.
TOPPING, K. & WOLFENDALE. S. (Eds.) (1985). Parental involvement in children's reading. New York : Nichols. FAN, X. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement : A growth modeling analysis. The Journal of Experimental Psychology, 70, 27-61.
KEITH, T.Z., REIMERS, T.M., FEHRMANN, P.G., POTTEBAUM, S.M. & AUBEY, L.W. (1986). Parental involvement, homework, and TV time : Direct and indirect effects on high school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 373-380. HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. BATTIATO, A.C., WALKER, J.M.T., REED, R.P., DEJONG, J.M. & JONES, K.P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195-210.
EPSTEIN, J.L. (1986). Parent's reactions to teacher practives of parent involvement. The Elementary School Journal, 86, 277-294. FAN, X. & CHEN, M. (2001). Parental involvement and students' academic achievement : A meta-analysis. Educational Psychology Review, 13, 1-21.
HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V., BASSLER, O.C. & RISSIE, J. (1987). Parent involvement : Contributions of teacher efficacy, school socioeconomic status and other school characteristics. American Education of Research Journal, 24, 417-436. MATTINGLY, D.J.R., PRISLIN, T. L. MCKENZIE, J. L. RODRIGUEZ ET B. KAYZAR (2002). Evaluating evaluations : The case of parental involvement programs. Review of Educational Research, 72 (4), 549-576.
FEHRMANN, P.G., KEITH, T.Z. & REIMERS, T. (1987). Home Influence on school learning: Direct and indirect effects of parental involvement on high school grades. Journal of Educational Research, 806, 330-337. ABRAMS, L.S. & GIBBS, J.T. (2002). Disrupting the logic of home-school relations : Parent involvement strategies and practices of inclusion and exclusion. Urban Education, 37 (3), 384-407.
EPSTEIN, J.L. (1987). Toward a theory of family-school connections : Teacher practices and parent involvement. In K. Hurrelman, F.-X. Kaufmann and F. Losel (Eds.), Social intervention: Potential and constraints. Berlin : W. de Gruyter. SÉNÉCHAL, M. & LEFEVRE, J.-A. (2002). Parental involvement in the development of children's reading skill : a five-year longitudinal study. Child development, 73 (2), 445-460. [PDF]
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POTTER, G. (1989). Parent participation in the language arts program. Language Arts, 66, 21-28. SEYFRIED, S.F. & CHUNG, I.J. (2002). Parent involvement as parental monitoring of student motivation and parent expectations predicting later achievement among African American and European American middle school age students. Journal of Ethnic & Cultural Diversity in Social Work, 11, 109-131.
HAYNES, N.H., CORNER, J.P & HAMILTON-LEE, M. (1989). School climate enhancement through parental involvement. Journal of School Psychology, 27, 87-90.  BAKER, L. & SCHER, D. (2002). Beginning readers' motivation for reading in relation to parental beliefs and home reading experiences. Reading Psychology, 23 (4), 239-269.
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DEGADO-GAITAN, C. (1991). Involving parents in the schools : A process of empowerment. American Journal of Education, 100, 20-46. HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V., WALKER, J.M.T., JONES, K.P. & REED, R.P. (2002). Teachers involving parents TIP: results of an in-service teacher education program for enhancing parental involvement. Teaching & Teacher Education 18, 843–867.
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HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. & SANDLER, H.M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Review of Educational Research, 67 (1), 3-42. [PDF] MCBRIDE, B.A., BROWN, G.L., BOST, K.K., SHIN, N., VAUGHN, B. & KORTH, B. (2005). Paternal identity, maternal gatekeeping, and father involvement. Family Relations, 54, 360-372.
OTTO, L.B. & ATKINSON, M.P. (1997). Parental involvement and adolescent development. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12 (1), 68-89. SHELDON, S. B. (2005). Testing a structural equation model of partnership program implementation and parent involvement. The Elementary School Journal, 106 (2), 171-187.
  SMITH, J.G. (2006). Parental involvement in education among low-income families : A case study. School Community Journal, 16 (1), 43-56. [PDF]
  EPSTEIN, J.L. (2006). Parent involvement grows up. Threshold, 4 (2), 9-12.
  SEGINER, R. (2006). Parents' educational involvement : A developmental ecology perspective. Parenting, Science & Practice, 6 (1), 1-48.
  ANDERSON, K.J. & MINKE, K.M. (2007). Parent involvement in education: Toward an understanding of parents’ decision-making. Journal of Educational Research, 100 (5), 313-323.
  JEYNES, W.H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school academic achievement : A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42 (1), 82-110. [PDF]
  SANDERS, M.G. (2008). How parent liaisons can help bridge home and school. Journal of Educational Research, 101, 287-297. [PDF]
BALLI, S.J., DEMO, D.H. & WEDMAN, J.F. (1998). Family involvement with children's homework : An intervention in the middle grades. Family Relations, 47, 149-57. PATALL, E.A., COOPER, H. & CIVEY, R.J. (2008). Parent involvement in homework : A research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 78 (4), 1039-1101. [PDF]
CALLAHAN, K., RADEMACHER, J.A. & HILDRETH, B.L. (1998). The effect of parent participation in strategies to improve the homework performance of students who are at risk. Remedial & Special Education, 19 (3), 131-141. MENHEERE, A. & HOOGE, E.H. (2010). Parental involvement in children's education : A review study about the effect of parental involvement on children's school education with a focus on the position of illiterate parents. Journal of the European Teacher Education Network, 6, 145-157. [PDF]
SALOMON, A. & COMEAU, J. (1998). La participation des parents à l'école primaire trente ans après : un objectif encore à atteindre. Revue Internationale de Pédagogie, 44 (2-3), 251-267. VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2011). Costs and benefits of family involvement in homework : Lessons learned from students and families. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22, 220-249.
GAVIN, K.M. & GREENFIELD, D.B. (1998). A comparison of levels of involvement for parents with at-risk African American kindergarten children in classrooms with high versus low teacher encouragement. Journal of Black Psychology, 24 (4), 403-417. JEYNES, W.H. (2011). Parental Involvement & Academic Success. New York : Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
WAGGONER, K. & GRIFFITH, A. (1998). Parent involvement in education: Ideology and experience. Journal for a Just and Caring Education, 4 (1), 65-77. ICE, C.L. & HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. (2011). Linking parental motivations for involvement and student proximal achievement outcomes in homeschooling and public shooling settings. Education and Urban Society 43(3) 339–369. [PDF]
LYYTINEN, P., LAASKO, M. & POKKEUS, A. (1998). Parental contributions to child’s early language and interest in books. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 13, 297-308. LARIVÉE, S.J. (2011). Regards croisés sur l'implication parentale et les performances scolaires. Service Social, 57 (2), 5-19. [PDF]
  McDOWALL, P.S. & SCHAUGHENCY, E. (2017). Elementary school parent engagement efforts : Relations with educator perceptions and school characteristics. Journal of Educational Research, 110 (4), 348-365.
BECK, L. & MURPHY, J. (1999). Parental involvement in site-based management : Lessons from one site. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 2 (2), 81-102. McDOWALL, P.S., TAUMOEPEAU, M. & SCHAUGHENCY, E. (2017). Parent involvement in beginning primary school: Correlates and changes in involvement across the first two years of school in a New Zealand sample. Journal of School Psychology, 62, 11-31.
Voir aussi influence de la famille, Parent, Réussite scolaire, Encadrement parental et Soins parentaux
Parents (Soins prodigués par les...) : Soins de base prodigué par un parent à son enfant, dès sa naissance, avec plus ou moins d'habileté, et dont l'objectif et de satisfaire les besoins immédiats (besoins physiologiques, de sécurité et d'affection et d'amour). La qualité de ces soins, ainsi que le temps et les efforts consacrés par les parents à l'éducation de leurs enfants ont une influnce sur le développement des enfants. Soins, technique du kangourou et relation mère-enfant. = soins parentaux, soins de base. Day care, mother care, competent parenting, child care, parental care, spend time with children, spend time in child care.

  AINSWORTH, M.D.S. & BOWLBY, J. (1965). Child care and the growth of love. London : Penguin Books.  
BAUMRIND, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75 (1), 43-88. MEANEY, M.J. (2001). Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 1161-1192.
AINSWORTH, M.D.S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda: Infant care and the growth of love. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press. MELHUISH, E.C. (2001). The quest for quality in early day care preschool experience continues. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25 (1), 1-6.
WILLNER, A.G., BRAUKMANN, C.J., KIRGEN, K.A., FIXSEN, D.L., PHILLIPS, E.L. & WOLF, M.M. (1977). The training and validation of youth-preferred social behaviors with child-care personnel. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10 (2), 219-230. [PDF] BELSKY, J. (2001). Developmental risks (still) associated with early child care. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 42 (7), 845-859. [PDF]
SCARR, S.W. (1984). Mother care other care. New York : Basic Books, Inc.  
BELSKY, J. (1986). Infant day care : A cause for concern ? Zero to Three, 6 (4), 1-7.  
BELSKY, J. & ROVINE, M.J. (1988). Non-maternal care in the first year of life and the security of infant-parent attachment. Child Development, 59, 5-19.  
THOMPSON, R. (1988). The effects of infant day care through the prism of attachment theory. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 3, 273-282. TRASK, P.C., SCHWARTZ, S.M., DEANER, S.L., PATERSON, A.G., JOHNSON, T., RUBENFIRE, M. & POMERLEAU, O.F. (2002). Behavioral medicine : The challenge of integrating psychological and behavioral approaches into primary care. Effective Clinical Practice, 5 (2),75-83. [PDF]
BELSKY, J. (1988). The "effects" of infant day care reconsidered. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 3, 235-272. PARENT, C., ZHANG, T.Y., CALDJI, C., BAGOT, R. & CHAMPAGNE, F.A., PRUESSNER, J. & MEANEY, M.J. (2005). Maternal care and individual differences in defensive responses. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14 (5), 229-233. [PDF]
ZASLOW, M., PEDERSEN, F., SUWALSKY, J. & RABINOVICH, R. (1989). Maternal employment and parent-infant interaction at one year. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 4, 459-478. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. SULOVA, L. & ESPIAU, G. (2005). Day care nurses' perceptions of their educational practice in France and in the Czech Republic. International Journal of Child & Family Welfare, 8 (2-3), 88-98.
VANDELL, D. & CORASANTI, H. (1990). Child care and the family : Complex contributors to child development. New Directions for Child Development, 49, 23-37. GRAIG, L. (2006). Does father care mean fathers share ? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender & Society, 20 (2), 259-281. [PDF]
BELSKY, J. (1990). Parental and nonparental child care and children's socioemotional development : A decade in review. Journal of Marriage & Family, 52, 885-903. CHAMPAGNE, F.A. & MEANEY, M.J. (2006). Stress during gestation alters postpartum maternal care and the development of the offspring in a rodent model. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 1227-1235. [PDF]
CLUTTON-BROCK, T.H. (1991). The evolution of parental care. Cambridge : Cambrige University Press. LAYZER, J.I. & GOODSON, B.D. (2006). The "quality " of early care and education settings : definitional and measurement issues. Evaluation Review, 30 (5), 556-576. [PDF]
ZASLOW, M.J. (1991). Variations in child care quality and its implications for children. Journal of Social Issues, 47 (2), 125-138. CHAMPAGNE, F.A. & MEANEY, M.J. (2007). Transgenerational effects of social environment on variations in maternal care and behavioral response to novelty. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 1353-1363. [PDF]
BELSKY, J. (1992). Consequences of child care for children's development : A deconstructionist view. In A. Booth (Ed.), Child care in the 1990s : Trends and consequences (pp. 83-94). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. CHAMPAGNE, F.A. (2008). Epigenetic mechanisms and the transgenerational effects of maternal care. Frontiers of Neuroendocrinology, 29, 386-397. [PDF]
STARRELS. M. (1994). Gender differences in parent-child relations. Journal of Family Issues 15, 148-165.  
ZICK, C.D. & BRYANT, W.K. (1996). A new look at parents' time spent in child care : Primary and secondary time use. Social Science Research, 25, 260-280.  
LAMB, M.E. (1996). Effects of nonparental child care on child development : An update. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 330-342. [PDF] ZAZLOW, M., PEDERSEN, F., SUWALSKY, J. & RABINOVICH, R. (1989). Maternal employment and parent-infant interaction at one year. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 4, 459-478.
LYKKEN, D.T. (1997). Incompetent parenting : Its causes and cures. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 27, 129-137. STEIN, M.T., BERGMAN, D.A. & COKER, T.R. (2010). Rethinking well-child care. Pediatric Update, 30 (12), 1-10.
Voir aussi Parent, Implication parentale, Influence familiale, Encadrement/Disicpline parental
Parents (Sollicitude des...) : Capacité des parents à répondre rapidement et adéquatement aux besoins - et non aux désirs - de leurs bébés/enfants. Sollicitude parentale, soins et attachement. = sollicitude parentale. Maternel sensitivity.
  AINSWORTH, M.D.S. (1969).Maternal Sensitivity Scales : The Baltimore Longitudinal Project. [PDF]
GROSSMANN, K., GROSSMANN, K.E., SPANGLER, G., SUESS, G. & UNZNER, L. (1985). Maternal sensitivity and newborns' orientation responses as related to quality of attachment in northern Germany. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (209), 233-256.
 PEDERSON, D.V., MORAN, G., SITKO, C., CAMPBELL, K., GHESQUIREK. & ACTON, H. (1990). Maternal sensitivity and the security ofinfant-mother attachment : A Q-sort study. Child Development, 61 (6), 1974-1983.
 BELSKY, J. & PASCO FEARON, R.M. (2002). Early attachment security, subsequent maternal sensitivity, and later child development : Does continuity in development depend upon continuity of caregiving ? Attachment & Human Development, 4 (3), 361-387.
 FELDMAN, R., EIDELMAN, A.I. & ROTENBERG, N. (2004). Parenting stress, infant emotion regulation, maternal sensitivity, and the cognitive development of triplets : a model for parent and child influences in a unique ecology. Child Development, 75 (6), 1774-1791.
 FUERTES, M., LOPES DOS SANTOS, P., BEEGHLY, M. & TRONICK, E. (2006). More than maternal sensitivity shapes attachment. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1094, 292-296.
 LINDHIEM, O, C. BERNARD, K. & DOZIER, M. (2011). Maternal sensitivity : Within-person variability and the utility of multipleassessments. Child Maltreatment, 16 (1), 41-50. [PDF]
Voir aussi Parent
Parents (Soutien aux...) : Soutien social offert, par des professionnels et des non-professionels de la santé, aux parents fatigués ou épuisés en raison des difficultés qu'ils éprouvent avec leurs enfants.Soutien au parent et Enfant handicapé et Parent support.

   KANOY, K.W. & SCHROEDER, C.S. (1985). Suggestions to parents about common behavior problems in a pediatric primary care office : Five years of follow-up. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 10, 15-30.
 DUMAS, J.E. & LAFRENIÈRE, P.J. (1993). Mother-child relationships as sources of support or stress : A comparison of competent, normative, aggressive, and anxious dyads. Child Development, 64, 1732-1754.
Voir aussi Parent
Parent (Style de...) : Façon particulière - et plus ou moins efficace - de jouer son rôle de parent. = style parental. Parenting styles.

  ADAMS, P.L., APONTE, J.F. & SCHWAB, J.J. (1965). Authoritarian parents and disturbed children. American Journal of Psychology, 121, 1162-1167. BARDI, M. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2002). Effects of maternal style on infant behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Developmental Psychobiology, 41, 364-372.
BAUMRIND, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37 (4), 887-907. [PDF]  
ARRINDELL, W. A., EMMELKAMP, P.M.G., MONSMA, A. & BRILMAN, E. (1983). The role of perceived parental rearing practices in the aetiology of phobic disorders : A controlled study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 183-187. WOLFRADT, U., HEMPEL, S. & MILES, J. N. V. (2003). Perceived parenting styles, depersonalisation, anxiety and coping behaviour in adolescents. Personality and Individual Dif- ferences, 34, 521-532.
ARRINDELL, W.A., KWEE, M.G.T, METHORST, G.J., VANDER ENDE, J., POL, E. & MORITZ, M.J.M. (1989). Perceived parental rearing styles of agoraphobic and socially phobic inpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 526-535.  
GROLNICK, W.S. & RYAN, R.M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143-154. [PDF] WYNN-LAUER, C. (2004). A study of the differences in parenting styles between substance abusing and non substance abusing mothers (pp. 1-89) : Yeshiva University.
BAUMRIND, D. (1991 The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11 (1), 56-95. AUNOLA, K. & NURMI, J.E. (2005). The role of parenting styles in children's problem behavior. Child Development, 76 (6), 1144-1159. [PDF]
BAUMRIND, D. (1991). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In J. Brooks-Gunn, R. Lerner & A.C. Petersen (Eds.), The encyclopedia on adolescence (pp. 746-758). New York : Garland. SPERA, A (2005). Review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17 (2), 125-146. [PDF]
STEINBERG, L., LAMBORN, S.D., DORNBUSCH, S.N. & DARLING, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement : Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281. BONELL, C., ALLEN, E., STRANGE, V., OAKLEY, A., CAPAS, A., JOHNSON, A. & STEPHENSON, J. (2006). Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 60 (6), 502-506. [PDF]
DARLING, N. & STEINBERG, L. (1993). Parenting style as context : An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487-496. PELAEZ, M., FIELD, T., PICKENS, J.N. & HART, S. (2008). Disengaged and authoritarian parenting behavior of depressed mothers with their toddlers. Infant Behavior & Development, 31, 145-148. [PDF]
PAULSON, S.E. (1994). Relations of parenting style and parental involvement with ninth-Grade students' achievement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 250-267. KESHAVARZ, S. & BAHARUDIN, R. (2009). Parenting style in a collectivist culture of Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences, 10 (1), 66-73. [PDF]
Voir aussi Parent
Parent (Tolérance du...) :

  BRESTAN, E.V., EYBERG, S.M., ALGINA, J., JOHNSON, S.B. & BOGGS, S.R. (2003). How annoying is it ? Defining parental tolerance for child misbehavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 25, 1-15. [PDF]
WRIGHT, A.W., PARENT, J., FOREHARD, R., EDWARDS, M.C., CONNERS-BURROW,N.A. & LONG, N. (2013). The relation of parent and child gender to parental tolerance of child disruptive behaviors. Journal of Child & Family Studie, 2 (6), 779-785.
Voir aussi Tolérance et Parent
Parent adoptif : Tout individu qui joue le rôle de parent auprès d'un enfant adopté. = substitut parental.

  Voir aussi Parent et Enfant adopté
Parent autoritaire : Parent qui use de son autorité en punissant - parfois physiquement - davantage qu'il ne récompense/renforce le comportement de ses enfants. Authoritarian parent.

  ADAMS, P.L., APONTE, J.F. & SCHWAB, J.J. (1965). Authoritarian parents and disturbed children. American Journal of Psychology, 121, 1162-1167.
STEINBERG, L., ELMEN, J.D. & MOUNTS, NS. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 1424-1436.
STEINBERG, L., LAMBORN, S.D., DORNBUSCH, S.N. & DARLING, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement : Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281.
CHEN, X., DONG, Q. & ZHOU, H. (1997). Authoritative and authoritarian parenting practices and social and school adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20, 855-873.
Voir aussi Autorité, Parent et Punir
Parent biologique : Géniteur qui s'occupe ou non de ses enfants, au sein d'une famille ou non.

  LYKKEN, D.T. (1995). Want to have a baby ? Not until you get your license ! Law & Politics, 17-19.
Voir aussi Parent et Géniteur
Parent séparé ou divorcé : Voir Divorce ou Famille monoparenale.
Parent habile : Voir Habileté parentale.
Parent homosexuel : Géniteur homosexuel, seul ou en couple, qui s'occupe du développement et de l'éducation de ses enfants. Lesbian or gay parent.

  GOLOMBOK, S., SPENCER, A. & RUTTER, M. (1983). Children in lesbian and single parent households : Psychosexual and psychiatric appraisal. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 24 (4), 551-572. WAINRIGHT, J.L. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2006). Delinquency, victimization, and substance use among adolescents with female same-sex parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 526–530.
PATTERSON, C.J. (1992). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development, 63, 1025-1042. PATTERSON, C.J. (2006). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (5), 241-244. [PDF]
JULIEN, D., DUBÉ, M. et GAGNON, I. (1994). Le développement des enfants de parents homosexuels comparé au développement des enfants de parents hétérosexuels. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 15, 135-153. TELINGATOR, C. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2008). Children and adolescents of lesbian and gay parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1364-1368.
PATTERSON, C.J. (1995). Families of the lesbian baby boom : Parents' division of labor and children's adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 31, 115 - 123. PALLOTTA-CHIAROLLI, M. (2006). Polyparents having children, raising children, schooling children. Lesbian & Gay Psychology Review, 7, 48-53.
CHAN, R.W., BROOKS, R. C., RABOY, B. & PATTERSON, C.J. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents : Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 402-419. RIGGS, D.W. (2007). Becoming parent: Lesbians, gay men, and family. QLD: Post Pressed.
PARKS, C.A. (1998). Lesbian parenthood : A review of the literature. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 376-389. FAIRLOUGH, A. (2008). Growing up with a lesbian or gay parent : Young people's perspectives. Health & Social Care in the Community 16 (5), 521-528.
FITZGERALD, B. (1999). Children of lesbian and gay parents: A review of the literature. Marriage Fam Rev 1999, 29 (1), 57-75. PATTERSON, C.J. (2009). Children of lesbian and gay parents: Psychology, law, and policy. American Psychologist, 64, 727-736.
CLARKE, V. (2000). Stereotype, attack and stigmatize those who disagree : Employing scientific rhetoric in debates about lesbian and gay parenting. Feminism & Psychology, 10, 152-159. PATTERSON, C.J. (2009). Lesbian and gay parents and their children : A social science perspective. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Contemporary perspectives on lesbian, gay and bisexual identities: The Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol., 54, pp. 141-182). New York : Springer.
CLARKE, V. (2000). Lesbian mothers: Sameness and difference. Feminism & Psychology, 10, 273-278. GOLDBERG, A.E. (2010). Lesbian and gay parents and their children: Research on the family life cycle. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
RAY, V. & GREGORY, R. (2001). School experiences of the children of lesbian and gay parents. Family Matters, 59 (7), 28-34. [PDF] PATTERSON, C.J. & RISKIND, R.G. (2010). To be a parent : Issues in family formation among gay and lesbian adults. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6, 326-340.
CLARKE, V. (2001). What about the children ? Arguments against lesbian and gay parenting. Women's Studies International Forum, 24, 555-570.  
ANDERSSEN, N., AMLIE, C. & YTTER, E.A. (2002). Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents. A review of studies from 1978 to 2000. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43 (4), 335-351. FARR, R.H., FORSSELL, S.L. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2010). Lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents: Couple and relationship issues. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6, 199-213.
CLARKE, V. (2002). Sameness and difference in research on lesbian parenting. Journal of Community & Applied Psychology, 12, 210-222.  
PATTERSON, C.J., FULCHER, M. & WAINRIGHT, J.L. (2002). Children of lesbian and gay parents: Research, law, and policy. In B.L. Bottoms, M.B. Kovera, & B.D. McAuliff (Eds.), Children, social science and the law (pp. 176–199). New York: Cambridge University Press. TORNELLO, S. L., FARR, R. H. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2011). Predictors of parenting stress among gay fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 591-600.
WAINRIGHT, J.L., RUSSELL, S.T. & PATTERSON, C.J (2004). Psychosocial adjustment and school outcomes of adolescents with same-sex parents. Child Development, 75, 1886–1898. PATTERSON, C.J. (2013). Family lives of lesbian and gay adults. In G.W. Peterson & K.R Bush (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and family (pp. 659–681). New York, NY : Springer.
CLARKE, V., KITZINGER, C. & POTTER, J. (2004). Kids are just cruel anyway : Lesbian and gay parents' talk about homophobic bullying. British Journal of Social Psychology, 43 (4), 531-550. [PDF] PATTERSON, C.J. & GOLDBERG, A.E. (2016). Lesbian and gay parents and their children. Policy Brief, 1 (1), 1-4. [PDF]
Voir aussi Homosexualité, Parent et Famille homosexuelle
Parent et professeur-enseignant (Relation entre...) : Relation entre un parent et les enseignants/professeurs de ses enfants. = relation école-famille.

  GALINSKY, E. (1988). Parents and teacher-caregivers : Sources of tension, sources of support. Young Children, 43 (3), 4-12. FRENCH, M.K. (1996). Connecting teachers and families : Using the family as the lab. Journal of Teacher Education, 47 (5), 335-346.
GREENBERG, P. (1989). Ideas that work with young children. Parents as partners in young children's development and education. A new American fad : Why does it matter? Young Children, 44 (4), 61-75. HENRY, M.E. (1996). Parent-school collaboration. Feminist organizational structures and school leadership. Albany : State University of New York.
EPSTEIN, J.L. (1989). Building parent-teacher partnerships in inner city schools. Family Resource Coalition Report, 2, 7. DE ACOSTA, M. (1996). A foundational approach to preparing teachers for family and community involvement in children's education. Journal of Teacher Education, 47 (1), 9-15.
GALINSKY, E. (1990). Why are some parent teacher partner ships clouded with difficulties? Young Children, 45 (5), 38- 39. KOERNER, J. & HULSELBOSCH, P. (1996). Preparing teachers to work with children of gay and lesbian parents. Journal of Teacher Education, 47 (5), 347-354.
GREENWODD G.E. & HIKCMAN, C.W. (1991). Research and practice in parent involvement : Implications for teacher education. Elementary School Journal, 91 (3), 280-288. HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. & SANDLER, H.M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Review of Educational Research, 67 (1), 3-42.
COMER, J.P. & HAYNES, N.M. (1991). Parent involvement in schools : An ecological approach. Elementary School Journal, 91 (3), 271-277. STURM, C. (1997). Creating parent-teacher dialogue : Intercultural communication in child care. Young Children, 52 (5), 34-38.
HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V., BASSLER, O.C. & BRISSIE, J.S. (1992). Explorations in par- ent-school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85, 287-294. RICH, D. (1998). What parents want from teachers. Educational Leadership, 55 (8), 37-39.
MORRIS V. G., TAYLOR, S.I., KNIGHT, J. & WASSON, R. (1996). Preparing teachers to reach out to families and communities. Action in Teacher Education, 18 (1), 10-22. BURKE, R. (1999). Diverse family structures : Implications for p-3 teachers. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 20 (3), 245-251.
  JEYNES, W.H. (2003). A meta-analysis : The effects of parental involvement on minority children’s academic achievement. Education & Urban Society, 35, 202-218.
  JEYNES, W.H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school children’s academic achievement. Urban Education, 40, 237-269. [PDF]
  JEYNES, W.H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement : A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42, 82-110.
Voir aussi Parent, Implication des parents, Enseignants et Enfant
 
Parent seul : Voir Famille monoparentale
Parent thérapeute : Parent formé par un thérapeute pour encadrer plus efficacement ses enfants ou réaliser certaines parties d'un plan de traitement. Souvent utilisé avec les parents d'autiste, d'enfant handicapé physiquement ou intellectuelement déficient. Parents as therapist, parent training.

