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RAC - RAM - RE - RED - Références - REI - REN - REP - RES - RET - RH/RI - RO - ROGERS - ROS - ROT - ROTTER - RU - RUTTER - RY
R : Logiciel d'analyse de données.
Raaijmakers Jeroen G.W. ( ) : Psychologue cognitif américain d'origine néerlandaise. Avec Shiffrin, il a développé un modèle mathématique pour simuler le fonctionnement de la mémoire épisodique. Collaborateur de Shiffrin et Wagenmakers.
RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. & DE WEERT, C.M.M. (1975). Linear and nonlinear opponent color coding. Perception & Psychophysics, 18, 474-480. [PDF]
RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. & SHIFFRIN, R.M. (1981). Search of associative memory. Psychological Review, 88, 93-134. [PDF]
RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. & SHIFFRIN, R.M. (1992). Models for recall and recognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 205-234. [PDF]
RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. (2003). Spacing and repetition effects in human memory : Application of the SAM model. Cognitive Science, 27, 431-452. [PDF]
RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. & JAKAB, E. (2013). Is forgetting caused by inhibition ? Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22, 205-209. [PDF]
Rabkin Judith Godwin ( ) : Psychologue américaine, spécialiste de l'étude des troubles mentaux et des conséquences sociales et psychologiques du sida.
RABKIN, J.G. (1974). Public attitudes towards mental illness : a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 153-171.
RABKIN, J.G. (1979). Criminal behavior of discharged mental patients : A critical appraisal of the research. Psychological Bulletin, 86 (1), 1-27.
RABKIN, J.G. (1980). Stressful life events and schizophrenia : A review of the research literature. Psychological Bulletin, 87 (2), 408-425.
RABKIN, J.G., McELHINEY, M., FERRANDO, S., VAN GORP, W. & LIN, S. (2004). Predictors of employment of men with HIV/AIDS : A longitudinal study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 72-78. [PDF]
RABKIN, J.G. (2006). Placebo-controlled trial of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for treatment of nonmajor depression in patients with HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 59-66. [PDF]
RACE - RACHLIN - RACHMAN - RACISME - RADIATION - RADO - RADOMSKY - RAGE - RAGE AU VOLANT - RAISONNEMENT - RAM
Raccrochage scolaire : Voir Retour à l'école.
Race : Le concept a deux usages distincts : a) À l'origine, le mot renvoie à l'idée d'un groupe d'individus ayant à peu près les mêmes gènes, le même patrimoine génétique (génome). On dit souvent "du même sang". Cependant, la race n'est pas un concept scientifique. En effet, sur le plan génétique, il n'existe pas plus de différence entre un Noir et un Blanc, qu'entre deux Blancs ou deux Noirs. Cependant, il s'agit tout de même d'une concept subjectif que les individus utilisent pour classer les autres en fonction de leur appararence (couleur de la peau, pigmentation, forme du visage, traits particuliers, etc.) ou comme explication intuitive pour comprendre le comportement d'autrui (théorie implicite de la personnalité) ou l'influence de la culture. De nos jours, c'est à ce titre que la psychologie utilise le concept de race. N.D.L.R. : En anglais, ce terme renvoie généralement au concept d'ethnie ou de communauté ethnique. Race, différences raciales et racisme. = de la même origine, du même sang. Race. b) La police emploie également ce terme pour décrire lrapidement et succintement les suspects ou les personnes disparues (signalement). EX : Un homme de race blance. Race, différences raciales et racisme. Race.
Caractéristiques des races
Différences raciales Discrimination raciale Racisme
 

Races
Arabe   Indes
Afro-Américain (Noirs) Caucasien (Blanc) Japonais
Asiatique Chinois Latinos
 

  a
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b
Voir aussi Police
KNOWLES, J., PERSICO, N. & TODD, P. (2001). Racial bias in motor-vehicle searches : Theory and evidence. Journal of Political Economy, 109 (1), 203-229.
Races (Différences entre les...) : Différences, race et racisme. Racial differences, race differences.

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Voir aussi Différence, Différence culturelle, Biais de race et Race
Rachlin Howard C. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain. Il étudie les comportements de décision et de contrôle chez l'humain et l'animal. Professeur de Mcdowell. Collaborateur de Baum, Green, Gibbon, Herrnstein, Hineline et Lacey.
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Rachman Stanley Jack (1934-) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste canadien, spécialisé dans l'étude des phobies, des obsessions et du trouble obsessif-compulsif. Professeur de Radomsky. Collaborateur de Marks, Seligman et Wolpe.
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Raciale (Discrimination) : Forme de discrimination fondée sur la race, la couleur de la peau et l'origine ethnique. Les préjugés et les stéréotypes sont souvent à l'origine de ce phénomène. Discrimination raciale, race et ségrégation. = discrimination raciale, discrimination ethnique. *racisme. Racial prejudice, racial attitude, ségrégation.

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Voir aussi Racisme, Ségrégation, Discrimination et Préjugé
 
Racisme/Raciste : Haine ou répulsion qui se fonde sur un sentiment de supériorité à l'endroit des individus qui appartiennent à une autre race (ou groupe/origine ethnique). Les racistes considèrent que certains individus sont inférieurs en raison de leur race (ou ethnie) ou de leur origine biologique. Cette infériorité n'est pas scientifiquement avérée, elle repose essentiellement sur un préjugé et des croyances; quoi qu'il en soit, pour celui qui en postule l'existence, elle ne peut être effacée par les effets bénéfiques de l'éducation, de l'enculturation, de l'intégration ou même de l'assimilation (contrairement à la xénophobie). = sentiment raciste, comportement raciste, tensions raciales. Racisme, race et xénophobie. Racism.

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BARKAN, E. (1992). The retreat of scientific racism : Changing concepts of race in Britain and the United States between the World Wars. New York, NY : Cambridge University Press. WEEKS, M. & LUPFER, M.B. (2004). Complicating race : The relationship between prejudice, race, and social class categorizations. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 30, 972-984. [PDF]
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SWIM, J.K., AIKIN, K.J., HALL, W.S. & HUNTER, B.A. (1995). Sexism and racism : Old-fashioned and modern prejudice. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 68, 199-214.  HODSON, G., HOOPER, H., DOVIDIO, J.F. & GAERTNER, S.L. (2005). Aversive racism in Britain : Legal decisions and the use of inadmissible evidence. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 437-448.
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SIDANIUS, J., PRATTO, F. & BOBO, L. (1996). Racism, conservatism, affirmative action, and intellectual sophistication : A matter of principled conservatism or group dominance ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 70, 476-490. SOMMERS, R. & NORTON, M.I. (2006). Lay theories about White racists: What constitutes racism (and what doesn't). Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 9, 117-138. [PDF]
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WILLIAMS, D.R. (1996). Racism and health : A research agenda. Ethnicity & Disease, 6, 1-6. BONILLA-SILVA, E. (2006). Racism without racists : Color-blind racism and the persistence of racial inequality in the United States. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Little eld Publishers.
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HENDERSON, E. & NISBETT, R.E. (1996). Anti-Black prejudice as a function of exposure to the negative behavior of a single black person. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 654-664. SOMMERS, R. (2006). On racial diversity and group decision-making : Identifying multiple effects of racial composition on jury deliberations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 90, 597-612. [PDF]
BONILLA-SILVA, E. (1996). Rethinking racism : Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review, 62, 465-480.  
THOMAS, S.B. & QUINN, S.C. (1996). The significance of race and ethnicity in public health policy and practice. Current Issues in Public Health, 2, 5-9.  
HERMAN, A.A. (1996). Toward a conceptualization of race in epidemiologic research. Ethnicity & Disease, 6 (1-2), 7-20.  
WATTS, M.W. (1996). Political xenophobia in the transition from socialism : Threat, racism, and ideology among East German youth. Political Psychology, 17, 97-126. MADDOX, K.B. (2006). Rethinking racial stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination. The Psychological Science Agenda, 20, 3-5. [PDF]
UTSEY, S.O. (1997). Racism and the psychological well-being of African American men. Journal of African American Men, 3, 69-87. AMODIO, D.M., KUBOTA, J.T., HARMON-JONES, E. & DEVINE, P.G. (2006). Alternative mechanisms for regulating racial responses according to internal vs. external cues. Social Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 1, 26-36. [PDF]
SEARS, D.O., VAN LAAR, C., CARRILLO, M. & KOSTERMAN, R. (1997). Is it really racism ? : The origins of white Americans' opposition to race-targeted policies. Public Opinion Quarterly, 61, 16-53. WILLOUGHBY-HERARD, T. (2007). South Africa's Poor Whites and whiteness studies: Afrikaner ethnicity, scientific racism, and White misery. New Political Science, 29 (4), 479-500.
BLASCOVICH, J., WYER, N.A., SWART, L A. & KIBLER, J.L. (1997). Racism and social categorization. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 72, 1364-1372. AMODIO, D.M., DEVINE, P.G. & HARMON-JONES, E. (2008). Neural signals for the detection of race bias : Implications for individual differences in regulatory ability. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 94, 60-74. [PDF]
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BONILLA-SILVA, E. (1997). Rethinking racism : Toward a structural interpretation. American Sociological Review, 62(3), 465-480. APFELBAUM, E.P., PAUKER, K., AMBADY, N., SOMMERS, R. & NORTON, M.I. (2008). Learning (not) to talk about race : When older children underperform in social categorization. Developmental Psychology, 44, 1513-1518. [PDF]
CRENSHAW, K. (1997). Beyond racism and misogyny : Black feminism and 2 live crew. In D. Tiejens-Meyers (Ed.), Feminist social Thought : A reader (pp. 247-263). New York : Routledge. [PDF] SZYMANSKI, D.M. & MEYER, J. (2008). Racism and heterosexism as correlates of psychological distress in African American sexual minority women. Journal of LGBT Issues in Counseling, 2 (2), 94-108.
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UTSEY, S.O. (1998). Assessing the stressful effects of racism : A review of instrumentation. Journal of Black Psychology, 24, 269-288. BERGER, B.R. (2009). Red : Racism and the American Indian. UCLA Law Review, 56 (3), 591-656.
NAYLOR, P. (1999). Adolescents' conceptions of teacher racism : an investigation using bubble dialogue as a research tool. Research in Education, 61, 85-87. BLATZ, C.W. & ROSS, M. (2009). Principled ideology or racism : Why do modern racists oppose race-based social justice programs ? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (1), 258-261.
ELLIGAN, D. & UTSEY, S.O. (1999). Utility of an African centered support group for African American men confronting societal racism and oppression : A case study. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 5, 156-165. SZYMANSKI, D.M. & STEWART, D. (2010). Racism and sexism as correlates of African American women's psychological distress. Sex Roles, 63, 226-238.
HAGENDOORN, L. & NEKUEE, S. (1999). Education and racism : A cross-national inventory of positive effects of education on ethnic tolerance. Aldershot : Ashgate. HALL, D.T., MATZ, D. & WOOD, W. (2010). Why don't we practice what we preach ? A meta-analytic review of religious racism. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 14, 126-139. [PDF]
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Voir aussi Discrimination raciale, Ségrégation, Discrimination et Préjugé
 
Racisme (Anti...) : Antiracism.

  CRENSHAW, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the intersection of race and sex : A Black feminist critique of antidiscrimination doctrine, feminist theory and antiracist politics. In D. Kairys (Ed.), The politics of law : A progressive critique (pp. 195-217). Basic Books. [PDF]
BOATRIGHT-HOROWITZ, S.L. (2005). Teaching antiracism in a large introductory psychology class : A course module and its evaluation. Journal of Black Studies, 36, 34-51.
CASE, K.A. (2007). Raising white privilege awareness and reducing racial prejudice : Assessing diversity course effectiveness. Teaching of Psychology, 34, 231-235.
PEDERSEN, A., ALY, A., HARTLEY, L. & McGARTY, C. (2009). An intervention to increase positive attitudes and address misconceptions about Australian Muslims : A call for education and open mindedness. The Australian Community Psychologist, 21 (2), 81-93.
PEDERSEN, A., WALKER, I., PARADIES, Y. & GUERIN, B. (2011). How to cook rice : A review of ingredients for teaching anti-prejudice. Australian Psychologist, 46, 55-63. [PDF]
NETO, Y. & PEDERSEN, A. (2013). No time like the present : Determinants of intentions to engage in bystander anti-racism on behalf of indigenous Australians. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 7 (1), 36-49.
STEWART, K., PEDERSEN, A. & PARADIES, Y. (2014), Its always good to help when possible BUT...: Obstacles to bystander anti-prejudice. The International Journal of Diversity in Education, 13 (3), 39-53.
Voir aussi Racisme
Racisme symbolique : Symbolic racism.

  SEARS, D.O. (1988). Symbolic racism. In P.A. Katz & D.A. Taylor (Eds.), Eliminating racism (pp. 53-84). New York : Plenum.
SEARS, D.O. (1998). Racism and politics in the United States. In J.L. Eberhardt & S.T. Fiske (Eds.), Confronting racism : The problem and the response (pp. 76-100). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
HENRY, P. & SEARS, D. (2002). The symbolic racism 2000 scale. Political Psychology, 23 (2), 253-283.
SEARS, D.O. & HENRY, P.J. (2003). The origins of symbolic racism. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85, 259-275.
TARMAN C. & SEARS, D.O. (2005). The conceptualization and measurement of symbolic racism. The Journal of Politics, 67, 731-761.
SEARS, D.O. & HENRY, P.J. (2005). Over thirty years later : A contemporary look at symbolic racism. In M. Zanna (Ed.), Advances in Experimental Social Psychology (Vol. 37, pp. 95-150). San Diego : Elsevier Academic Press.
Voir aussi Racisme
Radford Benjamin (1948-) : Sceptique américain et spécialiste de l'étude des phénomènes paranormaux, notamment des monstres. Il est membre du Comittee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal.
RADFORD, B. (2003). Media mythmakers : How journalists, activists, and advertisers mislead us. Amherst, N.Y. : Prometheus Books.
RADFORD, B.& NICKELL, J. (2006). Lake monster mysteries : Investigating the world's most elusive creatures. Lexington, Kentucky : University Press of Kentucky.
RADFORD, B. (2010). Scientific Paranormal Investigation: How to solve unexplained mysteries. Rhombus Publishing Company.
RADFORD, B. (2011). Tracking the Chupacabra : The vampire beast in fact, fiction, and folklore, Mexico : University of New Mexico Press.
Radiation : Radiation.

  GARCIA, J., KIMELDORF, D.J. & KOELLING, R.A. (1955). Conditioned aversion to saccharin resulting from exposure to gamma radiation. Science, 122, 157-158. [PDF] GARCIA, J. & KIMELDORF, D.J. (1960). Conditioned avoidance behavior induced by low-dose neutron exposure. Nature, 185, 261-262. [PDF]
GARCIA, J., KIMELDORF, D.J. & HUNT, E.L (1956). Conditioned responses to manipulative procedures resulting from exposure to gamma radiation. Radiation Research, 5 (1), 79-87. [PDF] KIMELDORF, D.J., GARCIA, J. & RUBADEAU, D.O. (1960). Radiation-induced conditioned avoidance behavior in rats, mice, and cats. Radiation Research, 12, 710-718. [PDF]
GARCIA, J., KIMELDORF, D.J., HUNT, E.L. & DAVIES, B.P. (1956). Food and water consumption of rats during exposure to gamma radiation. Radiation Research, 4, 33-41. [PDF] GARCIA, J. & KIMELDORF, D.J. (1960). Some factors which influence radiation-conditioned behavior of rats. Radiation Research, 12, 719-727. [PDF]
GARCIA, J. & KIMELDORF, D.J. (1957). Temporal relationship within the conditioning of a saccharine aversion through radiation exposure. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 50, 180-183. [PDF] GARCIA, J. & KOELLING, R.A. (1967). A comparison of aversions produced by x-rays, drugs and toxins. Radiation Research, 7, (S), 439-460.
GARCIA, J. & KIMELDORF, D.J. (1958). The effect of ophthalmectomy upon responses of the rat to radiation and taste stimuli. Journal of Comparative Physiological Psychology, 51, 288-291. [PDF] BARKER, L.M. & SMITH, J.C. (1974). A comparison of taste aversions induced by radiation and lithium chloride in CS-US and US-CS paradigms. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 87 (4), 644-654.
FLYNN, J., BURNS, W., MERTZ, C.K. & SLOVIC, P. (1992). Trust as a determinant of opposition to a high-level radioactive waste facility : Analysis of a structural model. Risk Analysis, 12 (3), 417-429.
Voir aussi Conditionnement répondant et Nucléaire
Radical/Radicaliser : Le terme a deux acceptions : a) En science, il désigne un argument, une théorie qui s'appuie sur des arguments qui concernent la nature essentielle et fondamentale des choses, les causes premières. = racine ou origines des choses, nature profonde. EX: On qualifie de radical le béhaviorisme de Skinner. b) En politique, on qualifie de radicale une doctrine ou une idée qui impose des choix déchirants, engagent des actions décisives, qui tranchent avec les façons habituelles de faire les choses. N.D.L.R. Le mot n'est pas synonyme de violence, ni même d'extrême. Toutefois, il va de soi qu'une action décisive peut entraîner, du point de celui qui s'apprête à agir, de la violence, laquelle sera interprétée comme un geste extrême du point de vue de celui qui la subit. = extrême, draconien, pur et dur.

  a
ROZEBOOM, W.W. (1977). Metathink - A radical alternative. Canadian Psychological Review/Psychologie Canadienne, 18 (3), 197-203. [PDF]
RUBIN, G.S. (1992). Thinking sex : Notes for a radical theory of the politics of sexuality. In C.S. Vance (Ed.), Pleasure and Danger: Exploring Female Sexuality (pp. 267-293). London : Pandora. [PDF]
BAUM, W.M. (2011). What is radical behaviorism ? A review of Jay Moore's conceptual foundations of radical behaviorism. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 95 (1), 119-126. [PDF]
MacLEOD, C.M. & RISKO, E.F. (2017). Radical cognitivism ? Distinguishing behavior from thought. Journal of Applied Research in Memory & Cognition, 6, 22-26.
Voir aussi Béhaviorisme radical
b
McCAULEY C. & MOSKALENKO, S. (2008). Mechanisms of political radicalization: Pathways toward terrorism. Terrorism & Political Violence, 20, 415-433.
HORGAN, J. (2009). Deradicalization or disengagement ? A process in need of clarity and a counterterrorism initiative in need of evaluation Revista de Psicología Social, 24, 291-298.
SEDGWICK, M. (2010). The concept of radicalization as a source of confusion. Terrorism & Political Violence, 22, 479-494.
HORGAN, J. (2010). Rehabilitating the terrorists ? Challenges in assessing the effectiveness of de-radicalization programs. Terrorism & Political Violence, 22, 267-291. [PDF]
KRUGLANSKI, A.W., GELFAND, M.J., BÉLANGER, J.J., SHEVELAND, A., HETIARACHCHI. M. & GUNARATNA, R. (2014). The psychology of radicalization and deradicalization : How significance quest impacts violent extremism. Advances in Political Psychology, 35 (S1), 69-93. [PDF] + [PDF]
Voir aussi Terrorisme et Pouvoir extrême
Radical Pedagogy : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à la critique de la pédagogie.
FITZSIMONS, P. (2002). Neoliberalism and education : the autonomous chooser. Radical Pedagogy, 4 (2). [LIRE]

Radical Psychology : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à la critique de la psychologie.
KRAUSE, R. (2005). Depression, antidepressants and an examination of epidemiological changes. Radical Psychology, 4 (1). [LIRE]

Radio : Média. = audio. Radio.

  CANTRIL, H. ALLPORT, G.W. (1935). The psychology of radio. New York : Harper and Brothers. STAMM, M. (2010). Paul Lazarsfeld’s radio and the printed page : A critical reappraisal. American Journalism, 27 (4), 37-58.
CANTRIL, H. (1940). Invasion from Mars : A study in the psychology of panic. Princeton University Press. [PDF] BERNIER, M.-F. (N-D). "Radio-Gesca" est-il un phénomène réel ? Chaire de recherche sur la francophonie canadienne en communication, spécialisée en éthique du journalisme. [PDF]
LAZARSFELD, P.F. (1940). Radio and the printed page. New York, NY : Duell, Sloan & Pearce. POOLEY, J.D. & SOCOLOW, M.J. (2013). Checking Up on The Invasion from Mars: Hadley Cantril, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, and the making of a misremembered classic. International Journal of Communication, 7, 1920-1948. [PDF]
BARROW, L.C & WESTLEY, B.H. (1959). Comparative teaching effectiveness of radio and television. Audio Visual Communication Review, 7, 14-23.  
BEAGLES-ROOS, J. & GAT, I.J. (1983). Specific impact of radio and television on children's story comprehension. Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 128-137.  
HAYES, D.S., KELLY, S.B. & MANDEL, M. (1986). Media differences in children's story synopses : Radio and television contrasted. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 341-346.  
GREENFIELD, P.M. & BEAGLES-ROOS, J. (1988). Radio vs. television: Their cognitive impact on children of different socioeconomic and ethnic groups. Journal of Communication, 38 (2), 71-92.  
REYNER, L.A. & HORNE, J.A. (1998). Evaluation "in-car" countermeasures to sleepiness : cold air and radio. Sleep, 21 (1), 46-50. [PDF] BOUCHARD, S. (2014). La radio poubelle : le populisme de droite en action. Nouveaux Cahier du Socialisme, 11, 104-113.
Voir aussi Média et Télévision
Radiologie : Technique médicale qui utilise l'imagerie par résonance magnétique pour déceler et observer certaines pathologies.

  GUNDERMAN, R. & WILLING, S. (2006). Motivation in radiology : Implications for leadership. Radiology, 225 (1), 1-5. [PDF]
KALAR, T. & WRIGHT, D.L. (2006). Leadership theory and motivation of medical imaging employees. Radiology Management, 20-27. [PDF]
Voir aussi Imagerie par résonance magnétique
Rado Sandor (1890-1972) : Psychanalyste américain, d'origine hongroise, et membre fondateur de l'Institut de Psychanalyse de New York. Analysé par Abraham. Analyste de Fenichel, Hartmann et Reich.
RADO, S. (1940). A critical examination of the concept of bisexuality. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2, 459-467.
RADO, S. (1956). Psychoanalysis of behavior I. New York : Grune and Stratton.
RADO, S. (1962). Psychoanalysis of behavior II. New York : Grune and Stratton.
 
 
Radomsky Adam S. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste québécois, spécialisé dans l'étude des phobies, de l'anxiété et des comportements de vérification compulsive. Il enseigne à l'Université de Concordia. Étudiant de Rachman. Collaborateur de Freeston.
RADOMSKY, A.S. & RACHMAN, S. (1999). Memory bias in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Behaviour Research & Therapy, 37 (7), 605-618.
RADOMSKY, A.S., RACHMAN, S. & HAMMOND, D. (2001). Memory bias, confidence and responsibility in compulsive checking. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39 (7), 813-822.
RADOMSKY, A.S., GILCHRIST, P.T. & DUSSAULT, D. (2006). Repeated checking really does cause memory distrust. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 44 (2), 305-316.
RACHMAN, S., RADOMSKY, A.S. & SHAFRAN, S. (2008). Safety behaviour : A reconsideration. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 46 (2), 163-173.
RADOMSKY, A.S., SHAFRAN, S. & RACHMAN, S. (2010). Cognitive-behavior therapy fo rcompulsive checking in OCD . Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 17, 119-131 [PDF]
Radon : Radon.

  WEINSTEIN, N.D. SANDMAN, P.M. & ROBERTS, N.E. (1990). Determinants of self-protective behavior : Home radon testing. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20, 783-801.
DOYLE, J.K., MCCLELLAND, G. H. & SCHULZE, W.D. (1991). Protective responses to household risk : A case study of radon mitigation. Risk Analysis, 11, 121-134.
WEINSTEIN, N.D. SANDMAN, P.M. & ROBERTS, N.E. (1991). Perceived susceptibility and self-protective behavior : A field experiment to encourage home radon testing. Health Psychology, 10, 25-33.
WEINSTEIN, N.D. & SANDMAN, P.M. (1992). A model of the precaution adoption process : Evidence from home radon testing. Health Psychology, 11, 170-180.
Voir aussi Risque
Radvansky Gabriel A. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire et du vieillisement. Étudiant de Zacks et Collaborateur de Hasher et Wyer.
RADVANSKY, G.A., GERARD, L.D., ZACKS, R.T. & HASHER, L. (1990). Younger and older adults' use of mental models as representations for text materials. Psychology & Aging, 5 (2), 209-214. [PDF]
RADVANSKY, G.A. & ZACKS, T.R. (1991). Mental models and the fan effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 17, 940-953. [PDF]
RADVANSKY, G.A., LYNCHARD, N.A. & Von HIPPEL, W. (2009). Stereotype activation, inhibition, and aging. Aging, Neuropsychology, & Cognition, 16, 22–32. [PDF]
RADVANSKY, G.A., COPELAND, D.E. & Von HIPPEL, W. (2010). Stereotype activation, inhibition, and aging. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 51-60. [PDF]
RADVANSKY, G.A. (2012). Across the event horizon. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 21, 269-272. [PDF]
Rage : Forte colère, qui s'accompagne généralement de comportements agressifs ou violents involontaires et incontrôlés. ( ): Rage alimentaire, rage au volant. Rage.

  CANNON, W.B. (1918). Bodily changes. In pain, hunger, fear, and rage. New York/London : Appleton-Century-Crofts.
BARD, P. (1928). A diencephalic mechanism for the expression of rage with special reference to the sympathetic nervous system. American Journal of Physiology, 84, 490-515.
GOLDBERG, J.H., LERNER, J.S. & TETLOCK, P.E. (1999). Rage and reason : The psychology of the intuitive prosecutor. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29, 781-795.
Voir aussi Colère
Rage alimentaire : Voir Hyperphagie.
Rage au volant : Voir Colère au volant.
Ragins Belle Rose ( ) : Psychologue organisationelle américaine et spécialiste de l'étude du mentorat.
RAGINS, B.R. (1989). Power and gender congruency effects in evaluations of male and female leaders. Journal of Management, 15 (1), 65-76.
RAGINS, B.R. & COTTON, J. (1993). Gender and willingness to mentor in organizations. Journal of Management, 19 (1), 97-111.
RAGINS, B.R. & SCANDURA, T.A. (1999). Burden or blessing ? Expected costs and benefits of being a mentor. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20, 493-509.
RAGINS, B.R. & CORNWELL, J.M. (2001). Pink triangles : Antecedents and consequences of workplace discrimination against gay and lesbian employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86 (6), 1244-1261.
RAGINS, B.R. & WINKEL, D. (2011). Gender, emotion and power in work relationships. Human Resource Management Review, 21 (4), 377-393.
Rahman Qazi ( ) : Neuropsychologue anglais et spécialiste de l'orientation sexuelle.
RAHMAN, Q. WILSON, G.D. & ABRAHAMS, S. (2003). Sexual orientation related differences in spatial memory. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society, 9, 376-383.
RAHMAN, Q., ABRAHAMS, S. & WILSON, G.D. (2003). Sexual orientation related differences in verbal fluency. Neuropsychology 17, 240–246.
RAHMAN, Q., WILSON, G.D. & ABRAHAMS, S. (2004). Biosocial factors, sexual orientation and neurocognitive functioning. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 29, 867–881.
RAHMAN, Q. (2005). Review The neurodevelopment of human sexual orientation. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 29, 1057-1066. [PDF]
RAHMAN, Q. & WILSON, G.D. (2005). Sexual orientation and the 2nd to 4th finger length ratio : evidence for organising effects of sex hormones or developmental instability ? Psychoneuroendocrinology, 28 (3), 288-303.
Raine/Rainey
Adrian Raine David W. Rainey
 
Raine Adrian ( ) : Criminologue américain. Collaborateur de Gao.