  HAWKINS, R.P., PETERSON, R.F., SCHWEID, E. & BIJOU, S.W. (1966). Behavior therapy in the home : amelioration of problem parent-child relations with the parent in a therapeutic role. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4 (1), 99-107. LASKI, K.E. CHARLOP, M.H. & SCHREIBMAN, L. (1988). Training parents to use the Natural Language Paradigm to increase their autistic children’s speech. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21 (4), 391-400. [PDF]
ZEILBERGER, J., SAMPEN, S.E. & SLOANE, H.N. (1968). Modification of a child's problem behaviors in the home with the mother as therapist. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1 (1), 47-53. [PDF] COOPER, L.J., WACKER, D.P., SASSO, G.M. & DONN, L.K. (1990). Using parents as therapists to evaluate appropriate behavior of their children : application to a tertiary diagnostic clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23 (3), 285-296. [PDF]
SCHOPLER, E. & REICHLER, R.J. (1971). Parents as cotherapists in the treatment of psychotic children. Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 87–102.  
HERBERT, E.W. & BAER, D.M. (1972). Training parents as behavior modifiers : self-recording of contingent attention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (3), 139-149. [PDF] POWERS, L.E., SINGER, G.H., STEVENS, T. & SOWERS, J.-A. (1992). Behavioral parent training in home and community generalization settings. Education & Training in Mental Retardation, 27 (1), 13-27.
O'DELL, S. (1974). Training parents in behavior modification : A review. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 418-433.
MILLER, S.J. & SLOANE, H.N. (1976). The generalization efects of parent training across stimulus setings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (3), 355-370. [PDF] RINGDAHL, J.E. & SELLERS, J.A. (2000). The effects of dif- ferent adults as therapists during functional analyses. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 33 (2), 247-250. [PDF]
KELLEY, M.L., EMBRY, L.H. & BAER, D.M. (1979). Skils for child management and family support : Training parents for maintenance. Behavior Modification, 3, 373-396. MARCUS, B.A., SWANSON, V. & VOLLMER, T.R. (2001). Effects of parent training on parent and child behavior using procedures based on functional analysis. Behavioral Interventions, 16, 87-104.
EYBERG, S.M. & MATARZZO, R.G. (1980). Training parents as therapists : A comparison between individual parent-child interaction training and parent group didactic training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 492-499. KUHN, S.A.C., LERMAN, D.C. & VORNDRAN, C.M. (2003). Pyramidal training for families of children with problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36 (1), 77-88. [PDF]
SANDERS, M.R. & GLYNN, T. (1981). Training parents in behavioral self-management : An analysis of generalization and management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(3), 223-237. [PDF]  
ADUBATO, S.A., ADAMS, M.K. & BUDD, K.S. (1981). Teaching a parent to train a spouse in child ma agement techniques. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14 (2), 193-205. [PDF] BAGNER, D. & EYBERG, S.M. (2003). Father involvement in parent training : When does it matter ? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 599-605. [PDF]
ROLIDER, A. & VAN HOUTEN, R. (1984). Training parents to use extinction to eliminate night-time crying by gradually increasing the criteria for ignoring crying. Education & Treatment of Children, 7, 110-124. GALE, G.M., EIKESETH, S.J. & RUDRUD, E. (2011). Functional assessment and behavioural intervention for eating difficulties in children with autism : a study conducted in the natural environment using parents and ABA tutors as therapists. Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41 (10), 1383-1396. [PDF]
Voir aussi Thérapeuteet Parent
Parent violent : Voir Violence familiale.
Parent
André Parent Les parents
Jack M. Parent
 
Parent André (Montréal 1944-) : Biologiste québécois et historien des sciences, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'anatomie du cerveau, notamment des ganglions de la base. Il enseigne à l'Université Laval.
 PARENT, A. (1986). Comparative neurobiology of the basal ganglia. New York : John Wiley.
 BÉDARD, A. & PARENT, A. (2004). Evidence of newly generated neurons in the human olfactory bulb. Developmental Brain Research, 151, 159-168.
 PARENT, A. (2005). Duchenne de Boulogne : A pioneer in neurology and medical photography. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 32, 369-377.
 PARENT, A. (2007). Félix Vicq d'Azyr : anatomy, medecine and revolution. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 34, 30-37. [PDF]
 PARENT, A. (2009). Histoire du cerveau : De l'antiquité aux neurosciences. Laval : Les presses de l'Université Laval.
Parent Jack M. ( ) : Neurobiologiste américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la neurogénèse.
PARENT, J.M., VEXLER, Z.S., GONG, C., DERUGIN, N. & FERRIERO, D.M. (2002). Rat forebrain neurogenesis and striatal neuron replacement after focal stroke. Annals of Neurology, 52, 802-813
PARENT, J.M., VON DEM BUSSCHE, N. & LOWENSTEIN, D.H. (2002). Seizure-induced neurogenesis : are more new neurons good for an adult brain ? Progress in Brain Research, 135, 121-1321.
PARENT, J.M. (2003). Injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Neuroscientist, 9, 261-272.
PARENT, J.M., VON DEM BUSSCHE, N. & LOWENSTEIN, D.H. (2006). Prolonged seizures recruit caudal subventricular zone glial progenitors into the injured hippocampus. Hippocampus, 16, 321-328.
PARENT, J.M. (2007). Adult neurogenesis in the intact and epileptic dentate gyrus. Progress in Brain Research, 163, 529-540.
Parentalité (des espèces) : Relation phylogénétique plus ou moins étroite entre les espèces. EX : Bonobo et chimpanzé ont une forte parentalité.

 
Parenté (des individus) : Le terme a deux acceptions très voisines : a) En psychologie, relation ontogénétique plus ou moins étroite entre les individus d'une même famille, d'un même groupe. L'attachement est le principal déterminant de la parenté sociale. Parenté, développement et attachement. b) En biologie et en primatologie, relation phylogénétique plus ou moins étroite entre les membres d'une même espèce, d'un même groupe, d'une même famille. Lorsque cette relation est très étroite, on utilise le mot consanguinité. = lien de sang. Kinship.

  a
 
b
PLATEK, S.M., CRITTON, S.R., BURCH, R. L., FREDERICK, D.A., MYERS, T.E. & GALLUP, G.G. (2003). How much paternal resemblance is enough ? Sex differences in hypothetical investment decisions but not in the detection of resemblance. Evolution & Human Behavior, 24, 81-87.
Parentèle : Ensemble d'individus qui ont un lien de parenté. Parentèle et reconnaissances des membres de la parentèle. Kin.

  SILK, J.B. (2002). Kin selection in primate groups. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 849-875.
WEISFELD, G.E., CZILLI, T., PHILLIPS, K.A., GALL, J.A., & LICHTMAN, C.M. (2003). Possible olfaction-based mechanisms in human kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85, 279-295.
Parenthèse(s) :

 
Parenting, Science & Practice : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages au rôle parental et à l'éducation. Éditeur : Routledge.
SEGINER, R. (2006). Parents' educational involvement : A developmental ecology perspective. Parenting, Science & Practice, 6 (1), 1-48.

Paresse : Incapacité à fournir les efforts nécessaires à l'accomplissement d'une tâche, d'une activité.

  LAFARGUE, P. (1880). Le droit à la paresse (Réfutation du « Droit au travail » de 1848). [LIRE]
Paresse sociale : Voir Flânerie sociale. Social loafing.
Pareto Vilfredo Fritz (Paris 1848-1923 Celigny) : Économiste et sociologue italien. Il a décrit une situation sociale particulière qui porte son nom (optimum de Pareto).
 f PARETO, W. (1968). Traité de sociologie générale. Genève : Droz./The mind and society. New York : Harcourt, Brace & Co.
 
 
 
 
FARIS, E. (1936). An estimate of Pareto. American Journal of Sociology, 41, 657-668. [LIRE]
ZUCKERMAN, A. (1977). The concept of political elite : lessons from Mosca and Pareto. Journal of Politics 39, 324-344.
Parfum : odeur naturelle ou artificiel du corps. Fragrance, pleasant scent.

  BARON, R.A. (1981). The role of olfaction in human social behavior : Effects of a pleasant scent on attraction and social perception. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 611-617.
 DEBONO, K.G. (1992). Pleasant scents and persuasion : An information processing approach. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 910-919.
BARON, R.A. & THOMLEY, J. (1994). A whiff of reality : Positive affect as a potential mediator of the effects of pleasant fragrances on task performance and helping. Environment Behavior, 26, 766-784.
BARON, R.A. & BRONNFEN, M.I. (1994). A whiff of reality : Empirical evidence concerning the effects of pleasant fragrances on work related behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1179-1205.
BARON, R.A. (1997). The sweet smell of... helping : Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 (5), 498-503. [PDF]
WINMAN, A. (2004). Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones ? Physiology & Behavior, 82, 697-701.
MILLER, S.L. & MANER, J.K. (2010). Scent of a woman : Men's testosterone responses to olfactory ovulation cues. Psychological Science, 21, 276-283. [PDF]
Voir aussi Attraction et Attirance physique
Pari de Pascal : Raisonnement formulé par Pascal dont la conclusion affirme que, devant l'impossibilité de montrer l'existence de Dieu, il est plus avantageux d'y croire que de nier son existence. Ce pari est l'exemple d'un raisonnement qui vise à maximiser les gains personnels.
Hypothèse En réalité, Dieu existe En réalité, Dieu n'existe pas
Vous pariez que Dieu existe Vous avez raison alors à votre mort vous irez au paradis. Vous avez tort alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.
Vous pariez que Dieu n'existe pas Vous avez tort alors à votre mort vous n'irez pas au paradis. Vous avez raison alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.

Paris Scott ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'éducation, notamment de l'étude de l'apprentissage de la lecture.
PARIS, S.G., LIPSON, M.Y. & WIXSON, K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293–316.
PARIS, S.G. & NEWMAN, R. (1990). Developmental aspects of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 87-102.
PARIS, S.G. & WELLMAN, H.M. (1998). Global prospects for education: Development, culture, and schooling. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
PARIS, S.G. & PARIS, A.H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36 (2), 89–101. [PDF]
PARIS, S.G. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 40 (2), 184-202. [PDF]
Parizeau Jacques (Montréal 1930-2015 Montréal) : Économiste, homme d'état et politicien québécois.
PARIZEAU, J. (2009). La souveraineté du Québec, hier, aujourd'hui et demain. Éditions Michel Brûlé.
 
RICHARD, L. (1992). Jacques Parizeau, un bâtisseur. Montréal : Éditions de l'Homme.
DUSCHESNE, P. (2001). Jacques Parizeau : Le Croisé - 1930-1970. Montréal : Éditions Québec Amérique.
DUSCHESNE, P. (2002). Jacques Parizeau : Le Baron - 1970-1985. Montréal : Éditions Québec Amérique.
DUSCHESNE, P. (2004). Jacques Parizeau : Le Régent - 1985-1995. Montréal : Éditions Québec Amérique.
Park/Parks
Bernadette Park Robert Ezra Park Craig D. Parks
 
Park Bernadette ( ) : Psychosociologue américaine et spécialiste de l'étude et de l'évaluation des stéréotypes. Collaboratrice de Correll, Judd et Wittenbrink.
PARK, B. (1986). A method for studying the development of impressions of real people. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 907-917.
PARK, B., RYAN, C.S. & JUDD, C.M. (1992). The role of meaningful subgroups in explaining differences in perceived variability for in-groups and out-groups. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 63, 553-567.
PARK, B., DEKAY, M.L. & KRAUS, S. (1994). Aggregating social behavior into person models : Perceiver-induced consistency. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 437-459.
PARK, B., KRAUS, S. & RYAN, C.S. (1997). Longitudinal changes in consensus as a function of acquaintance and agreement in liking. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 72, 604-616.
PARK, B. & JUDD, C.M. (2005). Rethinking the link between categorization and prejudice within the social cognition perspective. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 9, 108-130. [PDF]
Park Robert Ezra (Comté de Luzerne 1864-1944 Nashville) : Sociologue américain et co-fondateur de l'École de Chicago (avec Thomas). Il s'est notamment intéressé aux minorités ethniques et aux villes qui concentrent ces minorités. Selon lui, le phénomène de l'intégation des immigrants traverse quatre étapes ou cycles: prise de contact entre les groupes (les immigrants et la société d'accueil), la compétition entre les individus de souches et nouvellement arrivés, l'ajustement ou l'accommodation des uns aux autres, et finalement l'assimilation de la minorité à la majorité. Étudiant de James et Simmel. Professeur de Becker.
PARK, R.E. (1915). The principles of human behavior. Chicago, Ill. : Zalaz Corporation.
PARK, R.E. & MILLER H.A. (1921). Old world traits transplanted. New York, N.Y.-London : Harper.
PARK, R.E. (1922). The immigrant press and its control. New York, N.Y.-London : Harper.
PARK, R.E. (1925). Suggestion for the investigation for human behavior in an urban environment. In R.E. Park, E.W. Burgess & R.D. Mckenzie (Eds.), The city. Chicago : University of Chigago Press.
PARK, R.E., BURGESS, E.W. & McKENZIE, R.D. (1925). The city. Chicago : University of Chigago Press.
 
GUTH, S. (2008). De Strasbourg à Chicago : Robert E. Park et l'assimilation des noirs américains. Revue des Sciences Sociales, 4, 62-73.
Parker
Geoffrey Alan Parker Gordon Barraclough Parker
 
Parker Geoffrey Alan (1944-) : Éthologiste anglais, spécialisé dans l'étude des stratégies évolutives. Collaborateur de Clutton-Brock et Maynard Smith.
PARKER, G.A. (1970). Sperm competition and its evolutionary consequences in the insects. Biological Reviews, 45, 525-567.
MAYNARD SMITH, J. & PARKER, G.A. (1976). The logic of asymmetric contests. Animal Behaviour, 24, 159-175.
PARKER, G.A. & MACNAIR, M.R. (1979). Models of parent-offspring conflict. IV. Suppression : evolutionary retaliation by the parent. Animal Behaviour, 27, 1210-1235.
PARKER, G.A. (1984). Evolutionary stable strategies. In J.R. Krebs & Davies N.B. (Eds.), Behavioural ecology : an evolutionary approach (pp. 30-61). Oxford : Blackwell.
PARKER, G.A. & MILINSKI, M. (1997). Cooperation under predation risk : a data-based ESS analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, 264 (1785), 1239-1247.
Parker Gordon Barraclough ( ) : Psychiatre américain et spécialiste de l'étude et du traitement de la dépression. Video
PARKER, G. (2002). Olanzapine augmentation in the treatment of melancholia : the trajectory of improvement in rapid responders. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 87-89.
PARKER, G., ANDERSON, I.M. & HADDAD, P. (2003). Clinical trials of anti-depressant medications are producing meaningless results. British Medical Journal, 183, 102-104.
PARKER, G., BROTCHIE, H. & PARKER, K. (2005). Is combination Olanzapine and antidepressant medication associated with a more rapid response trajectory than antidepressant alone ? American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 796-798. [PDF]
PARKER, G. & FLETCHER, K. (2007). Treating depression with the evidence-based psychotherapies : a critique of the evidence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115, 352-359. [PDF]
PARKER, G. & BROTCHIE, H. (2010). Gender differences in depression. International Review of Psychiatry, 22 (5), 429-436.
Parkinson (Maladie de...) : Maladie dégénérative découverte par Parkinson en 1817. L'une des causes de cette maladie serait la dégénérescence de la voie nigrostiée. = syndrome parkinsonien, le parkinson. Parkinson's disease.
  PARKINSON, J. (1817). An Essay on the shaking palsy. London : Neely and Jones. SLAUGHTER, J.R., SLAUGHTER, K.A., NICHOLS, N., HOLMES, S.E. & MARTENS, M.P. (2001). prevalence, clinical manifestations, etiology, and treatment of depression in parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 13, 187-196. [PDF]
HOEHN, M.M. & YAHR, M.D. (1967). Parkinsonism : onset, progression and mortality. Neurology, 17, 427-442. OERTEL, W.H., HOGLINGER, G.U., CARACENI, T., GIROTTI, F., EICHHORN, T., SPOTTKE, A.E., et al. (2001). Depression in Parkinson’s disease : An update. Advances in Neurology, 86, 373-383.
CALNE, D.B., TEYCHENNE, P.F., CLAVERIA, L.E., EASTMAN, R. & GREENACRE, J.K. (1974). Bromocriptine in Parkinsonism. British Medical Journal, 4, 442-444. [PDF] SCHRAG, A., JAHANSHAHI, M. & QUINN, N.P. (2001). What contributes to depression in Parkinson’s disease ? Psychological Medicine, 31, 65-73. [PDF]
CALNE, D.B., TEYCHENNE, P.F., LEIGH, P.N., BAMJI, A.N. & GREENACRE, J.K. (1974). Treatment of Parkinsonism with bromocriptine. Lancet, 304 (7893), 1355-1356. DE LA FUENTE-FERNANDEZ, R., RUTH, T.J., SOSSI, V., SCHULZER, M., CALNE, D.B. & STOESSL, A.J. (2001). Expectation and dopamine release : Mechanism of the placebo effect in Parkinson’s disease. Science, 293, 1164-1166. [PDF]
PARKES, J.D., MARSDEN, C.D., DONALDSON, I., GALEA-DEBONO, A., WALTERS, J., KENNEDY,G. & ASSELMA, P.N. (1976). Bromocriptine treatment in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 39 (2), 184-193. [PDF] HEINRICHS, N., HOFFMAN, E. & HOFMANN, S.G. (2001). Cognitive-behavioral treatment for social phobia in Parkinson's disease : A single-case study. Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 8, 329-335.
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GOTHAM, A.M., BROWN, R.G. & MARSDEN, C.D. (1986). Depression in Parkinson's disease: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 49, 381-389. WEINTRAUB, D., MOBERG, P.J., DUDA, J.E., KATZ, I.R. & STERN, M.B. (2003). Recognition and treatment of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry & Neurology, 16, 178-183.
SEEMAN, P., BZOWEJ, N.H., GUAN, H.C., BERGERON, C., REYNOLDS, G.P., BIRD, E.D., RIEDERER, P, JELLINGER, K. & TOURTELLOTTE, W.W. (1987). Human brain D1 543 and D2 dopamine receptors in schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and 544 Huntington's diseases. Neuropsychopharmacology, 1 (1), 5-15. FRANK, M., SEEBERGER, L. & O'REILLY, R. (2004). By carrot and stick : cognitive reinforcement learning in parkinsonism. Science, 306, 1940-1943.
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STARKSTEIN, S.E., BOLDUC, P.L., MAYBERG, H.E., PREZIOSI,T.J. & ROBINSON, R.G. (1990). Parkinson's disease : a follow up study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 53, 597-602. [PDF] FRAK, V., COHEN, H. & POURCHER, E. (2004). A dissociation betweenreal and simulated movements in Parkinson’as disease. Neuroreport, 15, 1489-1492.
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AARSLAND, D., LARSEN, J.P., WAAGE, O. & LANEVELD, J.H. (1997). . Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for Parkinson's disease. Convulsive Therapy, 13 (4), 274-247. COOLS, R., LEWIS, S.J.G., CLARK, L., BARKER, R.A. & ROBBINS, T.W. (2007). L-dopa disrupts activity in the nucleus accumbens during reversal learning in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, 180-189. [PDF]
 BROD, M., MEDELSOHN, G. & ROBERTS, B.W. (1998). Patient's experience of Parkinson's Disease. Journal of Gerontology : Psychological Science, 53, 213-222. LEMKE, M.R. (2008). Depressive symptoms in Parkinson's disease. European Journal of Neurology, 15 (S1), 21-25.
SEEMAN, P. & TALLERICO, T. (1999). Antipsychotic drugs which elicit little or no Parkinsonism bind more loosely than dopamine to brain D2 receptors, yet occupy high levels of these receptors. Molecular Psychiatry, 3 (2), 123-134.  
CUMMINGS, J.L. & MASTERMAN, D.L. (1999). Depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Geriatrical Psychiatry, 14, 711-718. VEAZEY, C., COOK, K., STANLEY, M., LAI, E.C. & KUNIK, M.E. (2009). Telephone administered cognitive behavioral therapy : A case study of anxiety and depression in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16, 243-253. [PDF]
HSIEH, S. & LEE, C.Y. (1999). Source memory in Parkinson’s disease. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 89, 355-367.  
Voir aussi Voie nigrostiée
Parks Craig D. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la coopération au sein des groupes et des dilemmes sociaux. Collaborateur de Joireman, Sanna, Van Dijk et Van Lange.
PARKS, C.D. (1994). The predictive ability of social values in resource dilemmas and public goods games. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 431-438.
PARKS, C.D., SANNA, L.J. & BEREL, S.R. (2001). Actions of similar others as inducements to cooperate in social dilemmas. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 345-354.
PARKS, C.D., RUMBLE, A.C. & POSEY, D. C. (2002). The effects of envy on reciprocation in social dilemmas. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 522-534.
PARKS, C.D. & STONE, A.B. (2010). The desire to expel unselfish members from the group. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 99 (2), 303-310. [PDF]
PARKS, C.D., JOIREMAN, J. & VAN LANGE, P.A.M. (2013). Cooperation, trust, and antagonism : How publicly beneficial goods are promoted. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14, 119-165.
Parler en public : Voir Oral/orateur. Talk.
Parler/Parole : Parler consiste à produire des sons au moyen du larynx. Ces sons forment des phonèmes dont les diverses combinaisons (mots, phrases) permettent de nommer les objets et de communiquer avec autrui. Parole, langage et comportement verbal. Speaking, speech, orality, talking.

  COOPER, F.S., LIBERMAN, A.M. & BORST, J.M. (1951). The interconversion of audible and visible patterns as a basis for research in the perceptionof speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 37, 318-325.  
ELIASBERG, W.G. (1954). Speaking and thinking. Acta Psychologica, 10, 93-110. KWIATKOWSKI, J. & SHRIBERG, L. (1993). Speech normalization in developmental phonological disorders : A retrospective study of capability-focus theory. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 24, 10-18.
BUYSSENS, E. (1954). Speaking and thinking from the linguistic standpoint. Acta Psychologica, 10, 136-164. TRAXLER, M.J. & GERNSBACHER, M. A. (1993). Improving written communication through perspective taking. Language & Cognitive Processes, 8, 311-334.
DELATTRE, P.C (1958). Les indices acoustiques de la parole: premier rapport. Phonetica, 2, 108-118. FERRAND, L. (1994). Accès au lexique et production de la parole : un survol. L'Année Psychologique, 94, 295-312.
HOCKETT, C.F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203, 88-96. KUHL, P.K. (1994). Learning and representation in speech and language. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 812-822.
REYNOLDS, N.J. & RISLEY, T.R. (1968). The role of social and material reinforcers in increasing talking of a disadvantaged preschool child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 253-262. [PDF] LAMBON RALPH, M.A., SAGE, K. & ROBERTS, J. (2000). Classical anomia : A neuropsychological perspective on speech production. Neuropsychologia, 38, 186-202. [PDF]
MATTINGLY, I.G., LIBERMAN, A.M. SYRDAL, A.K. & HALWES, T. (1971). Discrimination in speech and nonspeech modes. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 131-157. SHRIBERG, L., PAUL, R., MCSWEENY, J., KLIN, A., COHEN, D.J. & VOLKMAR, F.R. (2001). Speech and prosody characteristics of adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 44, 1097-1115.
WOLFRAM, W. (1971). Black-White speech differences revisited. In W. Wolfram & N.H. Clarke (Eds.), Black-White speech relationships (pp. 139-161). Washington, DC : Center for Applied Linguistics. MIYAKE, A., EMERSON, M.J., PADILLA, F. & AHN, J.C. (2004). Inner speech as a retrieval aid for task goals : The effects of cue type and articulatory suppression in the random task cuing paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 115 (2-3), 123-142.
MATTINGLY, I.G. (1972). Speech cues and sign stimuli. American Scientist, 60, 327-337.  
BUTTERWORTH, B. (1975). Hesitation and semantic planning in speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 4 (1), 75-87. [PDF] SAMUEL, A.G. (2011). Speech perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 62 (1), 49-72. [PDF]
ADES, A.E. (1977). Theoretical notes. Vowels, consonants, speech, and nonspeech. Psychological Review, 84 (6), 524–530.  
OLSON, D.R. (1977). From utterance to text : The bias of language in speech and writing. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 257-281. LUPYAN, G. & SWINGLEY, D. (2012). Self-directed speech affects visual search performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65 (6), 1068-1085. [PDF]
MOTLEY, M.T., CAMDEN, C.T. & BAARS, B.J. (1982). Covert formulation and editing of anomalies in speech production : Evidence from experimentally elicited slips of the tongue. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 21, 578-594. MODY, M., MANOACH, D.S., GUENTHER, F.H., KENET, T., BRUNO, K.A., McDOUGLAS, C.J. & STIGLER, K.A. (2013). Speech and language in autism spectrum disorder : a view through the lens of behavior and brain imaging. Neuropsychiatry, 3 (2), 223-232. [PDF]
ONG, W.J. (1982). Orality and literacy. London : Methuen. CHENAUSKY, K.V. (2015). Speech in autism : Spectrum disorder. Acoustics Today, 11 (4), 18-24. [PDF]
LIBERMAN, A.M. & MATTINGLY, I.G. (1985). The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition, 21 (1) 1-36. GERNSBACHER, M.A., MORSON, E.M. & GRACE, E.J. (2015). Language development in autism. In G. Hichkok & S. Small (Eds.), Neurobiology of language (pp. 879-886). Elsevier. [PDF]
BOHANNON, J.N. & STANOVICZ, L.B. (1988). The issue of negative evidence : Adult responses to children's language errors. Developmental Psychology, 24 (5), 684-689. GERNSBACHER, M.A. MORSON, E.M. & GRACE, E.J. (2016). Language and speech in autism. Annual Review of Linguistics, 2, 413-425.
Voir aussi Anomie, Langage intérieur, Langage, Autisme, Nommer, Aire de Broca et Comportement verbal
 
 Parole/Parler (Compréhension de la...) : Speech perception.

  COOPER, F.S., LIBERMAN, A.M. & BORST, J.M. (1951). The interconversion of audible and visible patterns as a basis for research in the perception of speech. Poceedings of the National Academy of Science, 37, 318-325. LIBERMAN, A.M. & MATTINGLY, I.G. (1985). The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition, 21 (1) 1-36.
KIMURA, D. (1961). Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15, 166-171.  
LANE, H. (1965). The motor theory of speech perception : A critical review. Psychological Review, 72 (4), 275-309. JOANISSE, M.F., MANIS, F.R., KEATING, P. & SEIDENBERG, M.S. (2000). Language deficits in dyslexic children : Speech perception, phonology and morphology. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71, 30-60. [PDF]
LIBERMAN, A.M., COOPER, F.S., SHANKWEILER, D.P. & STUDDERT-KENNEDY, M. (1967). Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review, 74, 431-461. POEPPEL, D., IDSARDI, W.J. & VAN WASSENHOVE, V. (2008). Speech perception at the interface of neurobiology and linguistics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 363 (1493), 1071-1086.
STUDDERT-KENNEDY, M. & SHANKWEILER, D.P. (1970). Hemispheric specialization for speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 48 (2), 579-594. [PDF] LOTTO, A.J., HICKOK, G. & HOLT, L.L. (2009). Reflections on mirror neurons and speech perception. Trends in Cognition Sciences, 13 (3), 110-114. [PDF]
MATTINGLY, I.G., LIBERMAN, A.M., SYRDAL, A.K. & HALWES, T. (1971). Discrimination in speech and nonspeech modes. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 131-157. SAMUEL, A.G. (2011). Speech perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 62 (1), 49-72. [PDF]
STUDDERT-KENNEDY, M. (1980). Speech perception. Language & Speech, 23, 45-66.  
Voir aussi Langage, Autisme, Perception, Parole, Compréhension, Aire de Wenicke et Comportement verbal
 
 Paroxétine : Antidépresseur inhibiteur sélectif de la recapture de la sérotonine. Paroxetine et Paxil.

  SAXENA, S., BRODY, A.L., MAIDMENT, K.M. & BAXTER, LR. (2007). Paroxetine treatment of compulsive hoarding. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 481-487.
Parrish Celestia Susannah (Pittsylvania County, 1853-1918) : Psychologue américaine. Étudiante de Titchener.
PARRISH, C.S. (1895). The cutaneous estimation of open and filled space. American Journal of Psychology, 6, 514-522.
PARRISH, C.S. (1896-97). Localisation of cutaneous impressions by arm movement without pressure upon the skin. American Journal of Psychology, 8, 250-267.
 
JAMES, E.T. (1971). Parrish, Celestia Susannah. In Notable American Women, 1607-1950 (Vol 3, pp. 18-20.). Cambridge, MA : Belknap Press.
THOMAS, R.K. (2006). Celestina Susannah Parrish (1853-1918). Pioneering psychologist, native Virginian, and "Georgia's Greatest Woman" Heritage Column. The Feminist Psychologist, 16 & 28.[PDF]
THOMAS, R.K. (2012). Parrish, C.S. In Robert W. Rieber (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the history of psychological theories (Part 16: 765-767). New York : Springer-Verlag.
Parsons Talcott (1902-1979) : Sociologue fonctionnaliste américain. Professeur de Luhmann.
PARSONS, T. (1937/1967). Structure of social action. Glencoe, IL : Free Press.
PARSONS, T. (1951). The social system. Glencoe, IL : Free Press.
PARSONS, T. (1960). Structure and process in modern societies. Glencoe, IL : Free Press.
PARSONS, T. (1966). Societies : Evolutionary and comparative perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall.
Partage/Partager : Comportement prosocial qui consiste à réduire ses ressources (ou leur valeurs) afin d'augmenter celles d'autrui, souvent dans le but d'éviter un conflit. Sharing.

  BARTON, E.J. (1981). Developing sharing : An analysis of modeling and other behavioral techniques. Behavior Modification, 5, 396-398.
FOSS, N.J., MINBAEVA, D.B, PEDERSEN, T. & REINHOLT, M. (2009). Encouraging knowledge sharing among employees : how job design matters. Human Resource Management, 48 (6), 871-893. [PDF]
Partage des tâches : Voir Division des tâches domestiques. Allocation of household labor, division of household labor.
Partenaire sexuel : Voir Choix du partenaire. Mate/Mate selection.
Parthénogénèse : Du grec parthenos, qui signifie «vierge» et genesis, qui veut dire «naissance ou origine». Il s'agit d'une forme de reproduction sexuée à partir d'un gamète femelle non fécondé. On observe ce phénomène chez les végétaux et certains reptiles. = reproduction monoparental, autoreproduction. Parthenogenesis.

  OWEN, R. (1849). On parthenogenesis, or the successive production of procreating individuals from a single ovum. London : Johnvan Voorst.
MITTWOCH, U. (1978). Parthenogenesis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 165-181. [PDF]
BOOTH, W., SMITH, C.F., ESKRIDGE, P.H., HOSS, S.K., MENDELSON, J.R. & SCHUETT, G.W. (2012). Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates. Biology Letters, 8 (6), 983-985.
Parti politique : Groupe fortement organisé dont l'objectif est de prendre le pouvoir, par les élections ou la force (coup d'état), et de gouverner un pays ou l'une de ses parties (état, province, canton, comté, etc). À défaut d'exercer le pouvoir, les partis jouent un rôle de contre-pouvoir en critiquant le gouvernement et ses politiques (opposition). Parti politique, pouvoir et psychologie politique Party.

  HADLEY, C.D. & LADD, E.C. (1973). Political parties and political issues : Patterns in differentiation since the New Deal. Beverly Hills : SAGE . RAHN, W.M. (1993). The role of partisan stereotypes in information processing about political candidates. American Journal of Political Science, 37, 472-496.
  COX, G.W. & McCUBBINS, M.D. (1993). Legislative leviathan : Party government in the house. Berkely, CA : University of California Press.
HADLEY, C.D. & LADD, E.C. (1975). Transformations of the American party system : Political coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s. New York : W.W. Norton & Company. KATZ, R.S. (1993). The evolution of party organizations in Europe : The three faces of party organization. American Review of Politics, 14, 593-618.
WITTMAN, D. (1977). Candidates with policy preferences : A dynamic model. Journal of Economic Theory, 15, 86-103. INGBERMAN, D.E. & VILLANI, J. (1993). An institutional theory of divided government and party polarization. American Journal of Political Science, 37, 429-471.
HIBBS, D.A. (1977). Political parties and macroeconomic policy. American Political Science Review 71 (4), 1467-1487. WIELHOUWER, P.W. & LOCHERBIE, B. (1994). Party contacting and political participation, 1952-90. American Journal of Political Science, 38 (1), 211-229.
SIDANIUS, J. & EKEMAMMAR, B. (1983). Sex, political party preference, and higher-order dimensions of sociopolitical ideology. Journal of Psychology, 115, 233-239. KATZ, R.S. (1995). Changing models of party organization and party democracy : The emergence of the cartel party. Party Politics, 1 (1), 5-28.
OFFE, C. (1983). Competitive party democracy and the keynesian welfare state: Factors of stability and disorganization. Policy Sciences, 15, 225-246. ALDRICH, J.H. (1995). Why parties ? The origin and transformation of political parties in America. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
  DION, D. & HUBER, J. (1996). Party leadership and procedural control in legislatures. Journal of Politics, 58, 25-53.
DALTON, R.J. (1984). Cognitive mobilization and party dealignment in advanced industrial democracies. Journal of Politics, 46, 264-284. SEYD, P. (1999). New parties/new politics ? A case study of the British Labour Part. Party Politics, 5 (3), 383-405.
KATZ, R.S. (1986). Visions and realities of party government. F.G. Castles & R. Wildenmann (Ed.), Party government : A rationalistic conception. Berlin : De Gruyter. SNYDER, J.M. & TING, M.M. (2002). An informational rationale for political parties. American Journal of Political Science 46 (1), 90-110. [PDF]
  GREEN, D.P. , PALMQUIST, B. & SCHICKLER, E. (2002). Partisan hearts and minds : Political parties and the social identities of voters. New Haven : Yale University Press.
  WEISBERG, H.F. & GREENE, S. (2003). The political psychology of party identification. In M.B. MacKuen & G. Rabinowitz (Eds.), Electoral democracy (pp. 83-124). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
WATTENBERG, M. P. (1991). The Republican presidential advantage in the age of party disunity. In G.W. Cox & S. Kernell (Eds.), The politics of divided government (pp. 39-56). Boulder: Westview Press. BURDEN, B.C. & KLOFSTAD, C.A. (2005). Affect and Cognition in Party Identification. Political Psychology, 26 (6), 869-886. [PDF]
MAYHEW, D.R. (1991). Divided we govern : Party control, lawmaking, and investigations, 1946-1990. New Haven: Yale University Press. ASHWORTH, S. & BUENO DE MESQUITA, E. (2008). Informative party labels with institutional and electoral variation. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 20 (3), 251-273. [PDF]
HUCKFELDT, R. & SPRAGUE, J. (1992). Political parties and electoral mobilization : Political structure, social structure, and the party canvass. The American Political Science Review, 86 (1), 70-86. KATZ, R.S. & MAIR, P. (2009). The cartel party thesis : A restatement. Perspectives on Politics, 7 (4), 753-766. [PDF]
HARRINGTON, J.E. (1992). The role of party reputation in the formation of policy. Journal of Public Economics, 49, 107-121. CROSS, W. & BLAIS, A. (2012). Who selects party leaders ? Party Politics, 18, 127-150. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pouvoir, Élection, Campagne politique, Candidat-e et Engagement politique
 
Participant : Sujet humain d'une recherche. La participation d'un sujet à une recherche peut être involontaire, donc faite à l'insu du sujet lui-même, ou volontaire, à la suite d'une sollication en ce sens de la part du chercheur. Le consentement du participant est donc donné avant le début de cette recherche (consentement éclairé) ou à la fin de celle-ci (tromperie). Les animaux ne sont pas des participants; ce sont des sujets. Par extension, le mot sert également à désiger la première partie de la méthode d'un article empirique qui décrit au lecteur les caractéristiques des participants de sa recherche, ainsi que la procédure d'échantillonnage choisie pour les sélectionner. Participant, code de déontologiee et droits des participants. = sujet, sujet humain, répondant, volontaire. *cobaye. Subject, Human subject research.
Les parties de la méthode d'un article
Participants/Sujet/Corpus
Matériel
Déroulement
Plan de recherche


  ROSEN, E. (1951). Differences between volunteers and non-volunteers for psychological studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 185-193.  
CARR, J.E. & WHITTENBAUGH, J.A. (1968). Volunteer and nonvolunteer characteristics in an outpatient population. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73 (1), 16-17. [PDF] GOLDIAMOND, I. (1976). Protection of human subjects and patients : a social contingency analysis of distinctions between research and practice, and its implications. Behaviorism, 4 (1), 1-41.
KELMAN, H.C. (1967). Human use of human subjects : The problem of deception in social psychological experiments. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 1-11. [PDF]  
O'BRIEN, F. (1968). Sequential contrast effects with human subjects. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 537-542. [PDF] KELMAN, H.C. (1977). Privacy and research with human beings. Journal of Social Issues, 33 (3), 169-195. [PDF]
ROSNOW, R.L. & ROSENTHAL, R. (1969). volunteer subject. In R. Rosenthal & R.L. Rosnow (Eds.), Artifact in behavioral research (pp. 59-118). Academic Press. BARON, A. & PERONE, M. (1982). The place of the human subject in the operant laboratory. The Behavior Analyst, 5 (2), 143-158. [PDF]
ROSNOW, R.L., ROSENTHAL, R., MCCONOCHIE, R.W. & ARMS, R.L. (1969). Volunteer effects on experimental outcomes. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 29, 825-846. HINELINE, P.N. (1986). The relationships between subject and experimenter. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 45, 123-127. [PDF]
RUBIN, Z. & MOORE, J.C. (1971). Assessment of subjects' suspicions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 17, 163-170. KRAEMER, H.C. & THIEMANN, S. (1987). How many subjects ? Statistical power analysis in research. Newbury Park, CA : Sage Publications.
WEBER, S.J. & COOK, T.D. (1972). Subject effects in laboratory research : An examination of subject roles, demand characteristics, and valid inference. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 273-295. HACKING, I. (1988). The participant irrealist at large in the laboratory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 39, 277-294
KELMAN, H.C. (1972). The rights of the subject in social research : An analysis in terms of relative power and legitimacy. American Psychologist, 27 (11), 989-1016. [PDF] BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY (1993). Ethical principles for conducting research with human participants. The Psychologist : Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 6, 33-36.
SULLIVAN, D.S. & DEITER, T.E. (1973). Subject-experimenter prceptions of ethical issues in human research. American Psychologist, 28, 587-591. MALAVIYA, P. (2001). Human participants respondents and researchers. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10 (1-2), 115-121. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échantillonnage et Consentement
Participants (Sélection des...) : Voir Échantillonnage. Sampling.
Participants (Rémunération des...) : En recherche, il faut parfois rémunérer les sujets sélectionnés pour les convaincre de participer à la recherche, de la terminer si elle dure longtemps (certaines recherches longitudinales) ou pour compenser ceux et celles qui ont subi des effets secondaires indésirables.

   
 
Participer : Consiste à contribuer à une activité, plutôt que de refuser d'y prendre part ou de se contenter d'être seulement présent lors du déroulement (assister). Participer, partisan et pésentéisme.

Type de participation
Participer à une recherche Participer en classe Participer à la politique
 


  PORTER, S.R. (2007). A closer look at faculty service: What affects participation on committees ? Journal of Higher Education, 78 (5), 523-541.
CHALABAEV, A., SARRAZIN, P., FONTAYNE, P., BOICHÉ, J. & CLÉMENT-GUILLOTIN, C. (2013). The influence of sex stereotypes and gender roles on participation and performance in sport and exercise : Review and future directions. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14 (2), 136-144. [PDF]
Participer/Participation en classe : Voir Classe (Participation).
Participer à un parti/Participation politique : Voir Voter et Engagement politique.
Participer à une recherche : Voir Biais de non-réponse/non-participation et Taux de réponse. Enrollment.
Partisan : Tout individu qui soutient et défend une idée, une autre personne, un groupe. Partisan, organisation et équipe. Supporter.

  WOLFSON, S., WAKELIN, D. & LEWIS M. (2005). Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage. Journal of Sport Sciences, 23 (4), 365-374.
Voir auss Audience, Effet d'audience et Avantage du terrain
Partridge Ty ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de la psychologie comparée. Collaborateur de Greenberg et Schneirla.

PARTRIDGE, T., WEISS, E. & GREENBERG, G. (1996). Individual development and evolution : The genesis of novel behavior. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 9 (2), 99-103.
PARTRIDGE, T. & GREENBERG, G. (1998). Integrative levels. In G. Greenberg & M.H. Haraway (Eds.), Comparative psychology : A handbook (pp. 150-155). New York : Garland.
PARTRIDGE, T. (2003). Biological and caregiver correlates of behavioral inhibition. Infant & Child Development, 12 (1), 71-87.
PARTRIDGE, T. (2007). A latent growth-curve approach to difficult temperament. Infant & Child Development, 16 (3), 255-265.
PARTRIDGE, T. & GREENBERG, G. (2010). Contemporay ideas in physics an biology in Gottlieb’s psychology. In K.E. Hood, C. Tucker Halpern, G. Greenberg, and R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of Developmental Science, Behavior, and Genetics. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. [PDF]
PASCUAL-LEONE - PASSION - PATEL - PATERNITÉ - PATHOLOGIE - PATIENT - PATRIARCAT - PATTERSON - PAUVRETÉ - PAVLOV - PE
Pascal Blaise (1623-1662) : Mathématicien, physicien, méthodologiste et philosophe français. Il a formulé un pari, devenu célèbre, sur l'existence de Dieu.
PASCAL, B. (1670). Les pensées.
 
 
 
 
Le pari de Pascal
Hypothèse En réalité, Dieu existe En réalité, Dieu n'existe pas
Vous pariez que Dieu existe Vous avez raison, alors à votre mort vous irez au paradis. Vous avez tort, alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.
Vous pariez que Dieu n'existe pas Vous avez tor,t alors à votre mort vous n'irez pas au paradis. Vous avez raiso,n alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.
 
Pascalis Olivier ( ) : Neurocognitiviste d'origine française et spécialiste de l'étude de la reconnaissance du visage. Collaborateur de Bachevalier, Lee, Shankardass et Tanaka.
PASCALIS, O., DE SCHONEN, S., MORTON, J., DERUELLE, C. & FABRE-GRENET, M. (1995). Mother’s face recognition by neonates : a replication and an extension. Infant Behavior & Development, 18 (1), 79-85. [PDF]
PASCALIS, O., DEMONT, E., DE HAAN, M. & CAMPBELL, R. (2001). Recognition of faces of different species : a developmental study between 5-8 years of age. Infant & Child Development, 10 (S), 39-45.
PASCALIS, O., DE HAAN, M. & NELSON, C.A. (2002). Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life ? Science, 296, 1321-1323.
PASCALIS, O., SCOTT, L.S., KELLY, D.J., SHANNON, R.W., NICHOLSON, E., COLEMAN M. & NELSON C.A. (2005). Plasticity of Face Processing in Infancy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 102, 5297-5300.
PASCALIS, O., DE MARTIN DE VIVIÉS, X., ANZURES, G., QUINN, P.C., SLATER, A.M., TANAKA, J.W. & LEE, K. (2011). Development of face pprocessing. WIREs Cognitive Science, 2, 666-675. [PDF]
Pascual-Leone Juan ( ) : Psychiatre et psychologue cognitiviste européen d'origine espagnole. Étudiant de Piaget. Collaborateur de Baillargeon et De Ribaupierre.

PASCUAL-LEONE, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget's development stages. Acta Psychologica, 32, 302-345
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. & GOODMAN, D. (1979). Intelligence and experience : A neo-Piagetian approach. Instructional Science, 8, 301-367.
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. (1983). Growing into human maturity : Toward a metasubjective theory of adulthood stages. Life-Span Development & Behavior, 5, 117-155
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. & MORRA, S. (1991). Horizontality of water level : a neo-Piagetian developmental review. Advances in Child Development & Behavior, 23, 231-76.
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. (1995). Learning and development as dialectical factors in cognitive growth. Human Development, 38, 338-348.
 
TODOR, J.I. (1979). Developmental differences in motor task integration : A test of Pascual-Leone’s theory of constructive operators. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 314-322. [PDF]
Pasek Josh ( ) : Politologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la communication. Il s'intéresse également à la psychologie politique et aux élections. Collaborateur de Krosnick.
PASEK, J., MORE, E. & ROMER, D. (2009). Realizing the social internet ? Online social networking meets offline civic engagement. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 6(3/4), 197-215.
PASEK, J., TAHK, A., LELKES, Y., KROSNICK, J.A., PAYNE, B.K., AKHTAR, O. & TOMPSON, T. (2009). Determinants of turnout and candidate choice in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election : Illuminating the impact of racial prejudice and oher considerations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 73 (5), 943-994.
PASEK, J., STARK, T., KROSNICK, J.A., TOMPSON, T. & PAYNE B. (2014). Attitude toward Blacks in the Obama era : Changing distributions and impacts on job approval and electoral choice 2008-2012. Public Opinion Quarterly, 78 (S1), 276-302.
PASEK, J., STARK, T.H., KROSNICK, J.A. & TOMPSON, T. (2015). What motivates a conspiracy theory ? Birther beliefs, partisanship, liberal-conservative ideology, and anti-Black attitudes. Electoral Studies, 40, 482-489. [PDF]
PASEK, J. (2016). When will nonprobability surveys mirror probability surveys ? Considering types of inference and weighting strategies as criteria for correspondence. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 28, 269-291.
Pashler Harold E. ( ) : Psychologue cognitif américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'attention. Collaborateur de Bjork, Gazzaniga, Rohrer et Wixted.
PASHLER, H. (1984). Evidence against late selection : Stimulus quality effects in previewed displays. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 10, 429-448. [PDF]
PASHLER, H. & BADGIO, P. (1985). Visual attention and stimulus identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 11 (2), 105-121. [PDF]
PASHLER, H. (1992). Attentional limitations in doing two tasks at the same time. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1 (2), 44-50. [PDF]
PASHLER, H. (1994). Dual-task interference in simple tasks : Data and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 220-244. [PDF]
PASHLER, H., ROHRER, D. & HARRIS, C. (2013). Can the goal of honesty be primed ? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 959-964. [PDF]
Passage à l'acte : En psychanalyse, pulsion, refoulée ou non, qui engendre une conduite. Acting out.

  PROULX, J. (2004). Passage à l’acte criminel. Dans G. Lopez & S. Tzitzis (Eds.), Dictionnaire critique des sciences criminelles (pp. 684-686). Paris : Éditions Dalloz.
Voir aussi Psychanalyse et Pulsion
Passant : Tout organisme présent au moment où l'on observe le sujet d'une recherche, et dont la seule présence est susceptible d'influencer les comportements ou les opinions de ce sujet. Passant et effet du passant. *témoin. Bystander.

  LATANÉ, B. & DARLEY, J. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 10, 215-221.
DARLEY, J. & LATANÉ, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies : Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8, 377-383.
DARLEY, J. & LATANÉ, B. (1969). Bystander "Apathy". American Scientist, 57, 244-268.
LATANÉ, B. & RODIN, J. (1969). A lady in distress : Inhibiting effects of friends and strangers on bystander intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 189-202.
Voir aussi Effet du passant

Passation : Le terme a deux significations voisines : a) En méthodologie/métrologie, ensemble des conditions mises en place par un chercheur pour permettre aux répondants de sa recherche de "bien" répondre à un test, à un questionnaire, à une épreuve/tâche, à une entrevue. Ici le mot "bien" ne désigne la "bonne réponse" du point de vue du participant ou du chercheur, mais bien les conditions qui permettent de s'assurer que les variables parasites qui menacent la validité et la fidélité de la mesure/évaluation de la variable dépendante (Y) seront neutralisées. EX: Un interviewer qui coupe la parole aux répondants. = administration d'un test. Test administration, test conditions. b) En éducation, on utilise également ce terme pour désigner les conditions mises en place dans une classe par un-e enseignant-e/professeur-e pour permettre à ses étudiants/élèves de répondre aux questions d'un examen. EX: Une classe bruyante et chaude nuit à la passation d'un test de lecture. = faire.

  a
GORETTI, M. (1961). L'épreuve individuelle d'intelligence générale de Barbeau et Pinard : étude sur l'administration collective de quatre-sous-tests verbaux. Québec : Université Laval.
SUBKOVIAK, M.J. (1976). Estimating reliability from a single administration of a mastery test. JEM, 13, 265-276.
DILLMAN, D.A. (1991). The design and administration of mail surveys. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 225-249. [PDF]
BANDILLA, W., BOSNJAK, M. & ALTDORFER, P. (2003). Survey administration effects ? A comparison of Web-based and traditional written self-administered surveys using the ISSP environment module. Social Science Computer Review, 21, 235-243.
WILLIAMS, R.J. & VOLBERG, R. (2009) Impact of survey description, administration format, and exclusionary criteria on population prevalence rates of problem gambling. International Gambling Studies, 9 (2), 101-117.
CHEN, J., WHITE, S., McCLOSKEY, M., SOROUI, J. & CHUN, Y. (2011). Effects of computer versus paper administration of an adult functional writing assessment. Assessing Writing, 16, 49-71.
GRIEVE R. & de GROOT, H.T. (2011). Does online psychological test administration facilitate faking ? Computers in Human Behavior, 27 (6), 2386-2391.
Voir aussi Validité, Fidélité, Test, Questionnaire, Épreuve/tâche et Entrevue
b
Voir aussi Classe et Examen.

 

Passion : Ce que l'on aime faire par dessus tout et dont on se prive, en partie ou totalement, que si l'on y est contraint. Contrairement à la dépendance, l'activité animée par une passion comporte plus d'avantages pour l'individu que de désavantages (mais pas nécessairement pour son entourage...). Passion.

  HUME, D. (1759/1990). Réflexions sur les passions. Paris : Le Livre de Poche.  
SOLOMON, R. (1976). The passions. New York : Anchor. MAGEAU, G. & VALLERAND, R.J., CHAREST, J., SALVY, S.J., LACAILLE, N., BOUFFARD, T. & KOESTNER, R. (2012). On the development of harmonious and obsessive passion : The role of autonomy support, activity specialization, and identification with the activity. Journal of Personality, 77 (3),601-646. [PDF]
GABBARD, G.O. (2001). Cyberpassion : E-Erotic transference on the Internet. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 70, 719-739. [PDF] LAFRENIÈRE, M-A.K., VALLERAND, R.J., DONAHUE, E.G. & LAVIGNE, G.L. (2009). On the costs and benefits of gaming : The role of passion. CyberPsychology, 12, 285-290. [PDF]
RATELLE, C., VALLERAND, R.J., MAGEAU, G., ROUSSEAU, F.L. & PROVENCHER, P.J. (2004). When passion leads to problematic outcomes : A look at gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies 20, 105-119. [PDF] LAFRENIÈRE, M-A.K., BÉLANGER, J.J., SEDIKIDES, C. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2011). Self-esteem and passion for activities. Personality & Individual Differences, 51, 541-544. [PDF]
MAGEAU, G.A., VALLERAND, R.J., ROUSSEAU, F.L., RATELLE, C.F. & PROVENCHER, P.J. (2005). Passion and gambling: Investigating the divergent affective and cognitive consequences of gambling. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 100-118. VALLERAND, R.J. (2012). From motivation to passion : In search of the motivational processes involved in a meaningful life. Canadian Psychology, 53, 42-52. [PDF]
AVERILL, J.R. & SUNDARARAJAN, L. (2006). Passion and qing: Intellectual histories of emotion, West and East. In K. Pawlik, & G. d’Ydewalle (Eds.), Psychological concepts: An international historical perspective (pp. 101-139). Hove, UK : Psychology Press.  
SHIELDS, S.A. (2007). Passionate men, emotional women : Psychology constructs gender difference in the late 19th century. History of Psychology, 10, 92-110. [PDF]  
VALLERAND, R.J., SALVY, S.J., MAGEAU, G.A., ELLIOT, A.J., DENIS, P., GROUZET, F.M.E. & BLANCHARD, C.B. (2007). On the role of passion in performance. Journal of Personality, 75, 505-534. THOMAES, S., BUSHMAN, B.J., OROBIO DE CASTRO, B. & REIJEIJTES, A. (2012). Arousing "gentle passions" in young adolescents : Sustained experimental effects of value-affirmations on prosocial feelings andbehaviors. Developmental Psychology, 48, 103-110.
REDISH, A.V., JENSEN, S., JOHNSON, A. & KURT-NELSON, Z. (2007). Reconciling reinforcement learning models with behavioral extinction and renewal : Implications for addiction, relapse, and problem gambling. Psychological Review, 114 (3), 784-805. [PDF]  
PHILLIPE, F. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2007). Prevalence rates of gambling problems in Montreal, Canada : A look at old adults and the role of passion. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 275-283. [PDF] RIP, B., VALLERAND, R.J. & LAFRENIÈRE, M.-A. K. (2012). Passion for a cause, passion for a creed : On ideological passion, identity threat, and radicalization. Journal of Personality, 80, 573-602. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (2008). The psychology of passion : In search of what makes people's lives most worth living. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49 (1), 1-13. [PDF] CARPENTIER, J., MAGEAU, G. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2012). Ruminations and flow: Why do people with a more harmonious passion experience higher well-being ? Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 501-518. [PDF]
DONAHUE, E.G., RIP, B. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2009). When winning is everything : On passion and aggression in sport. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 10, 526-534. [PDF] VALLERAND, R.J. (2012). The role of passion in sustainable psychological well-being. Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research & Practice, 2, 1.
Voir aussi Dépendance et Motivation
Passivité : Incapacité à prendre des intitiatives ou à réagir à une situation désagréable ou aversive. Passivité et résignation acquise. Passivity.

  GOOD, T.L, SLAVINGS, R., HAREL, K. & EMERSON, H. (1987). Student passivity : A study of student question-asking in K-12 classrooms. Sociology of Education, 60 (3), 181-199.
Voir aussi Résignation acquise
Patel Meeta R. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude des troubles alimentaires et de l'autisme. Étudiante de Bijou, Carr, Ghezzi et Piazza. Collaboratrice de Fisher, Leblanc, Rapp et Shore.
PATEL, M.R., CARR, J.E. & DOZIER, C.L. (1998). On the role of stimulus preference assessment in the evaluation of contingent access to stimuli associated with stereotypy during behavioral acquisition. Behavioral Interventions, 13, 269-274.
PATEL, M.R., PIAZZA, C.C., KELLY, M.L., OSCHNER, C.A. & SANTANA, C.M. (2001). Using a fading procedure to increase liquid consumption in a child with feeding problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34 (3), 357-360. [PDF]
PATEL, M.R., PIAZZA, C.C., MARTINEZ, C.J., VOLKERT, V.M. & SANTANA, C.M. (2002). An evaluation of two differential reinforcement procedures and escape extinction to treat food refusal. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 363-374. [PDF]
PATEL, D.R., GREYDANUS, D.E., PRATT, H.D. & PHILLIPS, E.L. (2003). Eating disorders in adolescent athletes. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18 (3), 280-296.
PATEL, M.R., PIAZZA, C.C., LAYER, S.A., XOLEMAN, R. & SWARTZWEIDLDER, D.M. (2005). A Systematic evaluation of food textures To decrease packing and increase oral intake in children with pediatric feeding disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 (1), 89-100. [PDF]
Paternalisme : Consiste à utiliser son autorité pour traiter autrui comme des enfants. Paternalism.