RAINE, A., VENABLES, P.H. & WILLIAMS, M. (1990). Relationships between central and autonomic measures of arousal at age 15 years and criminality at age 24 years. Archives of General Psychiatry, 47, 1003-1007.
RAINE, A., BUCHSBAUM, M. & LACASSE, L. (1997). Brain abnormalities in murderers indicated by Positron Emission Tomography. Biological Psychiatry, 42 (6), 495-508. [PDF]
RAINE, A. (2002). The biological basis of crime. In J.Q. Wilson & J. Peetrsilia (Eds.), Crime : Public policies for crime control (pp. 43-74). Oakland, California : ICS Press. [PDF]
RAINE, A. (2011). An amygdala structural abnormality common to two sub-types of conduct disorder : A neurodevelopmental conundrum. American Journal of Psychiatry, 168, 569-571. [PDF]
RAINE, A., FUNG A.L. & LAM, B.Y.H. (2011). Peer victimization partially mediates the schizotypy - aggression relationship in children and adolescents. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37, 937-945. [PDF]
Rainey David W. ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude du sport, notamment du baseball.
RAINEY, D.W. & LARSEN, J.D. (1988). Balls, strikes, and norms : Rule violations and normative rules among baseball umpires. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 10, 75-80. [PDF]
RAINEY, D., SANTILLI, N. & FALLON, K. (1992). Development of athletes conceptions of sport officials authority Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 14, 392-440. [PDF]
RAINEY, D. (1994). Magnitude of stress experienced by baseball and softball umpires. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 79 (1), 255-258
RAINEY, D. (1995). Sources of stress among baseball and softball umpires baseball teams beaten by jet lag. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 7 (1), 1-10.
RAINEY, D.W. (1999). Sources of stress, burnout, and intention to terminate among bsketball referees. Journal of Sport Behavior, 22 (4), 578-590. [PDF]
Raison : Le mot a deux acceptions complémentaires : a) Au sens large, la raison est la capacité de discernement (raisonnement logique) et d'analyse logique de la réalité sous toutes ses formes. En principe, cette capacité de discernement permet à l'individu de faire les bon choix et d'agir en conséquence. La raison est donc «cette petite lumière qui guide nos pas dans la nuit». Raison, raisonnement et conscience. = lucidité. b) Cette capacité conduit un individu à prendre conscience des «causes» qui «se cache» derrière les phénomènes que l'on cherche à comprendre. Dans certains cas, ces raisons ou «causes invoquées ou percues» correspondent à des causes réelles; dans d'autres cas, elles ne sont que de pures inventions. C'est pourquoi on ne considère pas «raison» et causes» comme synonymes. Reason.

  a
WHITEHEAD, A.N. (1929). The function of reason. Princeton : Princeton University Press. HUMPHREY, N. (1996). The bounds of reason. Prospect, 34-37.
DAVIDSON, D. (1963). Actions reasons and causes. Journal of Philosophy, 60, 685-700. BONJOUR, L. (1998). In defense of pure reason. Cambridge University Press.
FEYERBAND, P.K. (1989). Adieu la raison. Paris : Seuil. CLARK, A. (2001). Reasons, robots and the extended mind. Mind & Language, 16, 121-145. [PDF]
FUMERTON, R. (1990). Reason and morality. Ithaca : Cornell University Press.  
PAGELS, H. (1990). Les rêves de la raison. Paris : InterEditions. THOMPSON, V.A., TURNER, J.P. & PENNYCOOK, G. (2011). Choosing between intuition and reason : The role of metacognition in initiating analytic thinking. Cognitive Psychology, 63, 107-140. [PDF]
MARKOVITS, H. & SAVARY, F. (1992). Pragmatic schemas and selection task : To reason or not reason. The Quartely Journal of Experimental Psychology, 45A, 133-148.  
SHAFIR, E., SIMONSON, I. & TVERSKY, A. (1993). Reason-based choice. Cognition, 49, 11-36. [PDF] Voir aussi Choix et Conscience
b
Voir aussi Cause et Attribution
Raisonnement : Processus cognitif qui traite l'information - parfois de façon logique - dans le but de trouver une solution à un problème, émettre une hypothèse, tester la cohérence d'une théorie. Il existe deux grands types de raisonnement : par déduction ou par induction. Raisonnement, habileté cognitive et argument. Reasoning, reasoning abilities, argumentation.
Types de raisonnement
Raisonnement binaire   Raisonnement moral
Raisonnement causal Raisonnement fallacieux Raisonnement par analogie
Raisonnemement circulaire Raisonnement inductif Raisonnement par syllogisme
Raisonnement conditionnel Raisonnement intuitif Raisonnement scientifique
Raisonnemement déductif Raisonnement logico-mathématique Raisonnement tendancieux
Raisonnement contrefactuel Raisonnement logico-discursif Raisonnement teleonomique
 

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BRAINE, M.D.S. (1978). On the relation between the natural logic of reasoning and the standard logic. Psychological Review, 85, 1-21. DOISE, W. (1993). Logiques sociales dans le raisonnement. Paris : Delachaux et Niestlé.
HUTTENLOCHER, J., HIGGINS, E.T. & CLARK, H.H. (1972). On reasoning, congruence, and other matters. Psychological Review, 79 (5), 420-427. MARKOVITS, H. (1993). The development of conditional reasoning : A piagetian reformulation of the theory of mental models. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly : Invitational issue on the Development of Rationality & Critical Thinking, 39 (1), 133-160.
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HUTTENLOCHER, J., HIGGINS, E.T. & CLARK, H.H. (1972). On reasoning, congruence, and other matters. Psychological Review, 79 (5), 420-427. HOLYOAK, K.J. & CHENG, P.W. (1995). Pragmatic reasoning with a point of view. Thinking & Reasoning, 1, 289-313.
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JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. & LEGRENZI, P. & LEGRENZI, M.S. (1972). Reasoning and a sense of reality. British Journal of Psychology, 63, 395-400. GERBRANDY, J. & GROENVELD, W. (1997). Reasoning about information change. Journal of Logic, Language & Information, 6, 147-196.
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COLLINS, A.M., WARNOCK, E.H., AIELLO, N. & MILLER, M.L. (1975). Reasoning from incomplete knowledge. In D. Bobrow & A. Collins (eds.), Representation and understanding (pp. 383-415). New York : Academic Press. EMBRETSON, S. (1998). A cognitive design system approach to generating valid tests : Application to abstract reasoning. Psychological Methods, 3, 380-396.
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  RIPS, L.J. (2002). Circular reasoning. Cognitive Science, 26, 767-795. [PDF]
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EVANS, J.B.T. (1984). Heuristic and analytic processes in reasoning. British Journal of Psychology, 75, 451-468. BOGHOSSIAN, P. (2003). Blind reasoning. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, Supplementary, 77, 225-248.
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  HOUDÉ, O. (2007). First insights on neuropedagogy of reasoning. Thinking & Reasoning, 13, 81-89.
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Voir aussi Habileté cognitive
Raisonnement binaire : Raisonnement de type Si non A, donc B. En En d'autres termes, si ce n'est pas blanc, c'est forcément noir. EX: Si un cours est populaire, alors qu'un autre qui se donne donne au même moment se vide (A), on en déduit donc que s'il se vide parce qu'il est de mauvaise qualité (B). Ici toute autre explication (C) est exclue du raisonnement. EX: Le cours moins populaire n'est pas de mauvaise qualité; il est tout simplement moins intéressant que le premier (C); si le premier n'était pas disponible, le second se remplirait. Si elle parvient parfois à saisir certains phénomènes simples, cette forme de pensée échoue à apprehender la complexité. = Si non A, donc B. = raisonnement simpliste, pensée simpliste, pensée linéaire. Binary thought.

   
 
Voir aussi Pensée
Raisonnement causal : Causal reasoning.

  FRYE, D., ZELAZO, P.D., BROOKS, P. & SAMUELS, M. (1996). Inference and action in early causal reasoning. Developmental Psychology, 32, 120-131.
Voir aussi Cause et Causalité
Raisonnement circulaire : Circular reasoning.

  RIPS, L.J. (2002). Circular reasoning. Cognitive Science, 26, 767-795. [PDF]
BAUM, L.A., DANOVITCH, J.H. & KEIL, F.C. (2008). Children’s sensitivity to circular explanation. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 100, 46-155. [PDF]
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Raisonnement conditionnel : Raisonnement de type si X, donc Y. Conditional reasoning.

  MARKOVITS, H. & VACHON, R. (1990). Conditional reasoning, representation and level of abstraction. Developmental Psychology, 26, 942-951.
MARKOVITS, H. (1993). The development of conditional reasoning : A piagetian reformulation of the theory of mental models. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly : Invitational issue on the Development of Rationality & Critical Thinking, 39 (1), 133-160.
MARKOVITS, H. & BARROUILLET, P. (2002). The development of conditional reasoning : A mental model account. Developmental Review, 22 (1), 5-36. [PDF]
MARKOVITS, H. & LORTIE-FORGUES, H. (2011). Conditional reasoning with false premises facilitates the transition between familiar and abstract reasoning. Child Development, 82 (2), 646-660.
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Raisonnement contrefactuel : Raisonnement qui consiste à remplacer une pensée automatique par une pensée alternative.

  ARMSTRONG, D. (1991). What makes induction rational ? Dialogue, 30, 503-511. ROESE, N.J. (2000). Counterfactual thinking and marketing. Psychology & Marketing, 17, 277-280.
MacRAE, C.N. (1992). A tale of two curries : Counterfactual thinking and accident-related judgments. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 84-87. McCLOY, R. & BYRNE, R.M.J. (2000). Counterfactual thinking about controllable events. Memory & Cognition, 28 (6), 1071-1078. [PDF]
MacRAE, C.N. & MILNE, A.B. (1992). A curry for your thoughts : Empathic effects on counterfactual thinking. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 18, 625-630. SEGURA, S. & McCLOY, R. (2003). Counterfactual thinking in everyday life situations : Temporal order effects and social norms. Psicológica, 24, 1-15. [PDF]
ROESE, N.J. & OLSON, J.M. (1993). The structure of counterfactual thought. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 19, 312-319. McNAMARA, P., DURSO, R., BROWN, A. & LYNCH, A. (2003). Counterfactual cognitive deficit in patients with Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 74, 1065-1070.
MacRAE, C.N., MILNE, A.B. & GRIFFITHS, R.J. (1993) Counterfactual thinking and the perception of criminal behavior. British Journal of Psychology, 84, 221-226. MANDEL D.R. & LEHMAN, D.R. (1996). Counterfactual thinking and ascriptions of cause and preventability. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 450-463.
ROESE, N.J. & OLSON, J.M. (1993). Self-esteem and counterfactual thinking. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 199-206. KRUGER, J., WIRTZ, D. & MILLER, D.T. (2005). Counterfactual thinking and the first instinct fallacy. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88 (5), 725-735. [PDF]
ROESE, N.J. (1994). The functional basis of counterfactual thinking. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 805-818. MARKMAN, K.D., ELIZAGA, R.A., MIZOGUCHI, N. & McMULLEN, M.N. (2006). Counterfactual thinking and regulatory fit. Judgment & Decision Making, 1 (2), 98-107. [PDF]
ROESE, N.J. & OLSON, J.M. (1995). Functions of counterfactual thinking. In N.J. Roese & J.M. Olson (Eds.), What might have been : The social psychology of counterfactual thinking (pp. 169-197). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum. KRAY, L.J., GALINSKY, A.D. & WONG, E. (2006). Thinking inside the box : The relational processing style elicited by counterfactual mind-sets. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 91, 33-48.
SHERMAN, S.J. & McCONNELL, A.R. (1995). Dysfunctional implications of counterfactual thinking : When alternatives to reality fail us. In N.J. Roese & J.M. Olson (Eds.), What might have been: The social psychology of counterfactual thinking (pp. 199-231). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum. LEITHY, S.E., BROWN, G.P. & ROBBINS, I. (2006). Counterfactual thinking and posttraumatic stress reactions. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115, 629-635.
ROESE, N.J. & OLSON, J.M. (1995). Outcome controllability and counterfactual thinking. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 21,620-628. MARKMAN, K.D. & MILLER, A.K. (2006). Depression, control, and counterfactual thinking : Functional for whom ? Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 25, 210-227.
MANDEL, D.R. & LEHMAN, D.R. (1996). Counterfactual thinking and ascriptions of cause and preventability. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 450-463. EPSTUDE, K. & ROESE, N.J. (2008). The functional theory of counterfactual thinking. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 12, 168-192.
ROESE, N.J. & OLSON, J.M. (1996). Counterfactuals, causal attributions, and the hindsight bias : A conceptual integration. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 32, 197-227. [PDF] NESTLER S. & VON COLLANI, G. (2008). Hindsight bias and the activation of counterfactual mind-sets. Experimental Psychology, 55, 342-349.
ROESE, N.J. & MANIAR, S.D. (1997). Perceptions of purple : Counterfactual and hindsight judgments at Northwestern Wildcats football games. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 1245-1253. QUELHAS, A.C., POWER, M.J., JUHOS, C. & SENOS, J. (2008). Counterfactual thinking and functional differences in Depression. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 15, 352-365. [PDF]
ROESE, N.J. (1997). Counterfactual thinking. Psychological Bulletin, 121 (1), 133-148. KRAY, L.J., GALINSKY, A.D. & MARKMAN, K.D. (2009). Counterfactual structure and learning from experience in negotiations. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 979-982. [PDF]
TETLOCK, P.E. (1998). Close-call counterfactuals and belief-system defenses: I was not almost wrong but I was almost right. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75, 639-652. SMALLMAN, R. & ROESE, N.J. (2009). Counterfactual thinking facilitates behavioral intentions. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (4), 845-852. [PDF]
  ROESE, N.J. (2009). The psychology of counterfactual thinking. Historical Social Research, 34 (2), 16-26. [PDF]
  KRAY, L.J., GOERGE, L.G., LILJENQUIST, L.G., GALINSKY, K.A., TETLOCK, A.D. & ROESE, N.J. (2010). From what might have been to what must have been : Counterfactual thinking creates meaning. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 98 (1), 106-118. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pensée alternative
Raisonnement déductif : Forme de raisonnement qui s'appuie sur la logique, et sur lequel sont construites de nombreuses théories scientifiques. Raisonnement hypothético-déductif, formalisme et tâche de Wason. = déduction, raisonnement logico-mathématique, raisonnement hypothético-déductif, raisonnement de haut en bas. ( ): Modus tollens, modus ponens, syllogisme. Deductive reasoning, deductive logic, Mathematico-deductive, reasoning.

    MOUTIER, S. (2000). Deductive reasoning and experimental matching-bias inhibition training in school children. Current Psychology of Cognition, 19, 429-452.
WILKINS, M.C. (1928). The effect of changed material on the ability to do formal reasoning. Archives of Psychology, 16 (102), 1-83. GOLDFARB, W. (2003). Deductive logic. Indianapolis, IN : Hacket.
HULL, C.L., HOVLAND, C., ROSS, R.T., HALL, M., PERKINS, D.T. & FITCH, F.B. (1940). Mathematico-deductive theory of rote learning : A study in scientific methodology. New Haven, NJ : Yale University Press. MARKOVITS, H. (2004). The development of deductive reasoning. In R.J. Sternberg & J.P. Leighton (Eds.), The nature of reasoning (pp. 313-338). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
LAWSON, A.E. (1985). A review of research on formal reasoning and science teaching. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 22 (7), 569-617. [PDF] NEWSTEAD, S.E. HANDLEY, S.J., HARLEY, C. WRIGHT, H. & FARRELLY, D. (2004). Individual differences in deductive reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 57A, 33-60.
GRÜNBAUM, A. & SALMON, W.C. (Eds.) (1988). The limitations of deductivism. Berkeley, CA : University of California Press. HALFORD, G.S. & ANDREWS, G. (2004). The development of deductive reasoning : How important is complexity ? Thinking & Reasoning, 10, 123-145.
VON FERSEN, L., WYNNE, C.D.L., DELIUS, J.D. & STADDON, J.E.R. (1990). Deductive reasoning in pigeons. Naturwissenschaften, 77, 548- 549.  LEIGHTON, J.P. (2005). Teaching and assessing deductive reasoning skills. Journal of Experimental Education, 74, 109-136.
LAWSON, A.E., MCELRATH, C.B., BURTON, M.S., JAMES, B.D., DOYLE, R.P., WOODWARD, S.L., KELLERMAN, L. & SNYDER, J.D. (1991). Hypothetico-deductive reasoning skill and concept acquisition : Testing a constructivist hypothesis. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28, 953-970. MARKOVITS, H. & THOMPSON, V. (2008). Different developmental patterns of simple deductive and probabilistic inferential reasoning. Memory & Cognition, 36 (6), 1066-1078. [PDF]
JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. (1999). Deductive reasoning. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 109-135. [PDF] Voir aussi Raisonnement inductif et Raisonnement
Raisonnement fallacieux : Voir biais.
Raisonnement idéologique : Ideological reasoning.

  TETLOCK, P.E. (1986). A value pluralism model of ideological reasoning. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 50, 819-827. [PDF]
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Raisonnement inductif : En logique, forme de raisonnement qui consiste à formuler une proposition générale à partir des faits ou des régularités observées. L'induction s'appuie sur l'abstraction des propriétés des faits/événements. Raisonnement inductif et déductif. = raisonnement de bas en haut. /déduction. Inductive reasoning, induction, inductive inference.
  THILLY, F. (1903). The theory of induction. The Philosophical Review, 12 (4), 401-411 CHENG, P.W. & NOVICK, L.R. (1990). A probabilistic contrast model of causal induction. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 58, 545-567. [PDF]
FISHER, R.A. (1935). The logic of inductive inference. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series 98, 39-54. LOPEZ, A., GELMAN, S.A. GUTHEIL, G. & SMITH, E.E. (1992). The development of category-based induction. Child Development, 63 (5), 1070-1090.
CARNAP, R. (1946). Remarks on induction and truth. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 6, 590-602. CHENG, P.W. & NOVICK, L.R. (1992). Covariation in natural causal induction. Psychological Review, 99, 365-382. [PDF]
WILLIAMS, D.C. (1947). The ground of induction. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. SLOMAN, S.A. (1993). Feature-Based Induction. Cognitive Psychology, 25 (2), 231-280.
CARNAP, R. (1952). The continuum of inductive methods. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. POPPER, K. (1998). The problem of induction. In M. Curd & J.A. Cover (Eds.), Philosophy of Science : The Central Issues (pp. 430-431). New York : W.W. Norton.
FEIBLEMAN, J.K. (1953). On the theory of induction. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 14 (3), 332-342. LIPTON, P. (1998). Induction. In M. Curd & J.A. Cover (Eds.), Philosophy of Science : The Central Issues (pp. 412-425). New York : W.W. Norton.
FEIBLEMAN, J.K. (1954). On the theory of induction. Buffalo: . MUSGRAVE, A.E. (1999). How to do without inductive logic. Science & Education, 8, 395-412.
SOLOMONOFF, R.J. (1964). A formal theory of inductive inference. Information & Control, 7, 1-22, 224-254. HACKING, I. (2001). Introduction to probability and inductive logic. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
MEDAWAR, P. (1969). Induction and intuition in scientific thought. London : Methuen. NORTON, J. (2003). A material theory of induction. Philosophy of Science, 70, 647-670. [PDF]
KYBURG, H.E. (1970). Probability and inductive logic. London : Macmillan. CAMPBELL, J. & FRANKLIN, J. (2004). Randomness and Induction. Synthese, 138, 79-99.
STEMMER, N. (1971). Three problems in induction. Synthese, 23, 287-308. SLOUTSKY, V.M. & FISHER, A.V. (2004). Induction and categorization in young children : A similarity-based model. Journal of Experimental Psychology-General, 133 (2), 166-188.
HUESMANN, L.R. & CHENG, C. (1973). A model for the induction of mathematical functions. Psychological Review, 80, 126-138. [PDF] MUSGRAVE, A.E. (2004). How Popper [might have] solved the problem of induction. Philosophy, 79, 19-31.
  NORTON, J. (2005). A little survey of induction. in P. Achinstein (Ed.), Scientific evidence : Philosophical theories and applications (pp. 9-34). Johns Hopkins University Press. [PDF]
GELMAN, S.A. & MARKMAN, E.M. (1986). Categories and induction in young children. Cognition, 23, 183-209. [PDF] MURPHY, G.L. & ROSS, B.H. (2005). The two faces of typicality in category-based induction. Cognition, 95, 175-200. [PDF]
  ZAMORA-BONILLA, J.P. (2006). Rhetoric, induction, and the free speech dilemma. Philosophy of Science, 73, 175-193.
  SHAFTO, P., KEMP, C., BONAWITZ, E.B., COLEY, J.D. & TENNBAUM, J.B. (2008). Inductive reasoning about causally transmitted properties. Cognition, 109 (2), 175-192.
STOVE, D.C. (1986). The rationality of induction. Oxford : Oxford University Press. KEMP, C. & TENENBAUM, J.B. (2009). Structured statistical models of inductive reasoning. Psychological Review, 116 (4), 20-58. [PDF]
  KHAN, W. & ULLAH, H. (2010). Scientific reasoning : A solution to the problem of induction. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 10 (3), 49-53. [PDF]
BONJOUR, L. (1986). A reconsideration of the problem of induction. Philosophical Topics, 14, 93-124. CAROL, C.D. & CHENG, P.W. (2010). The Induction of hidden causes : Causal mediation and violations of independent causal influence. In S. Ohlsson & R. Catrambone (Eds.), Proceedings of the 32nd annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 913-918). Austin, TX : Cognitive Science Society.
HARNAD, S. (1987). Category induction and representation. In S. Harnad (Ed.), Categorial perception (pp. 535-565). Cambridge University Press. NORTON, J. (2010). There are no universal rules for induction. Philosophy of Science, 77 (5), 765-777. [PDF]
  DE NEYS, W. & VANDERPUTTE, K. (2011). When less is not always more : stereotype knowledge and reasoning development. Developmental Psychology, 47, 432–441.
WATKINS J.W.N. (1988). The pragmatic problem of induction. Analysis, 48, 18-20. GODFREY-SMITH, P. (2011). Induction, samples, and kinds. In J. Campbell, M. O’Rourke & M. Slater (Eds.), Carving nature at its joints : Topics in contemporary philosophy. MIT Press. [PDF]
  NORTON, J. (2014). A material dissolution of the problem of induction. Synthese, 191, 671-690. [PDF]
Voir aussi Raisonnement déductif et Raisonnement
Raisonnement intuitif : Intuitive reasoning, naive theory.

  CUMMINS, D.D. (1995). Naive theories and causal deduction. Memory & Cognition, 23, 646-658.
NORENZAYAN, A., SMITH, E.E., KIM, B.J. & NISBET, R.E. (2002). Cultural preferences for formal versus intuitive reasoning. Cognitive Science, 26, 653-684.
LINDEMAN, M. (2011). Biases in intuitive reasoning and belief in complementary and alternative medicine. Psychology & Health, 26, 371–382. [PDF]
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Raisonnement logico-mathématique : Mathematico-deductive theory.

  HULL, C.L., HOVLAND, C., ROSS, R.T., HALL, M., PERKINS, D.T. & FITCH, F.B. (1940). Mathematico-deductive theory of rote learning : A study in scientific methodology. New Haven, NJ : Yale University Press.
WOOD, T., WILLIAMS, G. & MCNEAL, B. (2006). Children's mathematical thinking in different classroom cultures. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 37, 222-255.
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Raisonnement logico-discursif : Reasoning.

   
Raisonnement moral : Raisonnement, jugement et développement moral. Moral reasoning.

  BUSSEY, K. & MAUGHAN, B. (1982). Gender differences in moral reasoning. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 42, 701-706.  
WALKER, L.J. (1984). Sex differences in the development of moral reasoning : A critical review. Child Development, 55, 677-691. CLOPTON, N.A. & SORELL, G.T. (1993). Gender differences in moral reasoning : Stable or situational ? Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 85-101.
ZEIDNER, M. & NEVO, B. (1987). The cross-cultural generalizability of moral reasoning research. International Journal of Psychology, 22, 315-330 CARLO, G., KOLLER, S.H., ISENBERG, N., DA SILVA, M.S. & FROLICH, C.B. (1996). A cross-national study on the relations among prosocial moral reasoning, gender role orientations, and prosocial behaviors. Developmental Psychology, 32, 231-240. [PDF]
WALKER, L.J. (1989). A longitudinal study of moral reasoning. Child Development, 60, 157-166. HUMPHRIES, M.L., PARKER, B.L. & JAGERS, R.J. (2000). Predictors of moral reasoning among African American children : A preliminary study. Journal of Black Psychology, 26 (1), 51-64.
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Raisonnement par analogie : Analogical reasoning.

  GENTNER, D. (1983). Structure mapping : A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive Science, 7, 155-170. [PDF] GENTNER, D. BOWDLE B., WOLFF, P. & BORONAT, C. (2001). Metaphor is like analogy. In D. Gentner, K.J. Holyoak & B.N. Kokinov (Eds.), The analogical mind : Perspectives from cognitive science (pp. 199-253). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. [PDF]
GENTNER, D. (1989). The mechanisms of analogical learning. In S. Vosniadou & A. Ortony (Eds.), Similarity, analogy, and thought (pp. 199-241). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. GENTNER, D. (2002). Analogical reasoning, psychology of. Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science. London : Nature Publishing Group.
GOSWAMI, U. (1991). Learning about spelling sequences - the role of onsets and rimes in analogies in reading. Child Development, 62 (5), 1110-1123. SALVUCCI, D.D. & ANDERSON, J.R. (2001). Integrating analogical mapping and general problem solving : The path-mapping theory. Cognitive Science, 25, 67-110. [PDF]
GOSWAMI, U. (1991). Analogical reasoning - what develops - a review of research and theory. Child Development, 62 (1), 1-22. VISKONTAS, I.V., MORRISON, R.G., HOLYOAK, K.J., UMMEL, J.E. & KNOWLTON, B.J. (2004). Relational integration, inhibition and analogical reasoning in older adults. Psychology & Aging, 19, 581-591. [PDF]
  LEECH, R., MARESCHAL, D. & COOPER, R. (2007). Relations as transformations : Implications for analogical reasoning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 60, 897-908. [PDF]
GOSWAMI, U. (1992). Analogical reasoning and conceptual complexity in cognitive-development - commentary. Human Development, 35 (4), 222-225. CHO, S., HOLYOAK, K.J. & CANNON, T.D. (2007). Analogical reasoning in working memory : Resources shared among relational integration, interference resolution, and maintenance. Memory & Cognition, 35, 1445-1455. [PDF]
SUNSTEIN, C. (1993). On analogical reasoning. Haward Law Review, 106, 741-791. GENTNER, D. & FORBUS, K. (2011). Computational models of analogy. WIREs Cognitive Science, 2, 266-276. [PDF]
GOSWAMI, U. (1996). Analogical reasoning and cognitive development. Advances in Child Development & Behavior, 26, 91-138. GENTNER, D. & SMITH, L. (2012). Analogical reasoning. In V.S. Ramachandran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behavior (pp. 130-136). Oxford, UK : Elsevier. [PDF]
BARNES, A. & THAGARD, P. (1997). Empathy and analogy. Dialogue : Canadian Philosophical Review, 36, 705-720. [LIRE] CHRISTIE, S. & GENTNER, D. (2014). Language helps children succeed on a classic analogy task. Cognitive Science, 38, 383-397. [PDF]
GENTNER, D. & MARKMAN, A.B. (1997). Structure mapping in analogy and similarity. American Psychologist, 52, 45-56. [PDF]
Voir aussi Raisonnement et Analogie
Raisonnement par syllogisme : Voir Syllogisme.
Raisonnement scientifique : Ensemble des raisonnements de la pensée auxquels ont recours les scientifiques lors des diverses étapes de leur recherche pour découvrir un phénomène nouveau, poser un problème, formuler une hypothèse, analyser leurs données et interpréter les résultats de leur recherche. Tout raisonnement se décompose en arguments qui, généralement, en science, se fonde sur la logique (mais pas toujours). En science, un ensemble de concepts et d'arguments se nomme "théorie". Raisonnement, logique et pensée scientifique. Scientific reasoning, argumentation.

Raisonnements scientifiques
Raisonnement par induction Raisonnement par déduction
 

  LEVINE, D.I. & LINN, M.C. (1977). Scientific reasoning ability in adolescence : Theoretical viewpoints and educational implications. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 14, 371-384. GORDON, H.R.D. (2001). American Vocational Education Research Association members’ perceptions of statistical significance tests and other statistical controversies. Journal of Vocational Educational Research, 26 (2), 1-18.
POPPER, K.R. (1984). La logique de la découverte scientifique. Paris : Payot. HALLER, H. & KRAUSS, S. (2002). Misinterpretations of significance: A problem students share with their teachers ? Methods of Psychological Research, 7 (1), 1-120. [PDF]
KHLAR, D. & DUNBAR, K. (1988). Dual Space search during Scientific Reasoning. Cognitive Science, 12, 1-48.  
DUNBAR, K. (1995). How scientists really reason : Scientific reasoning in real-world laboratories. In R.J. Sternberg & J.E. Davidson (Eds.), The nature of insight.London : Bradford. [PDF] ZIMMERMAN, C. (2007). The development of scientific reasoning skills in elementary and middle school. Developmental Review, 27, 172-223.
SCHAUBLE, L. (1996). The development of scientific reasoning in knowledge-rich contexts. Developmental Psychology, 32, 102-119.  McCABE, D.P. & CASTEL, A.D. (2008). Seeing is believing : The effect of brain images on judgments of scientific reasoning. Cognition, 107, 343-352. [PDF]
   
SCHIMDT, F. (1996). Statistical significance testing and cumulative knowledge in psychology : Implications for the training of researchers. Psychological Methods, 1, 115- 129. [PDF]  BAO, L., CAI, T., KOENIG, K., FANG, K., HAN, J., WANG, J., LIU, Q., DING, L., CUI, L., LUO, Y., WANG, Y., LI, L. & WU, N. (2009). Learning and scientific reasoning. Science 323, 586-587. [PDF]
NERSESSIAN, N.J. (1999). Model-based reasoning in conceptual change. In L. Magnani, N.J. Nersessian & P. Thagard (Eds.), Model-based reasoning in scientific discovery (pp. 5-22). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York. KHAN, W. & ULLAH, H. (2010). Scientific reasoning : A solution to the problem of induction. International Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 10 (3), 49-53. [PDF]
Voir aussi Scientifique, Découverte, Créativité, Théorie, Logique et Pensée scientifique
 
Raisonnement téléologique : Teleological reasoning.