  JACKMAN, M.R. (1994). The velvet glove : Paternalism and conflict in gender, class, and race relations. Berkeley, CA : University of California Press.
Voir aussi Autorité
Paternité/Père : Rôle parental qui consiste à soigner et éduquer un ou plusieurs enfants, au sein d'une famille ou non. Enfance, maternité et paternité. = rôle du père, paternant. Father-child relations, paternal effects.

  MISCHEL, W. (1961). Father absence and delay of gratification : Cross-cultural comparisons". Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology 63,116-124. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. (Ed.) (2001). La problématique paternelle. Ramonville : St-Agne : Erès.
D'ANDRADE, R.G. (1973). Father absence, identification and identity. Ethos, 1, 440-445. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. (2001). Contribution à l'analyse de l'implication paternelle. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée, 51 (1-2), 69-75.
LAMB, M.E. (1975). Fathers : Forgotten contributors to child development. Human Development, 18, 245-266. WHITE, L. & GILBRETH, J.G. (2001). When children have two fathers : Effects of relationships with stepfathers and noncustodial fathers on adolescent outcomes. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 63, 155-67.
GROSSMANN, K.E. & VOLKMER, J.J. (1984). Fathers' presence during birth of their infants and paternal involvement. International Journal of Behavioral Develpoment, 7, 157-165. MARKERT, J.A., DANLEY, P.D. & ARNEGARD, M.E. (2001). Maternal effects, paternal effects and sexual selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16 (2), 95-100. [PDF]
CHAMBERLAND, C. et CÔTÉ, M. (1988). Participation des pères aux tâches familiales et perception des rôles sexuels chez leur garçon d'âge préscolaire. Apprentissage et Socialisation, 11 (3), 167-172. YEUNG, W.J., SANDBERG, J.F., DAVIS-KEAN, P.E. & HOFFERTH, S.L. (2001). Children's time with fathers in intact families. Journal of Marriage & Family, 63 (1), 136-154.
McBRIDE, B. (1989). Stress and fathers' parental cornpetence: Implications for family life and parent educators. Family Relations, 38, 385-389. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. et ROUYER, V. (2002). Le père dans la construction de l'identité sexuée de l'enfant. Confrontation des modèles théoriques. L'Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 31 (4), 523-533.
CHAMBERLAND, C. (1991). Contribution des pères au rôle domestique et identité sexuelle de leur garçon d'âge préscolaire. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement/Canadian Journal of Behavior Science, 23 (2), 214-227. YEUNG, W.J., SANDBERG, J.F., DAVIS-KEAN, P.E. & HOFFERTH, S.L. (2001). Children's time with fathers in intact families. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 63, 136-154.
  SILVERSTEIN, L.B. (2002). Fathers and families. In J. P. McHale & W. S. Grolnick (Eds.), Retrospect and prospect in the study of families. Mahwah, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
AMATO, P.R. (1994). Father-child relations, mother-child relations, and offspring psychological well-being in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 56, 1031-1042. BAGNER, D. & EYBERG, S.M. (2003). Father involvement in parent training : When does it matter ? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 599-605. [PDF]
COLTRANE, S. & ALLAN, K. (1994). "New" fathers and old stereotypes : Representations of mas culinity in 1980s television. Masculinities, 2, 43-66. BAGNER, D. & EYBERG, S.M. (2003). Father involvement in treatment. In T.H. Ollendick and C.S. Schroeder (Eds.), Encyclopedia of clinical child and pediatric psychology. New York : Plenum. [PDF]
  PERLESZ, A (2004). Deconstructing the fear of father absence. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 16 (3), 1-29. [PDF]
BAKER, D.B. (1994). Parenting stress and ADHD : A cornpaison of mothers and fathers. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 46-50. CONDON, J.T., BOYCE, P. & CORKINDALE, C.J. (2004). The first-time fathers study : a prospective study of the mental health and wellbeing of men during the transition to parenthood. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 56-64.
  BRETHERTON, I., LAMBERT, J.D. & GOLBY, B. (2005). Involved fathers of preschool children as seen by themselves and their wives : Accounts of attachment, socialization, and companionship. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 229-251.
  GRAIG, L. (2006). Does father care mean fathers share ? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender & Society, 20 (2), 259-281. [PDF]
  PATTERSON, C.J. (2004). Gay fathers. In M.E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (pp. 397–416). New York : Wiley.
PARKE, R.D. (1996). Fatherhood. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. WHITE, J. M., GODFREY, J. & MOCASSIN, B. I. (2006). American Indian fathering in the Dakota Nation : Use of Akicita as a fatherhood standard. Fathering, 4 (1), 49-69.
DE SINGLY, F. (1996). Le temps, maternel et paternel, consacré à l'enfant. Dans R.B. Dandurand et R. Hurtubise et C. Le Bourdais (Dirs.), Enfances. Perspectives sociales et pluriculturelles (p. 203-217). Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture. Québec : Les Presses de l'Université Laval.  GEARY, D.C. (2007). Evolution of fatherhood. In C. Salmon & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Family relationships : An evolutionary perspective (pp. 115-144). New York : Oxford University Press.
  PAQUETTE, D., EUGÈNE, M.M., DUBEAU, D. & GAGNON, M.-N. (2009). Les pères ont-ils une influence spécifique sur le développement des enfants ? In D. Dubeau, A. Devault & G. Forget (Eds.), La paternité au 21e siècle (pp. 99-122). PUL.
  CAMERON, P. (2009). Gay fathers' effects on children : a review. Psychological Reports, 104 (2), 649–659.
ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. (1997). Influence de la différenciation paternelle sur la construction de l'identité sexuée de l'enfant de 20 mois. Enfance, 50 (3), 425-434. [PDF] PAULSON, J.F. & BAZEMORE, S.D. (2010). Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression. Journal of American Medical Association, 303 (19), 1961-1969. [LIRE]
AMATO, P.R. & GILBRETH, J.G. (1999). Nonresident fathers and children's well-being : A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 61, 557-573. LAMB, M.E. (Ed.) (2010). The role of the father in child development. Hoboken NJ : Wiley.
AMATO, P.R. & RIVERA, F. (1999). Paternal involvement and children's behavior problems. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 61, 375-84. SHEARS, J., BUBAR, R. & HALL, R.C. (2011). Understanding Fathering among Urban Native American Men. Advances in Social Work, 12 (2), 201-217. [PDF]
SILVERSTEIN, L.B. & AUERBACH, C.F. (1999). De- constructing the essential father. American Psychologist, 54,397-407. MASHOODH, R., FRANKS, B., CURLEY, J.P. & CHAMPAGNE, F.A. (2012). Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 109 (S2), 17232-17238. [PDF]
Voir aussi Rôle parental et Maternité
Pathogène : Qui caractérise un état maladif ou pathologique, qui requiert des soins, ou qui est susceptible d'engendrer un tel état. Le terme désigne également les facteurs qui engendrent cet état. = maladif.

 
Pathologie : Le contraire de la santé ou de la normalité. Terme d'origine médicale utilisé plus récemment pour désigner les troubles mentaux. Les symptômes de la maladie mentale sont souvent plus variés et diffus que ceux de la plupart des maladies biologiques. En psychologie, suivant la perspective, la pathologie peut naître d'une maladie mentale (psychanalyse et cognitivisme) ou de contingences sociales particulières et dysfonctionnelles (behaviorisme et écologisme). Pathologie et comportement pathologique. = maladie, affection, anormalité, désordre, déviance, problème grave, trouble important, cas lourd. /normalité, sain, santé. ( ): maladie biologique, maladie mentale, maladie psychosomatique. Disorders, pathology.

Pathologie Pathologie ou maladie biologique On dit aussi trouble ou maladie organique
Pathologie ou maladie psychologique On dit aussi maladie ou trouble mental

  KANTOR, J.R. (1919). Human personality and its pathology. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, Scientific Method, 16, 236-246.
CANGUILHEM, G. (1943/66). Le normal et le pathologique. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
SIDMAN, M. (1960). Normal sources of pathological behavior. Science, 132, 61-68.
BARLOW, D.H. (Ed.) (1981). Behavioral assessment of adult disorders. New York : Guilford Press.
GAGNON, J.H. (1987). Science and the politics of pathology. Journal of Sex Research, 23 (1), 120-123.
FEE, D. (Ed.) (2000). Pathology and the postmodern : Mental illness as discourse and experience. London : Sage Publications.
Pathomimie : Voir Touble factive et Syndrome de Munchausen.
Patience : Capacité d'attendre avant de faire quelque chose ou d'obtenir ce que l'on souhaite, sans manifester aucune fustration. Patience, délai de renforcement et délai de gratification. Patience.

  KACELNIK, A. (2003). The evolution of patience. In G. Loewenstein, D. Read & R. Baumeister (Eds.), Time and decision : Economic and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice (pp. 115-138). New York : Russell Sage Foundation.
 STEVENS, J.R., HALLINAN, E.V. & HAUSER, M.D. (2005). The ecology and evolution of patience in two new world monkeys. Biology Letters 1 (2), 223-226. [PDF]
 ROSATI, A., STEVENS, J., HARE, B. & HAUSER, M.D. (2007). The evolutionary origins of human patienc : Temporal preferences in chimpanzees, bonobos, and human adults. Current Biology, 17 (19), 1-6. [PDF]
JIMURA, K., MYERSON, J., HILGARD, J., BRAVER, T.S. & GREEN, L. (2009). Are people really more patient than other animals ? Evidence from human discounting of real liquid rewards. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16 (6), 1071-1075. [PDF]
Patient : Désigne, dans le modèle médico-psychiatrique, celui qui consulte un professionnel de la santé (mais qui, contrairement au malade,ne requiert pas nécessairement de soins). Par extension, le terme désigne aussi le malade, celui qui souffre. (mais pas nécessairement pour les raisons qu'il invoque). Certains pyschologues, notamment les humanistes, lui préfèrent le le terme client, plus neutre. Au Québec, dans notre système de santé, le terme désigne également «celui qui attend, attend, attend, en silence...». = malade. *client. Patient.

Type de patient
Patients célèbres de Freud Patient satisfait Patient zéro
 

  AYLLON, T. & AZRIN, N.H. Reinforcement and instructions with mental patients. (1964). Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 7, 327-331. [PDF] HOENCAMP, E., STEVENS, A. & HAFFMANS, J. (2002). Patients' attitudes toward antidepressants. Psychiatric Services, 53 (9), 1180-1181.
GOLDIAMOND, I. (1976). Protection of human subjects and patients : a social contingency analysis of distinctions between research and practice, and its implications. Behaviorism, 4 (1), 1-41. LAUBER, C., NORDT, C. & RÖSSLER, W. (2003). Patients' attitudes toward antidepressants. Psychiatric Services, 54, (5), 746-747.
GABBARD, G.O. & COYNE, L. (1987). Predictors of response of antisocial patients to hospital treatment. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 38 (11), 1181-1185. WYNNE, L. (2004). The missing theory : Why behavior analysis has little impact on voluntary adult outpatient services. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 6 (2), 135-146. [PDF]
COLSON, D.B., HORWITZ, L., ALLEN, J.G., FRIESWYK, S.H., GABBARD, G.O., NEWSOM, G.E. & COYNE, L. (1988). Patient collaboration as a criterion for the therapeutic alliance. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 5 (3), 259-268. KIHLSTROM, J.F. (2005). "Patients" and "clients". APS Observer, 18 (9), 6.
GABBARD, G.O. (1989). Patients who hate. Psychiatry, 52 (1), 96-106. KRAVITZ, R.L., EPSTEIN, R.M., FELDMAN, M.D., FRANZ, C.E., AZARI, R., WILKS, M.S., HINTON, L. & FRANKS, P. (2005). Influence of patients’ requests for direct-to-consumer advertised antidepressants. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 1995-2002.
KLERMAN, G.L. (1990). The psychiatric patient's right to effective treatment : implications of Osheroff v. Chestnut Lodge. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 409-418. LAUBER, C., NORDT, C., BRAUNSCHWEIG, C. & RÖSSLER, W. (2006). Do mental health professionals stigmatize their patients ? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113 (S429), 51-59. [PDF]+ [PDF]
GABBARD, G.O. (1992). Once a patient, always a patient: Therapist-patient sex after termination. The American Psychoanalyst 26 (4), 6-7. AKER, S., AKER, A.A., BOKE, O., DUNDAR, C., SAHIN, A.R. & PEKSEN, Y. (2007). Attitude of medical students to psychiatric patients and their disorders and the influence of psychiatric study placements in bringing about changes in attitude. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences, 44 (3), 204–212. [PDF]
MORTENSEN, B. & JUEL, K. (1993). Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 183-189. FAVA, G.A. & GUIDI, J. (2007). Information overload, the patient, and the clinician. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic, 76, 1-3.
JOHNSON, M. & WEBB, C. (1995). Rediscovering unpopular patients : the concept of social judgement. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21 (3), 466-475. AKDENIZ, F. (2010). Female-specific health problems in mental patients. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23 (4), 378-382.
  KIKUCHI, T., UCHIDA, H., SUZUKI, T., WATANABE, K. & KASHIMA, H. (2011). Patients' attitudes toward side effects of antidepressants : an Internet survey. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 261 (2), 103-109.
RÖSSLER, W., SALIZE, H.J., TRUNK, V. & VOGES, B. (1996). The attitude of medical students to psychiatric patients. German. Nervenarzt, 67, 757-764. BARTLETT-ELLIS, R.J., CARMON, A.F. & PIKE, C. (2016). A review of immediacy and implications for provider-patient relationships to support medication management. Patient Preference & Adherence, 10, 9-18. [PDF]
Voir aussi Satisfaction du patient
Patient célèbre de Freud : Voir Freud.
Patient satisfait : Satisfaction du patient.
Patient zéro : Expression qui désigne le premier individu chez qui une maladie/infection (transmissible ou non) est détectée (variole, grippe, SIDA, etc.). Il ne s'agit pas forcéement de la première personne malade.

 
Patinage (artistique et de vitesse) : Sport.

  VEALEY, R.S. & CAMPBELL, J.L. (1988). Achievement goals of adolescent figure skaters : Impact on self-confidence, anxiety, and performance. Journal of Adolescent Research, 3, 227-243.
SELTZER, R. & GLASS, W. (1991). International politics and judging in Olympic skating events : 1968-1988. Journal of Sport Behavior, 14, 189-200.
WHISSELL, R., LYONS, S., WILKINSON, D. & WHISSELL, C. (1993). National bias in judgements of Olympic-level skating. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 77, 355-358.
GOULD, D., JACKSON, S. & FINCH, L. (1993). Sources of stress in national champion figure skaters. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 134-159.
KONING, R. H. (2005). Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 417-427.
BACHNER-MILMAN, R., ZOHAR, A.H., EBSTEIN, R.P., ELIZUR, Y. & CONSTANTINI, N. (2006). How anorexic-like are the symptom and personality profiles of aesthetic athletes ? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38 (4), 628-636. [PDF]
Voir aussi Sport
Patriarcat/Patriache : Forme d'organisation de la société qui repose davantage sur le pouvoir des hommes que sur le pouvoir des femmes. Dans ce type de société, l'homme - le patriarche - est la figure d'autorité de la plupart des institutions (famille, entreprise, gouvernement, armée, religion, etc.). Cette asymétrie engendre une oppression et une discrimination presque systématique des femmes (viol, pornographie, asservissement sexuelle des femmes, publicité sexiste, inégalité des rôles, salaire moindre, langage sexiste, faible valorisation de la maternité, statut juridique inférieur, etc.). La vaste majorité des sociétés estpatriarcale. N.D.L.R. Non, le Québec n'est pas une société matriarcale ! /matriarcat. Patriarch, patriarchy, patriarchal culture, patriarchal society.
  GOLDBERG, S. (1974/93). The inevitability of patriarch. Peru, Illinois : Open Court . BRYSON, V. (1999). "Patriarchy" : A concept too useful to lose. Contemporary Politics, 5 (4), 311-324.
GOLDBERG, S. (1977). The inevitability of patriarchy. London : Temple Smith. EAGLY, A.H. & WOOD, W. (2005). Universal sex differences across patriarchal cultures ≠ evolved psychological dispositions. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 28, 281-283.
BARKER, J. & DOWNING, H. (1980). Word Processing and the Transformation of Patriarchal Relations of Control in the Of ce. Capital & Class, 10, 64-99.  
BARTKY, S. L. (1988). Foucault, femininity, and the modernization of patriarchal power. In I. Diamond & L. Quinby (Eds.), Feminism & Foucault: Reflections on resistance (pp. 61-86). Boston : Northeastern University Press.  
STEPHAN, W.G. (1992). Sexual motivation, patriarchy, and compatibility. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 15, 111-112. MACLEOD, C. (2007). The risk of phallocentrism in masculinities studies : how a revision of the concept of patriarchy may help. Psychology in Society, 35, 4-14. [PDF]
RENATO, R. (1993) Notes toward a critique of patriarchy from a male position. Anthropological Quarterly, 66 (4), 81-87.  
ALBEE, G.W. (1996). The psychological origins of the white male patriarchy. Journal of Primary Prevention, 17 (1), 75-97.  
POLLERT, A. (1996). Gender and class revisited; or, the poverty of "patriarchy". Sociology, 30 (4), 639-660. GNEEZY, U., LEONARD, K.L. & LIST, J.A. (2009). Gender differences in competition : evidence from a matrilineal and a patriarchal society. Econometrica, 77 (5), 1637-1664. [PDF]
TABET, P. (1998). La construction sociale de l’inégalité des sexes. Des outils et des corps. Paris : L’Harmattan/Bibliothèque du féminisme. HASSEL, H., REDDINGER, A. & VAN SLOOTN, J. (2011). Surfacing the structures of patriarchy : Teaching and learning threshold concepts in women’s studies. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 5 (2), 1-19. [PDF]
Voir aussi Homme et Pouvoir
Patrick George Thomas White (1857-1949) : Philosophe américain.

PATRICK, G.T.W. (1914). The psychology of play. The Pedagogical Seminary, 21 (3), 469-484.
PATRICK, G.T.W. (1916). The psychology of relaxation. Boston & New York : Hougthon Mifflin Company. [PDF]
 
BODE, B.H. (1917). "The psychology of relaxation. by G. T.W. Patrick" : Review by B.H. Bode American Journal of Sociology, 22 (5), 691-692
Patrimoine génétique : Voir Génotype.
Patriotisme : Patriotism.

  KELMAN, H.C. (1997). Nationalism, patriotism, and national identity : Social-psychological dimensions. In D. Bar-Tal & E. Staub (Eds.), Patriotism in the life of individuals and nations (pp. 165-189). Chicago : Nelson-Hall. [PDF]
SKITKA, L.J. (2005). Patriotism or nationalism ? Understanding post- September 11, 2001, flag-display behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1995-2011. [PDF]
SAHAR, G. (2008). Patriotism, attributions for the 9/11 attacks, and support for war : Then and now. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 30, 189-197.
Voir aussi Nationalisme et Drapeau
Patten Scott B. ( ) : Épidémiologiste social canadien et spécialiste de la dépression, notamment de la dépression majeure.

PATTEN, S.B. (1999). Psychosocial stress, depressive symptoms and depressive disorders, an integrative hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 53, 210-216.
PATTEN, S.B. (2002). Progress against major depression in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47 (8), 775-780.
PATTEN, S.B., C.A. BECK. C.A. WILLIAMS, C. BARBUI, C. & METZ, M.L. (2003). Major depression in multiple sclerosis : A population-based study. Neurology, 61 (11), 1524-1527.
PATTEN, S.B. (2004). The impact of antidepressant treatment on population health: synthesis of data from two national data sources in Canada. Population Health Metrics, 2 : 9, 1-7. [PDF]
PATTEN, S.B., WANG, J.L., WILLIAM, J.V.A., CURRIE, S., BECK. C.A., MAXWELL, C.J. & El-GUEBALY, N. (2006). Descriptive epidemiology of major depression in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51 (2), 84-90. [PDF]
Pattern : Anglicisme. N.D.L.R. Remplacer selon le contexte par : agencement, chaîne de comportements, modèle, topographie, type, schéma, situation, cas de figure, patron moteur ou patron d'activité. Pattern.

  SMITH, P.K. & CONNOLLY, K. (1972). Patterns of play and social interactionin preschool children. In N. Blurton-Jones (Ed.) Ethological studies of child behaviour. Cambridge University Press.
VOGEL, R. & ANNAU, Z. (1973). An operant discrimination task allowing variability of reinforced response patterning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (1), 1-6. [PDF]
SHIMP, C.P. (1982). Choice and behavioral patterning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37 (2), 157-169. [PDF]
SNYDER, J. & PATTERSON, G.R. (1986). The effects of consequences on patterns of social interaction : A quasi-experimental approach to reinforcement in natural interaction. Child Development, 57, 1257-1268.
BLOOM, L. (1992). Commentary on Fogel, A., et al. (1992): Patterns are not enough. Social Development, 1, 143-146.
GALEF, B.G. (1995). Why behavior patterns that animals learn socially are locally adaptive. Animal Behaviour, 49, 1325-1334. [PDF]
Patterson
Francine G. Patterson Francine G. Patterson Karalyn Patterson
  Gerald R. Patterson Petterson
 
Patterson Charlotte J. ( ) : Psychologue américaine et spécialiste de l'étude des parents gays et lesbiens et des familles homosexuelles. Collaboratrice de Bolger, Lepper et Mischel.
PATTERSON, C.J. & MISCHEL, W. (1975). Plans to resist distraction. Developmental Psychology, 11, 369-378.
PATTERSON, C.J., VADEN, N.A., GRIESLER, P.C. & KUPERSMIDT, J.B. (1991). Income level, gender, ethnicity, and household composition as predictors of children's peer companionship outside of school. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 12, 447-465.
PATTERSON, C.J. (1992). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development, 63, 1025 - 1042.
PATTERSON, C.J. (2006). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (5), 241-244. [PDF]
PATTERSON, C.J. (2009). Children of lesbian and gay parents : Psychology, law, and policy. American Psychologist, 64, 727-736.
Patterson Francine G. ( ) : Primatologue américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude des gorilles. Patterson et Koko. Collaboratrice de Linden.
PATTERSON, F.G. (1978). The gestures of a gorilla : language acquisition in another pongid. Brain & Language, 5, 72-97.
PATTERSON, F.G. (1980). Innovative uses of language by a gorilla : a case study. In K.E. Nelson (Ed.), Children's language. New York : Gardner Press.
PATTERSON, F.G. & LINDEN, E. (1981). The education of Koko. New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
PATTERSON, F.G. (1987). Koko's story. New York : Scholastic Books.
PATTERSON, F.G. & PATTERSON, C.H. (1988). Review of ape language : From conditioned response to symbol. American Journal of Psychology, 101 (4), 582-590.
Patterson Gerald R. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'hyperactivité et des comportements anti-sociaux. Collaborateur de Fagot, Margolin, Snyder et Weiss.
PATTERSON, G.R., JONES, R., WHITTIER, J. & WRIGHT, M.A. (1965). A behavior modification technique for the hyperactive child. Behavior Research & Therapy, 2, 217-226.
PATTERSON, G.R. (1976). Living with children : A training program for parents and teachers. Champaign, Ill. : Research Press.
PATTERSON, G.R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, Ore : Castalia.
PATTERSON, G.R., DEBARYSH, B.D. & RAMSEY, E. (1990). A developmental perspective on antisocial behavior. American Psychologist, 44, 329-335. [PDF]
PATTERSON, G.R., REID, J.B. & DISHION, T.J. (1992). Antisocial boys. Eugene, Ore : Castalia.
Patterson Karalyn ( ) : : Neurocognitivste anglaise et spécialiste de l'étude du langage. Collaboratrice de Graham, Hodges, McClelland, Nestor et Rogers.
PATTERSON, K. & HODGES, J.R. (1992). Deterioration of word meaning : implications for reading. Neuropsychologia, 30 (12), 1025-1040.
PATTERSON, K., GRAHAM, K. & HODGES, J.R. (1994). The impact of semantic memory loss on phonological representations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 6 (1), 57-69.
PATTERSON, K. BEHRMANN, M. (1997). Frequency and consistency effects in a pure surface dyslexic patient. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 23 (4), 1217-1230.
PATTERSON, K., LAMBON RALPH, M.A., HODGES, J.R & McCLELLAND, J.L., (2001). Deficits in irregular past-tense verb morphology associated with degraded semantic knowledge. Neuropsychologia, 39 (7), 709-724.
PATTERSON, K. (2007). The reign of typicality in semantic memory. Philosophical Transactions of Royal Societies, B, 362 (1481), 813-821. [PDF]
Patton James Russell (St-Louis 1949-) : Spécialiste américain de l'éducation spécialisée. Collaborateur de Cronin.
PATTON, J.R., PAYNE, J.S., KAUFFMAN, J.M., BROWN, G.B. & PAYNE, R.A. (1987). Exceptional children in focus. Columbus, OH : Merrill Publishing.
PATTON, J.R. (1994). Practical recommendations for using homework with students who are learning disabled. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 27, 570-578.
PATTON, J.R. (1995). Introduction : Teaching science to students with special needs. Teaching Exceptional Children, 27 (4), 4-6.
PATTON, J.R. JAYANTHI, M & POLLOWAY, E.A. (2001). Home-school collaboration about; homework : What do we know and what should we do? Reading & Writing Quarterly, 17, 227-242.
HOOVER, J.J. & PATTON, J.R. (2005).Curricular adaptation for students with learning and behavior problems : Principles and practice. Austin : PRO-ED.
Paulhus Delroy L. ( ) : Psycholosociologue et méthodologiste canadien, spécialisé dans l'étude de la désirabilité sociale et du rapport verbal. Collaborateur de Bond, John et Vazire.
PAULHUS, D.L. (1984). Two-component models of socially desirable responding. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 46, 598-609. [PDF]
PAULHUS, D.L. & JOHN, O.P. (1998). Egoistic and moralistic bias in self-perception s: The interplay of self-deceptive styles with basic traits and motives. Journal of Personality, 66, 2024-1060. [PDF]
PAULHUS, D.L. & LANDOLT, M. (2000). Paragons of intelligence : The psychological significance of ideal exemplars of intelligence. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 32, 33-44. [PDF]
PAULHUS, D.L. & WILLIAMS, K.M. (2002). The dark triad of personality : Narcissism, machiavellianism, and psychopathy. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 556- 563. [PDF]
PAULHUS, D.L. & VAZIRE, S. (2007). The self-report method. In R.W. Robins, R.C. Fraley & R.F. Krueger (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in personality psychology (pp. 224-239). New York : Guilford. [PDF]
Pauling Linus Carl (Portland 1901-1994 Big Sur) : Chimiste et physicien américain. Il s'est notamment intéressé à la schizophrénie et au rôle de la vitamine dans la prévention de l'artériosclérose. Il est également l'un des rares double-récipiendaires du Nobel (avec Marie Curie).
PAULING, L. (1968). Orthomolecular psychiatry : Varying theconcentrations of substances normally present in the human body may control mental disease. Science, 160 (3825), 265-271. [LIRE]
PAULING, L. (1970). Vitamin C and the common cold. San Francisco : W.H. Freeman and Co.
HAWKINS, D. & PAULING, L. (Eds.) (1973). Orthomolecular psychiatry; Treatment of schizophrenia. San Francisco, W.H. Freeman and Co.
PAULING, L., ROBINSON, A.B. & OXLEY, S.S. (1973). Results of a loading test of ascorbic acid, niacinamide, and pyridoxine in schizophrenic subjects and controls. In D. Hawkins and L. Pauling (Eds.), Orthomolecular Psychiatry : Treatment of schizophrenia (pp. 18-34). San Francisco : W.H. Freeman and Co.
PAULING, L. (1995). On the orthomolecular environment of the mind : Orthomolecular theory. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 7, (1). [LIRE]
 
HAGER, T. (1995). Force of nature : The life of Linus Pauling. New York : Simon & Schuster.
HAGER, T. (1995). Linus Pauling and the chemistry of life. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
Paulsen Michael B. ( ) : Économiste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la scolarisation des sociétés.
FATIMA, N. & PAULSEN, M.B. (2004). Higher education and state workforce productivity in the 1990s. Thought & action : NEA. Higher Education Journal, 20 (1), 75-94.
ST. JOHN, E.P., PAULSEN, M.B. & CARTER, D.F. (2005). Diversity, college costs, and postsecondary opportunity : An examination of the financial nexus between college choice and persistence for African Americans and Whites. The Journal of Higher Education, 76 (5), 545-569.
LOHFINK, M.M. & PAULSEN, M.B. (2005). Comparing the determinants ofpersistence for first-generation and continuing-generation students. Journal of College Student Development, 46 (4), 409-428.
PAULSEN, M.B. & TOUTKOUSHIAN, R.K. (2006). Overview of economic concepts, models and methods for institutional research. In R.K. Toutkoushian & M.B. Paulsen (Eds.), Applying economics to institutional research. New directions for institutional research (Vol. 132, pp. 5-24). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
PAULSEN, M.B. & FELDMAN, K.A. (2007). The conditional and interaction effects of epistemological beliefs on the self-regulated learning of college students : Motivational strategies. Research in Higher Education, 48 (3), 353-401.
Pause (Prendre une...) : Interruption volontaire d'une activité, souvent dans le but de se reposer. Break.

  BHERER, L., DESJARDINS, S. & FORTIN, C. (2007). Age-related differences in timing with breaks. Psychology & Aging, 22 (2), 398-403. [PDF]
Voir aussi Travail
Pause post-renforcement : Voir Renforcement.
Pauvreté :

 
Pauvreté économique Pauvreté sociale
Pauvreté (économique) : On distingue habituellement la pauvreté absolue de la pauvreté relative. La pauvreté absolue désigne un état d'indigence telle que l'individu est incapable de subvenir à ses besoins essentiels (respirer, manger, boire, dormir, etc.). La pauvreté relative, elle, renvoie à l'écart maximal qu'une société tolère ou considère acceptable entre ses citoyens les plus riches et les plus pauvres. Il va de soi que cet écart varie d'une société à l'autre. De nombreux auteurs proposent également de distinguer la pauvreté économique de la pauvreté sociale, cette dernière forme décrivant l'absence ou la quasi-absence de ressources sociales. Pauvreté, résilience et milieu défavorisé. = misère, indigence, défavorisation. /richesse. Poverty, low family income, economically disadvantaged population.

  FEATHER, N.T. (1974). Explanations of poverty in Australian and American samples : the person, society, or fate ? Australian Journal of Psychology, 26, 199-216. DUNCAN, G.J. & BROOKS-GUNN, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development. Child Development, 71, 188-196.
VAUGHN, B., GOVE, F. & EGELAND, B. (1980). The relationship between out of home care and the quality of infant-mother attachment in an economically disadvantaged population. Child Development, 51 (4), 1203-1214. CLAWSON, R.A. & TRICE, R. (2000). Poverty as we know it : Media portrayals of the poor. Public Opinion Quarterly, 64, 53-64.
FURNHAM, A. (1982). The perception of poverty among adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 5, 135-147. GUO, G. & MULLAN HARRIS, K. (2000). The mechanisms mediating the effects of poverty on children's intellectual development. Demography, 37 (4), 431-447.
FURNHAM, A. (1982). Why are the poor always with us? Explanations for poverty in Britain. British Journal of Social Psychology, 21 (4), 311-322. KREIDL, M. (2000). Perceptions of poverty and wealth in western and post-communist countries. Social Justice Research, 13, 151-176.
FURNHAM, A. (1982). Explanations for unemployment in Britain. European Journal of Social Psychology, 12, 335-351. KAGITCIBASI, C., SUNAR, D. & BEKMAN, S. (2001). Long-term effects of early intervention : Turkish low-income mothers and children. Applied Developmental Psychology, 22, 333-361.
TULLOCK, G. (1986). The economics of wealth and poverty. London, England : Wheatsheaf Press COZZARELLI., WILKINSON, A.V. & TAGLER, M.J. (2001). Attitudes toward the poor and attributions for poverty. Journal of Social Issues, 57, 207-270.
SMITH, K. & STONE, L. (1989). Rags, riches, and bootstraps : beliefs about the causes of wealth and poverty. The Sociological Quarterly, 30, (1), 93-107. LUPIEN, S.J., KING, S., MEANEY, M. & McWEN, B S. (2001). Can poverty get under your skin ? basal cortisol levels and cognitive function in children from low and high socioeconomic status. Development & Psychopathology, 13 (3), 653-676.
GARMEZY, N. (1991). Resiliency and vulnerability to adverse developmental outcomes associated with poverty. American Behavioral Scientist, 34, 416-430. EAMON, M.K. (2001). The effects of poverty on children's socioemotional development : An ecological systems analysis. Social Work, 46 (3), 256-266. [PDF]
RAMEY, C.T. & CAMPBELL, F.A. (1991). Poverty, early childhood education, and A.C. Huston (Ed.), Children in poverty : Child development and public policy (pp. 190-221). New York : Cambridge University Press. APPLEBAUM, L.D. (2001). The influence of perceived deservingness on policy decisions regarding aid to the poor. Political Psychology, 22 (3), 419-442. [PDF]
KIWEON, K. (1992). The effect of poverty on children’s academic performance. Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 2124A. YAQUB, S. (2002). Poor children grow into poor adults : harmful mechanisms or over-deterministic theory ?Journal of International Development, 14, 1081-1093. [PDF]
GARMEZY, N. (1993). Children in poverty : Resilience despite risk. Psychiatry, 56, 127-136. ABERNATHY, T.J., WEBSTER, G. & VERMEULEN, M. (2002). Relationship between poverty and health among adolescents. Adolescence, 37, 55-67.
WILL, J.A. (1993). The dimensions of poverty : public perceptions of the deserving poor. Social Science Research, 22, 312-332. LEMIEUX, A.F. & PRATTO, F. (2003). Social relations and global poverty : The roles of prejudice, power, and social dominance. In S. Carr & T. Sloan (Eds.), Community psychology and global poverty (pp. 147-161). Kluwer Academic Publishers.
GAVIGAN, S.A.M. (1995). Poverty law and poor people : The place of gender and class in clinic practice. Journal of Law & Social Policy, 11, 165-182. [PDF] ICELAND, J. (2003). Poverty in America . Berkeley: University of California Press.
KORENMAN, S., MILLER, J.E. & SJAASTAD, J.E. (1995). Long-term poverty and child development in the United States : Results from the NLSY. Children & Youth Services Review, 17 (1-2), 127-155. [PDF] PAYNE, R.K. (2003). A framework for understanding poverty. Baytown, TX : RFT Pub.
BROOKS-GUNN, J., KLEBANOV, P.K. & LIAW, F. (1995). The learning, physical, and emotional environment of the home in the context of poverty : The Infant Health Development Program. Children & Youth Services Review, 17, 251-276. SAPOLSY, R. (2005). Sick of poverty. Scientific American, 293, 92-99. [PDF]
BROOKS-GUNN, J. (1996). Strategies for altering the outcomes of poor children and their families. In P.L. Chase-Lansdale and J. Brooks-Gunn (Eds.), Escape from poverty : What makes a difference for children ? New York : Cambridge University Press, 1996. BERTRAND, M., MULLAINATHAN, S. & SHAFIR, E. (2006). Behavioral economics and marketing in aid of decision making among the poor. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 25 (1), 8-23. [PDF]
HUNT, M.O. (1996). The individual, society or both ? A comparison of Black, Latino, and White beliefs about the causes of poverty. Social Forces, 75, 293-322. HACKING, I. (2006). Façonner les gens : le seuil de pauvreté. Dans J.-P. Beaud et J.-G. Prévost (Dirs.), L’Ère du chiffre. Sainte-Foy : Presses de l’université du Québec.
WILSON, G. (1996). Toward a revised framework for examining beliefs about the causes of poverty. Social Science Quarterly, 37, 413-428. ATKINS, M.S. FRAZIER, S.,BIRMAN, D., ABDUL ADIL,J. MAUDETTE JACKSON, M., GRACZYK, P.A., TALBOTT, E., FARMER, A.D., BELL, C.C. & MCKAY, M.M. (2006). School-based mental health services for children living in high poverty urban communities. Administration & Policy in Mental Health & Mental Health Services Research, 3 (2), 146-159. [PDF]
  AMATO, P.R. & MAYNARD, R. (2007). Decreasing nonmarital births and strengthening marriage to reduce poverty. Future of Children, 17, 117-142.
BROWN, J.L. & POLLITT, E. (1996). Malnutrition, poverty and intellectual development. Scientific American, 274, 38-43. [PDF] MURNANE, R.J. (2007). Improving the education of children living in poverty. The Future of Children, 17, 161-184.
JORDAN, B. (1996). A theory of poverty and social exclusion.Cambridge : Polity Press. DRUZIC-LJUBOTINA, O. & LJUBOTINA, D. (2007). Attributions of poverty among social work and non-social work students in Croatia. Croatian Medical Journal, 48 (5), 741-749. [LIRE]
BROOKS-GUNN, J. & DUNCAN, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. Children & Poverty, 7 (2), 55-71. [PDF] HUTSON, R. (2007) . Child support and parental conflict in low-income families. Children and Youth Services Review, 27,1142-1157.
BOR, W., NAJMAN, J.M., ANDERSON, M.J., O’CALLAGHAN, M., WILLIAMS, G.M. & BEHRENS, B.C. (1997). The relationship between low family income and psychological disturbance in young children : An Australian longitudinal study. The Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 31, 664-675. MARKS, J. (2009). Is poverty better explained by history of colonialism ? Nature, 458 (7235), 145-146.
CHAFEL, J.A. (1997). Societal images of poverty : child and adults beliefs. Youth & Society, 28, 432-463. BOBO, L.D. (2009). Crime, urban poverty, and social science. Du Bois Review : Social Science Research on Race, 6 (2), 273-278. [PDF]
MORÇÖL, G. (1997). Lay explanations for poverty in Turkey and their determinants. Journal of Social Psychology, 137, 728-738. LEPIANKA, D., VAN OORSCHOT, W. & GELISSEN, J. (2009). Popular explanations of poverty : A critical discussion of empirical research. Journal of Social Policy, 38 (3), 421-443. [PDF]
DUNCAN, G.J., YEUNG, W.I., BROOKS-GUNN, J. & SMITH, J.R. (1998). How much does childhood poverty affect the life chances of children ? American Sociological Review, 63, 406-423. READ, J. (2010). Can poverty drive you mad ? Schizophrenia, socio-economic status and the case for pimary prevention. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 39 (2), 7-19
WHITLEY, E., GUNNELL, D., DORLING, D. & DAVEY SMITH, G. (1999). Ecological study of social fragmentation, poverty and suicide. British Medical Journal, 319, 1034-1037. [PDF] WEINER, B. OSBORNE, D. & RUDOLPH, U. (2011). An attributional analysis of reactions to poverty : The political ideology of the giver and the perceived morality of the receiver. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 15 (2), 199-213. [PDF]
ST-JACQUES, M. (1999). La pauvreté : jeu et enjeu, Education Canada, 39 (3), 8-11. BERLINER, D.C. (2013). Inequality, poverty and the socialization of America's youth for the responsibilities of citizenship. Theory into Practice, 52 (3), 203-209.
Voir aussi Richesse, Revenu, Déterminant socio-économique, Itinérance et Milieu défavorisé
 
Pauvreté (sociale) : Absence ou accès limité aux ressources sociales, qui se traduit par un isolement. Pauvreté, solitude et milieu défavorisé. Poverty.

  WILSON, G. (1996). Toward a revised framework for examining beliefs about the causes of poverty. Social Science Quarterly, 37, 413-428.
BROOKS-GUNN, J. & DUNCAN, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. Children & Poverty, 7 (2), 55-71. [PDF]
CHAFEL, J.A. (1997). Societal images of poverty : child and adults beliefs. Youth & Society, 28, 432-463.
O'CONNOR, S. (2001). Voices of parents and teachers in a poor white urban school. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6 (3), 175-198.
BERLINER, D.C. (2006). Our impoverished view of educational research. Teachers College Record, 108 (6), 949-995. [PDF]
DRUZIC-LJUBOTINA, O. & LJUBOTINA, D. (2007). Attributions of poverty among social work and non-social work students in Croatia. Croatian Medical Journal, 48 (5), 741-749. [LIRE]
BOBO, L.D. (2009). Crime, urban poverty, and social science. Du Bois Review 6 (2), 273-278. [PDF]
Voir aussi Ressource sociale et Isolement
Pavlov Ivan Petrovich (Riazan Russie 1849-1936 Saint-Pétersbourg/Leningrad Union Soviétique) : Physiologiste russe et précurseur du béhaviorisme. Il a notamment étudié le réflexe salivaire, le conditionnement répondant et l'inhibition. Lauréat du prix Nobel de physiologie et de médecine en 1904 pour ses travaux sur le réflexe salivaire chez le chien. Étudiant de Ludwig. Professeur de Gantt.

No 24
PAVLOV, I.P. (1903). Experimental psychology and the psycho-pathology of animals. Bulletin of the Imperial Medical Academy, 7.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1904). Sur la sécrétion psychique des glandes salivaires. Archives internationales de physiologie, 1.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1906). Scientific study of so-called psychical processes of higher animals. Science, 24, 613-619.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes : An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. London : Oxford University Press.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1963). Réflexes conditionnels et inhibition. Paris : Gonthier.
 
  YERKES, R.M. & MORGULIS, S. (1909). The method of Pavlov in animal psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 6, 257-273. CUNNINGHAM, A. (2001). Ivan Pavlov and the conditioning of physiological responses. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 17, 7-8.
KONORSKI, J. (1970). Pavlov and contemporary physiological psychology. Conditional Reflex, 5 (4), 241-248. FUREDY, J.J. (2003). Pavlov, Ivan (1849-1936). In J. Byrne (Ed.), Learning & memory : The MacMillan Psychology reference series (pp. 516-520). New York : MacMillan.
GANTT, W.H. (1973). Reminiscences of Pavlov. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (1), 131-136. [PDF] BOAKES, R.A. (2003). The impact of Pavlov on the psychology of learning in english-speaking countries. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6 (2), 93-98. [PDF]
SKINNER, B.F. (1981). Pavlov's influence on psychology in America. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 17, 242-245. MACKINTOSH, N.J. (2003). Pavlov and associationism. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6, 177-184. [PDF]
THOMAS, R.K. (1994). Pavlov was "mugged." History of Psychology newsletter, 26, 86-91. AKINS, C.K. (2004). The role of Pavlovian conditioning in sexual behavior : A comparative analysis of human and nonhuman animals. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 241-262. [PDF]
WOLPE, J. & PLAUD, J.J. (1997). Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy : The obvious and the not so obvious. American Psychologist, 52 (9), 966-972. [PDF] TIMBERLAKE, W. (2004). Trends in the study of pavlovian conditioning. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17 (2), 119-130. [PDF]
CATANIA, A.C. & LATIES, V.G. (1999). Pavlov and Skinner : Two lives in science (An introduction to B.F. Skinner some response to the stimulus "Pavlov. Journal of the Exprerimental Analysis of Behavior, 72 (3), 455-461. [PDF] COLEMAN, S.R. (2007). Pavlov and the equivalence of associability in classical conditioning. The Journal of Mind & Behavior, 28, (2), 115-134. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pavlovisme
Pavlovienne (Societé...) : Société fondée en 1955 par Gantt en l'honneur de Pavlov. Pavlovian Society.
  FUREDY, J.J. (2001). An epistemologically arrogant community ofcontending scholars : A pre-Socratic perspective on the past, present, and future of the Pavlovian society. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 36, 5-14.
Pavlovisme :
  YERKES, R.M. & MORGULIS, S. (1909). The method of Pavlov in animal psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 6, 257-273. KOPALDZE, R. (2000). Ivan P Pavlov's view on vivisection. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 4, 266-271
KONORSKI, J. (1970). Pavlov and contemporary physiological psychology. Conditional Reflex, 5 (4), 241-248. CUNNINGHAM, A. (2001). Ivan Pavlov and the conditioning of physiological responses. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 17, 7-8.
GANTT, W.H. (1973). Reminiscences of Pavlov. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (1), 131-136. [PDF] FUREDY, J.J. (2001). An epistemologically arrogant community of contending scholars : A pre-Socratic perspective on the past, present, and future of the Pavlovian society. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 36, 5-14.
PEARCE, J.M. & HALL, G. (1980). A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532- 552.  
SKINNER, B.F. (1981). Pavlov’s influence on psychology in America. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 17, 242-245. TODES, D.P. (2002). Pavlov's physiologyfactory : Experiment, interpretation, laboratory enterprise. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.
PEARCE, J.M. (1987). A model for stimulus generalization in Pavlovian conditioning. Psychological Review, 94 (1), 61-75.  
FUREDY, J.J. (1992). Reflections on human Pavlovian decelerative heart-rate conditioning with negative tilt as US : Alternative approaches. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 27, 347-355. FUREDY, J.J. (2003). Pavlov, Ivan (1849-1936). In J. Byrne (Ed.), Learning & memory : The MacMillan Psychology reference series (pp. 516-520). New York : MacMillan.
THOMAS, R.K. (1994). Pavlov was "mugged." History of Psychology newsletter, 26, 86-91. BOAKES, R.A. (2003). The impact of Pavlov on the psychology of learning in english-speaking countries. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6 (2), 93-98. [PDF]
WOLPE, J. & PLAUD, J.J. (1997). Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy : The obvious and the not so obvious. American Psychologist, 52 (9), 966-972. [PDF] MACKINTOSH, N.J. (2003). Pavlov and associationism. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6, 177-184.
THOMAS, R.K. (1997). Correcting some Pavloviana regarding "Pavlov's Bell" and Pavlov's "mugging." American Journal of Psychology, 110, 115-125. AKINS, C.K. (2004). The role of Pavlovian conditioning in sexual behavior : A comparative analysis of human and nonhuman animals. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 241-262. [PDF]
CATANIA, A.C. & LATIES, V.G. (1999). Pavlov and Skinner : Two lives in science (An introduction to B.F. Skinner some response to the stimulus "Pavlov". Journal of the Exprerimental Analysis of Behavior, 72 (3), 455-461. [PDF] TIMBERLAKE, W. (2004). Trends in the study of pavlovian conditioning. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17 (2), 119-130. [PDF]
  COLEMAN, S.R. (2007). Pavlov and the equivalence of associability in classical conditioning. The Journal of Mind & Behavior, 28, (2), 115-134. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pavlov
Paxil : L'une des marques déposées du paroxétine, un antidépresseur inhibiteur sélectif de la recapture de la sérotonine.

  GLENMULLEN, J. (2002). Prozac backlash : Overcoming the dangers of Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil and other antidepressants with safe, effective alternatives. New York : Simon & Schuster.
BREGGIN, P.R. (2006). Paxil special report I : Court filing makes public my previously suppressed analysis of Paxil's effects. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 77-84. [PDF]
BREGGIN, P.R. (2006). Paxil special report II : How GlaxoSmithKline suppressed data on Paxil-induced akathisia : Implications for suicidality and violence. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 91-100. [PDF]
BREGGIN, P.R. (2006). Paxil special report III : Drug company suppressed data on paroxetine-induced stimulation : Implications for violence and suicide. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 255-263. [PDF]
Voir aussi Antidépresseur
Payette Serge ( ) : Biologiste québécois et spécialiste du caribou. Il enseigne à l'Université Laval. Collaborateur de Boudreau et de Couturier.
PAYETTE, S. (1987). Recent porcupine expansion at tree line : a dendroecological analys. Canadian Journal Zoology, 65, 551-557.
PAYETTE, S., FORTIN, M.-J. & GAMACHE, I. (2001). The subarcticforest-tundra : the structure of a biome in a changing climate. BioScience, 51, 709-718. [PDF]
PAYETTE, S. & DELWAIDE, A. (2004). Dynamics of subarctic wetland forests over the past 1500 years. Ecological Monographs, 74, 373-391. [PDF]
PAYETTE, S., FILION, L. & DELWAIDE, A. (2008). Spatially explicit fire-climate history of the boreal forest-tundra (Eastern Canada) over the last 2000 years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B., 363, 2301-2316. [PDF]
PAYETTE, S., DELWAIDE, A., SCHAUFFHAUSER, A. & MAGNAN, G. (2012). Calculating long-term fire frequency at the stand scale from charcoal data. Ecosphere, 3 (7), 1-16. [PDF]
Payne
David G. Payne Keith B. Payne
 
Payne David G. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire, et plus particulièrement de l'hyperamnésie. Collaborateur de Anastasi et Roediger.
PAYNE, D.G. (1986). Hypermnesia for pictures and words : Testing the recall level hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 12, 16-29.
PAYNE, D.G. (1987). Hypermnesia and reminiscence in recall : A historical and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 5-27.
PAYNE, D.G. & ROEDIGER, H.L. (1987). Hypermnesia occurs in recall but not in recognition. American Journal of Psychology, 100, 145-165. [PDF]
PAYNE, D.G., TOGLIA, M.P. & ANASTASI, J.S. (1994). Recognition performance level and the magnitude of the misinformation effect in eyewitness memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1(3), 376-382.
PAYNE, D.G., NEUSCHATZ, J.S, LAMPINEN, J.M. & LYNN, S. (1997). Compelling memory illusions : The qualitative characteristics of false memories. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 56-60.
Payne Keith B. ( ) : Psychologue sociale américain et spécialiste de la cognition sociale, plus particulièrement des préjugés. Il s'intéresse également à la perception des armes. Collaborateur de Jacoby.
PAYNE, B.K. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81 (2), 181-192.
PAYNE, B.K., JACOBY, L.L. & LAMBERT, A.J. (2004). Memory monitoring and the control of stereotype distortion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 52-64.
PAYNE, B.K., SHIMIZU, Y. & JACOBY, L.L. (2005). Mental controland visual illusions : Toward explaining race-biased weapon identifications. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 36-47. [PDF]
PAYNE, B.K. (2005). Conceptualizing control in social cognition : How executive control modulates the expression of automatic stereotyping. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 89, 488-503. [PDF]
PAYNE, B.K., KROSNICK, J.A., PASEK, J., LELKES, Y., AKHTAR, O. & TOMPSON, T. (2010). Implicit and explicit prejudice in the 2008 American presidential election. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 367-374. [PDF]
Pays : Ensemble d'individus qui occupent un territoire géré par un état et dont l'existence est reconnu officiellement par les autres (pays). Le pays est une entité juridique, alors que la nation ou le peuple sont des entités sociales/politiques. Pays, territoire et État.

Pays
Afrique (pays)   Québec/Canada
Afrique du sud Finlande Madagascar
Allemagne   Mexique
Angleterre (Royaume-uni) Hong-Kong (Chine) Norvège
Australie Hongrie Nouvelle-Zélande
Belgique   Pakistan
Brésil Indes Pays-Bas
Canada Israël Portugal
Chine Japon Royaume-Uni
Corée Irak Russie
Danemark Iran Suède
Égypte Islande Suisse
Espagne   Taiwan
États-Unis Liban Turquie
    Vénezuela
    Vietnam
 
Pays bas : Voir Pays. Netherlands.

   JOSHI, S.P. (2012). Adolescent sexual Ssocialization and teen magazines : A cross-national study between the United States and the Netherlands. Boca Raton, Florida : Universal-Publishers. [PDF]
GOUDRIAAN, A.E. (2014). Gambling and problem gambling in the Netherlands. Addiction, 109, 1066-1071.
Voir aussi Pays
PDF : Format de lecture de nombreux documents numériques. Plusieurs articles scientifiques sont disponibles dans ce lexique en format PDF. Pour les obtenir, il suffit de cliquer sur le [PDF] qui se trouve à la fin d'une notice, comme dans l'exemple suivant :

BÉLANGER, J. (1978). Images et réalités du béhaviorisme. Philosophiques, 5 (1), 3-110. [PDF]

PDG : Voir Président-directeur-général.
PEARSONS - PÉDAGOGIE - PÉDOPHILIE - PÉLADEAU - PELAEZ - PENFIELD - PENNYPACKER - PENSÉE - PEPLAU - PEPPERBERG - PER
Peace & Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la paix, des conflits et de la guerre. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
KELMAN, H.C. ( 2010). Interactive problem solving : Changing political culture in the pursuit of conflict resolution. Peace & Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology, 16 (4), 389-413. [PDF]

Peano Giuseppe (1858-1932) : Logicien italien et fondateur de la logique symbolique.

 
 
 
Pearce
Craig L. Pearce John M. Pearce
 
Pearce Craig L. ( ) : Spécialiste américain des organisations. Il s'intéresse notamment au leadership. Collaborateur de Conger, Manz et Sims.
PEARCE, C.L. & SIMS, H.P. (2000). Shared leadership : Toward a multi-level theory of leadership. Advances in the Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams, 7, 115-139.
PEARCE, C.L. & SIMS, H.P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams : An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics : Theory, Research & Practice, 6 (2), 172-197. [PDF]
PEARCE, C.L. (2004). The future of leadership: Combining vertical and shared leadership to transform knowledge work. Academy of Management Executive, 18 (1), 47-57.
PEARCE, C.L. & ENSLEY, M.D. (2004). A reciprocal and longitudinal investigation of the innovation process: the central role of shared vision in product and process innovation teams (PPITs). Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25 (2), 259-278.
PEARCE, C.L. & MANZ, C. C. (2005). The new silver bullets of leadership : The importance of self and shared leadership in knowledge work. Organizational Dynamics, 34 (2), 130-140.
PEARCE, C.L., CONGER, J.A. & LOCKE, E.A. (2007). Shared leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly 18 (3), 281-288. [PDF]
Pearce John M. ( ) : Psychologue connexionisme anglais, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'intelligence et du conditionnement répondant. Collaborateur de Horne et Mackintosh.
PEARCE, J.M. & HALL, G. (1980). A model of Pavlovian learning : Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552.
PEARCE, J.M. (1987). A model for stimulus generalization in Pavlovian conditioning. Psychological Review, 94, 61-75. [PDF]
PEARCE, J.M. (1994). Similarity and discrimination : A selective review and a connectionist model. Psychological Review, 101, 587-607. [PDF]
PEARCE, J.M. (2002). Evaluation and development of a connectionist theory of configural learning. Animal Learning & Behavior, 30, 73-95. [PDF]
PEARCE, J.M., ESBERG. R., GEORGE, D.N. & HASELGROVE, M. (2008). The nature of discrimination learning in pigeons. Learning & Behavior, 36, 188-199. [PDF]
Pearson
Egon Sharpe Pearson Karl Pearson P David Pearson
 
Pearson Egon Sharpe (Londres 1895-1980 Midhurst Angleterre) : Statisticien anglais. En collaboration avec Neyman, il a développé la notion de test d'hypothèse. Fils de Karl Pearson. Collaborateur de Kendall et Neyman.
PEARSON, E.S. & NEYMAN, J. (1928). On the use and interpretation of certain test criteria for the purposes of statistical inference. Biometrika, 20 (1/2), 175-240.
NEYMAN, J. & PEARSON, S.E. (1933). On the problem of the most efficient tests of statistical hypotheses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 289-337.
PEARSON, E.S. (1955). Statistical concepts in their relation to reality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, B, 17 (2), 288-294.
PEARSON, E.S. (1962). Some thoughts on statistical inference. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 33 (2), 394-403.
PEARSON, E.S. & KENDALL, M.G. (1969). Studies in the history of statistics and probability.
Pearson Karl (Londres 1857-1936 Coldharbour Angleterre) : Statisticien anglais. Il a eu une très grande influence sur la recherche en sciences humaines. On lui doit notamment le Khi-carré et le test de corrélation. qui permet de mesurer la corrélation entre deux phénomène. Étudiant de Galton. Professeur de Gosset, Weschler et Yule.
PEARSON, K. (1892). The grammar of science. London : J.M. Dent and Company.
PEARSON, K. (1896). Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution : III. Regression, heredity, and panmixia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 187, 253-318.
PEARSON, K. (1897). The chances of death and other studies in evolution. New York : Edward Arnold.
PEARSON, K. (1900). On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling. Philosophical Magazine Series 5, 50 (302), 157-175. [PDF] + [PDF]
PEARSON, K. & LEE, A. (1903). Inheritance of physical characters. Biometrika, 2, 357-462.
 