   KELEMEN D. (1999) Function, goals, and intention: children's 27 teleological reasoning about objects.Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 461-468.
GERGELY, G. & CSIBRA, G. (2003). Teleological reasoning about actions : The one-year-old's naïve theory of rational action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (7), 287-292. [PDF]
Raisonnement tendancieux : Voir biais.
Rakover Sam S. (1938-) :
RAKOVER, S.S. (1990). Metapsychology : Missing links in behavior, mind and science. New York : Paragon/Solomon.
RAKOVER, S.S. (2007). To understand a cat : Methodology and philosophy. Amsterdam/Philadelphia : John Benjamins.
RAKOVER, S.S. (2011). A plea for methodological dualism and a multiexplanation framework in psychology. Behavior & Philosophy, 39, 17-43. [PDF]
RAKOVER, S.S. (2012). Psychology as an associational science: A methodological viewpoint. Open Journal of Philosophy, 2, 143-152.
RAKOVER, S.S. (2013). Explaining the face-inversion effect : The Face-Scheme Incompatibility (FSI) model. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20, 665-692.
RAKOVER, S.S. (2013). How to explain behavior : A critical review and new approach.
RANDI - RANG - RAPOPORT - RAPPEL - RAPPORT - RASHOTTE - RASOIR/OCKHAM - RAT - RATIONALISME - RAVEN - RAYNER - RAZ - RE
Ramachadran Vilayanur S. ( ) : Neuropsychologue américain d'origine indienne, spécialiste de la vision et des déterminants biogénétiques de l'imitation et de la conscience. Il s'est également intéressé aux membres fantômes. Collaborateur de Cavanagh, Churchland, Gregory et Sejnowki.
RAMACHADRAN, V.S. & COBB, S. (1995). Visual attention modulates metacontrast masking. Nature, 373, 66-68.
RAMACHADRAN, V.S., ALTSCUSLER, E.L. & HILLYER, S. (1997). Mirror agnosia. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, 264, 645-647.
RAMACHADRAN, V.S. & BLAKESLEE, S. (1998). Phantoms in the brain. N.Y. : William Morrow.
RAMACHADRAN, V.S. (2003). The emerging mind. Londres : BBC/Profile Books.
RAMACHADRAN, V.S. & ROGERS-RAMACHADRAN, D. (2007). It’s all done with mirrors. Scientific American Mind, 18 (4), 16-18.
Ramasser des objets inutiles : Voir Trouble d'accumulation compulsive et Syndrome de Diogène.
Ramon y Cajal Santiago (Petilla de Aragón Espagne 1852-1934 Madrid) : Neurobiologiste espagnol et pionnier de l'étude du système nerveux. Lauréat du prix Nobel de physiologie et de médecine en 1906 pour ses travaux sur la structure du système nerveux (avec Golgi). Il perfectionne une technique d'imprégnation argentique mise au point par Golgi pour "voir" le neurone.
RAMON Y CAJAL, S. (1894). Les nouvelles idées sur la fine anatomie des centres nerveux.
 
 
 
 
 
Ramper : Chez le nourrisson, moyen de locomotion qui consiste à progresser au sol en ondulant sur le ventre et en s'aidant de ses membres. Ramper, reptile et marcher. Crawling.
  RICHARDS, J.E. & RADER, N. (1981). Crawling-onset age predicts visual cliff avoidance in infants. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance, 7, 382-387.
RICHARDS, J.E. & RADER, N. (1983). Affective, behavioral, and avoidance responses on the visual cliff : Effects of crawling onset age, crawling experience, and testing age. Psychophysiology, 20, 633-642.
ADOLPH, K.E., EPPLER, M.A. & GIBSON, E.J. (1993). Crawling versus walking infants’ perception of affordances for locomotion over sloping surfaces. Child Development : Special Issue on Biodynamics, 64, 1158-1174.
CLEARFIELD, M.W. (2004). The role of crawling and walking experience in infant spatial memory. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 89 (3), 214-241. [PDF]
ADOLPH, K.E., BERGER, S.E. & LEO A.J. (2011). Developmental continuity ? Crawling, cruising, and walking. Developmental Science, 14, 306-318. [PDF]
Voir aussi Nourrisson, Marcher et Locomotion
Ramus Franck ( ) : Spécialiste français des sciences cognitives. Il s'intéresse plus particulièrement à la dyslexie. Collaborateur de Frith.
RAMUS, F., NESPOR, M. & MEHLER, J. (1999). Correlates of linguistic rhythm in the speech signal. Cognition, 73 (3), 265-292. [PDF]
RAMUS, F. (2001). Dyslexia - Talk of two theories. Nature, 412, 393-395.
RAMUS, F. (2001). Outstanding questions about phonological processing in dyslexia. Dyslexia, 7, 197-216. [PDF]
RAMUS, F. (2003). Developmental dyslexia : specific phonological deficit or general sensorimotor dysfunction ? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 13 (2), 212-218. [PDF]
RAMUS, F. (2004). Neurobiology of dyslexia : A reinterpretation of the data. Trends in Neurosciences, 27 (12), 720-726. [PDF]
Rand Ayn (1905-1982) : Philosophe et essayiste américaine d'origine russe. = lissa Zinovievna Rosenbaum.
RAND A. (1964). The virtue of selfishness. New York : New American Library.
RAND, A. (1967). Capitalism : The unknown ideal. New York : Signet.
RAND A. (1971). The new left : The anti-industrial revolution. New York : Random House.
RAND A. (1982). Philosophy : Who needs it ? New York : New American Library.
RAND, A. (1990). Introduction to objectivist epistemology. New York : Meridian.
Randi James ( ) : Magicien américain, vulgarisateur scientifique et farouche critique des pseudosciences, notamment de la parapsychologie (et autres charlatans).
RANDI, J. (1982). Flim-flam. Prometheus books.
RANDI, J. (1989). The faith healers. Prometheus books.
RANDI, J. (1990/93). The mask of Nostradamus / Le vrai visage de Nostradamus de James Randi. Prometheus books/Éditeur Balzac-Le Griot éditeur.
RANDI, J. (1989). Encyclopedia of claims, frauds & hoaxes. New York : St. Martin's Press.
RANDI, J. (1992). Conjuring. New York : The St. Martin's Press.
Randomiser : Anglicisme. De façon général, il signifie au hasard. Dans le cadre d'une recherche expérimentale, utilisez plutôt les termes répartir, assigner, ou mieux encore, distribuer les sujets au hasard. EX: Le chercheur a distribué au hasard les 60 sujets dans les 2 groupes de son plan de recherche expérimental. Randomization.

  WALD, A. & WOLFOWITZ, J. (1951). Two methods of randomization in statistics and the theory of games. The Annals of Mathematics, 53 (3), 581-86.
Voir aussi Distribuer les sujets au hasard
Rang : Position occupée par un individu, un organisme ou tout autre objet au sein d'un ensemble, d'un système, d'un groupe, d'une organisation. Rang et échelle de ordinalle/rang. Rank, rank order.

Types de rang
Rang social Rang centile Rang taxonomique
 

Rang centile : En statistique, mesure de position qui indique le pourcentage, arrondi à l'entier, des données qui ont une valeur inférieure ou égale à la valeur d'une donnée.

 
Rang social : Position occupée par un organisme au sein d'une hiérarchie, d'un groupe ou d'une société, d'un système. Dans un groupe humain, ce rang est désigné par un titre. Contrairement à son statut, l'individu connaît son rang. EX: Un général de l'armée, une directrice au sein d'une entreprise, l'aîné d'une famille. Dans une hiérarchie informelle, les individus ne sont pas nécessairement conscients du rang qu'ils occupent. Sur le plan formel, on utilise les lettre grec pour désigner des rangs sans titre (alpba, bêta, omega). Rang social et dominance sociale. = statut social. Status, social status, position, social position.

  HANNES, R.P., FRANCK, D. & LIEMANN, F. (1984). Effects of rank order fights on whole-body and blood concentrations of androgens and corticosteroids in the male swordtail (Xiphophorus helleri). Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 65, 53-64. TERRY, R. & COIE, J.D. (1991). A comparison of methods for defining sociometric status among children. Developmental Psychology, 27, 867-881.
  MUELLER, U. & MAZUR, A. (1996). Facial dominance of west point cadets as a predictor of later military rank. Social Forces, 74, 823- 850.
THOMPSON, G.G. & POWELL, M. (1951). An investigation of the rating scale approach to the measurement of social status. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 11, 440-455. UNDERWOOD, M.K. (1996). Childhood peer sociometric status and aggression as predictors of adolsecent childbearing. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 6, 201-23.
GILBERT B.K. & HAILMAN, J.P. (1966). Uncertainty of leadership-rank in fallow deer. Nature, 209, 1041-1042. MECH, L.D. (1999). Alpha status, dominance, and division of labor in wolf packs. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 77 (8), 1196-1203.
CHANCE, M.R.A. (1967). Attention structure as the basis of primate rank orders. Man, 2, 503-518. ISBELL, L.A., PRUETZ, J.D., LEWIS, M. & YOUNG, T.P. (1999). Rank differences in ecological behavior : a comparative study of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops). International Journal of Primatology, 20, 257-272.
ABRAMOVITCH, R. (1976). The relation of attention and proximity rank in the preschool children. In M. Chance & R. Larsen (Eds.), The social structure of attention (p. 154-176). London : Wiley. CÔTÉ, S.D. (2000). Determining social rank in ungulates : A comparison of aggressive interactions recorded at a bait site and under natural conditions. Ethology, 106, 945-955.
HOLD, B. (1977). Rank and behavior : An ethological study of preschool children. Homo, 28, 158-188. PELLETIER, F. & FESTA-BIANCHET, M. (2006). Sexual selection and social rank in bighorn rams. Animal Behaviour, 71, 649-655.
WALKER, G. (1985). Network position and cognition in a computer software firm. Administrative Science Quarterly 30,103-130. ANDERSON, C. & BEER, J.S., SRIVASTAVA, S., SPATARO, S.E. & CHATMAN, J.A. (2006). Knowing your place : Self-perceptions of status in face-to-face groups. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 91 (6), 1094-1110. [PDF]
SAPOLSKY, R. (1990). Adrenocortical function, social rank, and personality among wild baboons. Biological Psychiatry, 28, 862-878. ZUROFF, D.C., FOURNIER, M.A., PATALL, E.A. & LEYBMAN, M.J. (2010). Steps toward an evolutionary personality psychology : Individual differences in the social rank domain. Canadian Psychology, 51, 58-66.
Voir aussi Dominance sociale et Hiérarchie
Rang taxinomique : Classification des espèces, incluant l'humain, selon une série de règles ou nomenclature. Rang taxinomique, nomenclature des epèces et espèces. = niveau de la classification. Taxonomic rank.

Règne
  Embranchement  
  Classe  
  Ordre  
  Famille  
  Genre  
  Espèce  
  Population  


   GEIST, V. (2007). Defining subspecies, invalid taxonomic tools, and the fate of the woodland caribou. Rangifer, Special Issue, 17, 25-28. [PDF]
BURNIE, D. (Dir.) (2001). Animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi.
Rank Otto (Vienne 1884-1939 New York) : Psychanalyste autrichien et proche collaborateur de Freud. Collaborateur de Ferenczi, Laforgue et Sachs.
RANK, O. (1909/2001). Le traumatisme de la naissance. Paris : Payot.
RANK, O. (1911/74). Une contribution au narcissisme. Paris : Topiques.
RANK, O. et SACHS, H. (1913/80). Psychanalyse et sciences humaines. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
RANK, O. (1921). Dream interpretation. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 2, 106-110.
RANK, O. (1958). Beyond psychology. New York : Dover.
 
LIEBERMAN, E.J. (1985). Acts of will : The life and work of Otto Rank. New York : The Free Press.
Rankin Catherine H. ( ) : Neurobiologiste américaine et spécialiste de l'étude de l'apprentissage, notamment de l'habituation, et plus particulièrement chez le ver. Collaboratrice de McSweeny et Thompson.
RANKIN, C.H., CHIBA, C. & BECK, C. (1990). Caenorhabditis elegans : A new model system for the study of learning and memory. Behavioral Brain Research, 37, 89-92.
RANKIN, C.H. & WICKS, S.R. & GANNONO, T.N. (2000). A developmental analysis of habituation in the nematode C. elegans. Developmental Psychobiology, 36, 261-270.
RANKIN, C.H. & WICKS, S.R. (2000). Mutations of the C. elegans brain-specific inorganic phosphate tran porter eat-4 affect habituation of the tap-withdrawal response without affecting the response itself. Journal of Neuroscience, 20, 4337-4344.
RANKIN, C.H. (2004). What can't a worm learn ? Current Biology 14, 617-618
RANKIN, C.H., ABRAMS, T., BARRY, R.J., BHATNAGAR, S. CLAYTON, D., COLOMBO, J., COPPOLA, G., GEYER, M.A., GLANZMAN, D.L., MARSLAND, S., MCSWEENEY, F., WILSON, D.A., WU, C.F. & THOMPSON, R.F. (2009). Habituation revisited : An updated and revised description of the behavioral characteristics of habituation. Neurobiology of Learning & Memory 92, 135-138. [PDF]
Ranschburg Paul (1870-1945) : Psychiatre hongrois. Il a découvert l'effet inhibitif de répétition qui porte aujourd'hui son nom.

RANSCHBURG, P. (1905). A gyermeki elme fejlõdése és mûködése, különös tekintettel a lelki rendellenességekre, ezek elhárítására és orvoslására / Development and functioning of the child’s mind, especially mental abnormalities, their prevention and therapy. Budapest : Atheneum.
RANSCHBURG, P. (1923). The human mind. Budapest : Pantheon.
 
Ranvier Louis-Antoine (Lyons 1835-1922 Vendranges France) : Physiologiste français, spécialisé dans l'étude de la cellule. Professeur de Bowditch. Collaborateur de Bernard.
 
 
 
 
 
Rao J.N.K. ( ) : Mathématicien et statisticien canadien, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'estimation et de l'inférence statistiques. Il s'intéresse également à l'échantillonnage et aux enquêtes par sondage.
RAO, J.N.K. & SCOTT, A.J. (1984). On chi-squared tests for multiway contingency tables with cell proportions estimated from survey data. Annals of Statistics, 12, 46-60.
RAO, J.N.K. & WU, C.F.J. (1988). Resampling inference with complex survey data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 83, 231-241.
RAO, J.N.K & SITTER, R.R. (1995). Variance estimation under two-phase sampling with application to imputation for missing data. Biometrika, 82, 453-460.
RAO, J.N.K. & SHAO, J. (1999). Modified balanced repeated replication for complex survey data. Biometrika, 86, 403-415.
RAO, J.N.K. & FULLER, W.A. (2017). Sample survey theory and methods : Past, present, and future directions. Survey Methodology, 43 (2), 145-160. [PDF]
Rapee Ron M. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste australien, spécialisé dans l'étude et le traitement des phobies et des troubles d'anxitété. Collaborateur de Clark, Ehlers et Heimberg.
RAPEE, R.M. & HEIMBERG, R.G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 35 (8), 741-756. [PDF]
RAPEE, R.M. (2002). The development and modification of temperamental risk for anxiety disorders : Prevention of lifetime of anxiety ? Biological Psychiatry, 52, 947-957.
RAPEE, R.M., SCHNIERING, C.A. & HUDSON J.L. (2009). Anxiety disorders during childhood and adolescence : Origins and treatment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 311-341. [PDF]
RAPEE, R.M., TITOV, N. & DEAR, B. (2015). A research agenda to progress treatment of social anxiety disorder : Commentary on Crome et al., DSM-IV and DSM-5 Social Anxiety Disorder in the Australian Community. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 49 (3), 292-293.
RAPEE, R.M. (2015). Nature and psychological management of anxiety disorders in youth. Journal of Paediatrics & Child Health, 51, 280-284.
Rapidité : Voir Vitesse.
Rapoport/Rappaport
Amnon Rapoport D. Rappaport Julian Rappaport
Anatol Rapoport David Rappaport  
 
Rapoport Amnon ( ) : Psychologue américain, d'origine israélienne, et spécialiste de l'étude du choix et de la théorie des jeux. Collaborateur de Tversky et Zwick.
RAPOPORT, A. (1964). Sequential decision-making in a computer-controlled task. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 1, 351-374.
RAPOPORT, A., WALLSTEN, T.S., EREV, I. & COHEN, B.L. (1990). Revision of opinion with verbally and numerically expressed uncertainty. Acta Psychologica, 74, 61-69.
RAPOPORT, A., EREV, I. & ZWICK, R. (1995). Bargaining behavior in bilateral monopoly with one-sided incomplete information. Management Science, 41 (3), 377-394. [PDF]
RAPOPORT, A., EREV, I., ABRAHAM, E.V. & OLSON, D.E. (1997). Randomization and adaptive learning in a simplified poker game. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 69, 31-49. [PDF]
RAPOPORT, A. & AMALDOSS, W. (2008). In search of experimental support for an asymmetric equilibria solution in symmetric investment games. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 67, 200-203. [PDF]
Rapoport Anatol (Lozovaya 1911-2007 Toronto) : Mathématicien et psychologue américain d'origine russe. Il s'intéresse plus particulièrement à la modélisation mathématique et à la théorie des jeux. Collaborateur de Kubovy.
RAPOPORT, A. (1963). Mathematical models of social interaction. In R.D. Luce, R.R. Bush & E. Galanter (Eds.), Handbook of mathematical psychology (Vol. II, pp. 493-579). New York, NY : John Wiley and Sons.
RAPOPORT, A. (1967). Exploiter, leader, hero, and martyr : the four archetypes of the 2 X 2 game. Behavioral Science, 12, 81-84.
RAPOPORT, A. (1967). Sensitivity analysis in decision making. The Accounting Review, 441-456.
RAPOPORT, A. & WALLSTEN, T.S. (1972). Individual decision behavior. Annual Review of Psychology, 23, 131-176.
RAPOPORT, A. (1974). Game theory as a theory of conflict resolution. D. Riedel Publishing Company.
Rapp John T. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain, spécialiste du renforcement automatique et des troubles du comportement chez les personnes ayant des retards du développement. Étudiant de Miltenberger et Vollmer. Professeur de Lanovaz. Collaborateur de Borrero, Carr, Ghezzi et Patel.
RAPP, J.T., MILTENBERGER, R.G., GALENSKY, T.L., ELLINGTON, S.A. & LONG, E.S. (1999). A functional analysis of hair pulling. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 329-337. [PDF]
RAPP, J.T., VOLLMER, T.R., ST. PETER, C., ST. PETER, C. & COTNOIR, N. (2004). Analysis of response allocation in individuals with multiple forms of stereotyped behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37 (4), 481-500. [PDF]
RAPP, J.T. (2006). An empirical method for identifying matched stimulation : A preliminary investigation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 137-140. [PDF]
RAPP, J.T. (2007). Further evaluation of methods to identify matched stimulation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40, 73-88. [PDF]
RAPP, J.T., Rojas NC, Colby-Dirksen AM, Swanson GJ, Marvin KL.(2010). Predicting preference for items during periods of extended access based on early response allocation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 43 (3), 473–486. [PDF]
Rappaport D. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain. Collaborateur de Bruner, Brunswick, Festinger, Heider et Osgood.

BRUNER, J.S., BRUNSWICK, E., FESTINGER, E., HEIDER, F., MUENZINGER, K.E., OSGGOD, C.E. & RAPPAPORT, D. (1957). Contempary approaches to cognition. Cambridge, England : Cambridge University Press.
RAPPAPORT, D. (1966). Understanding and teaching elementary school mathematics. New York : John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
 
 
Rappaport David (Budapest 1911-1960 Stockbridge États-Unis) : Psychanalyste américain d'origine hongroise.
RAPPAPORT, D. (1951). Organization and pathology of thought. New York : Columbia University Press.
RAPPAPORT, D. (1960). The structure of psychoanalytic theory : A systematizing attempt. Psychological, 2, (Monograph, 6).
 
 
Rappaport Julian ( ) : Psychologue écologiste américain.
RAPPAPORT, J. (1977). Community psychology : Values, research, and action. New York : Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
RAPPAPORT, J. (1981). Praise of paradox : A social policy of empowerment over prevention. American Journal of Community Psychology, 9 (1), 1-25. [PDF]
HUMPHRIES, K. & RAPPAPORT, J. (1993). From the community mental health movement to the war on drugs : A study in the definition of social problems. American Psychologist, 48 (8), 892-901.
RAPPAPORT, J. & SEIDMAN, E. (Eds.) (2000). Handbook of community psychology. New York : Plenum/Kluwer.
RAPPAPORT, J. (2005). Community psychology is (thank God) more than science. American Journal of Community Psychology, 35, 231-238.
 
Rappel : Fonction cognitive ou aptitude à retrouver et à reproduire l'nformation conservée dans la mémoire à long terme. Rappel et reconnaissance. = par-coeur. ( ): rappel indicé, rappel libre, rappel séquentiel. Recall, immediate recall.

Types de rappel
Rappel indicé Rappel libre Rappel séquentiel
 

  RAFFEL, G. (1931). The effect of recall on recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 17 (6), 828-838. MILLER, J.R. & KINTSCH, W. (1980). Readability and recall for short passages : A theoretical analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 6, 335-354.
MEYER, G. (1936). The effects of recall and recognition of the examination set in classroom situations. Journal of Educational Psychology, 17, 81-99.  
BOUSFIELD, W.A., COHEN, B.H. & WHITMARSH, G.A. (1958). Associative clustering in the recall of words of different taxonomic frequencies of occurrence. Psychological Reports, 4, 39-44. CECI, S.J. (1980). A developmental study of multiple-encoding and its relationship to recall performance. Child Development, 51, 892-895.
DEESE, J. (1959). Influence of inter-item associative strength upon immediate free recall. Psychological Reports, 5, 305-312. WNEK, I. & READ, J . D. (1980). Recall and recognition encoding differences for low- and high-frequency words. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 50, 391-394.
DEESE, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22. BRODY, L.R. (1981). Visual short term cued recall memory in infancy. Child Development, 52, 242 250.
WAUGH, N.C. (1961). Free versus serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 496-502.  
DALLETT, K.M. (1963). Practice effects in free and ordered recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 66, 65-71. METCALFE, J. (1982). A composite holographic associative recall model. Psychological Review, 89 (6), 627-661. [PDF]
EVANS, R.B. & DALLENBACH, K.M. (1965). Single-trial learning: a stochastic model for the recall of individual words. American Journal of Psychology, 78, 545-556. SCHMIDT, S.R. (1982). The effects of recall and recognition test expectancies on the retention of prose. Memory & Cognition, 11 (2), 172-180. [PDF]
TULVING, E. & OSLER, S. (1967). Transfer effects in whole-part free-recall learning. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 21, 235-244. [PDF] GILLUND, G. & SHIFFRIN, R.M. (1984). A retrieval model for both recognition and recall. Psychological Review, 91 (1), 1-67. [PDF]
TULVING, E. (1968). When is recall higher than recognition? Psychonomic Science, 5 (2), 53-54. [PDF] ROEDIGER, H.L. & PAYNE, D.G. (1985). Recall criterion does not affect recall level or hypermnesia : A puzzle for generate/recognize theories. Memory & Cognition, 13, 1-7. [PDF]
TIBERGHIEN, G. (1968). Étude de la certitude du rappel au cours d'un apprentissage verbal. L'Année Psychologique, 68, 357-372. SMITH, A.P., JONES, D. & BROADBENT, D.E. (1981). The effects of noise on recall of categorized lists. British Journal of Psychology, 72, 299-316. [PDF]
CRAIK, F.I.M. (1968). Two components in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 7, 996-1004. WATKINS, M.J. & KERKAR, S.P. (1985). Recall of a twice-presented item without recall of either presentation : Generic memory for events. Journal of Memory & Language, 24, 666-678.
BROOK, L. (1968). Spatial and verbal components in the act of recall. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 22, 349-368. LORCH, R.F. & CHEN, A.H. (1986). Effects of number signals on reading and recall. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 263-270.
ALLEN, G.A., MAHLER, W.A. & ESTES W.K. (1969). Effects of recall tests on long-term retention of paired associates. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8 (4), 463-470. GROSSBERG, S. & STONE, G.O. (1986). Neural dynamics of word recognition and recall : Attentional priming, learning, and resonance. Psychological Review, 93, 46-74.
POLLIO, H.R., RICHARDS, S. & LUCAS, R. (1969). Temporal properties of category recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8, 529-536.  
MADIGAN, S.A. (1969). Intraserial repetition and coding processes in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8, 829-835.  
BOWER, G.H., LESGOLD, A.M. & TIEMAN, D.G. (1969). Grouping operations in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Vebal Behavior, 8, 481-493.  
BOWER, G.H. & LESGOLD, A.M. (1969). Organization as a determinant of part-to-whole transfer in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 8, 501-506.  
FUCHS, A.H. (1969). Recall for order and content of serial word lists in short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 82 (1), 14-21. NORMAN, G.R., BROOKS, L.R. & ALLEN, S.W. (1989). Recall by expert medical practitioners and novices as a record of processing attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 15, 1166-1174.
HAZARI, A. & SINGH, R. (1969). Social maladaptation as a factor in the recall of completed and interrupted tasks. Indian Psychological Review, 5, 122-125. DAMASIO, A.R. (1989). Time-locked multiregional retroactivation : A systems-level proposal for the neural substrates of recall and recognition. Cognition, 33 (1-2), 25-62.
COHEN, R.L. (1970). Recency effects in long-term recall and recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 672-678.  
KINTSCH, W. (1970). Models for free recall and recognition. In D.A. Norman (Ed.), Models of human memory. New York : Academic Press.  
JOHNSON. R. E. (1970). Recall of prose as a function of the structural importance of the linguistic units. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 9, 12-20.  
RUNDUS, D.J., LOFTUS, G.R. & ATKINSON, R.C. (1970). Immediate free recall and three-week delayed recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 684-688. VICENTE, K.J. & DE GROOT, A.D. (1990). The memory recall paradigm : Straightening out the historical record. American Psychologist, 45, 285-287.
MADIGAN, S.A. (1971). Modality and recall order interactions in short-term memory for serial order. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 87 (2), 294-296.  
PALMER, S.E. & ORNSTEIN, P.A. (1971). Role of rehearsal strategy in serial probed recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88, 60-66. BOWER, G.H. & MANN, T. (1992). Improving recall by recoding interfering material at the time of retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 18 (6), 1310-1320. [PDF]
MADIGAN, S.A. & McCABE, L. (1971). Perfect recall and total forgetting : A problem for models of short-term memory. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 10, 101-106. RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. & SHIFFRIN, R.M. (1992). Models for recall and recognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 205-234. [PDF]
LOFTUS, G.R. (1971). Comparison of recognition and recall in a continuous memory task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 91, 220-226. [PDF] WHEELER, M.A. (1995). Improvement in recall over time without repeated testing: Spontaneous recovery revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 21 (1), 173–184.
SEAMON, J.G. (1972). Serial position effects in probe recall : Effect of rehearsal on reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 96, 460-462. LORCH, R.F., LORCH, E.P. & KLUSEWITZ, M.A. (1995). Effects of typographical cues on reading and recall of text. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20, 51-64.
GARDINER, J.M., CRAIK, F.I.M. & BLEASDALE, F.A. (1973). Retrieval difficulty and subsequent recall. Memory & Cognition, 1, 213-216. BOWER, G.H., WAGNER, A.D., NEWMAN, E. & RANDLE, J.D. (1996). Does recoding interfering material improve recall ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 22 (1), 240-245.
 JACOBY, L.L. (1973). Encoding process, rehearsal, and recall requirements. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 12, 302-310. [PDF] HITCH, G.J., BURGESS, N., TOWSE, J.N. & CULPIN, V. (1996). Temporal grouping effects in immediate recall : A working memory analysis. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 49A, 140-158.
ROEDIGER, H.L. (1973). Inhibition in recall from cueing with recall targets. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 12, 261-269. [PDF] ROSEN, V.M. & ENGLE, R.W. (1997). Forward and backward serial recall. Intelligence, 25, 37-47. [PDF]
WOODWARD, A.E., BJORK, R.A. & JONGEWARD, R.H. (1973). Recall and recognition as a function of primary rehearsal. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 12, 608- 617. WIXTED, J.T., GHADISHA, H & VERA, R. (1997). Recall latency following pure- and mixed-strength lists : A direct test of the relative strength model of free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 23, 523 538. [PDF]
TVERSKY, B. (1973). Encoding processes in recognition and recall. Cognitive Psychology, 5, 275-287. HINTZMAN, D.L., CAULTON, D.A. & LEVITIN, D.J. (1998). Retrieval dynamics in recognition and list discrimination : Further evidence of separate processes of familiarity and recall. Memory & Cognition, 26, 449-462.
ROEDIGER, H.L. (1974). Inhibiting effects of recall. Memory & Cognition, 2, 261-269. [PDF] TOGLIA, M.P., NEUSCHATZ, J.S. & GOODWIN, K.A. (1999). Recall accuracy and illusory memories : When more is less. Memory, 7, 233-256.
BJORK, R.A. & WHITTEN, W.B. (1974). Recency-sensitive retrieval processes in long- term free recall. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 173-189. [PDF]  MADEY, S. & GILOVICH, T. (1993). The effect of temporal focus on the recall of expectancy- consistent and expectancy-inconsistent information. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 458-468. [PDF]
ELMES, D.G. & BJORK, R.A. (1975). The interaction of encoding and rehearsal processes in the recall of repeated and nonrepeated items. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 14, 30-42. WRIGHT, D.B., LOFTUS, E.F. & HALL, M. (1998). Now you see it; Now you don't: Inhibiting recall and recognition of scenes. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 15, 471-482. [PDF]
BROWN. J . (1976). An analysis of recognition and recall and o f problems in their comparison. In J. Brown (Ed.), Recall and recognition. New York : Wiley. THAPAR, A. & McDERMOTT, K.B. (2001). False recall and false recognition induced by presentation of associated words : Effects of retention interval and level of processing. Memory & Cognition, 29 (3), 424-432. [PDF]
MODIGLIANI, V. (1976). Effects on a later recall by delaying initial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 2, 609-622. HOUTS, P.S., WITMER, J.T., EGETH H.E., LOSCALZO, M.J. & ZABORA, J.T. (2001). Using pictographs to enhance recall of spoken medical instructions. Patient Education & Counseling, 43, 231-242. [PDF]
CONNOR, J. M. (1977). Effects of organization and expectancy on recall and recognition. Memory & Cognition, 5, 315-318. BADDELEY, A. & WILSON, B.A. (2002). Prose recall and amnesia : implications for the structure of working memory. Neuropsychologia, 40 (10), 1737-1743.
MANDLER, J.M. & JOHNSON, N.S. (1977). Remembrance of things parsed : Story structure and recall. Cognitive Psychology, 9, 111-151. ESKRITT, M. & LEE, K. (2002). Remember where you last saw that card' : Children’s production of external symbols as a memory aid. Developmental Psychology, 38, 254-266. [PDF]
ROEDIGER, H.L., STELLON, C. & TULVING, E. (1977). Inhibition from part-list cues and rate of recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 3, 174-188. [PDF] ALTMANN, E.M. & GRAY, W.D. (2002). Forgetting to remember : The fonctional relationship of decay and interference. Psychological Science, 13 (1), 27-33.
KRUGMAN, H.E. (1977). Memory without recall, exposure without perception. Journal of Advertising Research, 17, 7-12. [PDF] CASTEL, A.D., BENJAMIN, A.S., CRAIK, F.I.M. & WATKINS, M.J. (2002). The effects of aging on selectivity and control in short-term recall. Memory & Cognition, 30 (7), 1078-1085. [PDF]
ROEDIGER, H.L. STELLON, C. & TULVING, E. (1977). Inhibition from part-list cues and rate of recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 3, 174-188. [PDF] SORACI, S.A., CARLIN, M.T., TOGLIA, M.P., CHECHILE, R.A. & NEUSCHATZ, J.S. (2003). Generative processing and false memories : When there is no cost. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 29, 511-523.
ROEDIGER, H.L. (1978). Recall as a self-limiting process.Memory & Cognition, 6, 54-63. [PDF] CLAYTON, N.S., BUSSEY, T.J. & DICKINSON, A. (2003). Can animals recall the past and plan for the future ? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 4, 685-691. [PDF]
ANDERSON, R.C. & PICHERT, J.W. (1978). Recall of previously unrecallable information following a shift in perspective. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behaviour, 17, 1-12. BRAINERD, C.J., PAYNE, D.G., WRIGHT, R. & REYNA, V.F. (2003). Phantom recall. Journal of Memory & Language, 48, 445-467.
THOMPSON, C.P., WENGER, S.K. & BARTLINGS, C.A. (1978). How recall facilitates subsequent recall : A reappraisal. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human, Learning & Memory, 4, 210-221. OBERAUER, K. (2003). Understanding serial position curves in short-term recognition and recall. Journal of Memory & Language, 49, 469-483.
AUBLE, P.M. & FRANKS, J.J. (1978). The effects of effort toward comprehension on recall. Memory & Cognition, 6, 20-25.  WIXTED, J.T. & SQUIRE, L.R. (2004). Recall and recognition are equally impaired in patients with selective hippocampal damage. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 4 (1), 58-66. [PDF]
WATKINS, M.J. & TODRES, A.K. (1978). On the relation between recall and recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 17,621-623. NAIRNE, J.S., CEO, D.A. & REYSEN, M.B. (2007). The mnemonic effects of recall on immediate retention. Memory & Cognition, 35, 191-199. [PDF]
MURDOCK, B. & METCALFE, J. (1978). Controlled rehearsal in single trial free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 17, 309-324. [PDF] HOLLIDAY, R.E., BRAINERD, C.J. & REYNA, V.F. (2008). Recall of details never experienced : Effects of age, repetition, and semantic cues. Cognitive Development, 23, 67-78.
FLEXSER, A.J. & TULVING, E. (1978). Retrieval independance in recognition and recall. Psychological Review, 85 (3), 153-171. VERDE, M.F. (2009). The list-strength effect in recall : Relative-strength competition and retrieval inhibition may both contribute to forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 35, 205-220. [PDF]
BAGGETT, P. (1979). Structurally equivalent stories in movie and text and the effect of the medium on recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 18, 333-356. UNSWORTH, N. (2009). Variation in working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, and episodic recall : A latent variable examination of differences in the dynamics of free recall. Memory & Cognition, 37, 837-849. [PDF]
ROEDIGER, H.L. & TULVING, E. (1979). Exclusion of learned material from recall as a postretrieval operation. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 18, 601-615. [PDF] LAMING, D. (2009). Failure to recall. Psychological Review, 116 (1), 157-186.
SPIRO, R.J. (1980). Accomodative reconstruction in prose recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 19, 84-95. ZAROMB, F.M. & ROEDIGER, H.L. (2009). The effects of "effort after meanin" on recall : Differences in within- and between-subjects designs Memory & Cognition, 37 (4), 447-463. [PDF]
TIBERGHIEN, G. (1980). Rappel et reconnaissance : Les processus d'encodage et de recherche. L'Année Psychologique, 80, 501-521. CHAN, J.C.K. (2010). Long-term effects of testing on the recall of nontested materials. Memory, 18, 49-57. [PDF]
JUDD, C.M. & KULIK, J.A. (1980). Schematic effects of social attitudes on information processing and recall. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 38, 569-578. LAMING, D. (2012). Recalling the list-before-last : a cautionary tale. Mathematics & Social Sciences, 199 (3), 61-69. [PDF]
BALOTA, D.A. & NEELY, J.H. (1980). Test-expectancy and word- frequency effects in recall and recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning & Memory, 6, 576-587. FARRELL, S., HURLSTONE, M.J. & LEWANDOSKY, S. (2013). Sequential dependencies in recall of sequences : Filling in the blanks. Memory & Cognition, 39, (6), 938-952. [PDF]
  VERDE, M.F. (2013). Retrieval-induced forgetting in recall : Competitor interference revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 39, 1433-1448. [PDF]
Voir aussi Mémoire, Traitement de l'information, Rappel libre et Rappel séquentiel
 