 YULE, G.U. (1938). Notes of Karl Pearson's lectures on the theory of statistics, 1894-96. Biometrika, 30, 198-203. INMAN, H.F. (1994). Karl Pearson and R.A. Fisher on statistical tests : A 1935 exchange from nature. The American Statistician, 48 (1), 2-11. [PDF]
HACKING, I. (1981). Karl Pearson's history of statistics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 32, 177-84. SCHWWEDER, T. (1988). A significance version of the basic Neyman-Pearson theory for scientific hypothesis testing. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 15, 225-242.
PLACKETT, R.L. (1983). Karl Pearson and the chi-squared test. International Statistical Review, 51(1), 59-72. STIGLER, S. (2008). Karl Pearson's theoretical errors and the advances they inspired. Statistical Science, 23, 261-271.
 
Pearson P. David ( ) : Spécialiste de la lecture, de la compréhension de texte et de la littéracie. Collaborateur de Paris.
PEARSON, P.D. (1971). Developing language skills and self-concept : Which content areas seem most promising ? Elementary English, 48, 17-21.
PEARSON, P.D. (1976). A psycholinguistic model of reading. Language Arts, 53, 309-314.
PEARSON, P.D. & SPIRO, R. (1980). Toward a theory of reading comprehension instruction. Topics in Language Disorders, 1, 71-88.
PEARSON, P.D. (2004). The reading wars. Educational Policy, 18, 216-252.
PEARSON, P.D. MOJE, E.B. & GREENLEAF, C. (2010). Literacy and science: Each in the service of the other. Science, 328 (5977), 459-463.
Peau : Enveloppe du corps. Il s'agit du plus gros organe du corps humain (15 % à 16 % du poids corporel). La peau est formée de deux tissus, l’épiderme et le derme, qui assure cinq fonctions : 1) Elle protège les autres organes; 2) Elle joue un rôle sur le plan de l’excrétion des déchets; 3) Elle permet la régulation de la température corporelle; 4) Elle permet aussi la perception tactile (haptique); 5) Finalement, elle est un important réservoir sanguin. Skin.
  NATSOULAS, T. & DUBANOSKI, R.A. (1964). Inferring the locus and orientation of the perceiver from responses to stimulation of the skin. American Journal of Psychology, 77 (2), 281-285.
Pédagogie/Pédagogue : Technologie fondée sur la psychologie (psychopédagogie), l'éducation, la sociologie et la philosophie, qui consiste à développer et tester l'efficacité des méthodes pédagogiques, ainsi qu'à aménager le milieu scolaire (aménagement des classes, nature et taille des groupes, homogénéité, mixité, etc.) dans le but d'améliorer l'enseignement des enseignants/professeurs et l'apprentissages des élèves/étudiants. ( ): Basedow, Borman, Gauthier, Keller, Meirieu, Melanchthon, Perrenoud, Pestalozzi, Piaget, Tardif, Tardif. Pedagogy.

Les types de pédagogie
Pédagogie de la découverte Pédagogie interculturelle Pédagogie par projet
Pédagogie de la maîtrise   Pédagogie universelle et différenciée
 

  PIAGET, J. (1969). Psychologie et Pédagogie. Paris : Denoël. DUNCAN, K. & STASIO, M. (2001). Surveying feminist pedagogy : A measurement, an evaluation, and an affirmation. Feminist Teacher, 13 (3), 225-239.
  SALOMON, G. (2002). Technology and pedagogy : Why don't we see the promised revolution ? Educational Technology, 42 (2), 71-75.
KELLER, F.S. (1982). Pedagogue's progress. Lawrence, KA : TRI Publications. GENOVESE, J.E. (2003). Piaget, pedagogy, and evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary Psychology, 1, 127-137. [PDF]
  STERN, E. (2005). Pedagogy meets neuroscience. Science, 310, 745. [PDF]
CRAHAY, M. (1982). Piaget et la pédagogie : une confrontation difficile, mais prometteuse. Éducation, Tribune Libre, 188, 27-39. MARKOWITZ, L. (2005). Unmasking moral dichotomies : Can feminist pedagogy overcome student resistance ? Gender & Education, 17 (1), 39-55.
  GERGELY, G. & CSIBRA, G. (2005). The social construction of the cultural mind : Imitative learning as a mechanism of human pedagogy. Interaction Studies, 6 (3), 463-481.
MAHER, F. (1987). Toward a richer theory of feminist pedagogy. Journal of Education, 169 (3), 91-100. GAUTHIER, C., MELLOUKI, M., SIMARD, D., BISSONNETTE, S. et RICHARD, M. (2005). Quelles sont les pédagogies efficaces ? Un état de la recherche. Paris : Fondation pour l'innovation politique.
  GERGELY, G., KIRALY, I. & EGYED, K. (2007). On pedagody. Developmental Science, 10 (1), 139-146.
KAMEENUI, E.J. (1991). Toward a scientific pedagogy : A sameness in the message. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24 (6), 364-372. HOUDÉ, O. (2008). Pedagogy, not (only) anatomy of reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 173-174.
SHREWBURY, C. (1993). What is feminist pedagogy ? Women’s Studies Quarterly, 3-4, 8-16. CRAWLEY, S. (2008). Introduction : Feminist pedagogies in action : Teaching beyond disciplines. Feminist Teacher, 19 (1), 1-12.
  CSIBRA, G. & GERGELY, G. (2009). Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13 (4), 148-153. [PDF]
  SKERRY, A.E. (2013). The origins of pedagogy : Developmental and evolutionary perspectives. Evolutionary Psychology, 11 (3), 550-572. [PDF]
Voir aussi Éducation et Méthodes d'enseignement
Pédagogie de la découverte : Forme d'enseignement non-structuré. Learning by discovery.

  KERSH, B.Y. (1958). The adequacy of "meaning" as an explanation for the superiority of learning by independent discovery. Journal of Educational Psychology, 49, 282-292  
BRUNER, J.S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31 (1), 21-32. TUOVINEN, J.E. & SWELLER, J. (1999). A comparison of cognitive load associated with discovery learning and worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91 (2), 334-341.
AUSUBEL, D.P. (1964). Some psychological and educational limitations of learning by discovery. The Arithmetic Teacher, 11, 290-302. HODGES, N.J. & LEE, T.D. (1999). The role of augmented information prior to learning a bimanual visual-motor coordination task : Do instructions of the movement pattern facilitate learning relative to discovery learning ? British Journal of Psychology, 90, 389-403.
CRAIG, R.C. (1965). Discovery, task completion, and the assignment as factors in motivation. American Educational Research Journal, 2, 217-222.  
KENDLER, H.H. (1966). Reflections on the conference. In L.S. Shulman& E.R. Keislar (Eds.), Learning by discovery : A critical appraisal (pp.171-176). Chicago, IL : Rand McNally.  
SHULMAN, L. & KEISLER, E. (Eds.) (1966). Learning by discovery: A critical appraisal. Chicago : Rand McNally. MAYER, R.E. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning ? The case for guided methods of instruction. American Psychologist, 59 (1), 14-19.
KAGAN, J. (1966). Learning, attention, and the issue of discovery. In L.S. Shulman and E.R. Keislar (Eds.), Learning by discovery : A critical appraisal (pp. 151-161). Chicago, IL : Rand McNally.  
GUTHRIE, J.T. (1967). Expository instruction versus a discovery method. Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 45-49.  
ANASTASIOW, N.J., SIBLEY, S.A., LEONHARDT, T.M. & BORICH G.D. (1970). A comparison of guided discovery, discovery and didactic teaching of math to kindergarten poverty children. American Educational Research Journal, 7, 493-510.  
ANTHONY, W.S. (1973). Learning to discover rules by discovery. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 325-328. KIRSCHNER, P.A., SWELLER, J. & CLARK, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work : an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41 (2), 75-86. [PDF]
HIRSCH, C.R. (1977). The effects of guided discovery and individualized instructional packages on initial learning, transfer, and retention in second-year algebra. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 8, 359-368.  
CANTOR, G.N., DUNLAP, L.L. & RETTIE, C.S. (1982). Effects of reception and discovery instruction on kindergarteners’ performance on probability tasks. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 453-463.  
ANDREWS, J.D.W. (1984). Discovery and expository learning compared : Their effects on independent and dependent students. Journal of Educational Research, 78, 80-89.  
Voir aussi Enseignement non-structuré
Pédagogie Collégiale : Revue qui consacrent ses pages à l'étude de la pédagogie au collégial.
TARDIF, J. (2003). Développer un programme par compétences : de l'intention à la mise en oeuvre. Pédagogie Collégiale, 16 (3), 36-45.

Pédagogie de la maîtrise : Miles et Huberman.
Pédagogie interculturelle : Pédagogie adaptée aux classes dans lesquelles étudient des élèves/étudiants de diverses cultures.

  GAUDET, É. et POTVIN, C. (1997). Pour une pédagogie interculturelle : des stratégies d'enseignement. Saint-Laurent : ERPI.
GAUDET, É. et LAFORTUNE, L. (1997). La pédagogie interculturelle dans le réseau collégial : présentation d'une recherche-action-formation sur des stratégies d'enseignement. Dans R. Féger (Dir.), L'éducation face aux nouveaux défis. Montréal : Éditions Nouvelles.
 LAFORTUNE, L. et GAUDET, É. (2000). Une pédagogie interculturelle pour une éducation à la citoyenneté. Montréal : ERPI.
Pédagogie par projet :

  DUMAS, B. et M. LEBLOND (2002). Les rôles de l’enseignant en pédagogie de projet. Pédagogie, 126, 64-66.
 Pédagogie universelle et différenciée : Nouvelle mouture post-moderne des travaux de Gardner sur l'intelligence multiple appliquée à l'enseignement qui s'appuie sur l'idée que les individus n'apprennent pas tous de la même façon (styles d'apprentissage) et qu'il faut, en conséquence, adapter les méthodes d'enseignement/pédagogiques pour tenir compte des différences individuelles et du caractère distinctif des élèves/étudiants (inclusion scolaire). = enseignement universel et différencié. UD, Universal Design, Universal Instructional Design, Universal Design for Instruction.
  SILVER, P., BOURKE, A. & SYREHORN, K.C. (1998). Universal instructional design in higher education: An approach for inclusion. Equity & Excellence in Education, 31(2), 47-51. McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2006). Universal design for instruction : Extending the universal design paradigm to college instruction. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 19, 124-134.
BOWE, F.G. (2000). Universal design in education : Teaching non traditional students. Westport, CT : Bergin and Garvey. KURTTS, S.A. (2006). Universal design for learning in inclusive classrooms. Electronic Journal of Inclusive Education, 1 (10), 1-16. [PDF]
MEYER, A. & ROSE, D (2000). Universal design for individual di erences. Educational Leadership, 58 (3), 39–43. McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2006). An approach to inclusive college instruction : Universal design for instruction. Learning Disabilities : A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14, 21-31.
PIHSA, B. & COYNE, P. (2001). Smart from the start : The promise of universal design for learning. Remedial & Special Education, 22 (4), 197-203. ROSE, D.H., HARBOUR, W.S., JOHNSTON, C.S., DALEY, S.G. & ABARBANELL, L. (2006). Universal design for learning in postsecondary education : Reflections on principles and their application. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 19 (2), 17-27. [PDF]
McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2002). Universal instructional design : A promising new paradigm for higher education. Perspectives, 28 (2), 27-29. MCGUIRE, J.M., SCOTT, S.S. & SHAW, S.F. (2006). Universal design and its application in educational environments. Remedial & Special Education, 27 (3), 166-175. [PDF]
HITCHCOCK, C., MEYER, A., ROSE, D. & JACKSON, R. (2002). Providing new access to the general curriculum: Universal design for learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35 (2), 8-17. ABELL, M. (2006). Individualizing learning using intelligent technology and universally designed curriculum. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 5 (3), 4-19. [PDF]
HOWARD, J.B. (2003). Universal design for learning : An essential concept for teacher education. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 19 (4), 113- 118. CURRY, C., COHEN, L., & LIGHTBODY, N. (2006). Universal design in science learning. Science Teacher, 73 (3), 32-37.
SCOTT, S., McGUIRE, J. & FOLEY, T.E. (2003). Universal design for instruction : A framework for anticipating and responding to disability and other diverse learning needs in the college classroom. Equity & Excellence in Education, 36, 40-49. SPOONER, F., BAKER, J.N., HARRIS, A.A., AHLGRIM-DELZELL, L. & BROWDER, D.M. (2007). Effects of training in universal design for learning on lesson plan development. Remedial & Special Education, 28, 108-116.
MCGUIRE, J.M., SCOTT, S.S. & SHAW, S.F. (2003). Universal design for instruction : The paradigm, its principles, and products for enhancing instructional access. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 17, 11-21. BERNACCHIO, C. & MULLEN, M. (2007). Universal design for learning. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31 (2), 167-169.
SCOTT, S., McGUIRE, J. & SHAW, S. (2003). Universal design for instruction : A new paradigm for adult instruction in postsecondary education. Remedial & Special Education, 24 (6), 369-379. [PDF] MCGUIRE-SCHWARTZ, M. & ARDNT, J. (2007). Transforming universal design for learning in early childhood teacher education from college classroom to early childhood classroom. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 28 (2), 127-139.
SCOTT, S. & McGUIRE, J (2004). Universal design for instruction orientation materials. Storrs, CT : Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability. JIMÉNEZ, T.C., GRAF, V.L. & ROSE, E. (2007). Gaining access to general education : The promise of universal design for learning. Issues in Teacher Education, 16 (2), 41-54.
PLINER, S. & JOHNSON, J. (2004). Historical, theoretical, and foundational principles of universal design in higher education. Equity of Excellence in Education, 37, 105-113. [PDF] KORTERING, L.J., MCCLANNON, T. & BRAZIEL, P. (2008). Universal Design for Learning : A look at what algebra and biology students with and without high incidence conditions is saying. Remedial & Special Education, 29 (6), 352-363.
  BOUCK, E.C., COURTAD, C.A., HEUTSCHE, A., OKOLO, C.M. & ENGLERT, C.S. (2009). The virtual history museum : A universally designed approach to social studies instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 42 (2), 14-20.
ROSE, D.H., MEYER, A. & HITCHCOCK, C. (2005). The universally designed classroom : Accessible curriculum and digital technologies. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Education Press. EDYBURN, D. (2010). Would you recognize universal design for learning if you saw it ? Ten propositions for new directions for the second decade of UDL. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, 33-41.
ROSE, D.H., HASSELBRING, T.S., STAHL, S. & ZABALA, J. (2005). Assistive technologie and universal design for learning : Two sides of the same coin. Dans D. Edyburn, K. Higgins and R. Boone (Eds.), Handbook of special education Technology Research and Practice (pp. 507-518). Wisconsin : Knowledge by Design. BERGERON, L., ROUSSEAU, N. et LECLERC, M. (2011). La pédagogie universelle : au coeur de la planification de l’inclusion scolaire. Éducation et Francophonie, 39 (2), 87-104. [PDF]
WEHMEYER, M.L., SMITH, S.J. & DAVIES, D.K. (2005). Technology use and students with intellectual disability : Universal design for allstudents. In D. Edyburn, K. Higgins & R. Boone (Eds.), Handbook of spsecial education technology research and practice (p. 309-323). Wisconsin : Knowledge by Design. BARILE, M., NGUYEN, M., HAVEL, A. & FECHTEN, C. (2012). L'accessibilité Universelle en pédagogie: des avantages pour toutes et tous ! Revue Pédagogie Collégiale, 25, (4), 20-22.
EMBRY, P., PARKER, D., McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2005). Postsecondary disability service providers’ perceptions about implementing Universal design for instruction. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 18 (1), 34-48. COUREY, S.J., TAPPE, P., SIKER, J. & LEPAGE, P. (2012). Improved lesson planning with universal design for learning (UDL). Teacher Education & Special Education, 36 (1), 7-27.
Voir aussi Enseignement et Inclusion scolaire
Pedersen
Anne Pedersen William C. Pedersen
 
Pedersen Anne ( ) : Psychosociologue australien et spécialiste de l'étude des aborigènes et e l 'anti-racisme. Collaboratrice de McGarty.
 
 
 
PEDERSEN, A., ALY, A., HARTLEY, L., McGARTY, C. (2009). An intervention to increase positive attitudes and address misconceptions about Australian Muslims : A call for education and open mindedness. The Australian Community Psychologist, 21 (2), 81-93.
PEDERSEN, A., WALKER, I., PARADIES, Y. & GUERIN, B. (2011). How to cook rice : A review of ingredients for teaching anti-prejudice. Australian Psychologist, 46, 55-63. [PDF]
Pedersen William C. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain. Collaborateur de Bartholow, Bushman, Denson et Miller.
PEDERSEN, W.C., GONZALES, C. & MILLER, N. (2000). The moderating effect of trivial triggering provocation on displaced aggression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78, 913-927. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C., MILLER, L.C., PUTCHA, A.D. & YANG, Y. (2002). Evolved sex differences in the number of partners desired ? The long and the short of it. Psychological Science, 13, 157-161. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C. (2006). The impact of attributional processes on triggered displaced aggression. Motivation & Emotion, 30, 75-87. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C., DENSON, T.F., GOSS, R.J., VASQUEZ, E.A., KELLEY, N.J. & MILLER, N. (2011). The impact of rumination on aggressive thoughts, feelings, arousal, and behavior. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 281-301. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C., PUTCHA-BHAGAVATULA, A. & MILLER, L.C. (2011). Are men and women really that different ? Examining some of Sexual Strategies Theory (SST)’s key assumptions about sex-distinct mating mechanisms. Sex Roles, 64, 629-643. [PDF]
Pediatric Case Review (2000-2004) : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie.
YOUNGBLADE, L.M. & NACKASHI, J. (2003). Evaluation of children’s spontaneous reports of social difficulties : "I don’t have any friends". Pediatric Case Review, 3, 157-167.

Pediatric Clinics of North America : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
WERRY, J.S. (1968). Developmental hyperactivity. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 15 (3), 581-599.

Pediatric Neurology : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie et de neurologie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
SHALEV, R.S. & GROSS-TSUR, V. (2001). Developmental dyscalculia. Pediatric Neurology, 24 (5), 337-342.

Pediatrics : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie. Éditeur : American Academy of Pediatrics.
BRAZELTON, T.B. (1962). A child-oriented approach to toilet training. Pediatrics, 29 (1), 121-127.

Pédiatrie : Branche de la médecine qui a pour objet l'étude le diagnostic, le traitement, la prévention des maladies des enfants et des adolescents. ( ): Asperger, Brazelton, Rett et Wilkins. Pediatry.

 
Pédiatrie psychologique : Branche de la pédiatrie fondée par Wright. Pediatric psychology.

  WRIGHT, L. (1967). The pediatric psychologist : A role model. American Psychologist, 22, 323-325.
WRIGHT, L. (1969). Pediatric psychology : Prospect and retrospect. Pediatric Psychology, 1, 1-3
WRIGHT, L. (1984). Pediatric psychology : Time capsule, 1984. News Letter of SPP, 1-2.
Pédoncules cérébraux : Partie du mésencéphale formée des crus cerebri et du tegmentum.

 
Pédoncules cérébelleux :
 
Pédophilie : Déviance sexuelle ou paraphilie. Les trois conditions nécessaires et suffisantes pour établir un diagnostic de pédophilie selon le DSM-IV sont : 1) Présence de fantaisies imaginatives sexuellement excitantes, d'impulsions sexuelles, ou de comportements, survenant avec intensité et de façon répétée, pendant une période d'au moins 6 mois, impliquant une activité sexuelle avec un enfant ou des enfants prépubères (généralement âgés de 12-13 ans et moins). 2) La personne a cédé à ses impulsions sexuelles, ou les impulsions sexuelles ou les fantaisies imaginatives sont à l'origine d'un désarroi prononcé ou de difficultés interpersonnelles. 3) Le sujet est âgé de 16 ans au moins et a au moins 5 ans de plus que l'enfant mentionné en 1. Pédophilie, plethysmographe et agression sexuelle d'enfant. Pedophilia.
  KARPMAN, B. (1950). A case of paedophilia (legally rape) cured by psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Review, 37, 235-276. HOWITT, D. (1995). Pornography and the paedophile : Is it criminogenic ? British Journal of Medical Psychology, 168, 15-27.
MOHR, J.W., TURNER, R.W. & JERRY, M.B. (1964). Pedophilia and exhibitionism. Toronto : University of Toronto Press. HALL, G.C.N., HIRSCHMAN, R. & OLIVER, L.L. (1995). Sexual arousal and arousability to pedophilic stimuli in a community sample of normal men. Behavior Therapy, 26, 681-694.
FREUND, K. (1965). Diagnosing heterosexual pedophilia by means of a test for sexual interest. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 3, 229-234. FEDOROFF, J.P. (1996). The genesis of pedophilia : testing the "abuse to abuser" hypothesis. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 24, 85-101.
FREUND, K. (1967). Erotic preference in pedophilia. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 5, 339-348. BOURGEOIS, J.A. & KLEIN, M. (1996). Risperidone and fluoxetine in the treatment of pedophilia with comorbid dysthymia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16, 257-258.
KOHLENBERG, R.J. (1974). In-vivo desensitization and aversive stimuli in the treatment of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 192-195. PRYOR, D. (1996). Unspeakable acts : Why men sexually abuse children. New York : New York University Press.
LAWS, D.R. & HOLMEN, M.L. (1978). Sexual response faking by pedophiles. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 5, 343-356. EDWARDS, M. (1997). Treatment for paedophiles; Treatment for sex offenders. Paedophile policy and prevention. Australian Institute of Criminology Research & Public Policy Series, 12, 74-75.
CRAWFORD, D. (1981). Treatment approaches with pedophiles. Adult sexual interest in children, 181-217. LOPEZ, G. (1997). Les violences sexuelles sur les enfants. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
KELLY, R.J. (1982). Behavioral re-orientation of pedophiliacs : Can it be done? Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 387-408. BARBAREE, H.E. & SETO, M.C. (1997). Pedophilia : Assessment and treatment. In D.R. Laws & W.T. O'Donohue (Eds.), Sexual Deviance : Theory, Assessment & Treatment (pp. 175-193). New York : Guilford.
GROTH, A.N. & GARY, T.S. (1982). Heterosexuality, homosexuality, and pedophilia : Sexual offenses against children and adult sexual orientation. In A.M. Scacco (Ed.), Male rape : A casebook of sexual aggressions (pp. 143-152). New York : AMS Press. MARSHALL, W.L. (1997). Pedophilia : Psychopathology and theory. In D.R. Laws & W. O'Donohue (Eds.), Sexual deviance : Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 152-174). New York : Guilford Press.
FREUND, K., SCHER, H., CHAN, S. & BEN-ARON, M. (1982). Experimental analysis of pedophilia. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 20, 105-112. RIND, B., TROMOVITCH, P. & BAUSERMAN, R. (1998). A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin, 124 (1), 22-53.
LANGEVIN, R. & LANG, R.A. (1985). Psychological treatment of pedophiles. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 3, 403-419. McCONAGHY, N. (1998). Pedophilia : A review of the evidence. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32 (2), 252-265.
ARAJI, S. & FINKELHOR, D. (1985). Explanations of pedophilia: Review of empirical evidence.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 13, 17-38. [PDF] SETO, M.C. & LALUMIÈRE, M.L. (2001). A brief screening scale to identify pedophilic in terests among child molesters. Sex Abuse 13,15-25.
QUINSEY, V.L. (1986). Men who have sex with children. In D.N. Weisstub (Ed.), Law and mental health: International perspectives (Vol.2, pp. 140-172). New York : Pergamon. BLANCHARD, R., KLASSEN, P., DICKEY, R., KUBAN, M.E. & BLAK, T. (2001). Sensitivity and specificity of the phallometric test for pedophilia in nonadmitting sex offenders. Psychological Assessment, 13, 118-126.
FINKELHOR, D. & ARAJI, S. (1986). Explanations of pedophilia : A four factor model. The Journal of Sex Research, 22 (2), 145-161. DIXSON, A.F. (2002). Abnormal erotosexual preferences in human beings : The nature of pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 482.
FREUND, K. & BLANCHARD, R. (1989). Phallometric diagnosis of pedophilia. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 57 (1), 100-105. FAGAN, P.J., WISE, T.N., SCHMIDT, C.W. & BERLIN, F.S. (2002). Pedophilia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2458-2465.
BRIERE, J. & RUNTZ, M. (1989). University males' sexual interest in children : Predicting potential indices of pedophilia in a non-forensic sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 65-75. VARELA, D. & BLACK, D.W. (2002). . Pedophilia treated with carbamazepine and clonazepam. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1245-1246.
JONES, G. (1990). The study of intergenerational intimacy in North America : Beyond politics and pedophilia. Journal of Homosexuality, 20 (1-2), 288. BERLIN, F.S. (2002). Pedophilia : When is a difference a disorder ? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 479-480.
  SPITZER, R.L. & WAKEFIELD, J.C. (2002). Why pedophilia is a disorder of sexual attraction - at least sometimes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 499-500.
FREUND, K. & BLANCHARD, R. (1987). Feminine gender identity and physical aggressiveness in heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 13, 25-34. GREEN, R. (2002). Is pedophilia a mental disorder ? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 467-471.
JAMES, A. & HOUSTON, D.A. (1990). Legal, social, and biological definitions of pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19 (4), 333-342. HUPRICH, S.K., GACONO, C.B., SCNEIDER, R.B. & BRIDGES, M.R. (2004). Rorschach oral dependency in psychopaths, pedophiles, and sexual homicide perpetrators. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 22, 345-356. [PDF]
FREUND, K., WATSON, R. & DICKEY, R. (1990). Does sexual abuse in childhood cause pedophilia : An exploratory study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19 (6), 557-568. SETO, M.C. (2004). Precisely defining pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 498-499.
  SETO, M.C. (2004). Pedophilia and sexual offenses involving children. Annual Review of Sex Research, 15, 321-361.
  SMITH, J. & PETITBON, C. (2005). Relapse prevention group therapy for paedophiles : French adaptation. Encephale, 31, 552-558.
  SETO, M.C., CANTOR, J.M. & BLANCHARD, R. (2006). Pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115 (3), 610-615. [PDF]
  HUGHES, J.R. (2007). Review of medical reports on pedophilia. Clinical Pediatrics, 46, 667-682. [PDF]
  HALL, R.C. & HALL R.C. (2007). Profile of pedophilia : Definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 82 (4), 457-471. [PDF]
  ANDRÉ, S. et GOSSELIN, G. (2008). Qu'est-ce que la pédophilie ? Editions Luc Pire.
  SETO, M.C. (2009). Pedophilia. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 391-407. [PDF]
GLADUE, B. (1990). Hormones and neuroendocrine factors in atypical human sexual behavior. In J.R. Feierman (Ed.), Pedophilia : Biosocial dimensions (pp. 274-98). New York : Springer-Verlag. BLANCHARD, R. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 304-316. [PDF]
FREUND, K. & WATSON, R. (1992). The proportion of heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles among sex offenders against children : An exploratory study. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 18 (1), 34-43. SETO M.C. (2012). Is pedophilia a sexual orientation ? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 231-236.
FREUND, K. & KUBAN, M. (1994). The basis of the abused abuser theory of pedophilia : A further elaboration on an earlier study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 23, 553-563. ENBERGEN, G., WITTFOTH, M.,FRIELING, H., PONSETI, J., WALTER, M., WALTER, H., BEIER, K.M., SCHIFFER, B. & KRUGER, T.H.C. (2015). The neurobiology and psychology of pedophilia : recent advances and challenges. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9 : 344, 1-20. [PDF]
Voir aussi Paraphilie, Agression sexuelle d'enfant et Pornographie infantile
TRUDEL, G. (1988). Les dysfonctions sexuelles. Montréal. Les Presses de l'Université du Québec.
Pédophilie (Mesure et évaluation de la...) : Ensemble des critères de diagnostic, des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer le risque de la pédophilie.
   
SETO, M.C., CANTOR, J.M. & BLANCHARD, R. (2006). Pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115 (3), 610-615. [PDF]
BLANCHARD, R. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 304-316. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pédophilie
Pédophilie (Prévention de la...) :

  EDWARDS, M. (1997). Treatment for paedophiles; Treatment for sex offenders. Paedophile policy and prevention. Australian Institute of Criminology Research & Public Policy Series, 12, 74-75.
Voir aussi Pédophilie
Peine de mort : Dans certains pays, notamment aux États-Unis, châtiment prévu par la loi, et qui consiste à tuer le coupable d'un acte que la société considère comme intolérable (meutre d'un policier, meurtre en série, etc). Peine de mort, crime et punition. Capital punishment, death penalty.

  KAPLAN, J. (1983). The problem of capital punishment. Law Review, 88, 555-577.
RADELET, M.L. & VANDIVER, M. (1983). The Florida Supreme Court and death penalty appeals. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 74, 913-926.
ACKER, J.R. (1993). A different agenda : The Supreme Court, empirical research evidence, and capital punishment decisions, 1986-1989. Law & Society Review, 27, 65-88.
GROSS, S.R. (1993). The romance of revenge : Capital punishment in America. Studies in Law, Politics, and Society, 13, 71-104.
COSTANZO, M.A. & McKENNA, C. (1994). An overview of the death penalty and capital trials : History, current status, legal procedures, and cost. Journal of Social Issues, 50 (2), 1-18.
COSTANZO, M.A. (1997). Just revenge : Costs and consequences of the death penalty. Worth Publishers.
BRISMAN, A. (2009). Docile bodies or rebellious spirits : Issues of time and power in the waiver and withdrawal of death penalty appeals. Valparaiso University Law Review, 43(2), 459-512.
Voir aussi Crime et Punition
Peirce Charles Sanders (1839-1914) : Philosophe pragmatiste, sémiologue et logicien américain. On lui doit la théorie des type/token. Collaborateur de Jastrow.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1867). Upon logical comprehension and extension. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 7, 416-432.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1868). Questions concerning certain faculties claimed for man. Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 2, 103-114.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1869). Comment se fixe la croyance. Revue Philosophique de la France et de L'Étranger, 6, 553-569.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1877). The fixation of belief. Popular Science Monthly, 12, 1-15.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1878). Deduction, induction, and hypothesis. Popular Science Monthly, 13, 470-482.
 
MURPHY, J.P. (1990). Pragmatism : From Peirce to Davidson. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
SCHNEIDER, S.M. (1997). Back to our philosophical roots : A journal review of Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce. Society. The Behavior Analyst, 20, 17-23.
BRENT, J. (1998). Charles Sanders Peirce : A life. Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press.
MOXLEY, R.A. (2002). The selectionist meaning of C.S. Peirce and B.F. Skinner. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 71-91. [PDF]
Péladeau Normand ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste, statisticien et pédagogue québécois. Concepteur et réalisateur de logiciels d'analyse de données quantitatives et qualitatives, notamment Simstat et Wordstat. Il s'intéresse également aux méthodes pédagogiques en milieu scolaire. Étudiant de Forget. Collaborateur de Bissonnette, Gagné et Gauthier.
PÉLADEAU, N. et MERCIER, C. (1993). Approches qualitative et quantitative en évaluation de programmes. Sociologie et Sociétés, 25 (2), 111-124. [PDF]
PÉLADEAU, N. et LEGAULT, A. (2001). Qui a peur de l'enseignement direct? In N. Giroux, J. Forget & Collaborateurs (Eds.), Pour un (nouveau) départ assuré en lecture, écriture, mathématique et autres apprentissages personnels ou sociaux : guide pédagogique destiné aux enseignants en difficulté (pp. 120-133). Montréal : Precision Teaching Consultants.
PÉLADEAU, N., FORGET, J. & GAGNÉ, F. (2003). Effect of paced and unpaced pratice on skill application and retention : how much is enough ? American Educationnal Research Journal, 40 (3), 769-801.
PÉLADEAU, N., FORGET, J. et GAGNÉ, F. (2005). Le transfert des apprentissages et la réforme de l’éducation au Québec : quelques mises au point. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 31 (1), 187-209. [PDF]
BISSONNETTE, S., GAUTHIER, C. et PÉLADEAU, N. (2010). Un objet qui manque à sa place : les données probantes dans l'enseignement et la formation. In In B. Wentzel & M. Mellouki (Eds.), Recherche et formation à l’enseignement - Spécificités et interdépendance : Actes de la recherche de la HEP-BEJUNE. [PDF]
Pelaez Martha ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude du développement, notamment des règles de contingence. = Pelaez-Nogueras. Collaboratrice de Gewirtz et Novak.
PELAEZ-NOGUERAS, M. (1992). Recurrent issues in the study of behavior development : Metamodels. Behavioral Development, 1, 3-5.

PELAEZ, M. & MORENO, R. (1999). Four dimensions of rules and their correspondence to rule-governed behavior : A taxonomy. Behavior Development Bulletin, 8, 21-27. [PDF]

PELAEZ, M., FIELD, T., PICKENS, J.N. & HART, S. (2008). Disengaged and authoritarian parenting behavior of depressed mothers with their toddlers. Infant Behavior & Development, 31, 145-148. [PDF]
PELAEZ, M., VURUÉS-ORTEGA, J. & GEWIRTZ, J.L. (2011). Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44 (1), 33-40. [PDF]
PELAEZ, M., VURUÉS-ORTEGA, J. & GEWIRTZ, J.L. (2011). Acquisition of social referencing via discrimination training in infants. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45 (1), 23-36. [PDF]
Pelham William E. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain spécialisé dans l'étude du déficit d'attention et du trouble du déficit d'attention avec hyperactivité. Avec Fabiano, il a concu une échelle d'évaluation du fonctionnement social des enfants notamment utilisée pour diagnostiquer le trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité.Professeur de Fabiano. Collaborateur de Atkins, Hinshaw, Lahey et Willcutt.
PELHAM, W.E., GNAGY, E.M. CHRONIS, A.M., BURROWS-MACLEAN, L., FABIANO, G.A., ONYANGO, A.N., MEICHENBAUM, D.L., WILLIAMS, A., ARONOFF, H.R. & STEINER, R.L. (1999). A comparison of morning, midday, and late-afternoon methylphenidate with morning and late-afternoon Adderall in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics, 104 (6), 1300-1311.
PELHMAN, W., PILLOW, D.R., KIPP, H.L., GREINER, A.R., TRANE, S.T., HOZA, B., GNAGY, E., WASCHBUSCH, D.A., GREENHOUSE, J., WOLFSON, L. & FITZPATRICK, E. (2002). Effects of Methylphenidate and expectancy on children with ADHD : Behavior, academic performance, and attributions in a summer treatment program and regular classroom settings. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70 (2), 320-335. [PDF]
PELHAM, W.E., FABIANO, G.A. & MASSETTI, G.M. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 34 (3), 449-476. [PDF]
PELHAM, W.E., FOSTER, E.M. & ROBB, J.A. (2007). The economic impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 711-727. [PDF]
PELHAM, W.E. & FABIANO, G.A. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder : An update. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37 (1), 185- 214. [PDF]
Pellegrini, Anthony D. ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude des comportements agressifs, du harcèlement scolaire et du jeu, notamment des jeux de bataille chez les enfants. Collaborateur de Smith.
PELLEGRINI, A.D. (1980). The semantic structure of private speech. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 20, 59-74.
PELLEGRINI, A.D. (1987). Social cognitive aspects of children's play : The effects of age, gender, and activity center. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 6, 129-140.
PELLEGRINI, A.D. (1995). A longitudinal study of boys' rough-and-tumble play and dominance during early adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16, 77-93.
PELLEGRINI, A.D., BARTINI, M. & BROOKS, F. (1999). School bullies, victims, and aggressive victims: Factors relating to group affiliation and victimization in early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91 (2), 216-224.
PELLEGRINI, A.D., DUPUIS, D. & SMITH, P. K. (2007). Play in evolution and development. Development Review, 27, 261-276. [PDF]
Pellis Sergio M. ( ) : Neuropsychologue canadien et spécialiste de l'étude du jeu chez les animaux, notamment chez les primates et le rat.
PELLIS, S.M. & PELLIS, V.C. (1987). Play-fighting differs from serious fighting in both target of attack and tactics of fighting in the laboratory rat Rattus norvegicus. Aggressive Behavior, 13, 227-242.
PELLIS, S.M., PELLIS, V.C. & WHISHAW, I.Q. (1992). The role of the cortex in play fighting by rats : Developmental and evolutionary implications. Brain, Behavior & Evolution, 39, 270-284.
PELLIS, S.M. & PELLIS, V.C. (1998). Play fighting of rats in comparative perspective : A schema for neurobehavioral analyses. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 23, 87-101.
PELLIS, S.M. & IWANIUK, A.N. (2004). Evolving a playful brain : A levels of control approach. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 90-116. [PDF]
PELLIS, S.M. & PELLIS, V.C. (2007). Rough-and tumble play and the development of the social brain. Association of Psychological Science, 16 (2), 95-98. [PDF]
Pempek Tiffany A. ( ) : Psychologue américiaine et spécialiste du développement, notamment des effets de la technologie (télévision, réseau social, tablette, etc) sur ce processus. Collaborateur de Calvert et Kirkorian.
PEMPEK, T.A., YERMOLAYEVA, Y.A. & CALVERT, S.L. (2009). College students’ social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30, 227-238. [PDF]
PEMPEK, T.A. & CALVERT, S.L. (2009). Tipping the balance : Advergames to promote low-income African American children’s consumption of nutritious foods and beverages. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 163 (7), 633-637. [PDF]
PEMPEK, T.A., KIRKORIAN, H.L., RICHARDS, J.E., LUND, A.F., ANDERSON, D.R. & STEVENS, M. (2010). The effects of visual and auditory comprehensibility on infants’ and toddlers’ attention to television. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1283-1293.
PEMPEK, T.A., DEMERS, L. B., HANSON, K., KIRKORIAN, H.L. & ANDERSON, D.R. (2011). The impact of infant-directed videos on parent child interaction. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 32, 10-19.
PEMPEK, T.A., KIRKORIAN, H.L. & ANDERSON, D.R. (2014). The impact of background television on the quality and quantity of parents’ child-directed language. Journal of Children & Media, 8, 211-222
Penfield Wilder Graves (Spokane Washington 1891-1976 Montréal) : Neurochirurgien et neuropsychologue québécois, d'origine américaine, spécialisé dans le traitement et l'étude de l'épilepsie. Fondateur de l'Institut Neurologique de Montréal. Il s'est intéressé à la localisation des fonctions cognitives (langage et mémoire). Il a également développé une méthode de stimulation corticale. Collaborateur de Jasper.
PENFIELD, W., ERICKSON, T.C. & THOMAS, C.C. (1941). Epilepsy and cerebral localization : A study of the mechanism, treatment and prevention of epileptic seizures.
PENFIELD, W. & JASPER, H.H. (1954). Epilepsy and the functional anatomy of the human brain. Little, Brown and Co.
PENFIELD, W. (1960). The torch. Little, Brown and Co.
PENFIELD, W. (1975). The mystery of the mind : A critical study of consciousness and the human brain. Princeton University Press.
PENFIELD, W. (1977). No man alone : A surgeon's life. Little, Brown and Co.
Pénis : Organe sexuel masculin. On mesure la quantité de sang dans le pénis au moyen d'un plethysmographe. Pénis, masturbation et érection. = phallus. Penis.

  FISHER, C., GROSS, J. & ZUCH, J.(1965). Cycle of penile erection synchronous with dreaming (REM) sleep. Archives of General Psychiatry, 12, 29-45.  
BANCROFT, J., JONES, H.C. & PULLAN, B.P. (1966). A simple transducer for measuring penile erections with comments on its use in the treatment of sexual disorders. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 4, 239-241. TIEFER, L. (1987). The pursuit of the perfect penis : The medicalization of male sexuality. London : Sage.
BARLOW, D.H., BECKER, R., LEITENBERG, H. & AGRAS, W.S (1970). A mechanical strain gauge for recording penile circumference change. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3, (1), 73-76. [PDF] REILLY, J.M. & WOODHOUSE, C.R.J. (1989). Small penis and the male sexual role. The Journal of Urology, 142, 569-572.
MONEY, J. & EHRHARDT, A.A. (1972). Rearing of a sex-reassigned normal male infant after traumatic loss of the penis. In Man and woman/boy and girl (pp. 46-51). Baltimore, MD : John Hopkins University Press. FISHER, C.M. (1999). Phantom erection after amputation of penis. Case description and review of the relevant literature on phantoms. The Canadian Journal of Neurogical Sciences, 26 (1), 53-56. [PDF]
 ROSEN, R.C., SHAPIRO, D. & SCHWARTZ, G.E. (1975). Voluntary control of penile tumescence. Psychosomatic Medicine, 37, 479-483. ANDERSON, K.E. & WAGNER, G. (1995). Physiology of penile erection. Physiology Review, 75, 191-236.
MONEY, J. (1975). Ablation penis : Normal male infant sex-reassignment as a girl. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4, 65-71. RAMACHADRAN, V.S. (2008). Phantom penises in transsexuals. Journal of Consciousness Studies, 15 (1), 5-16.
TIEFER, L. (1986). In pursuit of the perfect penis. American Behavioral Scientist, 29 (5), 579-599. WADE, N.J. & FINGER, S. (2010). Phantom penis : historical dimensions. Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, 19, 299-312.
Voir aussi Plethysmographe
Penke Lars ( ) : Psychologue évolutionniste allemand et spécialiste de l'étude de la personnalité. Collaborateur de Asendorpf, Buss, Deary, Debruine, Denissen, Furnham, Johnson, Jones, Little, Perrett et Swami.
PENKE, L., DENISSEN, J.J.A. & MILLER, G.F. (2007). The evolutionary genetics of personality. European Journal of Personality, 21, 549-587. [PDF]
PENKE, L. & ASENDORPF, J.B. (2008). Evidence for conditional sex differences in emotional but not in sexual jealousy at the automatic level of cognitive processing. European Journal of Personality, 22, 3-30. [PDF]
PENKE, L. & ASENDORPF, J.B. (2008). Beyond global sociosexual orientations : A more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects on courtship and romantic relationships. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 95, 1113-1135. [PDF]
PENKE, L., BATES, T.C., GOW, A. J., PATTIE, A., STARR, J.M., JONES, B.C., PERRETT, D.I. & DEARY, I.J. (2009). Symmetric faces are a sign of successful cognitive aging. Evolution & Human Behavior, 30, 429-437.[PDF]
PENKE, L. & JOKELA, M. (2016). The evolutionary genetics of personality revisited. Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 104-109. [PDF]
Penner Louis A. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude des comportements prosociaux, notamment le volontariat. Collaborateur de Dovidio, Gaertner et Pilivavin.
PENNER, L.A. Dispositional and organizational influences on sustained volunteerism : An interactionist perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 58 (3), 447-467. [PDF]
PENNER, L.A., DOVIDIO, J.F., PILIAVIN, J.A. & SCHROEDER, D.A. (2005). Prosocial behavior : Multilevel perspectives. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 365-392. [PDF]
PENNER, L.A., ALBRECHT, T.L., COLEMAN, D.K. & NORTON, W. (2007). Interpersonal perspectives on Black-White health disparities : Social policy implications. Social Issues & Policy Review, 1 (1), 63-98. [PDF]
PENNER, L.A., CLINE, R.J. W., ALBRECHT, T.L., HARPER, F.W.K., PETERSON, A.M., TAUB, J.M. & RUCKDESCHEL, J.C. (2008). Parents' empathic responses and pain and distress in pediatric patients. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 30 (2), 102-113. [PDF]
PENNER, L.A., DOVIDIO, J.F., WEST, T.V., GAERTNER, S.L., ALBRECHT, T.L., DAILY, R.K. & MARKOVA, T. (2010). Aversive racism and medical interactions with Black patients : A field study. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46 (2), 436-440. [PDF]
 
Pennington Bruce F. ( ) : Psychologue évolutionniste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude du développement pathologique et atypique, notamment de la dyslexie. Collaborateur de Dawson, Defries, Faraone, Galaburda, Olson, Ozonoff, Rogers et Willcutt.
PENNINGTON, B.F. (1990). The genetics of dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 31, 193-201.
PENNINGTON, B.F. & OZONOFF, S. (1996). Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 37, 51-87.
PENNINGTON, B.F., FILIPEK, P.A., LEFLY, D., CHURCHWELL, J., KENNEDY, D.N., SIMON, J.H., FILLEY, C.M., GALABURDA, A., ALARCON, M. & DeFRIES, J.C. (1999). Brain morphometry in reading-disabled twins. Neurology, 53, 723-729.
PENNINGTON, B.F., MOON, J., EDGIN, J., STEDRON, J. & NADEL, L. (2003). The neuropsychology of Down syndrome : evidence for hippocampal dysfunction. Child Developemt, 74 (1), 75-93. [PDF]
PENNINGTON, B.F. (2006). From single to multiple deficit models of developmental disorders Cognition, 101, 385-413. [PDF]
 
Pennypacker Henry S. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste et méthodologiste américain, spécialisé en médecine béhaviorale, notamment dans la prévention du cancer du sein. Étudiant de Kimble. Collaborateur de Barrett, Catania, Honig, Johnson et Lindsley.
PENNYPACKER, H.S., KOENING, C.H. & LINDSLEY, O.R. (1972). Handbook of the standard behavior chart. Kansas City, KS : Precision Media.
PENNYPACKER, H.S., BLOOM, H.S., CRISWELL, E.L., NEELAKANTAN, P., GOLDSTEIN, M.K. & STEIN, G.H. (1982). Toward an effective technology of instruction in breast self-examination. International Journal of Mental Health, 11 (3), 98-116.
PENNYPACKER, H.S. (1992). Is behavior analysis undergoing selection by consequences ? American Psychologist, 47 (11), 1491-1498.
PENNYPACKER, H.S. & HENCH, L.L. (1997). Making behavioral technology transferrable. The Behavior Analyst, 20 (2), 97-108. [PDF]
PENNYPACKER, H.S. (2004). Complexity and selection : A template for nation building. Behavior & Social Issues, 13, 134-135. [PDF]
Pensée/Penser : Au sens large, ce qui se déroule dans notre esprit, notre cerveau. De manière plus précise, il s'agit de la capacité de se représenter les objets et leurs propriétés en leur absence, de manipuler des images et/ou symboles. dans certains de manière logique (raisonemment). Cette représentation de la réalité repose sur des images et/ou un langage. = idée. Thinking, thought.

Types de pensée
Pensée alternative Pensée intuitive Pensée parasite
Pensée binaire Pensée magique Pensée positive
Pensée créative Pensée négative Pensée scientifique
Pensée critique Pensée obsessive Pensée suicidaire
Pensée de groupe Pensée opératoire concrète Pensée symbolique
Pensée divergente Pensée opératoire formelle Pensée unique
Pensée hostile Pensée opératoire formelle  
Pensée inconsciente    
 

 
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PIAGET, J. (1954). Le langage et la pensée du point de vue génétique. Acta Psychologica, 10, 51-60. [PDF] BORODITSKY, L. (2001). Does language shape thought ?: Mandarin and english speakers’ conceptions of time. Cognitive Psychology, 43, 1-22. [PDF]
WHORF, B.L. (1956). The relation of habitual thought and behavior to language. In J.B. Carroll (Ed.), Language, thought, and reality (pp. 134-159). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. BLOOM P. & KEIL, F. (2001). Thinking through language. Mind & Language, 16, 351-367. [PDF]
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  CARRUTHERS, P. (2002). Modularity, language, and the flexibility of thought. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 25 (6), 705-719. [PDF]
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BION, W.R. (1962). The psycho-analytic study of thinking. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 43, 306-310. MELSER, D. (2004). The act of thinking. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
BERLYNE, D.E. (1965). Structure and direction in thinking. New York : Wiley. MANDLER, J.M. (2004). Thought before language. Trends in Cognitive Science, 8, 508-513.
ANDERSON, J.R. (1976). Language, memory and thought. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum Associates. KRUGER, J., WIRTZ, D. & MILLER, D.T. (2005). Counterfactual thinking and the first instinct fallacy. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88, 725-735. [PDF]
WADDINGTON, C.H. (1977). Tools for thought. London : Paladin. ATANCE, C.M. & O’NEILL, D.K. (2005). The emergence of episodic future thinking in humans. Learning & Motivation, 36, 126-144. [PDF]
ZAJONC, R.B. (1980). Feeling and thinking : Preferences need no inferences. American Psychologist, 35, 151-175. [PDF]  
WOODFIELD, A. (1982). Thought and object. Oxford : OUP. HOLYOAK, K.J. & MORRISON, R.G. (Eds.) (2005). The Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning. Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press.
MILLIKAN, R. (1984). Language, thought and other biological categories. Cambridge : MIT Press. KAY, P. & REGIER, T. (2006). Language, thought and color : recent developments Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10 (2), 51-54. [PDF]
WEINER, B. (1985). Spontaneous causal thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 97, 74-84. READ, D.W. (2008). Working memory : A cognitive limit to non-human primate recursive thinking prior to hominid evolution? Evolutionary Psychology, 6 (4), 676-714. [PDF]
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BANDURA, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action : A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs : Prentice-Hall.  WEGNER, D.M. (2009). How to think, say, or do precisely the worst thing for any occasion. Science, 325, 48-51. [PDF]
PETTIT, P. & McDOWELL, J. (1986). Subject, thought, and context. Oxford : OUP. KAY, P. & REGIER, T. (2009). Language, thought, and color : Whorf was half right. Trends in Cognitive Science, 13 (10), 439-446. [PDF]
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LEGENDRE-BERGERON, M.F. (1980). Lexique de la psychologie du développement de Jean Piaget. Montréal : Gaëtan Morin. KAHNEMAN, D. (2011). Thinking, fast and slow. New York, NY : Farrar, Straus and Giroux.
  Voir aussi Raisonner et Représenter
Pensée alternative : Élément d'un raisonnement qui consiste à imaginer une alternative (supposition) à ce que l'on pense habituellement de manière automatique. Alternative thinking.

  KELLY, B., LONGBOTTOM, J., POTTS, F. & WILLIAMSON, J. (2004). Applying emotional intelligence: exploring the promoting alternative thinking strategies curriculum. Educational Psychology in Practice, 20, 221-240.
CURTIS, C. & NORGATE, R. (2007). An evaluation of the promoting alternative thinking strategies curriculum at Key Stage 1. Educational Psychology in Practice, 23(1), 33-44.
CREAN, H.F. & JOHNSON, D. B. (2013). Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) and Elementary School Aged Children's Aggression: Results from a Cluster Randomized Trial. American Journal of Community Psychology, 52 (1-2), 56-72.
INAM, A., TARIQ, P.N. & ZAMAN, S. (2015). Cultural adaptation of preschool PATHS (Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies) curriculum for Pakistani children. International Journal of Psychology, 50 (3), 232-239.
HUMPHREY, N., BARLOW, A., WIGELSWORTH, M., LENDRUM, A., PERT, K., JOYCE, C. & TURNER, A. (2016). A cluster randomized controlled trial of the Promoting Alternative Thinking Strategies (PATHS) curriculum. Journal of School Psychology, 58, 73-89.
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Pensée analytique : Voir Analyse.
Pensée binaire : Voir Raisonnement binaire.
Pensée créative : Pensée créative et créativité. Creative thought.

  HOLYOAK, K.J. & THAGARD, P. (1995). Mental leaps : Analogy in creative thought. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
BONK, C.J. & SMITH, C.S. (1998). Alternative instructional strategies for creative and critical thinking in the accounting curriculum. Journal of Accounting Education, 16 (2), 261-293.
STORM, B.C. & PATEL, T.N. (2014). Forgetting as a consequence and enabler of creative thinking. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 40 (6), 1594-1609. [PDF]
Voir Créativité et Pensée
Pensée critique : Pensée qui se caractérise par la capacité et la volonté de s'interroger sur la valeur de toute affirmation ( = doute systématique) et de porter des jugements objectifs en s'appuyant sur des arguments cohérents fondés sur des faits (empiriquemet valide), ainsi que par la capacité de rejeter toute affirmation non étayée par des faits. Pensée critique, raisonnement scientifique et méthode scientifique. = pensée rationelle, scepticisme. /pensée magique. Critical thinking, critical thinking skills.