Rappel (indice de...) : Indice ou contexte dans lequel une information a été mémorisée et qui facilite habituellement son rappel. EX: Dans un examen à développement, la question est l'indice qui permet le rappel. : Dans une tâche de rappel indicé, le participant doit produire à l'aide d'indices les éléments mémorisés (liste de mots, syllabes non-sens, etc.). = mémoire dépendante du contexte, rappel indicé. Cued recall, Environmental context-dependent memory.
  DONG, T. (1972). Cued partial recall of categorized words. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 93, 123-129. SLOMAN, S.A., BOWER, G.H. & ROHRER, D. (1991). Congruency effects in part list cuing inhibition. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 17, 974-982. [PDF]
BASDEN, D.R. (1973). Cued and uncued recall of unrelated words following interpolated learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 98, 429-431. SRINIVAS, K., ROEDIGER, H.L. & RAJARAM, S. (1992). The role of syllabic and orthographic properties of letter cues in solving word fragments. Memory & Cognition, 20, 219-230. [PDF]
ROEDIGER, H.L. & ADELSON, B. (1980). Semantic specificity in cued recall. Memory & Cognition, 8, 65-74. [PDF] SMITH, S.M. & VELA, E. (2001). Environmental context-dependent memory : A review and meta-analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8 (2), 203-220. [PDF]
ROEDIGER, H.L. & PAYNE, D.G. (1983). Superiority of free recall to cued recall with "strong" cues. Psychological Research, 45, 275-286. [PDF] COOK G.I., MARSH, R.L. & HICKS, J.L. (2006). Source memory in the absence of successful cued recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 32, 828-835. [PDF]
HEALY, A.F., FENDRICH, D.W., CUNNINGHAM, T.F. & TILL, R.E. (1987). Effect of cueing on short-term retention of order information. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 13, 413-425. VOLK, H.E., McDERMOTT, K.B., ROEDIGER, H.L. & TODD, R.D. (2006). Genetic influences on free and cued recall in long-term memory tasks. Twin Research & Human Genetics, 9, 623-631. [PDF]
WELDON, M.S., ROEDIGER, H.L. & CHALLIS, B.H. (1989). The properties of retrieval cues constrain the picture superiority effect. Memory & Cognition, 17, 95-105. CASTEL, A.D. (2008). Metacognition and learning about primacy and recency effects in free recall : The utilization of intrinsic and extrinsic cues when making judgments of learning. Memory & Cognition, 36, 429-437. [PDF]
DOSHER, B.A. & ROSEDALE, G.S. (1989). Integrated retrieval cues as a mechanism for priming in retrieval from memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 118, 191-211.  
Voir aussi Indice et Rappel
Rappel (Temps de...) : Time of retrieval.

  COLLINS, A.M., LOFTUS, E.F. & QUILLIAN, M.R. (1969). Retrieval time from semantic memory. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8 (2), 240-248. [PDF]
BOWER, G.H. & MANN, T. (1992). Improving recall by recoding interfering material at the time of retrieval. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 18 (6), 1310-1320. [PDF]
Voir aussi Rappel
Rappel libre : Dans une tâche de rappel libre, le participant doit se remémorer, avec un minimum d'indices, les éléments qui lui ont été présentés, peu importe leur ordre. Free recall.

  DEESE, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of par- ticular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 58, 17-22. ROEDIGER, H.L. & CROWDER, R.G. (1975). The spacing of lists in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 14, 590-602. [PDF]
DEESE, J. (1960). Frequency of usage and number of words in free recall : The role of association. Psychological Reports, 7, 337-344. JOHNSTON, W.A. & UHL, C.N. (1976). The contribution of encoding effort and variability to the spacing effect on free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 2, 153-160.
WAUGH, N.C. (1961). Free versus serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 496-502. HASHER, L., REIBMAN, B. & WREN, F. (1976). Imagery and the retention of free-recall learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 2, 172-181. [PDF]
TULVING, E. (1962). Subjective organization in free recall of "unrelated" words. Psychological Review, 69 (4), 344-354. [PDF] EINSTEIN, G.O. (1976). Effects of simultaneous interference on free recall learning and retention. Memory & Cognition, 4, 701-708.
MURDOCK, B.B. (1962). The serial position effect in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 64, 482-488. MURDOCK, B.B. & METCALFE, J. (1978). Controlled rehearsal in single trial free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 17, 309-324. [PDF]
  BUCHANAN, J.P., GILL, T.V. & BRAGGIO, J.T. (1981). Serial position and clustering effects in a chimpanzee's "free recall". Memory & Cognition, 9, 651-660.
  METCALFE, J. & MURDOCK, B. (1981). An encoding and retrieval model of single-trial free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 20, 161-189. [PDF]
  JUBIS, R.T. (1986). Effects of alcohol and nicotine on free recall of relevant cues. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 62, 363-369.
WAUGH, N.C. (1962). The effect of intrahst repetition of free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 1, 95-99. WIXTED, J.T. & McDOWELL, J.J. (1989). Contributions to the functional analysis of single-trial free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 15, 685-697. [PDF]
  WIXTED, J.T. & ROHRER, D. (1993). Proactive inter- ference and the dynamics of free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 19, 1024 1039. [PDF]
ASCH, S.E. & EBENHOLTZ, S.M. (1962). The process of free recall: Evidence for non-associative factors in acquisition and retention. Journal of Psychology, 54, 3-31. GOLDSTONE, R.L. & CHIN, C. (1993). Dishonesty in self-report of copies made: Moral relativity and the Xerox machine. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 14, 19-32.
  ROHRER, D. & WIXTED, J.T. (1994). An analysis of latency and interresponse time in free recall. Memory & Cognition, 22, 511-524. [PDF]
  WIXTED, J.T. & ROHRER, D. (1994). Analyzing the dynamics of free recall : An integrative review of the empirical literature. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1, 89-106. [PDF]
DALLETT, K.M. (1964). Number of categories and category information in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68, 1-12. DELOSH, E.L. & McDANIEL, M.A. (1996). The role of order information in free recall : Application to the word-frequency effect. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 22, 1136-1146.
CROWDER, R.G. & MELTON, A.W. (1965). The Ranschburg phenomenon : Failure of immediate recall correlated with repetition of elements within a stimulus. Psychonomlc Science, 2, 295-296. LORCH, R.F. & LORCH, E.P. (1996). Effects of organizational signals on free recall of expository text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 38-48.
POSTMAN, L. & PHILLIPS, L.W. (1965). Short-term tem- poral changes in free recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 17, 132-138. KAHANA, M.J. (1996). Associative retrieval processes in free recall. Memory & Cognition, 24, 103-109. [PDF]
  NAIRNE, J.S., NEATH, I., SERRA, M. & BYUN, E. (1997). Positional dis- tinctiveness and ratio rule in free recall. Journal of Memory & Language, 37, 155-166.
COFER, C.N., BRUCE, D.R. & REICHER, G. M. (1966). Clustering in free recall as a function of certain methodological variations. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 71, 858-866. WIXTED, J.T., GHADISHA, H. & VERA, R. (1997). Recall latency following pure- and mixed-strength lists : A direct test of the relative strength model of free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 23, 523 538. [PDF]
GLANZER, M. & CUNITZ, A.R. (1966). Two storage mechanisms in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behaviour, 5, 351-360. [PDF] BEAMAN, C.P. & JONES, D.M. (1998). Irrelevant sound disrupts order information in free recall as in serial recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 615-636.
TURVEY, M.T. (1967). Repetition and the preperceptual information store. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 74, 289-293. WINGFIELD, A., LINDFIELD, K.C. & KAHANA, M.J. (1998). Adult age differences in the temporal characteristics of category free recall. Psychology & Aging, 13 (2), 256-266. [PDF]
TULVING, E. (1967). The effects of presentation and recall of material in free-recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 6, 175-184. [PDF] HOWARD, M.W. & KAHANA, M.J. (1999). Contextual variability and serial position effects in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning Memory & Cognition, 25, 923-941
LANDAUER, T.K. (1967). Interval between item repetition and free recall memory. Psychonomic Science, 8, 439-440. KAHANA, M.J. & JACOBS, J. (2000). Inter-response times in serial recall : Effects of intraserial repetition. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 26, 1188-1197. [PDF]
WAUGH, N.C. (1967). Presentation time and free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 73, 39-64. TAN, L. & WARD, G. (2000). A recency-based account of the primacy effect in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 26, 1589-1626.
  BEAMAN, C.P. & MORTON, J. (2000). The separate but related origins of the recency effect and the modality effect in free recall. Cognition, 77, 59-65. [PDF]
STANDING, L. & DA POLITO, F. (1968). Limitations of the repetition effect revealed by partial report. Psychonomic Science, 13,297-298. KAHANA, M.J. & WINGFIELD, A. (2000). A functional relation between learning and organization in free recall. ?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 7 (3), 516-521. [PDF]
BROWN, J. (1968). Reciprocal facilitation and inhibition in free recall. Psychonomic Science, 10, 41-42. CARLIN, M.T., SORACI, S.A., DENNIS, N.A., CHECHILE, N.A. & LOISELLE, R.C. (2001). Enhancing free-recall rates of individuals with mental retardation. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 106, 314-326.
SLAMECKA, N.J. (1968). An examination of trace storage in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76, 504-513. KAHANA, M.J., HOWARD, M.W., ZAROMB, F. & WINGFIELD, A. (2002). Age dissociates recency and lag recency effects in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 28, 530-540. [PDF]
GLANZER, M. (1969). Distance between related words if free recall : Trace of the sts. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8 (1), 105-111. WARD, G., WOODWARD, G., STEVENS, A. & STINSON, C. (2003). Using overt rehearsals to explain word frequency effects in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 29, 186-210.
BOWER, G.H. (1969). Chunks as interference unit in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8, 610-613. BECKER, S. & LIM J. (2003). A computational model of prefrontal control in free recall : Strategic memory use in the California verbal learning task. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 821-832.
FAGAN, J.F (1969). Free recall learning in normal and retarded children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 8 (1), 9-19. KLEIN, K.A., ADDIS, K.M. & KAHANA, M.J. (2005). A comparative analysis of serial and free recall. Memory & Cognition, 33 (5), 833-839. [PDF]
TULVING, E. (1969). Retrograde amnesia in free recall. Science, 164, 88-90. [PDF] SIROTIN, Y.B., KIMBALL, D.R. & KAHANA, M.J. (2005). Going beyond a single list : Modeling the effects of prior experience on episodic free recall. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12 (5), 787-805. [PDF]
MADIGNAN, S.A. (1969). Intraserial repetition and coding processes in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 8, 828-835. KAHANA, M.J. & HOWARD, M.W. (2005). Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists. ?Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12 (1), 159-164. [PDF]
UNDERWOOD, B.J. (1969). Some correlates of item repetition in free-recall learning. Journal of Verbal Learmng and Verbal Behavior, 8, 83-94. HICKS, J.L., MARSH R.L. & COOK, G.I. (2005). An observation on the role of context variability in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 31, 1160-1164. [PDF]
MURDOCK, B.B. & OKADA R. (1970). Interresponse times in single-trial free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 86 (2), 263-267. VOLK, H.E., McDERMOOT, K.B., ROEDIGER, H.L. & TODD, R.D. (2006). Genetic influences on free and cued recall in long-term memory tasks. Twin Research & Human Genetics, 9, 623-631. [PDF]
HINTZMAN, D.L. (1970). Effects of repettion and exposure duration on memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 83, 435-444. LAMING, D. (2006). Predicting free recalls. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 32 (5), 1146-1163.
RUNDUS, D.J., LOFTUS, G.R. & ATKINSON, R.C. (1970). Immediate free recall and three-week delayed recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 684-688. [PDF] WARD G. & TAN L. (2004). The effect of the length of to-be-remembered lists and intervening lists on free recall : A reexamination using overt rehearsal. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition 30 (6), 1196-1210.
KINTSCH, W. (1970). Models for free recall and recognition. In D. A. Norman (Ed.), Models of human memory. New York : Academic Press.  
CRAIK, F.I.M. (1970). The fate of primary memory items in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 143-148. KLEIN, K.A., ADDIS, K.M. & KAHANA, M.J. (2005). A comparative analysis of serial and free recall. Memory & Cognition, 33 (5), 833-839. [PDF]
RUNDUS, D., LOFTUS, G.R. & ATKINSON, R.C. (1970). Immediate free recall and three-week delayed recognition. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 9, 684-688. [PDF] KAHANA, M.J. & HOWARD, M.C. (2005). Spacing and lag effects in free recall of pure lists. Psychonomic Bulletin & review, 12 (19), 159-164. [PDF]
COLE, M. & FRANKEL, F. (1971). Measures of category clustering in free recall. Psychological Bulletin, 76, 39-44. MARSH R.L., MEEKS, J.T., HICKS J.L., COOK, G.I. & CLARK-FOSS, A. (2006). Concreteness and item-to-list context associations in the free recall of items differing in context variability. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 32, 1421-1430. [PDF]
FORRESTER, W.E. & KING, D.J. (1971). Effects of semantic and acoustic relatedness on free recall and clustering.Journal of Experimental Psychology, 88 (1), 16-19. SEDERBERG, P.B., HOWARD, M.W. & KAHANA, M.J. (2008). A context-based theory of recency and contiguity in free recall. Psychological Review, 115 (4), 893-912.
HASHER, L. (1971). Retention of free recall learning : The whole-part problem. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 90, 8-17. [PDF] CASTEL, A.D. (2008). Metacognition and learning about primacy and recency effects in free recall : The utilization of intrinsic and extrinsic cues when making judgments of learning. Memory & Cognition, 36, 429-437. [PDF]
WOODWARD, A.E. & BJORK, R.A. (1971). Forgetting and remembering in free recall : Intentional and unintentional. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 89, 109-116. LAMING, D. (2008). An improved algorithm for predicting free recalls. Cognitive Psychology, 57 (3), 179-221.
ELMES, D.G., ROEDIGER, H.L., WILKINSON, W.C. & GREENER, W.I. (1972). Positive and negative part/whole transfer in free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 11, 251-256. [PDF] TOPPINO, T.C., FEARNOW-KENNEY, M.D., KIEPERT, M.H. & TEREMULA, A.C. (2009). The spacing effect in intentional and incidental free recall by children and adults : Limits on the automaticity hypothesis. Memory & Cognition, 37 (3), 316-325. [PDF]
TULVING, E. & HASTIE, R. (1972). Inhibition effects of intralist repetition in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 92 (3), 297-304. [PDF] NORMAN, K.A. & KAHANA, M.J. (2009). A context maintenance and retrieval model of organizational processes in free recall Psychological Review, 116 (1), 129-156. [PDF]
ANDERSON, J.R. & BOWER, G.H. (1972). Recognition and retrieval processes in free recall. Psycho- logical Review, 79, 97-123.  
PAIVIO, A. & CSAPO, K. (1973). Picture superiority in free recall : Imagery or dual coding? Cognitive Psychology, 5, 176-206. LAMING, D. (2009). Failure to recall. Psychological Review, 116 (1), 157-186.
BJORK, R.A. & WOODWARD, A.E. (1973). Directed forgetting of individual words in free recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 99, 22-27. LAMING, D. (2010). Serial position curves in free recall. Psychological Review, 117 (1), 93-133.
TZENG, O.J.L. (1973). Positive recency effect in delayed free recall. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 12, 436-439. UNSWORTH, N., SPILLERS, G.J. & BREWER, G.A. (2010). Understanding the dynamics of correct and error responses in free recall : Evidence from externalized free recall. Memory & Cognition, 38, 419-430. [PDF]
HASHER, L. (1973). Position effects in free recall. American Journal of Psychology, 86, 389-397. [PDF] WARD, G., TAN, L. & GRENFELL-ESSAM, R. (2010). Examining the relationship between free recall and immediate serial recall : The effects of list length and output order. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 36 (5), 1207-1241.
BELLEZZA, F.S. & HOFSTETTER, G.P. (1974). Isolation, serial position, and rehearsal in free recall. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 3 (5A), 362-364. [PDF]  
MAZURYK, G.F. & LOCKHART, R.S. (1974). Negative recency and levels of processing in free recall. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 28, 114-123. McCABE, D.P., ROEDIGER, H.L. & KARPICKE, J.D. (2011). Automatic processing influences free recall : Converging evidence from the process dissociation procedure and remember-know judgments. Memory & Cognition, 39, 389-402. [PDF]
BJORK, R.A. & WHITTEN, W.B. (1974). Recency-sensitive retrieval processes in long- term free recall. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 173-189. MANNING, J.R. & KAHANA, M.J. (2012). Interpreting semantic clustering effects in free recall. Memory, 20 (5), 511-517. [PDF]
EINSTEIN, G.O. PELLIGRINO, J.W., MONDANI, M.S. & BATTIG, W.F. (1974). Free recall performance as a function of overt rehearsal frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 103, 440-449. UNSWORTH N., SPILLERS G.J., BREWER G.A. (2012). Evidence for noisy contextual search : Examining the dynamics of list-before-last recall. Memory 20 (1), 1-13. [PDF]
HASHER, L. & CLIFTON, D. (1974). A developmental study of attribute encoding in free recall. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 17, 332-346. [PDF] LAMING, D. (2012). Recalling the list-before-last: a cautionary tale. Mathematics & Social Sciences, 199 (3), 61-69. [PDF]
Voir Mémoire, Rappel et Rappel séquentiel
 
Rappel séquentiel : Dans une tâche de rappel séquentiel, le participant doit se remémorer les éléments dans l'ordre de présentation de ceux-ci. = rappel sériel. Serial recall.

  WAUGH, N.C. (1961). Free versus serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62, 496-502. ROSEN, V.M. & ENGLE, R.W. (1997). Forward and backward serial recall. Intelligence, 25, 37-47.
HINRICHS, J.V. & McKOON, G. (1971). Order and number requirements in immediate serial recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 87, 215-219. [PDF] PAGE, M.P.A. & BEAMAN, C.P. & JONES, D.M. (1998). Irrelevant sound disrupts order information in free recall as in serial recall. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 51A, 615-636.
  NORRIS, D. (1998). The primacy model : A new model of immediate serial recall. Psychological Review, 105, 761-781.
  HULME, C., BROWNE, G. & MORIN, C. (2003). High- and low-frequency words are recalled equally well in alternating lists : Evidence for associative effects in serial recall. Journal of Memory & Language, 49, 500-518.
BJORK, R.A. & WHITTEN, W. B. (1974). Recency-sensitive retrieval processes in long-term free recall. Cognitive Psychology, 6, 173-189. NORRIS, D., BADDELEY, A.D. & PAGE, M.P.A. (2004). Retroactive effects of irrelevant speech on serial recall from short-term memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 30, 1093-1105. [PDF]
  SAINT-AUBIN, J., OUELLETE, D. & POIRIER, M.(2005). Semantic similarity and immediate serial recall : Is there an effect on all trials? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 12, 171-177.
WATKINS, M.J. & WATKINS, O.C. (1977). Serial recall and the modality effect : Effects of word frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Learning & Memory, 3, 712-718. KLEIN, K.A., ADDIS, K.M. & KAHANA, M.J. (2005). A comparative analysis of serial and free recall. Memory & Cognition, 33 (5), 833-839. [PDF]
NAIRNE, J.S. & PUSEN, C. (1984). Serial recall of imagined voices. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 23, 331-342. ARCHIBALD, L.M.D. & GATHERCOLE, S.E. (2007). Nonword repetition and serial recall : Equivalent measures of verbal short-term memory ? Applied Psycholinguistics, 28, 587-606.
NAIRNE, J.S. (1988). A framework for interpreting recency effects in immediate serial recall. Memory & Cognition, 16, 343-352. [PDF] NAVEH-BENJAMIN, M. COWAN, N., KILB, A. & CHEN, Z. (2007). Age-related differences in immediate serial recall : Dissociating chunk formation and capacity. Memory & Cognition, 35, 724-737.
TURNER, M. L., JOHNSON, S.K., McNAMARA, D.S. & ENGLE, R.W. (1992). Effects of same modality interference on immediate serial recall of auditory and visual information. Journal of General Psychology, 119, 247-263. OBERAUER, K. & LEWANDOWSKY, S. (2008). Forgetting in immediate serial recall : Decay, temporal distinctiveness, or interference ? Psychological Review, 115 (3), 544-576.
Voir aussi Effet de primauté, Effet de récence, Mémoire, Rappel et Rappel libre
 
Rapport : Le mot a des significations diverses : a) En général, il désigne une relation entre des parties qui, souvent, s'opposent. EX: Rapport de force. = relation, lien. ( ): rapport de force, rapport de pouvoir, rapport de sexe, rapport sociaux. b) En psychologie, il s'agit de la description qu'un sujet/répondant donne de ses états internes ou de son milieu. = rapport verbal, autodescription, description de soi, verbalisation, plainte. Verbal report. c) Il désigne aussi le résultat sous forme écrite d'une analyse qui "rapporte systématiquement" les faits, des analyses, des idées, des conclusions, des recommandations, etc. Voir aussi Rapport écrit. = rapport de recherche/scientifique. Report, scientific report. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous, à gauche. d) En mathématique, le terme renvoie à la comparaison entre deux valeurs. EX: une proportion. Ratio.

Types de rapport
Rapport de force Rapport écrit Rapport taille-épaule
Rapport de pouvoir Rapport scientifique Rapport taille-hanche
Rapport de sexe Rapport sexuel Rapport verbal
Rapport de recherche Rapport sociaux  
 


  a
Voir aussi Rapport de sexe, Rapport sociaux et Pouvoir
b
Voir aussi Rapport verbal et Autodescription
c
Voir aussi Rapport écrit
d
Voir aussi Ratio et Enseignement des mathématiques
 
Rapport (écrit) : Désigne aussi le résultat sous forme écrite d'une analyse qui "rapporte systématiquement" les faits, des analyses, des idées, des conclusions, des recommandations, etc. Certains rapports ont un contenu scientifique. = rapport de recherche. Report, scientific report. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous.

Rapporst écrits célèbres
Rapport Brundtland Rapport Hite Rapport Parent
Rapport du Club de Rome Rapport Kinsey Un Québec fou de ses enfants
 
 


 
Rapport Brundtland : Rapport rédigé en 1987 par la Commission mondiale sur l’environnement et le développement de l'Organisation des Nations unies, présidée à l'époque par la Norvégienne Gro Harlem Brundtland et dans leuqeul apparaît pour la première fois le concept de développement durable. = Notre avenir à tous.

 
Rapport de force : Voir Pouvoir.
Rapport de pouvoir : Voir Pouvoir.
Rapport de sexe : Rapport de pouvoir inégalitaire entre les hommes et les femmes. = asymétrie des genres, domination masculine, rapport de genre inégalitaire, inégalité sexuelle, bataille des sexes.

  TABET, P. (1988). La construction sociale de l’inégalité des sexes. Des outils et des corps. Paris : L’Harmattan, Bibliothèque du féminisme.
BOURDIEU, P. (1998). La domination masculine. Paris : Seuil.
DELPHY, C. (1998). L’ennemi principal. I. Économie politique du patriarcat. Paris : Syllepse.
DELPHY, C. (2001). L’ennemi principal. II. Penser le genre. Paris : Syllepse.
BEM, S.L. (1993). The lenses of gender : Transforming the debate on sexual inequality. New Haven, CT : Yale Univesity Press.
GUILLAUMIN, C. (1992). Sexe, race et pratique du pouvoir. L'idée de nature. Paris : Coté femmes.
Rapport du Club de Rome : Rapport rédigé en 1972 par le Club de Rome, ce rapport remet en question les scénarios de croissance économique illimités (car les ressources sont limitées). Cette remise en question est à l'origine des mouvements écologiques.
  MEADOWS, D.H., MEADOWS, D.L., RANDERS, J. & BEHRENS, W.W. (1972). The limits to growth : a report for the Club of Rome's project on the predicament of mankind. New York : Universe Books.
Rapport Hite : Enquête réalisé par Hite sur la sexualité des femmes.
  HITE, S. (1976/2004/1979). The Hite report on female sexuality / Le rapport Hite. Paris : Robert Laffont.
HITE, S. (1981/83). The Hite report on men and male sexuality / Le rapport Hite sur les hommes. Paris : Robert Laffont.
Rapport Kinsey : Enquête et rapport réalisé par Kinsey sur la sexualite.

  KINSEY, A.C., POMEROY, W.B. & MARTIN, C.E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male.Philadelphia : W.B. Saunders Co.
KINSEY, A.C., MARTIN, C.E., GEBHARD, P. & POMEROY, W.B. (1953). Sexual behavior in the human female. Philadelphia : Saunders.
Rapport Parent : Rapport de de la Commission royale d'enquête sur l'enseignement dans la province de Québec, rédigé par Ghislaine Roquet, Jeanne Lapointe, Guy Rocher et Gérard Filion, sous la présidence de Mgr Alphonse-Marie Parent, vice-recteur de l’Université Laval. Ce rapport, en cinq volumes, a été publié sur une période de quatre ans (1963-1966). Il est à l'origine de la modernisation du système d'éducation du Québec (Création des cégeps, des maternelles publiques, des polyvalentes, etc.). Rapport Parent, Conseil Supérieur de l'Éducation et Rocher.
  FILION, G., ROQUET, G., LAPOINTE, J. & ROCHER, G. (1963-66). Le raport Parent : Rapport de la Commission royale d’enquête sur l’enseignement dans la province de Québec- Tome 1 à 5. Québec : Publications du Québec. [LIRE]
AUDET, L.-P. (1975). Le rapport Parent, dix ans après, actes de colloque. Montréal : Bellarmin.
ROCHER, G. (2004). Un bilan du Rapport Parent: vers la démocratisation. Bulletin d'Histoire Politique, 12 (2), 117-128. [PDF]
Voir aussi Rapport
Rapport scientifique : Document à mi-chemin entre le livre et l'article, rédigé dans un style scientifique, la plupart du temps à la demande d'un organisme (privé ou public) ou dans un cours de méthode scientifique (collégial ou universitaire), qui présente la démarche et les résultats d'une recherche scientifique. = rapport de recherche, rapport empirique. Research report.
Parties d'une rapport scientifique
Page-titre
Sommaire
Problématique
Méthode
Analyse des données
Interprétation des résultats
Références
Annexe
Données brutes (facultatives)

  BLACKBURN, M., DESHAIES, B., MICHAUD, R., PATRICE, Y. & VÉZINA, R. (1964). Comment rédiger un rapport de recherche. Leméac.
PINARD, A. (1965). La présentation des thèses et des rapports scientifiques (normes et exemples). Montréal : Institut de Recherches psychologiques.
KAZDIN, A.E. (1995). Preparing and evaluating research reports. Psychological Assessment, 7, 228-237.
Voir aussi Article scienifique, Thèse et Mémoire
Rapport sexuel : Voir Relation sexuelle.
Rapport sociaux : Ensemble des relations d'interdépendance entre les individus d'un groupe, d'une culture, d'une société donnée. ( ): Voir Tableau ci-dessous.

Types de rapport sociaux
Compétition Familiarité Relation amoureuse
Connaissance Fratrie Relation d'amitié
Coopération Rivalité Relation familiale
Dominance Soumission  
 
 

 
Rapport taille-épaule : Rapport taille-épaule, attirance physique et silhouette . Waist-to-shoulder ratio.

  HUGHES, S. & GALLUP, G.G. (2003). Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior : Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evolution & Human Behavior, 24 (3), 173-178. BRAUN, M.F. & BRYAN, A. (2010). Female waist-to-hip and male waist-to-shoulder ratios as determinants of romantic partner desirability. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 23 (5), 805-819. [PDF]
Voir aussi Rapport taille-hanche, Silhouette, Beauté Préférence sexuelle et Attirance physique
Rapport taille-hanche : Rapport taille-hanche, attirance physique et silhouette. Waist-to-hip ratio.

  SINGH, D. (1993). Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness : Role of waist-to-hip ratio. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 293-307. [PDF] FEITOSA, M.F., BORECKI, I., HUNT, S.C., ARNETT, D.K., RAO, D.C. & PROVINCE, M. (2000). Inheritance of the waist-to-hip ratio in the national heart, lung, and blood institute family heart study. Obesity Research, 8, 294-301.
SINGH, D. (1993). Body shape and women's attractiveness. The critical role of waist-to-hip ratio. Human Nature, 4, 297-321. HENSS, R. (2000). Waist-to-hip ratio and female attractiveness. Evidence from photographic stimuli and methodological considerations. Personality & Individual Differences 28, 501-510. [PDF]
SINGH, D. (1994). Waist-to-hip ratio and judgments of attractiveness and healthiness of female figures by male and female physicians. International Journal of Obesity, 18, 731-737. MARLOWE, F. & WETSMAN, A. (2001). Preferred waist-to-hip ratio and ecology. Personality & Individual Differences, 30, 481-489.
SINGH, D. (1994). Ideal female body shape : Role of body weight and waist-to-hip ratio. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 16, 283-288. FURNHAM, A., LAVANCY, M. & McCLELLAND, A. (2001). Waist to hip ratio and facial attractiveness : A pilot study. Personality & Individual Differences, 30, 491-502.
SINGH, D. (1994). Is thin really beautiful and good ? Relationship between (WHR) and female attractiveness. Personality & Individual Differences, 16, 123-132. SINGH, D. (2002). Female mate value at a glance : Relationship of waist-to-hip ratio to health, fecundity and attractiveness. Human Ethology & Evolutionary Psychology, 23 (S4), 81-91. [PDF]
SINGH, D. (1995). Female health, attractiveness, and desirability for relationship : role of breast asymmetry and waist-to-hip ratio. Ethology & Sociobiology 16, 465-481. HUGHES, S. & GALLUP, G.G. (2003). Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior : Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evolution & Human Behavior, 24 (3), 173-178.
HENSS, R. (1995). Waist-to-hip ratio and attractiveness. Replication and extension. Personality & Individual Differences, 19, 479-488. FURNHAM, A., McCLELLAND, A. & OMER, L. (2003). A cross-cultural comparison of ratings of perceived fecundity and sexual attractiveness as a function of body-weight and waist-to-hip ratio. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 8, 219-220.
SINGH, D. & YOUNG, R.K. (1995). Body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, breasts, and hips : role in judgments of female attractiveness and desirability for relationships. Ethology & Sociobiology, 16, 483-507. [PDF] JASIENSKA, G., ZIMOKIEWICZ, A., ELLISON, P.T., LIPSON, S. F. & THUNE, I. (2004). Large breasts and narrow waist indicate high reproductive potential in women. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B : Biological, 271, 1213-1217.
HAN, T.S., VAN LEER, E.H., SEIDELL, J.C. & LEAN, M.E.J. (1995). Waist circumference action levels predict cardiovascular risk factors : prevalence study in a random sample. British Medical Journal, 31, 1401-1405.  
SINGH, D. & LUIS, S. (1995). Ethnic and gender consensus for the effects of waist-to-hip ratio on judgment of women's attractiveness. Human Nature, 6, 51-65. VAN ANDERS, S.M. & HAMPSON, E. (2005). Waist-to-hip ratio is positively associated with bioavailable testosterone but negatively associated with sexual desire in healthy pre-menopausal women. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67, 246-250. [PDF]
FURNHAM, A., TAN, T. & McMANUS, C. (1997). Waist-to-hip ratio and preferences for body shape : a replication and extension. Personality & Individual Differences 22 (4), 539-549. [PDF] + [PDF] PAWLOSKI, B. & DUNBAR, R.I.M. (2005). Waist-to-hip ratio versus body mass index as predictors of fitness in women. Human Nature, 16, 164-177.
TASSINARY L.G. & HANSEN, K.A. (1998). A critical test of the waist-to-hip ratio hypothesis of female physical attractiveness. Psychological Science, 9, 150-155. MARLOWE, F., APICELLA, C. & REED, D. (2005). Men's preferences for women's profile waist-to-hip ratio in two societies. Evolution & Human Behavior, 26, 458-468.
FURNHAM, A., DIAS, M. & McCLELLAND, A. (1998). The role of body weight, waist-to-hip ratio, and breast size in judgments of female attractiveness. Sex Roles, 39, 311-326. BRAUN, M.F. & BRYAN, A. (2010). Female waist-to-hip and male waist-to-shoulder ratios as determinants of romantic partner desirability. Journal of Social & Personal Relationships, 23 (5), 805-819. [PDF]
WETSMAN, A. & MARLOWE, F. (1999). How universal are preferences for female waist to-hip ratios? Evidence from the Hadza from Tanzania. Evolution & Human Behavior, 20, 219-228. DIXSON, B.J., SAGATA, K., LINKLATER, W. & DIXSON, A.F. (2010). Male preferences for female waist-to-hip ratio and body mass index in the Highlands of Papua New Guinea. Amerecian Journal of Physical Anthropology, 141 (4), 620-625. [PDF]
Voir aussi Silhouette, Beauté, Préférence sexuelle, Rapport taille-épaule et Attirance physique
 
Rapport verbal : Renseignement sur soi (introspection) et sur son milieu fournis par le participant d'une recherche (entrevue ou questionnaire) ou le patient en thérapie (symptôme subjectif). Pour certains psychologues, notamment les béhavioristes, c'est le rapport verbal en soi, et non ce qu'il signifie pour le sujet ou le chercheur, qui doit faire l'objet d'une analyse scientifique. Rapport verbal, désirabilité sociale et détecteur de mensonge simulé. = autodescription, description de soi, verbalisation, plainte. Self-report, verbal report.

  LENOX, J.R. (1970). Effect of hypnotic analgesia on verbal report and cardiovascular responses to ischemic pain. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 75, 199-206. CAMERON, R. & EVERS, S.E. (1990). Self-report issues in obesity and weight management : state of the art and future directions. Behavioral Assessment, 12 (1), 91-106.
JONES, E. & SIGALL, H. (1971). The bogus pipeline : A new paradigm for measuring affect and attitude. Psychological Bulletin, 76 (5), 349-364. SOBELL, L.C. & SOBELL, M.B. (1990). Self-reports across addictive behaviors : Issues and future directions in clinical research settings. Behavioral Assessment, 12 (1), 1-4.
  KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A. BOSTRÖM, G. & RÖSSNER, S. (1990). Influence of body image on estimation of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice, 10 (S), 155-158.
FIXSEN, D., PHILLIPS, E. & WOLF, M. (1972). Achievement place : The reliability of self-reporting and peer-reporting and their effects on behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 5 (1), 19-30. [PDF] RANKIN, H. (1990). Validity of self-reports in clinical settings. Behavioral Assessment, 12 (1), 107-116.
  RAUSCH, K. & KNUTSON, J.F. (1991). The self-report of personal punitive childhood experiences and those of siblings. Child Abuse & Neglect, 15, 29-36.
PRYOR, J.B., GIBBONS, F.X., WICKLUND, R.A., FAZIO, R. & HOOD, R. (1977). Self-focused attention and self-report validity. Journal of Personality, 45, 513-527. SCHLOSSBERGER, N.M., TURNER, R.A. & IRWIN, C.E. (1992). Validity of self-report of pubertal maturation in early adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13 (2), 109-113.
  SHANON, B., SMICKILAS-WRIGNT, H. & WANG, M.Q. (1991). Inaccuracies in self-reported weights and heights of a sample of sixth-grade children. Journal of The American Dietetic Association, 91, 675-678.
  KEYL, P.M., FLEGAL, K.M. & NIETO-GARCIA, F.J. (1991). Effects of using self-reported versus measured weight and height in epidemiologic analyses. American Journal of Epidemiology, 134, 733-734.
  HIMES, J.H. & STORY, M. (1992). Validity of self-reported weight and stature of American Indian youth. American Indian youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 118-120.
  TIENBOON, P., WAHLQVIST, M.L. & RUTISHAUSER, I.H.E. (1992). Self-reported weight and height in adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 528-5323.
  SPECTOR, P.E. (1992). A consideration of the validity and meaning of self-report measures of job conditions. In C.L. Cooper and I.T. Robertson (Eds.), International Review of Industrial and Organizational Psychology (pp. 123-151). Chichester : Wiley.
NISBETT, R.E. & WILSON, T.D. (1977). Telling more than we can know : Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259. [PDF] KENDLER, K.S. & HEWITT, J. (1992). The structure of self-report schizotypy in twins. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6, 1-17.
RADLOFF, L.S. (1977). The CES-D scale : A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385-401. BREWIN, C.R., ANDREWS, B. & GOTLIB, I.H. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience : a reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113 (1), 82-98. [PDF]
  ALVAREZ-TORICES, J.C., FRANCH-NADAL, J., ALVAREZ-GUISASOLA, F., HERNANDEZ-MEJIA, R. & CUETO-ESPINA RA. (1993). Self-reported height and weight and prevalence of obesity : study in a Spanish population. International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorders, 17, 663-667.
  DAVIS, H. & GERGEN, P.J. (1994). The weights and heights of Mexican-American adolescents : The accuracy of self-reports. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 459-462. [PDF]
  DUMAS, J.E. & WEKERLE, C. (1995). Maternal reports of child behavior problems and personal distress as predictors of dysfunctional parenting. Development & Psychopathology, 7, 465-479.
NISBETT, R.E. & WILSON, T.D. (1977). Telling more than we can know : Verbal reports on mental processes. Psychological Review, 84, 231-259. [PDF] HARRISON, L.D. (1995), The validity of self-reported data on drug use. Journal of Drug Issues, 25, 91-111. [PDF]
NISBETT, R.E. & BELLOWS, N. (1977). Verbal reports about causal influences on social judgments : Private access vs. public theories. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 35, 613-624. FISKE, S.T. (1995). Words ! Words ! Words ! Confronting the problem of observer and self reports. In P.E. Shrout & S.T.Fiske (Eds.), Personality research, methods, and theory : A Festschrift honoring Donald W. Fiske (pp. 221-240). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.
  CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, M. (1995). Experience sampling method applications to communication research questions. Journal of Communication, 46 (2), 99-120.
  LANE, S.D. & CRITHFIELD, T.S. (1996). Verbal self-reports of emergent relations in a stimulus equivalence procedure. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65 (2), 355-374. [PDF]
WILSON T.D. & NISBETT, R.E. (1978). The accuracy of verbal reports about the effects of stimuli on evaluations and behavior. Social Psychology, 41, 118-131. JEFFREY, R. (1996). Bias in reported body weight as a function of education, occupation, health and weight concern. Addictive Behavior, 21, 217-222.
MAISTO, S.A., SOBELL, L.C. & SOBELL, M.B. (1979). Comparison of alcoholics’ self-reports of drinking behavior with reports of collateral informants. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 47, 106-122. WILLS, T.A. & CLEARY, S.D. (1997). The validity of self-reports of smoking : analyses by race/ethnicity in a school sample of urban adolescents. American Journal of Public Health, 87, 56-61. [PDF]
  BRENNAN, K.A., CLARK, C.L. & SHAVER, P.R. (1998). Self-report measurement of adult attachment : An integrative overview. In J.A. Simpson & W.S. Rholes (Eds.), Attachment theory and close relationships (pp. 46-76). New York : Guilford Press.
  CRITCHFIELD, T.S., TUCKER, J.A. & VUCHINICH, R.E. (1998). Self-report methods. In K.A. Lattal and M. Perone (Eds.), Handbook of methods in operant behavior (pp. 435-470). New York : Plenum.
ERICSSON, K.A. & SIMON, H.A. (1980). Verbal reports as data. Psychological Review, 87, 215-251. GOSLING, S.D., JOHN, O.P., CRAIK, K.H. & ROBINS, R.W. (1998). Do people know how they behave ? Self-reported act frequencies compared with on-line codings by observers ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74 (5), 1337-1349. [PDF]
WYNER, G.A. (1980). Response errors in self-reported number of arrests. Sociological Methods & Research, 9, 161–177. PAULHUS, D.L., LYSY, D.C. & YIK, M.S.M. (1998). Self-report measures of intelligence : Are they useful as proxy IQ tests ? Journal of Personality, 64 (4), 526-554. [PDF]
SCHLICHTING, P.F., HOILUND-CARLSEN, P.F. & QUAADE, F. (1981). Comparison of self-reported height and weight with controlled height and weight in women and men. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 67-76. PLOMIN, R., CORLEY, R., CASPI, A., FULKER, D.W. & DeFRIES, J.C. (1998). Adoption results for self-reported personality : Evidence for nonaddictive genetic effects ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75, 211-218.
PIRIE, P., JACOBS, D., JEFERY, R. & HANNA, P. (1981). Distortion in self-reported height and weight data. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 78, 601-606. SCHWARZ, N. (1999). Self-reports : How the questions shape the answers. American Psychologist, 54, 93-105. [PDF]
GELLER, E.S. (1981). Evaluating energy conservation programs : Is verbal report enough ? Journal of Consumer Research, 8, 331-334. YLK, M., RUSSELL, S.M., FELDMAN, J.A. & BARRETT, L. (1999). Structure of Self-reported current affect : Integration and beyond. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, 600-619.
WILSON T.D., HULL, J. & JOHNSON, J. (1981). Awareness and self-perception : Verbal reports on internal states. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 40, 53-71. CORRUBLE, E., LEGRAND, J.M., ZVENIGROWSKI, H., DURET, C. & GUELFI, J.D. (1999). Concordance between self-report and clinician's assessment of depression. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 33, 457-465.
LARSON, R. & CSIKSZENTMIHALYI, M. (1983). Experience sampling method. In H.T. Reis (Ed.),New Directions for Methodology of Social and Behavioral Sciences (vol. 15, pp. 41–56). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass - Wiley SHAVER, P.R., BELSKY, J. & BRENNAN, K.A. (2000). Comparing measures of adult attachment : An examination of interview and self-report methods. Personal Relationships, 7, 25-43.
BERNARD, H.R., KILLWORTH, P., KRONENFELD, D. & SAILER, L. (1984). The problem of informant accuracy: the validity of retrospective data. Annual Review of Anthropology, 13, 495-517. STONE, A.A., TURKKAN, J.S., BACHRACH, C.A., JOBE, J.B., KURTZMAN, H.S. & CAIN, V.S. (Eds.) (2000). The science of self-report : Implications for research and practice. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
ERICSSON, K.A. & SIMON, H.A. (1984/93/97). Protocol analysis : Verbal reports as data. Cambridge, MA : Bradford Books/MIT Press. [PDF] VILLANNUEVA, E.V. (2001). The validity of self-reported weight in US adults : a population based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 1, 1-11. [PDF]
  LU, N.T., TAYLOR, B.G. & RILEY, J.K. (2001). The validity of adult arrestee self-reports of crack cocaine use. American Journal of Drug Alcohol Abuse, 27 (3), 399-419.
SHIMOFF, E. (1986). Post-session verba reports and the experimental an alysis of behavior. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 4, 19-22. [PDF] STAHL, C. & FRITZ, N. (2002). Internet safety : Adolescents self-report. Journal of Adolescent Health, 31, 7-10.
  STANTON, J. M., SINAR, E.F., BALZER, W.K. & MITH, P. C. (2002). Issues and strategies for reducing the length of self-report scales. Personnel Psychology, 55 (1), 167-194.nd strategies for reducing the length of self-report scales. Personnel Psychology, 55 (1), 167-194.
  STONE, A.A. & SHIFFMAN, S. (2002). Capturing momentary, self-report data: A proposal for reporting guidelines. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 24, 236-243.
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PODSAKOFF, P.M. & ORGAN, D.M. (1986). Self-reports in organizational research : problems and prospects. Journal of Management, 12, 531-44. [PDF] WILLIAMS, K.M. & PAULHUS, D.L. (2004). Factor structure of the Self-Report Psychopathy scale (SRP-II) in non-forensic samples.Personality & Individual Differences, 33, 1520-1530.
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BROOKS-GUNN, J., WARREN, M.P., ROSSO, J. & GARGIULO, J. (1987). Validity of self-report measures of girls' pubertal status. Child Development, 58 (3), 829-841. KRIEGER, N., SMITH, K., NAISHADHAM, D., HARTMAN, C. & BARBEAU, E.M. (2005). Experiences of discrimination : Validity and reliability of a self-report measure for population health research on racism and health. Social Science & Medicine, 61 (7), 1576-1596.
CACIOPPO, J.T., TASSINARY, L.G., STONEBRAKER, T.B. & PETTY, R.E. (1987). Self-report and cardiovascular measures of arousal: Fractionation during residual arousal. Biological Psychology, 25, 135-151. [PDF] RUSH, J.A., CARMODY, T.J., IBRAHIM, H.M., TRIVEDI, M.H., BIGGS, M.M., SHORES-WILSON, K., CRISMON, M.L., TOPRAC, M.G. & KASHNER, T.M. (2006). Comparison of self-report and clinician ratings on two inventories of depressive symptomatology. Psychiatric Services, 57 (6), 829-837. [PDF]
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Voir aussi Introspection et Désirabilité sociale
Rapprochement : Le terme est utilisé dans deux contextes : a) Au sens strict, il désigne la réduction de la distance entre deux organismes, et, à terme, au contact physique. b) Le mot renvoie aussi au sentiment "d'être plus proche" d'une autre personne. En ce sens, il est synonyme d'intimité.

 
Rasch Goerg William (1901-1980) : Psychométricien et mathématicien danois. On lui doit un modèle de mesure des phénomènes binaires/nominaux qui porte son nom. Étudiant de Fisher.
RASCH, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. (Copenhagen : Danish Institute for Educational Research.
RASCH, G. (1961). On general laws and the meaning of measurement in psychology. Proceedings of the Fourth Berkeley Symposium on Mathematical Statistics & Probability, 4, 321-334.
RASCH, G. (1977). On specific objectivity : An attempt at formalizing the request for generality and validity of scientific statements. The Danish Yearbook of Philosophy, 14, 58-93.
 
FISHER, G.H. (1981). On the existence and uniqueness of maximum-likelihood estimates in the Rasch model. Psychometrika, 46, 59-77.
ANDERSEN, E.B. (1982). Georg Rasch (1901-1980). Psychometrika, 47 (4), 375-376.
ENGELHARD, G. (1984). Thorndike, Thurstone and Rasch : A comparison of their methods of scaling psychological tests. Applied Psychological Measurement, 8, 21-38.
ENGELHARD, G. (1991). Thorndike, Thurstone and Rasch : A comparison of their approaches to item-invariant measurement. Journal of Research & Development in Education, 24 (2), 45-60.
LINACRE, J.M. (2004). Rasch model estimation : Further topics. Journal of Applied Measurement, 5 (1), 95-110. [PDF]
BERTOLI-BARSOTTI, L. & PUNZO, A. (2013). Rasch analysis for binary data with nonignorable nonresponses. Psicologica : International Journal of Methodology & Experimental Psychology, 34 (1), 97-123 [PDF]
Rashevsky Nicolas (Chernikov Russie 1899-1972 Hollande) : Biologiste et mathématicien russe. Il a développé un modèle mathématique de la théorie du conditionnement répondant de Pavlov.
 
 
 
 
 
Rashotte Michael E. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain, d'origine canadienne, spécialisé dans l'étude du conditionnement répondant. Collaborateur d'Amsel, Bitterman, Lolordo et Overmier.
RASHOTTE, M.E. (1968). Resistance to extinction of the continuously rewarded response in within-subject partial-reinforcement experiments. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76 (2), 206-214.
RASHOTTE, M.E. & SURRIDGE, C.T. (1969). Partial reinforcement and partial delay of reinforcement effects with 72-hour intertrial intervals and interpolated continuous reinforcement. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 21, 156-161.
RASHOTTE, M.E. KATZ, H.N., GRIFFIN, R.W. & WRIGHT, A.C. (1975). Vocalizations of white carneaux pigeons during experiments on schedule-induced aggression. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 76 (2), 206-214. [PDF]
RASHOTTE, M.E., GRIFFIN, R.W. & SISK, C.L. (1977). Second-order conditioning of the pigeon's keypeck. Animal Learning & Behavior, 5, 25-38.
RASHOTTE, M.E., SEDUNOVA, E.V., JOHNSON, F. & PASTUKHOV, I.U. (2001). Influence of food and water availability on undirected singing and energetic status in adult male zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata). Physiology & Behavior, 74, 533-541.
Rasinski Timothy V. ( ) : Spécialiste de l'éducation. Il s'intéresse notamment à l'apprentissage de la lecture et aux problèmes de fluidité des jeunes lecteurs.
RASINSKI, T.V. (1989). Fluency for everyone : Incorporating fluency in the classroom. The Reading Teacher, 42, 690-693. [PDF]
RASINSKI, T.V. (2000). Speed does matter in reading. The Reading Teacher, 54, 146-151. [PDF]
RASINSKI, T.V. & HOFFMANN, J.V. (2003). Theory and research into practice : Oral reading in the school literacy curriculum. Reading Research Quarterly, 38, 510-522.
RASINSKI, T.V. (2004). Creating fluent readers. Educational Leadership, 61 (6), 46-51.
RASINSKI, T.V., PADAK, N.D., McKEON, C.A., WILFONG, L.G., FRIEDAUEUR, J.A. & HEIM, P. (2005). Is reading fluency a key for successful high school reading ? Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 49 (1), 22-27. [PDF]
RASINSKI, T.V., HOMAN, S. & BIGGS, M. (2009). Teaching reading fluency to struggling readers : methods, materials, and evidence. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 25 (2-3), 192-204. [PDF]
Rasoir d'Ockham : Voir Principe épistémologique et Principe de parcimonie.
Rat (de laboratoire, Rattus norvegicus) : Mammifère et chouette bestiole de laboratoire. Il s'agit, avec le pigeon, de l'animal préféré des béhavioristes. Utilisé comme modèle et sujet dans les expériences de conditionnement opérant. = Rattus norvegicus. ( ): Brown Norway, Cotton rat, nude rat, Russell rat, spontaneous hypertensive rat, Sprague-Dawley, Wistar rats. Rat, Norway rat, Rattus norvegicus, albino rat.
 