  ENNIS, R.H. (1958). An appraisal of the Watson-Glaser critical thinking appraisal. Journal of Educational Research, 52, 155-158. ROE, C.A. (1999). Critical thinking and belief in the paranormal : A re-evaluation. British Journal of Psychology, 90 (1), 85-98.
ALCOCK, J.E. & OTIS, L.P. (1980). Critical thinking and belief in the paranormal. Psychological Reports, 46, 479-482. KUHN, D. (1999). A developmental model of critical thinking. Educational Researcher, 28 (2), 16-26.
NORRIS, S.P. (1985). The choice of standard conditions in defining critical thinking competence. Educational Theory, 35 (1), 97-107. PASCARELLA, E.T. (1999) The development of critical thinking : Does college make a difference ? Journal of College Student Development, 40, 562-569.
ENNIS, R.H. (1985). A logical basis for measuring critical thinking skills. Educational Leadership, 43 (2), 44-48. BAILIN, S., CASE, R., COOMBS, J.R. & DANIELS, L.B. (1999). Conceptualizing critical thinking.Journal of Curriculum Studies, 31 (3), 285-302.
NORRIS, S.P. (1989). Can we test validly for critical thinking ? Educational Researcher, 18 (9), 21-26. [PDF] THAYER-BACON, B.J. (2000). Transforming critical thinking: Thinking constructively. New York, NY : Teachers College Press.
ENNIS, R.H. (1989). Critical thinking and subject specificity : Clarification and needed research. Educational Researcher, 18 (3), 4-10. PITHERS, R.T. & SODEN, R. (2000). Critical thinking in education : A review. Educational Research, 42 (3), 237-249.
KING, P.M., WOOD, P.K. & MINES, R.A. (1990). Critical thinking among college and graduate students. The Review of Higher Education, 13, 167-186. ANDOLINO, M. (2002). Practical guide to critical thinking. Albany, NY : Delmar.
KENNEDY, M., FISHER, M.B. & ENNIS, R.H. (1991). Critical thinking : Literature review and needed research. In L. Idol & B.F. Jones (Eds.), Educational values and cognitive instruction : Implications for reform (pp. 11-40). Hillsdale, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum & Associates. BAILIN, S. (2002). Critical thinking and science education. Science & Education, 11 (4), 361-375.
ENNIS, R.H. (1991). Critical thinking : A streamlined conception. Teaching Philosophy, 14 (1), 5-25. DUCHSCHER, J.E. (2003). Critical thinking : perceptions of newly graduated female baccalaureate nurses. Journal of Nursing Education, 42 (1), 14-27.
SEIXAS, P. (1991). Critical thinking in history. Horizon, 29 (1), 10-13. SAVICH, C, (2003). Improving critical thinking skills in history. Networks, 11 (2), 1-12. [PDF]
CHAFFEE, J. (1991). Thinking critically. Boston : Houghton Mifflin. PATTIZ, A. (2004). The idea of history teaching : Using Collingwood's idea of history to promote critical thinking in the high school history classroom. History Teacher, 37 (2), 239.
PAUL, R.W. (1992). Critical thinking : What, why, and how ? New Directions for Community Colleges, 77, 3-24. HERGOVICH, A. & ARENDASY, M. (2005). Critical thinking ability and belief in the paranormal. Personality & Individual Differences, 38, 1805-1812. [PDF]
McCUTCHEON, L.E., HANSON, E., APPERSON, J.M. & WYNN, V. (1992). Relationships among critical thinking skills, academic achievement, and miscoceptions about psychology. Psychologcial Reports, 71, 635-639. [PDF]  
ENNIS, R.H. (1993). Critical thinking assessment. Theory into Practice, 32 (3), 179-186. VAN GELDER, T. (2005). Teaching critical thinking : Some lessons from cognitive science. College Teaching, 53 (1), 41-48. [PDF]
LACEY, B. (1994). Evaluating viewpoints : Critical thinking in United States history. History Teacher, 27 (4), 502-503. CASE, R. (2005). Moving critical thinking to the main stage. Education Canada, 45 (2), 45-49. [PDF]
ENNIS, R.H. (1996). Critical thinking. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice-Hall. PAUL, R.W. & ELDER, L. (2006). Critical thinking : The nature of critical and creative thought. Journal of Developmental Education, 30 (2), 34-35.
HALPERN, D.F. (1996). Thought and knowledge : An introduction to critical thinking. Mahwah, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers. KIDA, T. (2006). Don't believe everything you think: The 6 basic mistakes we make in thinking. Amherst, NY : Prometheus Books.
ENNIS, R.H. (1996). Critical thinking dispositions : Their nature and assessability. Informal Logic, 18 (2-3), 165-182. [PDF] MOORE, B. & PARKER, R. (2007). Critical thinking. New York, NY : McGraw-Hill.
FOLLMAN, J., LAVELY, C. & BERGER, N. (1997). Inventory of instruments of critical thinking. Informal Logic, 8 (2), 261-267. [PDF] FACIONE, N.C. & FACIONE, P.A. (2008). Critical thinking and clinical judgment. In N.C. Facione & P.A. Facione (Eds.), Critical thinking and clinical reasoning in the health sciences : A teaching anthology (pp. 1-13). Hermosa Beach, CA : The California Academic Press. [PDF]
VIDEBECK, S.L. (1997). Critical thinking : prevailing practice in baccalaureate schools of nursing. Journal of Nursing Education, 36 (1), 5-10.  
BONK, C.J. & SMITH, C.S. (1998). Alternative instructionalstrategies for creative and critical thinking in the accounting curriculum. Journal of Accounting Education, 16 (2), 261-293. FERO, L.J., WITSBERGER, C.M., WESMILLER, S.W., ZULLO, T.G. & HOFFMAN, L.A. (2009). Critical thinking ability of new graduate and experienced nurses. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 65 (1), 139-148. [PDF]
BULLEN, M. (1998). Participation and critical thinking in online university distance education. Journal of Distance Education, 32 (2), 1-32.  
WESP, R. & MONTGOMERY, K. (1998). Developing critical thinking through the study of paranormal phenomena. Teaching of Psychology, 25, 275-278. O’HARE, L.O. & McGUINNESS, C. (2009). Measuring critical thinking, intelligence, and academic performance in psychology undergraduates. The Irish Journal of Psychology, 30 (3-4), 123-131. [PDF]
ENNIS, R.H. (1998). Is critical thinking culturally biased ? Teaching Philosophy, 21 (1), 15-33. [PDF] LARIVÉE, S. (2014). Quand le paranormal manipule la science. Comment retrouver l'esprit critique! Québec : MultiMondes / Presse Universitaire de Grenoble.
TAVRIS, C., WADE, C., GAGNON, A., GOULET, C. et WIEDMANN, P. (1999/2007). Introduction à la psychologie : les grandes perspectives.St-Laurent : ERPI. Voir aussi Scepticisme et Pensée
Pensée critique (Mesure et évaluation de la...) : Ensemble des critères de diagnostic, des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer la pensée critique.

   
FACIONE, P.A. & FACIONE, N. C. (1994). The California Critical Thinking Skills Test. CCTST test manual. Millbrae, CA : The California Academic Press.
Voir aussi Pensée
Pensée de groupe : Dans un groupe, surtout lorsque la cohésion est forte, façon de penser qui tend à chercher l'unanimité, voire à l'imposer, au détriment de l'expression individuelle et dissidentes des opinions. Pensée de groupe, pensée dominante et effet d'entraînement. Groupthink.

  JANIS, I.L. (1972). Victims of groupthink : A psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston : Houghton-Mifflin. PARK, W. (1990). A review of research on groupthink. Journal of Behavioral Decision-Making, 3, 229-245.
FLOWERS, M. (1977). A laboratory test of some implications of Janis's groupthink hypotheses. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 35, 888-896. BERNTHAL, P. & INSKO, C. (1993). Cohesiveness without groupthink : The interactive effects of social and task cohesion. Group & Organization Management, 18, 66-87.
TETLOCK, P.E. (1979). Identifying victims of groupthink from public statements of decision makers. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37 (8), 1314-1324.[PDF] MULLEN, B., ANTHONY, T., SALAS, E. & DRISKELL, J. (1994). Group cohesiveness and quality of decision making : An integration of tests of the groupthink hypothesis. Small Group Research, 25, 189-204.
LONGLEY, J. & PRUITT, D.G. (1980). Groupthink : a critique of Janis’s theory. Review of Personality & Social Psychology, 1, 74-93. MOHAMED, A. & WIEBE, F. (1996). Toward a process theory of groupthink. Small Group Research, 27, 416-430.
MANZ, C.C. & SIMS, H.P. (1982). The potential for groupthink in autonomous work groups. Human Relations, 35, 773-784. SCHAFER, M. & CRICHLOW, S. (1996) Antecedents of groupthink : A quantitative study. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 40 (3), 415-435.
JANIS, I.L. (1982). Groupthink : Psychological studies of policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston : Houghton-Mifflin. RAVEN, B.H. (1998). Group think, Bay of Pigs, and Watergate reconsidered. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 73, 352-361.
FODOR, E. & SMITH, T. (1982). The power motive as an influence on group decision making. Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 178-185.  
CALLAWAY, M.R., MARRIOTT, R.G. & ESSER, J.K. (1985). Effects of dominance on group decision-making : Towards a stress-reduction explanation of groupthink. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 49, 949-952.  
SMITH, S. (1985) Groupthink and the hostage rescue mission. British Journal of Political Science, 15 (1), 117-123. CHOI, J.N. & KIM, M.U. (1999). The organizational application of groupthink and its limitations in organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84 (2), 297-306. [PDF]
MOORHEAD, G. & MONTANARI, J.R. (1986). An empirical investigation of the groupthink phenomenon. Human Relations, 39, 399-410. FLIPPEN, A.R. (1999). Understanding groupthink from a self-regulatory perspective. Small Group Research, 30, 139-165. [PDF]
McCAULEY, C. (1989). The nature of social influence in groupthink : Compliance and internalization. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 57, 250-260. BARON, R.S. (2005). So right it’s wrong : Groupthink and the ubiquitous nature of self censorship. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 37, pp. 219-253). San Diego : Elsevier.
T'HART, P. (1990). Groupthink in government : A study of small groups and policy failure. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.  
TETLOCK, P.E., PETERSON, R.S., McGUIRE, C., CHANG, S. & FELD, P. (1992). Assessing political group dynamics : A test of the groupthink model. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 63, 403-425. BADIE, D. (2010). Groupthink, Iraq, and the War on terror : Explaining US policy shift toward Iraq. Foreign Policy Analysis, 6, 277-296. [PDF]
KRON, M., KREVELD, D. & RABBIE, J. (1992). Group versus individual decision making : Effects of accountability and gender on groupthink. Small Group Research, 23, 427-458.  
Voir aussi Pensée
Pensée divergente : Divergent thinking.

  McCRAE, R.R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52, 1258-1265.
McCRAE, R.R., ARENBERG, D. & COSTA, P.T. (1987). Declines in divergent thinking with age : Cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-sequential analyses. Psychology & Aging, 2, 130-137.
NEMETH, C. & KWAN J. (1987). Minority influence, divergent thinking and detection of correct solutions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 788-799.
VAN DYNE, L. & SAAVEDRRA, R. (1996). A naturalistic minority influence experiment : Effect of divergent thinking, conflict and originality in work-groups. Brisith Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 151-167. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pensée
Pensée dominante : Façon de pensée du groupe dominant, qui impose ses vues aux autres, à une époque particulière ou dans un contexte social donné.

   
 
Voir aussi Groupe dominant et Pensée
Pensée formelle : Voir Pensée opératoire formelle.
Pensée hostile : Pensée qui contient des scénarios violents ou agressifs. Aggressive thought, risky tought.

  CALVERT, S.L. & TAN, S. (1994). Impact of virtual reality on young adults' physiological arousal and aggressive thoughts : Interaction versus observation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 125-139.
ANDERSON, C.A. (1997). Effects of violent movies and trait hostility on hostile feelings and aggressive thoughts. Aggressive Behavior, 23, 161-178.
ANDERSON, K.B., ANDERSON, C.A., DILL, K.E. & DEUSER, W.E. (1998). The interactive relations between trait hostility, pain, and aggressive thoughts. Aggressive Behavior, 24, 161-171.
ANDERSON, C.A. & DILL, K.E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78 (4), 772-790. [PDF]
ANDERSON, C.A., CARNAGEY, N.L. & EUBANKS, J. (2003). Exposure to violent media : The effects of songs with violent lyrics on aggressive thoughts and feelings. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84 (5), 960-971. [PDF]
SHINGLER, J. (2009). Managing intrusive risky thoughts : What works ? Journal of Sexual Aggression, 15 (1), 39-53.
Voir aussi Pensée
Pensée inconsciente : Voir Inconscient.
Pensée intuitive : Chez Piaget, mode de pensée.

  LEGENDRE-BERGERON, M.F. (1980). Lexique de la psychologie du développement de Jean Piaget. Montréal : Gaëtan Morin.
Pensée magique : Mode de pensée irrationnelle, fondé sur la superstition et les croyances, et qui consiste à attribuer certains événements à des causes illusoires ou intuitives, ou à des phénomènes sans lien réel avec la réalité, qui s'apparentent parfois à la magie. Pensée magique et irrationalité. = idéation magique, ésotérisme. /pensée critique, pensée scientifique. Magical thinking, magical mind.

  FEIGENBAUM, A. (1963). Notes on negation, affirmation, and magical thinking. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 32, 215-245. GEORGE, L. & NEUFELD, R.W. (1987). Magical ideation and schizophrenia. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 778-779.
PIATTELLI-PALMARINI, M. (1996). Wishful thinking ? Nature, 382, 505-506. ZUSNE, L. & JONES, W.H. (1989). Anomalistic psychology : A study of magical thinking. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
  TOBACYK, J.J. & WILKINSON, L.V. (1990) Magical thinking and paranormal beliefs. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality an International, 5, 255-264.
DIACONIS, P. (1985). Theories of data analysis : from magical thinking through classical statistics. In Hoaglin et F. Mosteller & J. Tukey (Eds.), Exploring data tables trends and shapes. Wiley. THALBOURNE, M.A. & FRENCH, C.C. (1995). Paranormal belief, manic-depressiveness, and magical ideation : A replication. Personality & Individual Differences, 18, 291-292.
SERBAN, G. (1982). The tyranny of magical thinking. New York : E.P. Dutton Inc. ROSENGREN, K., JOHNSON, C.N. & HARRIS, P.L. (Eds.) (2000). Imagining the impossible : Magical, scientific, and religious thinking in children (pp. 1-34). New York : Cambridge University Press.
DIACONIS, P. (1981). Magical thinking in the analysis of scientific data. Ann. New York Academy of Science, 364, 236-244. VYSE, S.A. (2000). Believing in magic : The psychology of superstition. Oxford University Press.
ECKLAB, M. & CHAPMAN, L.J. (1983). Magical ideation as an indicator of schizotypy. Journal of Counseling & Clinical Psychology, 51, 215-225. NEMEROFF, C. & ROZIN, P. (2000). The makings of the magical mind : The nature and function of sympathetic magical thinking. In. K.S. Rosengren, C.N. Johnson & P.L. Harris (Eds.), Imagining the impossible : Magical, scientific, and religious thinking in children (pp. 1-34). New York : Cambridge University Press.
Voir Superstition, Croyance, Pseudoscience et Pensée
 
Pensée négative : Pensée négative et pensée suicidaire. Negative thinking.

  EHRING, T. & WATKINS, E.R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, 192-205.
 
Voir aussi Pensée et Pensée suicidaire
Pensée obsessive : Voir Obsession. Obsessional thought.
Pensée opératoire concrète : Chez Piaget, mode de pensée.

  LONGEOT, F. (1969). L'échelle de développement de la pensée logique, Manuel d'instruction. Genève : EPL, CNAM, Institut des sciences de l'éducation.
LEGENDRE-BERGERON, M.F. (1980). Lexique de la psychologie du développement de Jean Piaget. Montréal : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Stade opératoire formel et Pensée
Pensée opératoire formelle : Chez Piaget, mode de pensée logique qui se développe vers 12 ans. = pensée logique.

  PIAGET, J. (1977). Recherches sur l'abstraction réfléchissante. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
LINN, M.C. & SWINEY, J.F. (1981). Individual differences in formal thought : Role of expectations and aptitudes. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 274-286.
PAQUET, J. & LAURENDEAU, M. (2007). Étude comparative des évaluations collectives et individuelles de la pensée formelle. International Journal of Psychology, 25 (1), 61-76.
LEGENDRE-BERGERON, M.F. (1980). Lexique de la psychologie du développement de Jean Piaget. Montréal : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Stade opératoire formel et Pensée
Pensée parasite : Pensée ou image qui perturbe le cours normal d'une activité, d'un comportement. EX: Lors d'un relation sexuelle, se demander si l'on a acquitté sa Visa (et réaliser que non au moment de l'orgasme...). Intrusive thought, intrusive image

  BREWIN, C.R. & SMART, L. (2005). Working memory capacity and suppression of intrusive thoughts. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 36 (1), 61-68.
RACHMAN, S. (2007). Unwanted intrusive images in obsessive compulsive disorders. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 38 (4), 402-410.
Voir aussi Pensée
Pensée positive : Thinking positive.

  WILKINSON, S. & KITZINGER, C. (2000). Thinking differently about "thinking positive" : A discursive approach to cancer patients' talk. Social Science & Medicine, 50 (6), 797-811.
PARKE, J., GRIFFITHS, M.D. & PARKE, A. (2007). Positive thinking among slot machine gamblers : a case of maladaptive coping ? International Journal of Mental Health & Addiction, 5, 39-52.
NG, W. & DIENER, E. (2009). Feeling bad ? The "power" of positive thinking may not apply to everyone. Journal of Research & Personality, 43, 455-463.
Voir aussi Psychologie positive et Pensée
Pensée scientifique : Type de pensée qui se fondent sur la méthode et le raisonnement scientifiques. Pensée, connaissances scientifiques et théorie. = esprit scientifique, esprit expérimental. Scientific thinking.

  PIAGET, J. (1923). Les deux directions de la pensée scientifique. Archives des sciences physiques et naturelles, 134 (11), 145-162.  
WARTOFSKY, M.W. (1968). Conceptual foundations of scientific thought. New York : Macmillan.  
MEDAWAR, P. (1969). Induction and intuition in scientific thought. London : Methuen  
HARRÉ, R. (1970). The principles of scientific thinking. London : Macmillan. DUNBAR, K. & FUGELSANG, J. (2005). Scientific thinking and reasoning. In K.J. Holyoak & R. Morrison (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of thinking and reasoning (pp. 705-726). Cambridge Univ. Press. [PDF]
TWENEY, R.D., DOHERTY, M.E. & MYNATT, C.R. (Eds.) (1982). On scientific thinking. New York, NY : Columbia University Press.  
JOHNSTON, A.H. & AL-NAEMEA, F.F. (1991). Room for scientific thought ? International Journal of Science Education, 13 (2), 187-192. DUNBAR, K. & FUGELSANG, J. . (2005). Causal thinking in science: How scientists and students interpret the unexpected. In M.E. Gorman, R.D. Tweney, D. Gooding & A. Kincannon (Eds.), Scientific and technical thinking. (pp. 57-80). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
NERSESSIAN, N.J. (1992). How do scientists think ? Capturing the dynamics of conceptual change in science. In Giere, R. N. (Ed.), Cognitive models of science. (pp. 3--45). University of Minnesota Press. Minneapolis, MN. [PDF] FEIST, G.J. (2006). How development and personality influence scientific thought, interest, and achievement. Review of General Psychology, 10 (2), 163-182. [PDF]
CROMBIE, A.C. (1994). Styles of scientific thinking in the european tradition. London : Duckworth. LERNER, G.K. (2008). Scientific thought in context. Gale.
DUNBAR, K. (1997). How scientists think : Online creativity and conceptual change in science. In T.B. Ward, S.M. Smith & S.Vaid (Eds.), Conceptual structures and processes: Emergence, discovery and Change. APA Press. Washington DC.  
THUILLIER, P. (1997). La revanche des sorcières : l'irrationnel et la pensée scientifique. Paris : Belin. McCABE, D.P. & CASTEL, A.D. (2008). Seeing is believing : The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning. Cognition 107, 343–352
DUNBAR, K. (1999). Scientific Thinking and its development. In R. Wilson., & F. Keil (Eds.) The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT press. pp 730-733. PDF NERSESSIAN, N.J. (2009). How do engineering scientists think ? Model-based simulation in biomedical engineering laboratories. Topics in Cognitive Science, 1, 730-757. [PDF]
Voir aussi Scientifique, Découverte, Créativité, Théorie, Connaissances scientifiques et Pensée
 
Pensée suicidaire : Pensée qui contient des idées noires et un scénario plus ou moins clair de suicide. = idéation suicidaire. Suicide ideation, suicidal ideation.
  LINEHAN, M.M. & NIELSEN, S.L. (1981). Assessment of suicide ideation and parasuicide : social desirability. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 49, 773-775. HEWITT, P.L., NEWTON, J., FLETT, G.L. & CALLANDER, L. (1997). Perfectionism and suicide ideation in adolescent psychiatric patients. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 25 (2), 95-101.
SCHOTTE, D.E. & CLUM, G.A. (1982). Suicide ideation in a college population : A test of a model. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 50, 690-696. OSMAN, A., KOPPERR, B.A., LINEHAN, M.M., BARRIOS, F.X., GUTIERREZ, P.M. & BAGGE, C.L. (1999). Validation of the adult suicidal ideation questionnaire and reasons for living inventory in an adult psychiatric inpatient sample. Psychological Assessment, 11 (2), 115-123.
  KUO, W.H., GALLO, J.J. & TIEN, A.Y. (2001). Incidence of suicide ideation and attempts in adults : the 13-year follow-up of a community sample in Baltimore. Psychological Medicine, 31, 1181-1191.
BRIÈRE, J. & RUNTZ, M. (1986). Suicidal thoughts and behaviors in former sexual abuse victims. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science (special issue on family violence), 18, 413-423. [PDF] KESSLER, R.C., BERGLUND, P., BORGES, G., NOCK, M. & WANG, P.S. (2005). Trends in suicide ideation, plans, gestures, and attempts in the United States 1990-92 to 2001-2003. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2487-2495.
MASAND, P., GUPTA, S. & DWAN, M. (1991). Suicidal ideation related to fluoxetine treatment. New England Journal of Medecine, 324, 420. ENNS, M.W., COX, B.J., AFIFI, T.O., DE GRAAF, R., TEN HAVE, M. & SAREEN, J. (2006). Childhood adversities and risk for suicidal ideation and attempts : a longitudinal population-based study. Psychological Medicine, 36 (12), 1769-1778. [PDF]
BREGGIN, P.R. (1992). A case of Fluoxetine-induced stimulant side effects with suicidal ideation associated with a possible withdrawal syndrome ("Crashing"). International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 3, 325-328. WILLIAMS, J.M.G., VAN DER DOES, A.J.W., BARNHOFER, T.C., CRANE, C. & SEGAL, Z.V.L. (2008). Cognitive reactivity and suicidal ideation : testing a differential activation theory of suicidality. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 32, 83-104. [PDF]
  VAN ORDEN, K.A., WITTE, T.K., JAMES, L.M., CASTRO, Y., GORDON, K.H., BRAITHWAITE, S.R., HOLLAR, D.L. & JOINER, T. (2008). Suicidal ideation in college students varies across semesters : The mediating role of belongingness. Suicide & Life-Threatening Behavior, 38, 427-435.
COX, B.J., DIRENFELD, D.M., SWINSON, R.P. & NORTON, G.R. (1994). Suicidal deation and suicide attempts in panic disorder and social phobia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151 (6), 882-887. PRINSTEIN, M., NOCK, M., SIMON, V., AIKINS, J., CHEAH, C. & SPIRITO, A. (2008). Longitudinal trajectories and predictors of adolescent suicidal ideation and attempts following inpatient hospitalization. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 76 (1), 92-103.
HEWITT, P.L., FLETT, G.L. & WEBER, C. (1994). Perfectionism and suicide ideation. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 18, 439-460. YOU, S., VAN ORDEN, K.A. & CONNER, K.R. (2011). Social Connections and suicidal thoughts and behavior. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 25 (1), 180-184. [PDF]
Voir aussi Suicide et Pensée
Pensée symbolique :

  PIAGET, J. (1923). La pensée symbolique et la pensée de l'enfant. Archives de psychologie, 18 (72), 273-304.
PIAGET, J. (1954). Remarques sur le jeu de l'enfant et la pensée symbolique. Bulletin de Psychologie, 7 (12), 702-709.
Voir aussi Symbole et Pensée
Pensée unique :

  KAHN, J.F. (2000). La pensée unique. Paris : Fayard.
Voir aussi Pensée
Pensionnat :

  DUMONT, M. & FAHMY-EID, N. (1986). Les couventines. L'Éducation des filles dans les pensionnats de religieuses, 1840-1960. Montréal : Boréal.
Pénurie : Voir Effet de rareté.
Pepitone Albert ( ) : Psychosociologue italien. Collaborateur de Denmark, Faucheux, Festinger et Moscovici.
PEPITONE, A. & HAYDEN, R.G. (1955). Some evidence for conflict resolution in impression formation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 51 (2), 302-307.
PEPITONE A. & KLEINER, R. (1957). The effects of threat and frustration on group cohesiveness. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 54 (2), 192-199.
PEPITONE, A. & WIPIZESKI, C. (1960). Some consequences of experimental rejection. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 60, 359-634.
PEPITONE, A. (1967). Motivations in decision making. Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences 29 (7), 920-934.
PEPITONE, A., FAUCHEUX, C., MOSCOVICI, S., CESA-BIANCHI, S., MAGISTRETTI, G., IACONO, G., ASPREA, A.-M. & VILLONE, G. (1967). The role of the self esteem in competitive choise behavior. International Journal of Psychology, 2 (3), 147-159.
Peplau Letitia Anne ( ) : Psychologue sociale américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude du genre et de l'orientation sexuelle. Elle s'intéresse également à la solitude. Collaboratrice de Bersheid, Haselton, Kelley, Sears, Taylor et Zubin.
PEPLAU, L.A., DEBRO, S.C., VENIEGAS, R.C. & TAYLOR, P. (Eds.) (1999). Gender, culture and ethnicity. Mountain View, CA : Mayfield Publishing.
PEPLAU, L.A., SPALDING, L.R., CONLEY, T. & VENIEGAS, R. (1999). The development of sexual orientation in women. Annual Review of Sex Research, 10, 70-99.
PEPLAU, L.A. (2003). Human sexuality : How do men and women differ? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 12 (2), 37-40.
PEPLAU, L.A. & FINGERHUT, A.W. (2007). The close relationships of lesbians and gay men. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 101-120. [PDF]
PEPLAU, L.A. & HUPPIN, M. (2008). Masculinity, femininity and the development of sexual orientation in women. Journal of Gay & Lesbian Mental Health, 12 (1/2), 147-167. [PDF]
Pepperberg Irene M. (New York 1949-) : Psychologue américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude de l'apprentissage animale, notamment chez le perroquet. Collaboratrice de Kamil.
PEPPERBERG, I.M. (1986). Acquisition of anomalous communicatory systems : Implications for studies of interspecies communication. In R.J. Schusterman, J.A. Thomas & F.G. Woods (Eds.), Dolphin cognition and behavior : A comparative approach (pp. 289-302). Hillsdale, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum.
PEPPERBERG, I.M. (1990). Conceptual abilities of some nonprimate species with an emphasis on an African Grey Parrot. In S.T. Parker and K.R. Gibson (Eds.), "Language" and "intelligence" in monkeys and apes (pp. 469-507). New York : Cambridge University Press.
PEPPERBERG, I.M. (1994). Numerical competence in african grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 108 (1), 36-44. [PDF]
PEPPERBERG, I.M. (2006). Ordinality and inferential abilities of a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 120, 205-216. [PDF]
PEPPERBERG, I.M., VIVINAY, J. & CAVANAGH, P. (2008). Processing of the Müller-Lyer illusion by a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus). Perception, 37, 765-781. [PDF]
PERCEPTION - PÈRE - PERFECTION - PÉRIODE - PERMANENCE DE L'OBJET - PERSPECTIVE - PERSONNALITÉ - PET - PEUR - PH
Perçage : Signe corporel sous forme d'objet (anneau, épingle, clou, os, etc) inscrit dans la peau. Piercing.

  BRAITHWAITE, R., ROBILLARD, A., WOODRING, T., STEPHENS, T. & ARRIOLA, K.J. (2001). Tattooing and body piercing among adolescent detainees : relationship to alcohol and other drug use. Journal of Substance Abuse, 13, 5-16.
ARMSTRONG, M.L., ROBERTS, A.E., OWEN, D.C. & KOCH, J.R. (2004). Contemporary college students and body piercing. Journal of Adolescence Health, 35, 58-61.
DESCHENES, M., DEMERS, S. & FINÈS, P. (2006). Prevalence and characteristics of body piercing and tattooing among high school students. Canadian Public Health Association, 97 (4), 325-329.
D'AMBROSIO, A., CASILLO, N. & MARTINI, V. (2013). Piercings and tattoos : psychopathological aspecs. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva, 51 (3-4), 146-149. [PDF]
Percentile : Anglicisme. Voir Centile. Percentile.
Perception : Ensemble des fonctions cognitives par lesquels le cerveau organise et interprète l'information provenant des sens et contenue en mémoire à court terme à partir des informations déjà contenues en mémoire à long terme. Perception.


Types de perception
Perception du monde physique (objet) Perception du monde social (individu)
Perception auditive Perception des objets Perception de l'intelligence
Perception de la causalité Perception du mouvement Perception de soi
Perception de la forme Perception du temps Perception des visages
Perception de la profondeur/Espace Perception extra-sensorielle Perception de contrôle
Perception des couleurs Perception tactile/Haptique Perception du risque
Perception des distances Perception visuelle Perception sociale
  Perception subliminale
 

  Qui est cet homme ? Un président des États-unis ?
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