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SPERRY, R.W. (1940). The functional results of muscle transposition in the hind limb of the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology & Physiology, 73, 379-404. MARWINE, A. & COLLIER, G. (1979). The rat at the waterhole. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 93, 391-402.
CRESPI, L.P. (1942). Quantitative variation in incentive and performance in the white rat. American Journal of Psychology, 5, 467-517. BIEDERMAN, G.B. & FUREDY, J.J. (1979). A history of rat preference for signaled shock : From paradox to paradigm. Australian Journal of Psychology, 31, 101-118.
KEELER, C.E. & KING, H.D. (1942). Multiple effects of coat color genes in the Norway rat, with special reference to temperament and domestication. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 34, 241-250. PINEL J.P.J., TREIT, D., LADAK, F. & MACLENNAN, J. (1980). Conditioned defensive burying in rats free to escape. Animal Learning Behavior, 8, 447-451.
SPERRY, R.W. (1944). Functional results of crossing sensory nerves in the rat. Journal of Comparative Neurology, 78, 59-90. MASORO, E.J. (1980). Rats as models for the study of obesity. Experimental Aging Research, 6 (3), 261-270.
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COOPER, R.M. & ZUBECK, J.P. (1958). Effects of enriched and restricted early environments on the learning ability of bright and dull rats. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 12 (3), 159-164. GALEF, B.G. & WHISKIN, E.E. (2001). Interaction of social and individual learning in food preferences of Norway rats. Animal Behaviour, 62, 41-46.
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   CROMBAG, H.S. & SHAHAM, Y. (2002). Renewal of drug seeking by contextual cues after prolonged extinction in rats. Behavioral Neuroscience, 116, 169-173.
CHURCH, R.M. & CARNATHAN, J. (1963). Differential reinforcement of short latency responses in the white rat. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 56, 120-123. SHARP, J.L., ZAMMIT, T.G., AZAR, T.A. & LAWSON, D.M. (2002). Stress-like responses to common procedures in male rats housed alone or with other rats. Contemporary Topics in Laboratory Animal Science, 41 (4), 8-14. [PDF]
MACKINTOSH, N.J. (1963). The effect of irrelevant cues on reversal learning in the rat. British Journal of Psychology, 54, 127-134. GREEN, L. & ESTLE, S.J. (2003). Preference reversals with food and water reinforcers in rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 79 (2), 233-242. [PDF] + [PDF]
ALTMAN, J. (1963). Autoradiographic investigation of cell proliferation in the brains of rats and cats. Anatomical Record, 145, 573-591. STEELE, K.M. (2003). Do rats show a Mozart effect ? Music Perception, 21, 251-265. [PDF]
BARNETT, S.A. (1964). The rat : A study in behavior. Chicago : Aldine. SOKOLOFF, G. & BLUMBERG, M.S. (2004). Vocalization. In B. Kolb and I.Q. Whishaw (Eds.), The behaviour of the laboratory rat : A handbook with tests (pp. 371-380.) Oxford : Oxford University Press.
  ZHOU, W., ZHANG, F., TANG, S., LIU, H., LAI, M. & YANG, G. (2004). Low dose of heroin inhibits drug-seeking elicited by cues after prolonged withdrawal from heroin self-administration in rats. NeuroReport, 15, 727-730.
GRANT, E.C. (1965). An analysis of the social behaviour of the male laboratory rat. Behaviour, 21, 246-259. KEARNS, D.N. & WEISS, S.J. (2004). Sign-tracking (autoshaping) in rats: A comparison of cocaine and food as unconditioned stimuli. Learning & Behavior, 32 (4), 463-476. [PDF]
MACKINTOSH, N.J. (1965). Overtraining, reversal, and extinction in rats and chicks. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 59, 31-36.  ALTMAN, J. & BAYER, S.A. (2004). Atlas of prenatal rat brain development. CRC Press.
 OLDFIELD-BOX, H. (1967). Social organization of rats in a "social problem" situation. Nature, 213, 533-534. PERRY, J.L., LARSON, E.B., GERMAN, J.P., MADDEN, G.J. & CARROLL, M.E. (2005). Impulsivity (delay discounting) as a predictor of acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in female rats. Psychopharmacology, 178 (2-3), 193-201.
WEISS, J.M. (1967). A tail electrode for unrestrained rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10 (1), 85-86. [PDF] MECK, W.H. (2006). Temporal memory in mature and aged rats is sensitive to choline acetyltransferase inhibition. Brain Research, 1108, 168-175.
MILLER, N.E. & DICARA, L.V. (1967). Instrumental learning of heart rate changes in curarized rats : Shaping, and specificity to discriminative stimulus. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 63 (1), 12-19. CHAMIZO, V.D., RODRIGO, T. & MACKINTOSH, N.J. (2006). Spatial integration with rats. Learning & Behavior, 34, 348-354. [PDF]
AZRIN, N.H., HOPWOOD, J. & POWELL, J. (1968). A rat chamber and electrode procedure for avoidance conditioning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 10 (3), 291-298. [PDF] STEELE, K.M. (2006). Unconvincing evidence that rats show a Mozart effect. Music Perception, 23, 455-458. [PDF]
DICARA, L.V. & MILLER, N.E. (1968). Long term retention of instrumentally learned heart-rate changes in curarized rats. Communication Behavioral Biology, 2, 19-23. BROWN, M.F., FARLEY, R.F. & LOREK, E.J. (2007). Remembrance of places you passed : Social spatial working memory in rats. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processe, 33 (3), 213-224. [PDF]
DICARA, L.V. & MILLER, N.E. (1968). Instrumental learning of peripheral vasomotor responses by the curarized rat. Communication Behavioral Biology, 2, 209-212. FOOTE, L.A. & CRYSTALL, J.D. (2007). Metacognition in the rat. Current Biology, 17, 551-555. [PDF]
AZRIN, N.H., RUBIN, H.B. & HUTCHISON, R.R. (1968). Biting attack by rats in response to aversive shock. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11 (5), 633-639. [PDF] MADDEN, G.J., SMITH N.G., BREWER, A.T., PINKSTON, J.W. & JOHNSON, P.S. (2008). Steady-state assessment of impulsive choice in Lewis and Fischer 344 rats : Between-session delay manipulations. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 90 (3), 333-344. [PDF]
PREMARK, D. & SHANAB, M.E. (1968). Rats prefer home cage to runway following intermittent but not consistent reinforcement. Nature, 217 (5125), 288-289. DALLA, C., PAPACHRISTOS, E.B., WHETSTONE A.S. & T SHORS, T.J. (2009). Females rats learn trace memories better than males and as a consequently retain a greater proportion of new neurons in their hippocampi. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (8), 2927-2932. [PDF]
LATANE, B. (1969). Gregariousness and fear in laboratory rats. Journal ofExperimental Social Psychology, 5, 61-69. RODRIGUEZ, C., TORRES, A., MacKINTOSH, N.J. & CHAMIZO, V.D. (2010). Sex dfferences in the strategies used by rats to solve a navigation task. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 36 (3), 395-401. [PDF]
OLDS, J. (1969). The central nervous system and the reinforcement of behaviour. American Psychologist, 24, 114-32. BECKER, H.C., LOPEZ, M.F. & DOREMUS-FITZWATER, T.LL. (2011). Effects of stress on alcohol drinking : a review of animal studies. Psychopharmacology, 218 (1), 131–156. [PDF]
LATANE, B. & GLASS, D.C. (1969). Social and nonsocial attraction in rats. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 9, 142-146. CASSIDY, R.N. & DALLERY, J. (2012). Effects of economy type and nicotine on the essential value of food in rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 97 (2), 183-202. [PDF]
POWELL, D.A., FRANCIS, J., BRAMAN, M.J. & SCHNEIDERMAN, N. (1969). Frequency of attack in shock-elicited aggression as a function of the performance of individual rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (5), 817-823. [PDF] DANCAUSE, K.N., CAO, X., VERU, F., XU, Z., HONG, H., YU, C., LAPLANTE, D.P., WALKER, C.D. & KING, S. (2012). Prenatal and early postnatal stress exposure influences long bone length and asymmetry in adult rat offspring. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 149 (2), 307-311. [PDF]
  BERAN, M.J. (2012). Animal memory : Rats can answer unexpected questions about past events. Current Biology, 22, 491-493. [PDF]
  MODLINSKA, K. & STRYJEK, R. *2016). Food Neophobia in Wild Rats (Rattus norvegicus) Inhabiting a Changeable Environment - A Field Study. PLos One, DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0156741, 1-12. [PDF]
Voir aussi Animal et Modèle animal
Rat-double : Système de lecture critique et corrective qui consiste à faire lire ses textes par des lecteurs naïfs (rat) et par des experts (double) avant de les soumettre pour correction.
 
Ratcliff Roger (Yorkshire 1947-) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain d'origine néo-zélandaise, spécialisé dans l'étude de la récupération de l'information et de la modélisation des fonctions cognitives. Collaborateur d'Abelson, McKoon, Rouder, Shiffrin et Wagenmakers.
RATCLIFF, R. & MURDOCK, B.B. (1976). Retrieval processes in recognition memory. Psychological Review, 83, 190-214. [PDF]
RATCLIFF, R. (1978). A theory of memory retrieval. Psychological Review, 85, 59-108. [PDF]
RATCLIFF, R. & McKOON, G. (1988). A retrieval theory of priming in memory. Psychological Review, 95, 385-408. [PDF]
RATCLIFF, R., VAN ZANDT, T. & McKOON, G. (1999). Connectionist and diffusion models of reaction time. Psychological Review, 106, 261-300. [PDF]
RATCLIFF, R. & McKOON, G. (2008). The diffusion decision model : Theory and data for two-choice decision tasks. Neural Computation, 20, 873-922. [PDF]
Ratio : Voir rapport.
Ratio Club : Groupe de scientifiques formé par Bates, qui se réunissait à Londres entre 1949 et 1958 pour discuter de cybernétique. ( ) : Ashby, Barlow, Rushton, Turing, Uttley, Walter.

 
Rationalisation : Mécanisme de défense qui consiste à donner une explication cohérente du point de vue logique ou acceptable du point de vue moral à une action dont les véritables motifs sont refoulés. *rationalisme. Rationalization.

 
Rationaliser : Le terme a au moins deux acceptions : a) Qui pense ou agit de manière rationnelle, donc conforme à la raison. = rationnel. b) Le mot renvoie également à une opération, plus ou moins logique, qui consiste à diviser un bien ou un service en part (pas nécessairement égales), pour ménager cette ressource afin de ne pas en manquer (pénurie, besoin, etc.), afin de ne pas en produire inutilement (surproduction d'un bien) ou simplement pour faire des économies (compression des services). Quand ce bien est un aliment, la portion divisée se nomme «ration». = réduire progressivement. Rationaliser, entreprise et gouvernement. Rationalization.

 
Rationalisme/Rationalité : Doctrine philosophique selon laquelle 1) la connaissance, et plus particulièrement la connaissance scientifique, est le produit de la raison (d'un raisonnement logique). 2) la raison guide le comportement, permet à l'individu de faire les meilleurs choix. *rationalisation, /empirisme. Rationality.
  COURNOT, A.A. (1875). Matérialisme, vitalisme, rationalisme. BONJOUR, L. (1995). Toward a moderate rationalism. Philosophical Topics, 23 (1), 47-78.
  CLARK, A. (1999). Minimal rationalism. Mind, 102 (408), 587-610. [PDF]
SIEGEL, H. (1980). Objectivity, rationality, incommensurability and more. British Journal of the Philosophy of Science, 31, 359-84. ARKES, H.R. & AYTON, P. (1999). The sunk cost and Concorde effects : Are humans less rational than lower animals ? Psychological Bulletin, 125, 591-600. [PDF]
  SHIER, D. (2000). Can human rationality be defended a priori ? Behavior & Philosophy, 28, 67-81. [PDF]
RICKETTS, T.G. (1982). Rationality, translation, and epistemology naturalized. The Journal of Philosophy, 79 (3), 117-36. STANOVICH, K.E. & WEST, R.F. (2000). Individual diifferences in reasoning : implications for the rationality debate. Behaviorial & Brain Sciences, 23, 645-665. [PDF]
THAGARD, P. & NISBETT, R. (1983). Rationality and charity. Philosophy of Science, 50 (2), 250-267. [PDF] SHAFIR, E. & LEBOEUF, R. A. (2002). Rationality. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 491-517.
BROWN, H. (1988). Rationality. London : Routledge. HOUDÉ, O. (2005). Time of rationality. In A.-N. Perret-Clermont (Eds.). Thinking time (pp. 73-78). Cambridge, MA : Hogrefe & Huber.
BROWN, J.R. (1989). The rational and the social. London : Routledge. SUNDQVIST, F. (2007). The gestalt phenomena and archetypical rationalism (The crossroads between empiricism and rationalism : Part I). Gestalt Theory, 29 (1), 40-58. [PDF]
NOZICK, R. (1989). The nature of rationality. Princeton, NJ : Princeton University Press. SUNDQVIST, F. (2007). Two themes of reductionism and the predicaments of achetypical empiricism (The crossroads between empiricism and rationalism : Part II). Gestalt Theory, 29 (1), 130-147. [PDF]
ASSOGBA, Y. (1990). Théorie systémique de la rationalité de l’acteur et aspirations. Recherches Sociologiques, 19, 55-77. SUNDQVIST, F. (2007). The gestalt according to the Berlin school (The crossroads between empiricism and rationalism : Part III. Gestalt Theory, 29 (1), 223-241. [PDF]
 AINSLIE, G.W. (1991). Derivation of 'rational' economic behavior from hyperbolic discount curves. American Economic Review, 81, 334-340. [PDF] KRUGLANSKI, A.W. & OREHEK, E. (2009). Toward a relativity theory of rationality. Social Cognition, 27 (5), 639-660.
Voir aussi Homo oeconomicus, Rationalité limitée, Raison et Doctrine
 
Rationalité limitée : Principe développé par Simon, qui postule que lorsqu'il agit ou prend une décision, l'acteur ne possède jamais toutes les données d'un problème ou d'une situation; sa capacité de décider (rationalité), de faire les bon choix, est donc limitée. Rationalité limitée, rationalité et homo sociologicus. = rationalité restreinte. /rationalité illimitée. Bounded rationality, limitations of rationality, minimal rationality.
  MARCH, J.G. (1978). Bounded rationality, ambiguity and the engineering of choice. Bell journal of economics, 9, 587-608. GIGERENZER G. & SELTEN, R. (Eds.) (2001). Bounded rationality: The adaptive toolbox. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
SIMON, H. (1982). Models of bounded rationality : Economic analysis and public policy. Cambridge, Massachusetts : MIT Press. BOUDON, R. (2002). Utilité ou rationalité ? Rationalité restreinte ou générale ? Revue d’Economie Politique, 112 (5), 755-772.
CHERNIAK, C. (1986). Minimal rationality. Cambridge : MIT Press. COLMAN, A.M. (2003). Cooperation, psychological game theory, and limitations of rationality in social interaction. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 26, 139-153.
GIGERENZER G. & GOLDSTEIN, D.G. (1996). Reasoning the fast and frugal way : models of bounded rationality. Psychological Review, 103 (4), 650-669. [PDF] BANAJI, M.R. (2013). Our bounded rationality. In J. Brockman (Ed.), This explains everything : Deep, beautiful, and elegant theories of how the world works (pp. 94-95). New York, NY: Harper Perennial. [PDF]
Voir aussi Simon
Rationality & Society : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : Springer.
KANAZAWA, S. (1999). Using laboratory experiments to test theories of corporate behavior. Rationality & Society, 11 (4), 443-461. [PDF]

Rationnel : Dans la théorie de Freud, propriété du moi. Qui obéit à la raison, qui organise ses idées et planifie ses comportements suivant un raisonnement logique. Au sens large, le terme renvoie à toute activité qui obéit à la logique. /irrationnel. Rational.

  DAWES, R.M. (1988). Rational choice in an uncertain world. San Diego : Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich.
DENES-RAJ, V. & EPSTEIN, S. (1994). Conflict between intuitive and rational processing : When people behave against their better judgment. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 819-829.
STANOVICH, K.E. (1999). Who is rational ? Studies of individual differences in reasoning. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
DAWES, R.M. (2001). Everyday irrationality : How pseudoscientists, lunatics, and the rest of us fail think rationally. Westview Press.
Rattus norvegicus : Voir Rat.

  WHISHAW, I.Q. & WHISHAW, G.E. (1996). Conspecific aggression influences food carrying : studies on a wild population of Rattus norvegicus. Aggressive Behavior, 22, 47-66.
BURNIE, D. (Ed.) (2001). Animal . Londres : Dorling Kindersley / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi. Voir aussi Rat et Animal
Raton-laveur : Raccoon.

  ELDER, J.H. & NISSEN, H.W. (1931). Delayed alternation in raccoons. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 16, 117-135.
PRANGE, S., GEHRT, S.D. & WIGGERS, E.P. (2003). Demographic factors contributing to high raccoon densities in urban landscapes. Journal of Wildlife Management, 67, 324-333.
GEHRT, S.D. & CLARK. W.R. (2003). Raccoons, coyotes, and reflections on the mesopredator release hypothesis. Wildlife Society Bulletin, 31, 836-842.
PRANGE, S., GEHRT, S.D. & WIGGERS, E.P. (2004). Influences of anthropogenic resources on raccoon (Procyon lotor) movements and spatial distribution. Journal of Mammalogy, 85, 483-490.
GEHRT, S.D. & PRANGE, S. (2007). Interference competition between coyotes and raccoons: a test of the mesopredator release hypothesis. Behavioral Ecology, 18 (1), 204-214. [PDF]
BURNIE, D. (Ed.) (2001). Animal . Londres : Dorling Kindersley / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi. Voir aussi Animal
Raven
Bertram H. Raven John Carlyle Raven
 
Raven Bertram H. (Youngtown États-Unis 1926-) : Psychosociologue américain et pionnier de l'étude du pouvoir et de l'influence sociale. Étudiant de French. Professeur de Fishbein. Collaborateur de Festinger, Kelley, Kruglanski et Rubin.
RAVEN, B.H. & FISBEIN, M. (1961). Acceptance of punishment and change in belief. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 63, 411-417.
FRENCH, J.R.P. & RAVEN, B.H. (1965). The bases of social power. In J.D. Singer (Ed.), Human behavior and international politics (pp. 136-144). Chicago : Rand-McNally. [PDF]
RAVEN, B.H. (1986). A taxonomy of power in human relations. Annals of Psychiatry, 16, 633- 636.
RAVEN, B.H. (1993). The bases of power : Origins and recent developments. Journal of Social Issues, 49 (4), 227-252. [PDF]
RAVEN, B.H. (1999). Influence, power, religion, and the mechanisms of social control. Journal of Social Issues, 55 (1), 161-186.
Raven John Carlyle (Londres 1902-1970-) : Psychométricien anglais. Il a inventé un test d'intelligence (Test des matrices progressives de Raven).
RAVEN, J. (1939). Progressive matrices : A perceptual test of intelligence. London.
 
 
 
GABRIEL, K.R. (1954). The simplex structure of the progressive matrices test. British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 7, 9-14.
VINCENT, K.R. & COX, J.A. (1974). A re-evaluation of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Journal of Psychology, 88, 299-303.
MACKINTOSH, N.J. & BENNETT, EE.S. (2005). What do Raven's matrices measure ? An analysis in terms of sex differences. Intelligence, 33, 663-674. [PDF]
Ravizza Susan M. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américaine et spécialiste de l'étude de l'influence de la mémoire et des fonctions exécutives sur l'apprentissage, notamment au moyen d'un ordinateur. Collaboratrice de Fenn et Ozonoff.
RAVIZZA, S.M. & IVRY, R.B. (2001). Comparison of the basal ganglia and cerebellum in shifting attention. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 13 (3), 285-297.
RAVIZZA, S.M. & CIRANNI, M.A. (2002). Set shifting impairments as a function of working memory demands in older adults, prefrontal, and Parkinson's disease patients. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14 (3), 472-483.
RAVIZZA, S.M. & CARTER, C. S. (2008). Shifting set about task switching : Behavioral and neural evidence for distinct forms of cognitive flexibility. Neuropsychologia, 46, 2924-2935. [PDF]
RAVIZZA, S.M., HAMBRICK, D.Z. & FENN, K.M. (2014). Non-academic Internet use in the classroom is negatively related to classroom learning regardless of intellectual ability. Computers & Education, 78, 109-114. [PDF]
RAVIZZA, S.M., UITVLUGT, M.G. & FENN, K.M. (2016). Logged In and zoned out : How laptop internet use relates to classroom learning. Psychological Science, 28 (2), 171-180. [PDF]
Rawls John Bordley (Baltimore 1921-2002) : Philosophe américain. Il s'est intéressé à la justice et aux inégalité sociales.
RAWLS, J. (1955). Two concepts of rule. The Philosophical Review, 64 (1), 3-32. [PDF]
RAWLS, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge : Belknap Press of Havard University Press.
RAWLS, J. (1991). Une conception kantienne de l’égalité. Dans J. Rajchman & C. West (Dirs.), La pensée américaine contemporaine (p. 309-315). Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
RAWLS, J. (1993). Political liberalism. New York : Columbia University Press.
 
NAGEL, T. (2003). John Rawls and affirmative action. The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 39, 82-84.
Rayner
Keith Rayner Rosalie Rayner
 
Rayner Keith ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de mouvement oculaire et de la lecture. Collaborateur de Foorman, t Seidenberg et Slattery.
RAYNER, K. (1986). Eye movements and the perceptual span in beginning and skilled readers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 41, 211-236. [PDF]
RAYNER, K., FOORMAN, B.R., PERFETTI., E., PESETSKY, D. & SEIDENBERG, M.S. (2001). How psychological science informs the teaching of reading. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 2, 31-74. [PDF]
RAYNER, K., FOORMAN, B.R., PERFETTI., E., PESETSKY, D. & SEIDENBERG, M.S. (2002). How should reading be taught ? Scientific American, 286, 84-91. [PDF]
RAYNER, K., YANG, J. & CASTELHANO, M.S. (2009). Eye movements and the perceptual span in older and younger readers. Psychology & Aging, 24 (3), 755-776. [PDF]
RAYNER, K., SLATTERY, T.J., DRIEGHE, D. & LIVERSEDGE, S.P. (2011). Eye movements and word skipping during reading : Effects of word length and predicability. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 37, 514-528. [PDF]
Rayner Rosalie ( ) : Collaboratrice de Watson. Rayner, conditionnment aversif et expérience du petit Albert.
WATSON, J.B. & RAYNER, R. (1920). Conditioned emotional reactions. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 3 (1), 1-14.
 
 
 
 
 
Raz Amir ( ) : Psychologue neurocognitiviste canadien. Il étudie mécanismes biologiques de l'inconscient (l'hypnose, suggestibilité, attention, etc.). Il s'intéresse également au syndrome de Latourette et à l'effet placebo. Il enseigne à l'Université Mcgill. Collaborateur de Kirsch et Posner.
RAZ, A., DEOUELL, L.Y. & BENTIN, S. (2001). Is pre-attentive processing compromised by prolonged wakefulness ? Effects of total sleep deprivation on the mismatch negativity. Psychophysiology, 38 (5), 787-795. [PDF]
RAZ, A., SHAPIRO, T., FAN, J. & POSNER, M.I. (2002). Hypnotic suggestion and the modulation of Stroop interference. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 1155-1161. [PDF]
RAZ, A., KIRSCH, I., POLLARD, J. & NITKIN-KANER, Y. (2006). Suggestion reduces the stroop effect. Psychological Science, 17 (2), 91-95. [PDF]
RAZ, A., FAN, J. & POSNER, M.I. (2006). Neuroimaging and genetic associations of attentional and hypnotic processes. Journal of Physiology, 99 (4-6), 483-491. [PDF]
RAZ, A. (2012). Translational attention : From experiments in the lab to helping the symptoms of individuals with Tourette's Syndrome. Consciousness & Cognition, 21, 1591-1594. [PDF]
RÉALISME - RECAPTURE - RECENSION - RECHERCHE - RECHUTE - RÉCOMPENSE - RECONNAISSANCE - RÉCUPÉRATION - RED
Réactance : Concept proposé par Brehm et qui consiste volontairement à faire le contraire de ce que l'on attend de nous, surtout lorsque la pression sociale qui s'exerce sur nous ou sur notre entourage est forte. C'est une façon de dire que le pouvoir n'a pas d'emprise sur nous (puisque l'on estimprévisible). Réactance et contrôle social. Reactance.
  BREHM, J.W. (1966). A theory of psychological reactance. New York : Academic Press. DILLARD, J. & SHEN, L. (2005). On the nature of reactance and its role in persuasive health communication. Communication Monographs, 72, 144-168.
WORTMAN, C.B. & BREHM, J.W. (1975). Responses to uncontrollable outcomes : an integration of reactance theory and the learned helplessness model. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental psychology (Vol. 8, pp. 277-336). New York : Academic Press.  
MILLER, R.L. (1976). Mere exposure, psychological reactance and attitude change. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 59, 1-9. SILVIA, P.J. (2005). Deflecting reactance : The role of similarity in increasing compliance and reducing resistance. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 27, 277-284.
PENNEBAKER, J.W. & SANDERS, D.Y. (1976). American graffiti : Effects of authority and reactance arousal. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 2, 264-267. MILLER C.H., BURGOON, M., GRANDPRE, J. & ALVARO, E. (2006). Identifying principal risk factors for the initiation of adolescent smoking behaviors : The significance of psychological reactance. Health Communication, 19, 241-252.
GROSS, A.E., WALLSTON, B.S. & PILIAVIN, J.A. (1979). Reactance, attribution, equity, and the help recipient. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9 (4), 297-313.  
BREHM, S.S. & BREHM, J.W. (1981). Psychological reactance : A theory of freedom and control. Academic Press. MILLER C.H., LANE, L.T., DEATRICK, L.M., YOUNG, A.M. & POTTS, K.A. (2007). Psychological reactance and promotional health messages : The effects of controlling language, lexical concreteness, and the restoration of freedom. Human Communication Research, 33, 219-240.
BREHM, J.W. (1993). Control, its loss, and psychological reactance. In G. Weary, F. H. Gleicher & K.L. Marsh (Eds.), Control motivation and social cognition. New York : Springer-Verlag.
Voir aussi Brehm
Réactance (Mesure et évaluation de la...) : Ensemble des critères de diagnostic, des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer la réactance. Reactance.

  SHEN L. & DILLARD, J.P. (2005). Psychometric properties of the Hong Reactance Scale.Journal of Personality Assessment, 85, 74-82.
Réaction : Au sens large, la réaction est un comportement émis en réponse à un autre comportement ou à une situation précise. En ce sens, elle s'oppose à l'action qui est émise de façon à atteindre un but. Plus techniquement, on peut dire qu'une réaction est une réponse inconditionnelle. = réponse sans objectif. /réaction. Reaction scale.

 
Réactionnaire : Qui s'oppose au progrès (généralement sous toute ces formes) et milite en faveur du rétablissement des règles, des lois et des institutions antérieures. Reactionary.
Réactions de défense spécifique : Concept proposé par Bolles, qui stipule que : 1) chez chaque espèce il existe un répertoire de réponses défensives innées (comme la paralysie, l'évitement, l'échappement, etc.); 2) ce sont les caractéristiques particulières du milieu de cette espèce qui sélectionnent une réponse plutôt qu'une autre. Species-specific reaction defense.

  BOLLES, R.C. (1970). Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning. Psychological Review, 71, 32-48.
CRAWFORD, M. & MASTERSON, F.A. (1982). Species-specific defense reactions and avoidance learning. Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science, 17 (4), 204-214.
MODERESI, H.A. (1990). The avoidance barpress problem : Effects of enhanced reinforcement and an SSDR-congruent lever. Learning & Motivation, 21 (2), 199-220.
Read John ( ) : Psychologue néo-zélandais et critique du modèle médico-psychiatrique. Collaborateur de Bentall et Mosher.
READ, J., MOSHER, L.R. & BENTALL, R.P. (2004). Models of madness. ISPS Publications.
READ, J., VAN OS, J., MORRISSON, A. & ROSS, C.A. (2005). Childhood trauma, psychosis and schizophrenia : a literature review with theoretical and clinical implications. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 112 (5), 330-350. [PDF]
READ, J., HASLAM, N. SAYCE, L. & DAVIES, E. (2006). Prejudice and schizophrenia : a review of the 'mental illness is an illness like any other' approach. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 114 (5), 303-318. [PDF]
READ, J., BENTALL R.P. & FOSS, R (2009). Time to abandon the bio-bio-bio model of psychosis: Exploring the epigenetic and psychological mechanisms by which adverse life events lead to psychotic symptoms. Epidemiologia e Psichiatria Sociale, 18 (4), 299-310.
READ, J. (2010). Can poverty drive you mad ? Schizophrenia, socio-economic status and the case for pimary prevention. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 39 (2), 7-19.
Réadaptation : Rehabilitation.

  SENÉCHAL, C., FORGET, J. et GIROUX, N. (2003). Les programmes de type Lovaas et la réadaptation en autisme infantile. Revue de Psychoéducation, 32 (1), 123-148.
WILSON, B.A. (2002). Towards a comprehensive model of cognitive rehabilitation. Neuropsychological Rehabilitation, 12, 97-110.
Reading & Writing : An Interdisciplinary Journal : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : Springer.
WOLFF, P.H. (2002). Timing precision and rhythm in developmental dyslexia. Reading & Writing : An Interdisciplinary Journal, 15, 179-206.

Reading & Writing Quartely : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : Francis & Taylor Group.
KUBINA, R.M. (2005). Developing reading fluency through a systematic practice procedure. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 21, 185-192.

Reading Improvement : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : .
SENCIBAUGH, J.M. (2007). Meta-analysis of reading comprehension interventions for students with learning disabilities : strategies and implications. Reading Improvement, 44 (1), 6-22.

Reading Matrix (The) : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : The Reading Matrix Inc.
JIANG, X. (2011). The role of first language literacy and second language proficiency in second language reading comprehension. The Reading Matrix, 11 (2), 177-190. [PDF]

Reading Online : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : International Reading Association.
GAMBRELL, L.B., MORROW, L.M. & PENNINGTON, C. (2002). Early childhood and elementary literature-based instruction: Current perspectives and special issues. Reading Online, 5 (6), 26-39.

Reading Psychology : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : Francis & Taylor Group.
ELDREDGE J.L. (2005). Foundations of fluency : An exploration. Reading Psychology, 26, 161-181.

Reading Research Quartely : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre ses pages à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : International Reading Association.
PARIS, S.E. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 40 (2), 184-202.

Reading Teacher (The...) : Revue scientifique multidisciplinaire qui se consacre à l'apprentissage et aux troubles de la lecture. Éditeur : International Reading Association.
AFFLERBACH, P., PEARSON, P.D. & PARIS, S.G. (2008). Clarifying differences between reading skills and reading strategies. The Reading Teacher, 61 (5), 364-373. [PDF]

Réalisation de soi : Voir Motivation à l'accomplissement et Besoin d'accomplissement.
Réalisme : Doctrine philosophique qui postule l'existence d'un monde objectif, que l'on peut connaître. Realism.

Types de réalisme
Réalisme critique Réalisme indirect Réalisme scientifique
Réalisme direct Réalisme moral Réalisme systématique
Réalisme empirique    
 


  GIBSON, J.J. (1967). New reasons for realism. Synthese, 17, 162-72.
DEVITT, M. (1984/91). Realism and truth. Oxford : Blackwell.
MORRISON, M. (1988). Reduction and realism. PSA : Proceedings of the Biennial Meeting of the Philosophy of Science Association, 1, 286-293.
HOOKER, C.A. (1995). Reason, regulation, and realism: Towards a regulatory systems theory of reason and evolutionary epistemology. SUNY.
Réalisme critique : Critical realism.

  BODE, B.H. (1922). Critical realism. Journal of Philosophy, 19 (3), 68-78.
COLLIER, A. (1994). Critical realism: an introduction to Roy Bhaskar’s philosophy. London : Verso.
Réalisme direct : Doctrine philosophique développée par Reid, qui fonde la connaissance du réel sur le sens commun. Direct realism.
  GIBSON, J.J. (1967). New reasons for realism. Synthese, 17, 162-72.
Réalisme empirique :

 
Réalisme indirect : Indirect realism.

  WILCOX, S. & KATZ, S. (1984). Can indirect realism be demonstrated in the psychological laboratory ? Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 14, 149-157. [LIRE]
Réalisme moral : Moral realism.

  RAILTON, P. (1986). Moral realism. Philosophical Review, 95, 163-207
BOYD, R. (1988). How to be a moral realist. In G. Sayre-McCord (Ed.), Essays on moral realism. Ithaca : Cornell University Press.
OGIEN, R. (1999). Le réalisme moral. Paris : PUF.
RAVAT, J. (2009). Le réalisme moral analogique de Richard Boyd : enjeux, portée, limites. Philosophia Scientiae, 13 (1), 13-41. [PDF]
Réalisme scientifique : Doctrine philosophique qui postule l'existence d'un monde objectif, indépendant de nos sens, et régit par des lois naturelles que la science s'efforce de mettre en évidence et d'expliquer. Pour les tenants de cette position, la connaissance en général constitue une image plus ou moins précise du réel. Grâce à ses méthodes, la science possède cependant un pouvoir de résolution plus grand que les autres systèmes de connaissance (religion, arts, théories personnelles ou implicites, etc.). /post-modernisme, socio-constructivisme. Realism.
  BODE, B.H. (1906). Realism and pragmatism. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology & Scientific Methods, 3 (15), 393-401. TOOLEY, M. (1990). Causation : Reductionism versus realism. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 50 (S), 215-236.
BODE, B.H. (1907). Realism and objectivity. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology & Scientific Methods, 4 (10), 259-263. BOYD, R. (1990). Realism, approximate truth, and philosophical method. In C. Wade Savage (Ed.), Scientific Theories, Minnesota Studies in the Philosophy of Science (Vol. 14. pp. 355-391). Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press.
KANTOR, J.R. (1919). Instrumental transformism and the unrealities of realism. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, Scientific Method, 17, 449-461. MOSER, P.K. (1992). Realism and agnosticism. The American Philosophical Quarterly, 29 (1), 1-17.
SCHLICK, M. (1932). Positivism and realism. In M. Schlick (1979), (pp. 259-284). MEEHL, P.E. (1992). The miracle argument for realism : An important lesson to be learned by generalizing from Carrier's counter-examples. Studies in History & Philosophy of Science, 23, 267-282.
BOYD, R. (1973). Realism, Underdetermination, and a Causal Theory of Evidence, in intricate ways. Noûs 7, 1-12. BERGMANN, G. (1992). Realism : A critique of Brentano and Meinong. Madison : University of Wisconsin Press.
MARGOLIS, J. (1978). The problems of similarity : realism and nominalism. Monist, 61, 384-400. GREENWOOD, J.D. (1992). Realism, empiricism, and social constructionism : Psychological theory and the social dimensions of mind and action. Theory & Psychology, 2, 131-151.
CHURCHLAND, P. (1979). Scientific realism and the plasticity of mind. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. BITSAKIS, E. (1993). Scientific realism. Science & Society, 57, 160-193.
RICHARDSON, R.C. (1980). Intentional realism or intentional instrumentalism ? Cognition & Brain Theory, 3, 125-135. SOSA, E. (1993). The truth of modest realism. Philosophical Issues : Science and Knowledge. Ridgeview Press.
LAUDAN, L. (1981). A confutation of convergent realism. Philosophy of Science, 48 (1), 19-49. [PDF] GREENWOOD, J.D. (1994). Realism, identity and emotion. London : Sage.
HACKING, I. (1982). Experimentation and scientific realism. Philosophical Topics, 13 (1982), 81-87. HARMAN, G. & THOMSON, J.J. (1996).Moral realism and moral objectivity. Oxford : Blackwell.
WILCOX, S. & KATZ, S. (1984). Can indirect realism be demonstrated in the psychological laboratory ? Philosophy of the Social Sciences, 14, 149-157.  
BOYD, R. (1984). The current status of scientific realism. In J. Leplin (Ed.), Scientific realism (pp. 41-82). Berkeley : University of California Press. BITSAKIS, E. (1997). Le nouveau réalisme scientifique. Paris : L’Harmattan.
MILLIKAN, R.G. (1984). Language, thought, and other biological categories : New foundations for realism. Cambridge : MIT Press. ARMSTRONG, D.M. (1997). Universals and scientific realism. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
BOYD, R. (1984). Scientific realism. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 21 (1-2), 767-791. MUSGRAVE, A.E. (1999). Essays on realism and rationalism. Amsterdam/Atlanta : Rodopi.
MALONEY, T.S. (1985). The extreme realism of Roger Bacon. Review of Metaphysics, 38, 807-837. PSILLOS, S. (1999). Scientific realism : How science tracks truth. Routledge.
BUNGE, M. (1986). In defence of realism and scientism. Annals of Theoretical Psychology, 4, 23-26. MADILL, A., JORDAN, A. & SHIRLEY, C. (2000). Objectivity and reliability in qualitative analysis : Realist, contextualist and radical constructionist epistemologies. British Psychological Society, 91, 1-20.
WRIGHT, C. (1986). Scientific realism, observation and the verificationprinciple. In G. Macdonald, & C. Wright (Eds.), Fact, Science, and Morality. Oxford : Basil Blackwell.  
HARRE, R. (1986). Varieties of realism. Oxford : Blackwell. MUSGRAVE, A.E. (2001). Metaphysical realism versus word-magic. In D. Aleksandrowicz & H. Gunther Russ (Eds), Realismus disziplin interdisziplilinaritat (pp. 29-54). Amsterdam and Atlanta, GA : Editions Rodopi.
HARRE, R. (1986). Varieties of realism: a rationale for the natural sciences. Oxford : Blackwell. GODFREY-SMITH, P. (2002). Dewey on naturalism, realism and science. Philosophy of Science 69 (S), 1S11 [PDF]
PUTNAM, H. (1987). The many faces of realism. La Salle, III. : Open Court. CACIOPPO, J.T., SEMIN, G.R. & BERNTSON, G.G. (2004). Realism, instrumentalism, and scientific symbiosis : Psychological theory as a search for truth and the discovery of solutions. American Psychologist, 59 (4), 214-223. [PDF]
KIM, J. (1988). Explanatory realism, causal realism, and explanatory exclusion. Midwest Studies in Philosophy, 12, 225-239. VOTSIS, I. (2005). The upward path to structural realism. Philosophy of Science, 72 (5), 1361-1272. [PDF]
WORRALL, J. (1989). Structural realism : the best of both worlds. Dialectica, 43 (1-2), 99-124. PSILLOS, S. (2005). Scientific realism and metaphysics. Ratio, 18 (4), 385-404.
FIELD, H. (1989). Realism, mathematics and modality. Basil Blackwell. MUSGRAVE, A.E. (2007). The miracle argument for scientific realism. The Rutherford Journal : The New Zealand Journal for the History & Philosophy of Science & Technology. [LIRE]
SUPPES, P. (1989). The semantic conception of theories and scientific realism. Chicago : University of Illinois Press. HACKENBERG, T.D. (2009). Realism without truth : A review of Giere’s science without laws and scientific perspectivism. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 91, 391-402. [PDF]
CHURCHLAND, P.M. (1989). Images of science : Scientific realism versus constructive empiricism. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. BOYD, R. (2010). Realism, natural kinds, and philosophical methods. In H. Beebee & N. Sabbarton-Leary (Eds.), The semantics and metaphysics of natural kinds. (pp. 212-234). Routledge.
 
Réalisme systématique : Systematic realism.

  BAKER, A.J. (1986). Australian realism : the systematic philosophy of John Anderson. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
Réalité : Toute chose qui existe, que l'on en soit ou non conscient, que l'on soit ou non en mesure de la voir. Ensemble de tous les phénomènes, qu'il soient ou non observables. ( ): phénomènes naturels, biologiques, psychiques et sociaux. = réel, monde extérieur. Reality, social reality.

  BODE, B.H. (1905). Pure "experience" and the external world. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology & Scientific Methods, 2 (5), 128-133. WINNICOTT, D.W. (1971). Playing and reality. New York : Routledge.
BERGMANN, G. (1957). Logic and reality. Madison : University of Wisconsin Press. NEISSER, U. (1976). Cognition and reality. San Francisco, CA : W.H. Freeman.
METZGER, W. & BRANDT, L.W. (1969). Reality - What does it mean ? Psychological Reports, 25, 127-135. [LIRE] WATZLAWICK, P.J. (Ed.) (1984). The invented reality. New York : W.W. Norton.
  JUSSIM, L. (1991). Social perception and social reality : A reflection-construction model. Psychological Review, 98, 54–73.

Réalité perçue : Ce que l'on sait de la réalité. La perception consiste à interpréter les informations en provenance des sens, à leur donner une signification. = réalité construite. Construction of reality.

  PIAGET, J. (1937/54). La construction du réel chez l'enfant. Genève : Delachaux et Niestlé. / The construction of reality in children. New York : Ballantine Books.
BERGER, P.L. & LUCKMANN, T. (1966). The social construction of reality. New York : Doubleday.
WATZLAWICK, P.J. (1978). La réalité de la réalité. Paris : Seuil.
JOHNSON, M.K. & RAYE, C.L. (1981). Reality monitoring. Psychological Review, 88, 67-85.
WATZLAWICK, P.J. (Dir.) (1988). L’invention de la réalité. Paris : Seuil.
PUTMAN, H. (1991). Representation and reality. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
Réalité virtuelle : Réalité virtuelle et cyberpsychologie. Virtual reality.

  CALVERT, S.L. & TAN, S. (1994). Impact of virtual reality on young adults’ physiological arousal and aggressive thoughts : Interaction versus observation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 125-139.
BOUCHARD, S., St-JACQUES, J., ROBILLARD, G. & RENAUD, P. (2007). Efficacité d'un traitement d'exposition en réalité virtuelle pour le traitement de l'arachnophobie chez l'enfant : Une étude pilote. Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 17 (3), 101-108.
DUMOULIN, S., BOUCHARD, S. & RIVARD, V. (2007). Est-ce que la réalité virtuelle est un moyen efficace de gérer la douleur aigüe ? Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 28 (2), 65-91.
CÔTÉ, S. & BOUCHARD, S. (2008). Virtual reality exposure for phobias : A critical review. Journal of CyberTherapy & Rehabilitation, 1 (1), 75-91.
DILWORTH, J. (2010). Realistic virtual reality and perception. Philosophical Psychology, 23, 23-42. [PDF]
Réalité virtuelle (Thérapie fondée sur la...) : Voir Cyberpsychologie. Virtual reality, virtual reality therapy (VRT).
Réattribution du sexe : Consiste à attribuer à une personne - souvent un enfant - un sexe qui ne correspond pas à celui qui avait été assigné à la naissance, soit parce que la nature de ce sexe était à l'origine ambiguë (= intersexué), soit parce que l'individu souhaite changer de sexe (transgenre ou transsexualisme). La réattribution est d'abord et avant tout un acte social et psychologique qui n'entraîne pas nécessairement la modification des organes sexuelles (chirurgie de réattribution sexuelle). Réattribution de sexe, identité sexuelle et trouble de l'identité sexuelle. = changement de sexe. Sex reassignment.

  DICKS, G.H. & CHILDERS, A.T. (1934). The social transformation of a boy who had lived his first fourteen years as a girl : A case history. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 4, 508-517. REINER, W.G. (1996). Case study : Sex reassignment in a teenage girl. Journal of American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 799-803.
TURTLE, G. (1963). Over the sex border. Change of sex : A comprehensive study. London : V. Gollancz, Ltd. DIAMOND, M. (1996). Response : Considerations for sex reassignment. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 22, 161-174.
  MEYER-BAHLBURG, H.F.L., RUEN, R.S., NEW, M.L., BELL, J.J., MORISHIMA, A., SHIMSHI, M. BUENO, Y., VARGAS, I. & BAKER, S.W. (1996). Gender change from female to male in classical congenital adrenal hyperplasia. Hormones & Behavior, 30,319-332.
GREEN, R. & MONEY, J. (1969). Transsexualism and sex reassignment. Baltimore, MD : The John Hopkins Press. DIAMOND, M. & SIGMUNDSON, K. (1997). Sex reassignment at birth : A long term review and clinical implications. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 151 (3), 298-304.
MONEY, J. & EHRARDT, A. (1972). Man and woman, boy and girl. Baltimore : John Hopkins University Press. REINER, W. (1997). Case study : Sex reassignement in a teenage girl. Journal of American Academy of Child ? Adolescent Psychiatry, 35 (6), 799-803. [PDF]
MONEY, J. (1974). Psychologic considerations of sex assignment in intersexuality. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 1,216–225. MEYER-BAHLBURG, H.F.L. (1998). Gender assignment in intersexuality. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 10, 1–21.
MEYER, J.K. & RETER, D. (1979). Sex reassignment : Follow-up. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36 (9), 1010-1015. KUHNLE, U. & KRAHL, W. (2002). The impact of culture on sex assignment and gender development in intersex patients. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine, 45 (1), 85-103. [PDF]
  MIESZCZAK, J., HOUK, C.P. & LEE, P.A. (2009). Assignment of the sex of rearing in the neonate with a disorder of sex development. Current Opinion in Pediatrics, 21 (4), 541-547. [PDF]
   
Voir aussi Transsexualisme, Chirurgie de réattribution sexuelle et Identité sexuelle
 
Rebirth : Rebirth.

 
Recapture : Uptake.

  AXELROD, J. & INSCOE, J.K. (1963). The uptake and binding of circulating serotonin and the effect of drugs. Jounal of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, 141 (2), 161-165. GOODNICK P.J. & GOLDSTEIN, B.J. (1998). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in affective disorders. II. Efficacy and quality of life. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 12, 21-54.
SONG F., FREEMANTLE, N, SHELDON, T.A., HOUSE, A., WATSON, P., LONG A. & MASON, J. (1993). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors : Meta-analysis of efficacy and acceptability. British Medical Journal, 306, 683-687. BOUWER, C. & STEIN, D.J. (1998). Use of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor citalopram in treatment of generalized social phobia. Journal of Affective Disorders, 49,79-82.
MONTGOMERY, S.A., HENRY, J. McDONALD, G., DINAN, T., LADER, M., HINDMARCH, I., CLARE, A. & NUTT, D. (1994). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors : meta-analysis of discontinuation rates. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 9 (1), 47-53. TAMAM, L. & OZPOYRAZ, N. (2002). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome : a review. in Advances in Therapy, 19, 17-26.
FREEMANTKE N., HOUSE, A., SONG, F., MASON, J.M. & SHELDON, T.A. (1994). Prescribing selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as strategy for prevention of suicide. British Medical Journal, 309 (6949), 249-253. BREGGIN, P. (2003/04). Suicidality, violence and mania caused by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) : A review and analysis. International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 16, 31-49. [PDF]
ANDERSON, I.M. & TOMENSON, B.M. (1995). Treatment discontinuation with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors compared with tricyclic antidepressants : A meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 310, 1433-1438. JUURLINK, D.N., MAMDANI, M.M., KOPP, A. & REDELMEIER, D.A. (2006). The risk of suicide with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in the elderly. American Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 813-821.
GOODNICK P.J. & GOLDSTEIN, B.J. (1998). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in affective disorders. I. Basic pharmacology. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 12, 5-20. CSOKA, A.B, BAHRICK, A.S. & MEHTONEN, O. (2008). Persistent sexual dysfunction after discontinuation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 5 (1), 227-233.
Recensement : Inventaire exhaustif de tous les individus ou éléments d'une population (ou d'un goupe) en vue d'en calculer le nombre et d'en étudier les propriétés (statistique descriptive). = dénombrement, comptage, inventaire. /échantillonnage. Census.

  YATES, F. (1960). Sampling methods for censuses and surveys. London : Griffin.
DAVIS, D.E. (1982). Handbook of census methods for terrestrial vertebrates. Boca Raton : CRC Press.
AVELING, C. & HARCOURT, A.H. (1984). A census of the Virunga gorillas. Oryx, 18 (1), 8-13.
Recenser les écrits/Recension des écrits: Lecture systématique et critique des sources scientifiques (articles, livres, chapitre de livre) concernant un thème particulier (ce que l'on sait de ce thème), en vue de rédiger un article scientifique sous forme de recension des écrits ou tout autre texte qui présente un domaine de recherche ou un problème particulier (ce que l'on veut savoir : problématique). Quoi qu'il en soit, recenser les écrits d'un thème est une étape indispensable de la démarche scientifique. = revue de la littérature, état de la question. Review of the litterature, review of empiricial literature, literature review, systematic review.

  OXMAN, A.D. & GUYATT, G.H. (1988). Guidelines for reading literature reviews. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 138, 697-703. OXMAN, A.D. & GUYATT, G.H. (1991). Validation of an index of the quality of review articles. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 44, 1271-1278.
COOPER, H.M. (1988). Organizing knowledge syntheses: A taxonomy of literature reviews. Knowledge in Society, 1 (1), 104-126. OXMAN, A.D. GUYATT, G.H., SINGER, J., GOLDSMITH, C.H., HUTCHISON, B.G., MILNER, R.A. & STREINER, D.L. (1991). Agreement among reviewers of review articles. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 44, 91-98.
Voir aussi Source scientifique
  Exemple de recnesions des écrits
KREBS, D.L. (1970). Altruism : an examination of the concept and a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 73, 258-302. KELTNER, D., CAPPS, L.M., KRING, A.M., YOUNG, R.C. & HEEREY, E.A. (2001). Just teasing : A conceptual analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 229-248. [PDF] + [PDF]
FRODI, A., MACAULAY, J. & THOME, P.R. (1977). Are women always less aggressive than men? A review of the experimental literature. Psychological Bulletin, 84 (4), 634-660. VON GONTARD, A., SCHAUMBURG, H., HOLLMANN, E., EIBERG, H. & RITTIG, S. (2001). The genetics of enuresis : A review. Journal of Urology, 166 (6), 2438-2443.
JOHNSON, J.H. & VAN BOURGONDIEN, M.E. (1977). Behavior therapy and encopresis : A selective review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 6 (1), 15-19. ANDERSON, C.A. & BUSHMAN, B.J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior : A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359. [PDF]
  Al OTAIBA, S. & FUCHS, D. (2002). Characteristics of children who are unresponsive to early literacy intervention : A review of the literature. Remedial & Special Education, 23, 300-316. [PDF]
WALKENBACH, J. & HADDAD, N.F. (1980). The Rescorla-Wagner theory of conditioning : A review of the literature. Psychological Record, 30, 497-509. RHOADES, L. & EISENBERGER, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support : A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (4), 698-714. [PDF]
BUSKIST, W.F. & MILLER, H.L. (1982). The analysis of human operant behavior : A brief census of the literature : 1958-1981. Behavior Analyst, 5 (2), 137-141. [PDF] WEISS, J. (2003). Self-injurious behaviours in autism : A literature review. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 9 (2), 129-143. [PDF]
LENNOX, D.B., MILTENBERGER, R.G., SPENGLER, P. & ERFANIAN, N. (1988). Decelerative treatment practices with persons who have mental retardation : A review offive years of the literature. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 92, 492-501. PODSAKOFF, P.M., MacKENZIE, S.B., PODSAKOFF, N.P. & LEE, J.Y. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research : A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5), 879-903. [PDF]
  TONEATTO, T. & LADOUCEUR, R. (2003). Treatment of pathological gambling : a critical review of the literature. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 284-292. [PDF]
RUMMEL, A. & FEINBERG, R. (1988). Cognitive evaluation theory : A meta-analytic review of the literature.Social Behavior & Personality, 16, 147-164. CARNAGEY, N. & ANDERSON, C.A. (2004). Violent video game exposure and aggression : A literature review. Minerva Psichiatrica, 45, 1-18. [PDF]
  GENTILE, D.A. & STONE, W. (2005). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents : A review of the literature. Minerva Pediatrica, 57, 337-358. [PDF]
  KOSA, J.M., RICHDALE, A.L. & HAY, D.A. (2006). Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their teachers : A review of the literature. International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, 53 (2), 147-160. [PDF]
RICHARD-BESSETTE, S. (1996). Les habiletés hétérosociales des adolescents agresseurs sexuels : une recension des écrits. Revue Sexologique, 4 (1), 55-76. DONDLINGER, M.J. (2007). Educational video game design : A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4 (1), 21-31. [PDF]
DILL, K.E. & DILL, J.C. (1998). Video game violence : A review of the empirical literature. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 3 (4), 407-428. [PDF] CRANSTON, N., EHRICH, L. & MORTON, L. (2007). Current issues in educational leadership : What is the literature saying ? Australian Educational Leader, 29 (2), 10-13. [PDF]
GRIFFITHS, M.D. (1999). Violent video games and aggression : A review of the literature. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 4 (2), 203-212. [PDF] KUSS, D.J. & GRIFFITHS, M.D. (2011). (1962). Online social networking and addiction : A review of the psychological literature. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 8, 3528-3552. [PDF]
 

Recent Trends in Theoretical Psychology : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui se consacre aux plus récentes théories. Éditeur : Springer.
TOLMAN, C.W. (1989). For a materialist psychology. Recent Trends in Theoretical Psychology, 2, 37-49.

Récepteur : Le terme a trois acceptions : a) Dans les théories de la communication, système (groupe, humain, animal) qui reçoit un message de l'émetteur. = récepteur humain. /Émetteur. Receiver. b) Structure biologique excitable située sur la peau, la langue, le nez, les yeux, les oreilles, qui permet de capter un stimulus, de le transformer en influx, influx qui sera ensuite relayé au cerveau par l'entremise des nerfs. = récepteur sensoriel, capteur sensoriel. c) En neurobiologie, un récepteur est une protéine, située à la surface des neurones, qui a la propriété de capter et fixer certaines molécules, - neurotransmetteur/hormone - afin de permettre, grâce à la dépolarisation de la membrane cellulaire, le passage de l'influx nerveux. Par exemple, dans les neurones, les récepteurs dopaminergiques sont situés de part et d'autres de la fente synpatique. = récepteur chimique.

  a
KREBS, D.L. (1970). Altruism : an examination of the concept and a review of the literature. Psychological Bulletin, 73, 258-302. KELTNER, D., CAPPS, L.M., KRING, A.M., YOUNG, R.C. & HEEREY, E.A. (2001). Just teasing : A conceptual analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 229-248. [PDF] + [PDF]
FRODI, A., MACAULAY, J. & THOME, P.R. (1977). Are women always less aggressive than men? A review of the experimental literature. Psychological Bulletin, 84 (4), 634-660. VON GONTARD, A., SCHAUMBURG, H., HOLLMANN, E., EIBERG, H. & RITTIG, S. (2001). The genetics of enuresis : A review. Journal of Urology, 166 (6), 2438-2443.
JOHNSON, J.H. & VAN BOURGONDIEN, M.E. (1977). Behavior therapy and encopresis : A selective review of the literature. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 6 (1), 15-19. ANDERSON, C.A. & BUSHMAN, B.J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior : A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12, 353-359. [PDF]
WALKENBACH, J. & HADDAD, N.F. (1980). The Rescorla-Wagner theory of conditioning : A review of the literature. Psychological Record, 30, 497-509. RHOADES, L. & EISENBERGER, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support : A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87 (4), 698-714. [PDF]
BUSKIST, W.F. & MILLER, H.L. (1982). The analysis of human operant behavior : A brief census of the literature : 1958-1981. Behavior Analyst, 5 (2), 137-141. [PDF] WEISS, J. (2003). Self-injurious behaviours in autism : A literature review. Journal on Developmental Disabilities, 9 (2), 129-143. [PDF]
LENNOX, D.B., MILTENBERGER, R.G., SPENGLER, P. & ERFANIAN, N. (1988). Decelerative treatment practices with persons who have mental retardation : A review offive years of the literature. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 92, 492-501. PODSAKOFF, P.M., MacKENZIE, S.B., PODSAKOFF, N.P. & LEE, J.Y. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research : A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5), 879-903. [PDF]
OXMAN, A.D. & GUYATT, G.H. (1988). Guidelines for reading literature reviews. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 138, 697-703. TONEATTO, T. & LADOUCEUR, R. (2003). Treatment of pathological gambling : a critical review of the literature. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 284-292. [PDF]
COOPER, H.M. (1988). Organizing knowledge syntheses: A taxonomy of literature reviews. Knowledge in Society, 1 (1), 104-126.  
RUMMEL, A. & FEINBERG, R. (1988). Cognitive evaluation theory : A meta-analytic review of the literature.Social Behavior & Personality, 16, 147-164. CARNAGEY, N. & ANDERSON, C.A. (2004). Violent video game exposure and aggression : A literature review. Minerva Psichiatrica, 45, 1-18. [PDF]
OXMAN, A.D. & GUYATT, G.H. (1991). Validation of an index of the quality of review articles. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 44, 1271-1278. GENTILE, D.A. & STONE, W. (2005). Violent video game effects on children and adolescents : A review of the literature. Minerva Pediatrica, 57, 337-358. [PDF]
OXMAN, A.D. GUYATT, G.H., SINGER, J., GOLDSMITH, C.H., HUTCHISON, B.G., MILNER, R.A. & STREINER, D.L. (1991). Agreement among reviewers of review articles. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 44, 91-98. KOSA, J.M., RICHDALE, A.L. & HAY, D.A. (2006). Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and their teachers : A review of the literature. International Journal of Disability, Development & Education, 53 (2), 147-160. [PDF]
RICHARD-BESSETTE, S. (1996). Les habiletés hétérosociales des adolescents agresseurs sexuels : une recension des écrits. Revue Sexologique, 4 (1), 55-76. DONDLINGER, M.J. (2007). Educational video game design : A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Educational Technology, 4 (1), 21-31. [PDF]
DILL, K.E. & DILL, J.C. (1998). Video game violence : A review of the empirical literature. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 3 (4), 407-428. [PDF] CRANSTON, N., EHRICH, L. & MORTON, L. (2007). Current issues in educational leadership : What is the literature saying ? Australian Educational Leader, 29 (2), 10-13. [PDF]
GRIFFITHS, M.D. (1999). Violent video games and aggression : A review of the literature. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 4 (2), 203-212. [PDF] KUSS, D.J. & GRIFFITHS, M.D. (2011). (1962). Online social networking and addiction : A review of the psychological literature. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 8, 3528-3552. [PDF]
b
   
c
CHARRON, A., EL HAGE, C. & SAMAHA, A.-N (2015). 5-HT2 receptors modulate the expression of antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity.European Neuropsychopharmacology, 25 (12), 2381-2393. ODA, Y., KANAHARA, N. & IYO, M. (2015). Alterations of dopamine D2 receptors and related receptor-interacting proteins in schizophrenia : The pivotal position of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis in treatment-resistant schizophrenia. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 16, 30144-30163. [PDF]
 
Récepteur sensoriel : Structure biologique excitable située sur la peau, la langue, le nez, les yeux, les oreilles, qui permet de capter un stimulus, de le transformer en influx, influx qui sera ensuite relayé au cerveau par l'entremise des nerfs. = capteur sensoriel.

  ABERCROMBIE, M., HICKMAN, C.J. & JOHNSON, M.L. (1980). Dictionary of biology. Londres : Penguin.
Récessif : Qualifie un allèle qui ne s'exprime phénotypiquement qu'à l'état homozygote.

  ABERCROMBIE, M., HICKMAN, C.J. & JOHNSON, M.L. (1980). Dictionary of biology. Londres : Penguin.
Récession économique : /croissance économique. Economic recession, economic decline.

  WARR, P. (1984). Economic recession and mental health : A review of research. Tijdschrift voor Sociale Gezondheidszorg, 62 (8), 298-308.
RUHM, C.J. (2000). Are recessions good for your health ? Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115, 617–550.
NEUMAYER, E. (2004). Recessions lower (some) mortality rates : Evidence from Germany. Social Science & Medicine, 58, 1037–1047.
BOONE, J. & VAN OURS, J.C. (2006). Are recessions good for workplace safety ? Journal of Health Economics, 25, 1069–1093.
CATALANO, R., GOLDMAN-MELLOR, S., SAXTON, K., MARGERISON-ZILKO, C., SUBBARAMAN, M., LEWINN, K. & ANDERSON, E. (2011). The health effects of economic decline. Annual Review of Public Health, 32, 431-450. [PDF]
Voir aussi économie, Chômage, Crise économique et Cycle
Réchauffement (Entraînement) : Voir Échauffement.
Réchauffement climatique : Global warming, global environmental change, climate change, climatic warmth.

  STERN, P.C. (1992). Psychological dimensions of global environmental change. Annual Review of Psychology, 43, 269-302. WHITMARSH, L. (2009). What's in a name ? Commonalities and differences in public understanding of climate change and global warming. Public Understanding of Science, 18, 401-420.
DUNLAP, R.M., GALLUP, G. & GALLUP, A. (1993). Global environmental concern : Results from an international public opinion survey. Environment, 35, 7-15, 33-39. JOHNSON, D.D.P. & LEVIN, S.A. (2009). The tragedy of cognition : psychological biases and environmental inaction. Current Science, 97 (11), 1593-1603. [PDF]
McCRIGHT, A.M. & DUNLAP, R.M. (2000). Challenging global warming as a social problem : An analysis of the conservative movement's counterclaims. Social Problems, 47, 499-522. WEBER, E.U. (2010). What shapes perceptions of climate change ? Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews : Climate Change, 1(3), 332-342. [PDF]
OSKAMP, S. (2002). Environmentally responsible behavior: Teaching and promoting it effectively. Analysis of Social Issues & Policy, 2, 173-182. JOIREMEN, J., TRUELOVE, H.B. & DUELL, B. (2010). Effect of outdoor temperature, heat primes and anchoring on belief in global warming. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30, 358-367. [PDF]
KERR, R.A. (2002). A warmer arctic means change for all. Science, 297, 1491-1492. SWIN, J.K., STERN, P.C., DOHERTY, T.J., CLAYTON, S., RESER, J.P., WEBER, E.U., GIFFORSD, R. & HOAWARD, G.S. (2011). Psychology's contributions to understanding and addressing global climate change. American Psychologist, 66 (4), 241-250. [PDF]
BOYKOFF, M.T. & BOYKOFF, J.M. (2004). Balance as bias : Global warming and the US prestige press. Global Envi- ronmental Change 14: 125-136. YEAGER, D.S., LARSONS, S.B., KROSNICK, J.A. & TOMPSON, T. (2011). Measuring Americans' issue priorities : A new version of the most important problem question reveals more concern about global warming and the environment. Public Opinion Quarterly, 75 (1), 125-138. / Science, 332, 151. [PDF]
CLAYTON, S. & BROOK, A. (2005). Can psychology help save the world ? A Model for Conservation Psychology. Analyses of Social Issues & Public Policy, 5 (1), 87-102. [PDF] WEBER, E.U. & STERN, P.C. (2011). Public understanding of climate change in the United States. American Psychologist, 66, 315-328. [PDF]
WEBER, E.U., (2006). Experience-based and description-based perceptions of long-term risk : Why global warming does not scare us (yet). Climatic Change, 77, 103-120. [PDF] SCHULDT, J.P., KONRATH, S.H. & SCWHARZ, N. (2011). "Global warming" or "climate change" ? whether the planet is warming depends on question wording. Public Opinion Quarterly, 75 (1), 115-120. [PDF]
  BRISMAN, A. (2012). The cultural silence of climate change contrarianism. In R. White Ed.), Climate change from a criminological perspective. New York : Springer.
  WEBER, E.U. (2015). Climate change demands behavioral change : What are the challenges? Social Research : An International Quarterly, 82, 561-581. [PDF]
McCRAE, R.R., TERRACCIANO, A., REALO, A. & ALLIK, J. (2007). Climatic warmth and national wealth : Some culture-level determinants of national character stereotypes. European Journal of Personality, 21 (8). 953-976. ALAVOSIUS, M.P., NEWSOME, W.D., HOUMANFAR, R. & BIGLAN, A. (2016). A functional contextualist analysis of the behavior and organizational practices relevant to climate change. In R.D. Zettle, S.C. Hayes, D. Barnes-Holmes & A. Biglan (Eds.), Handbook of contextual behavior science (pp. 513-530). NY : Wiley.
Voir aussi Désastre naturel et Développement durable
Recherche (scientifique) : Terme générique qui désigne toute entreprise qui utilise la démarche scientifique pour résoudre un problème et accroître les connaissances dans un domaine de recherche. Plus précisément, la recherche vise à décrire, expliquer, comprendre, prédire et contrôler la réalité. Une recherche peut être réalisée ou non en laboratoire. Certaines recherches utilisent la méthode empirique, alors que d'autres font appel à la méthode formelle. Toute recherche doit se faire en respectant des critères de scientificité. = étude scientifique, expérience scientifique. ( ): Voir tableauci-dessous. Research, research process.

Problème   Théorie   Solution
   
Recherche
   
  Méthodes scientifiques  


Les types de recherche
Recherche action Recherche documentaire Recherche longitudinale
Recherche animale Recherche empirique Recherche préliminaire
Recherche appliquée Recherche en milieu naturel Recherche qualitative
Recherche clinique Recherche en laboratoire Recherche quantitative
Recherche clinique avec groupes formés au hasard Recherche épidémiologique  
Recherche controversée Recherche expérimentale Recherche quasi-expérimentale
Recherche corrélationnelle Recherche exploratoire Recherche rétrospective
Recherche descriptive Recherche formelle Recherche transversale
  Recherche indépendante Recherche visuelle
 

  UNDERWOOD, B.J. (1957). Psychological research. New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts. BIRNBAUM, M.H. (2001). Introduction to behavioral research on the Internet. Upper Saddle River, NJ : Prentice Hall.
SIDMAN, M. (1960). Tactics of scientific research : Evaluating experimental data in psychology New York : Basic Books ZAMORA-BONILLA, J.P. (2002). Verisimilitude and the dynamics of scientific research programmes. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 33, 349-368.
KERLINGER, F.N. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research. New York : Holt, Rinehart & Winston. GARRISON, E.G. & KOBER, P.C. (2002). Weathering a political storm : A contextual perspective on a psychological research controversy. American Psychologist, 57, 165-175.
BURNS, N. & GROVE, S.K. (1987). The practice of research, conduct, critique, and utilization. Philadelphia : Saunders. PODSAKOFF, P.M., MacKENZIE, S.B., PODSAKOFF, N.P. & LEE, J.Y. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research : A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88 (5), 879-903. [PDF]
 SABOURIN, M. & BÉLANGER D. (1988). Règles de déontologie en recherche. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 367-397). St-Hyacinthe : Édisem. SALMON, P. (2003). How do we recognise good research ? The Psychologist, 16 (1), 24-27. [PDF]
CORMACK, D.S. (1991). The research process. Black Scientific : Oxford. KARSENTI, T. & SAVOIE-ZAJC, L. (Dir.) (2004). La recherche en éducation : étapes et approches. Sherbrooke, QC : Éditions du CRP.
REUCHLIN, M. (1992). Introduction à la recherche en psychologie. Paris : Nathan. HITLIN, S. & PILIAVIN, J.A. (2004). Current research, methods, and theory of values. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 359-393.
REID, P.T. (1993). Poor women in psychological research: Shut up and shut out. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 17, 133-150. VITTENGL, J.R., BOSLEY, C.Y., BRESCIA, S.A., ECKARDT, E.A., NEIDIG, J.M., SHELVER, K.S. & SAPENOFF, L.A. (2004). Why are some undergraduates more (and others less) interested in psychological research ? Teaching of Psychology, 31 (2), 91-97.
REID, P.T. & KELLY, E. (1994). Research on women of color: From ignorance to awareness. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 18, 477-486.  
QUIVY, R. et VAN CAPENHOUDT, L. (1995). Manuel de recherche en sciences sociales. Paris : Dunod. SANDLER, A. (2005). Placebo effects in developmental disabilities : implications for research and practice. Mental Retardation & Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews, 11 (2), 164-170. [PDF]
WORELL, J. (1996). Opening doors to feminist research. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 469-484. HOCK, R.R. (2005). Forty studies that changed psychology : explorations into history of psychological research. Upper Saddle River : Pearson.
CARNINE, D. (1997). Bridging the research-to-practice gap. Exceptional Children, 63 (4), 513-521. APA PUBLICATIONS & COMMUNICATIONS BOARD (2008). Reporting standards for research in psychology. Why Do We need them ? What might they be? American Psychologist, 63 (9), 839-851. [PDF]
LABAREE, D.F. (1998). Educational researchers : Living with a lesser form of knowledge. Educational Researcher, 27 (8), 4-12. [PDF] TESTART, J. (2011). La recherche confisquée par l'innovation marchande. Alliage, 61, 24-30. [LIRE]
DELFABBRO, P.H. & WINEFIELD, A.H. (1999). The danger of over-explanation in psychological research. British Journal of Psychology, 90, 447-450. DOVIDIO, J.F. & ESSES, V.M. (2007). Psychological research and public policy: Bridging the gap. Social Issues & Policy Review, 1, 5-14. [PDF]
Voir aussi Démarche scientifique
Recherche (Assistant de...) : Research assistantship.

  LANDRUM, R.E. & NELSEN, L.R. (2002). The undergraduate research assistantship : An analysis of the benefits. Teaching of Psychology, 29, 15-19.
Voir aussi Équipe de recherche
Recherche action : Type de recherche qui a pour but ultime de modifier (améliorer) la situation étudiée. Action research.

  LEWIN, K. (1946). Action research and minority problems. Journal of Social Issues, 2, 34-46.
MUNHALL, P.L. (2001). Action research. The method. In P.L. Munhall (Ed.), Nursing research : A qualitative perspective (p. 537-549). Sudbury, MA : Jones & Bartlett.
OZER, E.J., RITTERMAN, M.L. & WANIS, M.G. (2010). Participatory action research (PAR) in middle school : Opportunities, constraints, and key processes. American Journal of Community Psychology, 46 (1-2), 152-166. [PDF]
Recherche alimentaire : Voir Stratégie alimentaire.
Recherche animale : Recherche scientifique dont les sujets sont des animaux, de laboratoire ou observé en condtions naturelles. Recehrche, psychologie comparée et bien être animal. Animal research.
  MICHAEL, J. (1967). The relevance of animal research. In R. Schiefelbusch, R. Copeland & J. Smith (Eds.), Language and mental retardation (pp. 81-91). New York : Holt, Rinehart and Winston. DOMJAN, M.P. & PURDY, J. (1995). Animal research in psychology, more than meets the eye of the general psychology student. American Psychologist, 50 (7), 496-503. [PDF]
NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF HEALTH (1978). Guide for the care and use of laboratory animals. Washington, D.C. : National Institute of Health.  
REGAN, T. (1983). The case for animal rights. Berkeley : University of California Press.  
MILLER, N.E. (1985). The value of behavioral research on animals. American Psychologist, 40, 423-440.  
ROLLIN, B.E. (1985). The moral status of research animals in psychology. American Psychologist, 40, 920-926. PIOUS, S. (1996). Attitudes toward the use of animals in psychological research and education results from a national survey of psychologists. American Psychologist, 51 (11), 1167-1180. [PDF]
SIEBER, J.E. (1986). Students' and scientists' attitudes on animal research. American Biology Teacher, 48, 85-91. DOMJAN, M.P. & PURDY, J. (1996). Teaching about animal research in psychology. American Psychologist, 51, 979-980.
PLATT, S.A. & SANISLOW, C.A. (1988). Norm-of-reaction : definition and misinterpretation of animal research. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 102, 254-261. PIOUS, S. (1996). Attitudes toward the use of animals in psychological research and education results from a national survey Results From a National Survey of psychology majors. Psychological Science, 7 (6), 352-358. [PDF]
GALLUP, G.G. & EDDY, T.J. (1990). Animal facilities survey. American Psychologist, 45, 400-401.  
VINEY, W., KING, D.B. & BRENDT, J. (1990). Animal research in psychology : Declining or thriving? Journal of Comparative Psychology, 104, 322-325. GOSLING, S.D. (2001). From mice to men : what can we learn about personality from animal research ? Psychological Bulletin, 127, 45-86. [PDF]
DRISCOLL, J.W. (1992). Attitudes toward animal use. Anthrozoös, 5, 32-39. VAZIRE, S. & GOSLING, S.D. (2003). Bridging psychology and biology with animal research. American Psychologist, 58, 407-408. [PDF]
lRICH, R.E. (1991). Animal rights, animal wrongs and the question of balance. Psychological Science, 2, 197-201. BECKER, H.C., LOPEZ, M.F. & DOREMUS-FITZWATER, T.L.L. (2011). Effects of stress on alcohol drinking : a review of animal studies. Psychopharmacology, 218 (1), 131-156. [PDF]
PIFER L., SHIMIZU, K. & PIFER, R. (1994). Public attitudes toward animal research : Some international comparisons. Society & Animals, 2, 95-113. GAWRONSKI, B. & CESARIO, J. (2013). Of mice and men : What animal research can tell us about context effects on automatic responses in humans. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 17, 187-215. [PDF]
ORLANS, E.B. (1994). Data on animal experimentation in the United States : What they do and do not show. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine, 37, 217-231. LAZIC, S.E., CLARKE-WILLIAMS, C.J. & MUNAFO, M.R. (2018). What exactly is "N" in cell culture and animal experiments ? PLOS BIO, 16 (4), 1-4. [PDF]
Voir aussi Psychologie comparée et Animal de laboratoire
 
Recherche appliquée : = recherche en milieu naturel. Applied research, field setting, field experiment.

  COOK, T.D. & CAMPBELL, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experiments : Nonequivalent control group designs. In T.D. Cook & D.T. Campbell (Eds.), Quasi-experimentation : Design and analysis for field settings (pp. 95-146). Boston : Houghton Mifflin Co.
COOK, T.D. & CAMPBELL, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation : Design & analysis for field settings. Chicago : Rand McNally.
HIGGINBOTHAN, H.N., WEST, S.G. & FORSYTH, D.R. (1988). Research methods 2 : Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for field settings. In A.P. Goldstein & L. Krasner (Eds.), Psychotherapy and behavior change : Social, cultural, and methodological perspectives (pp. 35-74). New York : Pergamon Press.
JOHNSTON, J.M. (1996). Distinguishing between applied research and practice. The Behavior Analyst, 19 (1), 35-47. [PDF]
WEST, S.G., BIESANZ, J.C. & PITTS, S.C. (2000). Causal inference and generalization in field settings : Experimental and quasi-experimental designs. In H.T. Reis & C.M. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology (pp. 40-84). Cambridge, UK : Cambridge University Press.
SHADISH, W.R. (2002). Revisiting field experiments : Field notes for the future. Psychological Methods, 6 (4), 3-18.
SHADISH, W.R. & COOK, T.D. (2009). The renaissance of field experimentation in evaluating interventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 607-629.
Recherche clinique : Recherche scientifique menée par les universités et l'industrie pharmaceutique (souvent conjointement) visant à mesurer l'efficacité et l'innocuité d'un traitement/médicament. L'objectif premier de ces études n'est pas de guérir les volontaires. Dans ces essais, les participants sont généralement distribués au hasard dans les x groupes de l'étude et comparés à un groupe contrôle ou placebo. Essai clinique, thérapie médicamenteuse et étude indépendante. = test ou essai clinique. Clinical trial, randomized trial.

    Études du fabricant            
Biochimiste/Concepteur Expérimentateur/Testeur Médecin/Prescripteur Pharmacien/Vendeur Patient/Acheteur
    Études indépendantes            


  SHAPIRO, M.F. & CRARROW, R.P. (1985). Scientific misconduct in investigational drug trials. The New England Journal of Medicine, 312 (11), 731-736. SMALL, R., LUMLEY, J., DONOHUE, L., POTTER, A. & WALDENSTROM, U. (2000). Randomised controlled trial of midwife led debriefing to reduce maternal depression after operative childbirth. British Medical Journal, 321 (7268), 1043-1047.
PROCOCK, S.J. (1993). Clinical trials, a practical approach. Chichester : John Wiley & Sons. QUITKIN, F.M., RABKIN, J.G., GERALD, J., DAVIS, J. & KLEIN, D.F. (2000). Validity of clinical trials of antidepressants. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 327-337.
HOWARD, K.I., KRAUSE, M.S. & LYONS, J.S. (1993). When clinical trials fail : A guide to disaggregation. In L.S. Onken, J.D. Blaine & J.J. Boren (Eds.), Behavioral treatments for drug abuse and dependence (NIDA Research Monograph No. 137, pp. 291-302). Washington, DC : National Institute for Drug Abuse. EVEN, C., SIOBUD-DOROCANT, E. & DARDENNES, R.M. (2000). Critical approach to antidepressant trials. Blindness protection is necessary, feasible and measurable. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 47
KLEIN, R.G., ABIKOFF, H., BARKLEY, R.A., CAMPBELL, M., LECKMAN, J.F., RYAN, N.D., SOLANTO, M.V. & WHALEN, C.K. (1994). Clinical trials in children and adolescents. In R.F. Prien & D.S. Robinson (Eds.), Clinical evaluation of psychotropic drugs : principles and guidelines (pp. 501-546). New York : Raven Press. MONCRIEFF, J. (2001). Are antidepressants over-rated ? A review of methodological problems in antidepressant trials. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 189, 288-295.
SCHIPPER, H., CLINCH, J.J. & OLWENCY, C.M. (1996). Quality of life studies : definitions and conceptual issues. In B. Spilker (Ed.), Quality of life and pharmacoeconomics in clinical trials (pp. 11-23). New York : Lippincott- Raven. MEYERS, R.J., MILLER, W.R., SMITH, J.E. & TONIGAN, J.S. (2002). A randomized trial of two methods for engaging treatment-refusing drug users through concerned significant others. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70, 1182-1185. [PDF]
  MILLER, W.R. & WILLBOURNE, P.L. (2002). Mesa Grande : A methodological analysis of clinical trials of treatments for alcohol use disorders. Addiction, 97, 265-277.
SCHULTZ, K. (1996). Randomised trials, human nature, and reporting guidelines. Lancet, 348, 596-98 KRAMER, M.S. (2003). Randomized trials and public health interventions : Time to end the scientific double standard. Clinics in Perinatology, 30, 351-361.
  CHRISTENSEN, H., GRIFFITHS, K.M. & JORM, A.F. (2004). Delivering interventions for depression by using the internet : randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 328 (7434), 265-270. [PDF]
HAYWARD, R.S.A. (1997). Clinical practice guidelines on trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 156, 1725-1727. POCOCK, S.J. (2004). Clinical trials : A practical approach. John Wiley & Sons.
  GARDNER, W., LIDZ, C.W. & HARTWIG, K.C. (2005). Authors' reports about research integrity problems in clinical trials. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 26, 244-251.
  MILLER, W.R., YAHNE, C.E., MOYERS, T.B., MARTINEZ, J. & PIRRITANO, M. (2005). A randomized trial of methods to help clinicians learn motivational interviewing. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 72, 1050-1062.
  WILLAN, A.R. & PINTO, E.M. (2005). The value of information and optimal clinical trial design. Statistics in Medicine, 24,1791-1806.
KUNZ, R. & OXMAN A.D. (1998). The unpredictability paradox : review of empirical comparisons of randomised and non-randomised clinical trials. British Medical Journal, 317, 1185-90. COHEN, D. (2005). Clinical trials in psychopharmacology : Gold standard or fool's gold ? In S. Kirk (Ed.), Mental disorders in the social environment : critical perspectives (pp. 347-367). New York : Columbia University Press.
HOLMBERG, L., BAUM M. & ADAMI, H.O. (1999). On the scientific inference from clinical trials. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 5, 157-162. KIRSCH, I. & MONCRIEFF, J. (2007). Clinical trials and the response rate illusion. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 28, 348-351
  IOANNIDIS, J. (2008). Effectiveness of antidepressants : an evidence myth constructed from a thousand randomized trials ? Philosophy, Ethics & Humanities in Medicine, 3, 14. [PDF]
LO, B., WOLF, B.E. & BERKELEY, A. (2000). Conflict-of-interest policies for investigators in clinical trials. New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 1616 - 1620. BOLTON, D. (2008). The epistemology of randomized, controlled trials and application in psychiatry. Philosophy, Psychiatry & Psychology, 15 (2), 159-165.
  MINAMI, T., SERLIN, R.C., WAMPOLD, B.E., KIRCHER, J.C. & BROWN, G.S. (2008). Using clinical trials to benchmark effects produced in clinical practice. Quality & Quantity, 42, 513-525. [PDF]
  TURNER, E.H., KNOEPFLMACHER, D. & SHAPLEY, L. (2012). Publication bias in antipsychotic trials: An analysis of efficacy comparing the published literature to the US Food and Drug Administration Database.PLoS Medicine, 9 (3), 1-17. [PDF]
GAUDIANO, B.A. (2009). Öst's (2008). Methodological comparison of clinical trials of acceptance and commitment therapy versus cognitive behavior therapy : Matching apples with oranges ? Behaviour Research & Therapy, 47 (12), 1066-1070. [PDF]
Voir aussi Recherche clinique avec groupes formés au hasard
 
Recherche clinique avec groupes formés au hasard : Essai clinique dans lequel les sujets sont distribués au hasard dans les groupes expérimentaux et de contrôle. Randomised controlled trial, randomized placebo-controlled trials, randomized clinical trial.

  COOK, D.J., SACKETT, D.L. & SPITZER, W.O. (1995). Methodologic guidelines for systematic reviews of randomized control trials in health care from the Potsdam Consultation on Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 48, 167-171. WESTEN, D., NOVONTY, C.M. & THOMPSON-BRENNER, H. (2004). Empirical status of empirically supported psychotherapies : Assumptions, findings, and reporting in controlled clinical trials. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 631-663.
KUNZ, R. & OXMAN A.D. (1998). The unpredictability paradox : review of empirical comparisons of randomised and non-randomised clinical trials. British Medical Journal, 317, 1185-90. CHRISTENSEN, H., GRIFFITHS, K.M. & JORM, A.F. (2004). Delivering interventions for depression by using the internet : randomised controlled trial. British Medical Journal, 328 (7434), 265-270. [PDF]
  STEVENS, T. & AHMEDZI, S.H. (2004). Why do breast cancer patients decline entry into randomized trials and how do they feel about their decision later : A prospective, longitudinal, in-depth interview study. Patient Education & Counseling, 52, 341-338.
  MACIAS, C., BARREIRA, P., HARGREAVES, W., BICKMAN, L., FISHER, W. & ARONSON, E. (2005). Impact of referral source and study applicants' preference for randomly assigned service on research enrollment, service engagement, and evaluative outcomes. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162 (4), 781-787.
MILLAT, B., BORIE, F. & FINGERHUT, A. (2005). Patients' preference and randomization: New paradigm of evidence-based clinical research. World Journal of Surgery, 29, 596-600. SAVARD, J., SIMARD, S., IVERS, H. & MORIN, C.M. (2005). Randomized study on the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for insomnia secondary to breast cancer, part I : sleep and psychological effects. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23, 6083-6096.
SMALL, R., LUMLEY, J., DONOHUE, L., POTTER, A. & WALDENSTROM, U. (2000). Randomised controlled trial of midwife led debriefing to reduce maternal depression after operative childbirth. British Medical Journal, 321 (7268), 1043-1047. SOFRONOFF, K., ATTWOOD, T. & HINTON, S. (2005). A randomised controlled trial of a CBT intervention for anxiety in children with Asperger syndrome. Journal of Child Psycholoy & Psychiatry, 46 (11), 1152-1160.
  HOFMANN, S.G. & SMITS, J.A. (2008). Cognitive-behavioral therapy for adult anxiety disorders : a meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 69 (4), 621-632. [PDF]
BARLOW, D.H., GORMAN, J.M., SHEAR, M.K. & WOODS, S.W. (2000). Cognitive-behavioral therapy, imipramine, or their combination for panic disorder : A randomized controlled trial. Journal of American Medical Association, 283 (19), 2529-2536. [PDF] BOLTON, D. (2008). The epistemology of randomized, controlled trials and application in psychiatry. Philosophy, Psychiatry & Psychology, 15 (2), 159-165.
  PREFERENCE COLLABORATIVE REVIEW GROUP (2009). Patients' preferences within randomized trials : Systematic review and patient level meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 338, a1864.
DEVEREAUX, P.J. & YUSUF, S. (2003). The evolution of the randomized controlled trial and its role in evidence-based decision making. Journal of Internal Medicine, 254, 105-113. PIGNOTTI, M. & THYER, B.A. (2009). Why randomized clinical trials are important and necessary to social work practice. In H-W. Otto, A. Polutta & H. Ziegler. Evidence-based practice : Modernizing the knowledge base of social work (pp. 99-109).Barbara Budrich Publishers : Farmington Hills, MI and Opladen, Germany.
  O'KEEFE, D.J. & WU, D. (2012). Gain-framed appeals do not motivate sun protection : A meta-analytic review of randomized trials comparing gain-framed and loss-framed appeals for promoting skin cancer prevention. International Journal of Environmental Research & Public Health, 9, 2121-2133. [PDF]
OAKLEY, A., STRANGE, V., TOROYAN, T., WIGGINS, M., ROBERTS, I. & STEPHENSON, J. (2003). Using random allocation to evaluate social interventions : Three recent U.K. examples. Annals of the AAPSS, 589, 170-189. KASARI, C., KAISER, A., GOODS K., NIETFELD, J., MATHY, P., LANDA, R., MURPHY, S. & ALMIRALL, D. (2014). Communication interventions for minimally verbal children with autism : A sequential multiple assignment randomized trial. American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 53 (6), 635-646.
Voir aussi Étude, Groupe de contrôle et Placebo
Recherche controversée : Voir Controverse.
Recherche corrélationnelle : Forme de recherche qui consiste à mesurer au moins deux variables dans le but de connaître la nature de leur relation (corrélation). Correlational research.

  GRABE, S., HYDE, J.S. & WARD, L.M. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women : A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134 (3), 460-476. [PDF]
Recherche d'emploi : Recherche et perte d'emploi. Job seeking.

  CAPLAN. R.D., VINOKUR, A.D., PRICE, R.H. & VAN RYN, M. (1989). Job seeking, reemployment, and mental health : A randomized field experiment in coping with job loss. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 759-769.
PRICE, R.H., VAN RYN. M. & VINOKUR, A.D. (1992). Impact of a preventive job search interventionon the likelihood of depression among the unemployed. Journal of Health & Social Behavior, 33, 158-167.
Recherche de Hart et Risley : Recherche longitudinale réalisée par Hart et Risley pour comparer l'influence du milieu socio-économique des parents (cols blancs, cols bleus, sans emploi) sur l'acquisition du vocabulaire de leurs jeunes enfants (7 mois à 3 ans).
  HART, B. & RISLEY, T.R. (1995). Meaningful differences in the everyday experience of young american children. Baltimore : P.H. Brookes Publishing Co.
HART, B. & RISLEY, T.R. (1999). The social world of children learning to talk. Baltimore : Paul H. Brookes Publishing Co.
Recherche de Hodges et Tizard : Recherche longitudinale réalisée par Hodges et Tizard pour comparer les types d'attachement.
  HODGES, J. & TIZARD, B. (1989). Social and family relationships of ex-institutional adolescents. Journal of Child Psychiatry & Psychology, 30, 77-97. [PDF]
Recherche l'île de Kauai : En 1954, Werner a mené une étude longitudinale sur la résilience d'une cohorte de 698 enfants appartenant à des ethniess variés, provenant majoritairement de milieux défavorisés et habitant l'île de Kauai, un île de l'archipel d'Hawaï.

  WERNER, E.E. & SMITH, R.S. (1977). Kauai's children come of age. Honolulu, HI : University Press of Hawaii.
WERNER, E.E. (1992). The children of Kauai : Resiliency and recovery in adolescence and adulthood. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 262-268.
Recherche de Rosenhan : En 1972, Rosenhan et sept de ses collègues ont été admis dans des institutions psychiatriques après avoir feint d'entendre des voix. Le but de cette recherche était d'éprouver la valeur des critères utilisés pour diagnostiquer une maladie mentale et interner les individus souffrant de cette maladie.
  ROSENHAN, D.L. (1973). On being sane in insane places. Science, 179 (2), 250-258.
Recherche de sensation forte : Voir Quête de sensation forte.
Recherche descriptive : Forme de recherche qui, comme le non l'indique, consiste à décrire un phénomène, sans le modifier ou le reproduire, au moyen de méthodes descriptives. Pour décrire un phénomène, on peut l'observer ou demander au sujet de le décrire (questionnaire). Descriptive field.

  BIJOU, S.W., PETERSON, R.F. & AULT, M.H. (1968). A method to integrate descriptive and experimental field studies at the level of data and empirical concepts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1 (2), 175-191. [PDF]
Recherche documentaire : Recherche de sources en bibliothèque et sur internet dans le but de recenser les écrits et de rédiger une problématique, un article scientifique, livre, etc.

  GAGNON, M. & FARLEY-CHEVRIER, F. (2004). Guide de la recherche documentaire. Montréal : La Presses de l'Université de Montréal.
Recherche empirique : Forme de recherche qui utilise la méthode empirique pour résoudre des problèmes. Elle se divise en huit étapes logiquement ordonnées : 1) Recenser les écrits et trouver un thème ou un problème de recherche; 2) Rédiger une problématique; 3) Choisir et appliquer une méthode pour étudier ce problème (méthode et collecte de données); 4) Concevoir et réaliser un outil pour évaluer ou mesure le phénomène à l'étude; 5) Procéder à la collecte de données; 6) Analyser les données de cette collecte; 7) Interpréter les résultats à la lumière des connaissances et des théories scientifiques; 8) Le fruit de cette démarche donne généralement lieu à une communication sous forme d'article scientifique, de chapitre de livre, de livre, de conférence ou d'affiche. Par extension, le terme désigne toute recherche qui fonde ses conclusions sur des faits. = Étude empirique. Empirical research, empircial study.

Les étapes d'une recherche empirique
Lire et trouver un problème de recherche
Rédiger une problématique
Choisir une méthode pour résoudre ce problème
Développer un outil de collecte de données
Procéder à une collecte de données
Analyser statistiquement les données
Interprétation des résultats
Communiquer ses résultats


Recherches empiriques importantes
Expérience de Asch Expérience de Schachter et Singer Recherche de Hart et Risley
Expérience de Fantz Expérience de Skinner Recherche de Hodges et Tizard
Expérience de Milgram Expérience de Wundt Recherche l'ile de Kauai
Expérience de Miller Expérience de Zimbardo Recherche longitudinale de Montréal
Expérience de Pavlov Expérience du Petit Albert Recherche longitudinale de New York
 

  AJZEN, I. & FISHBEIN, M. (1977). Attitude-behavior relations : A theoretical analysis and review of empirical research. Psychological Bulletin, 84, 888-918.
FRISTON, K.J., HOLMES, A.P. & WORSLEY, K.J. (1999). How many subjects constitute a study ? NeuroImage, 10, 1–5. [PDF]
AMERICAN PSYCHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATION (2008). Reporting standards for research in psychology : Why do we need them ? What might they be ? [PDF]
Recherche et Applications Marketing : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des techniques de vente et de mise en marché des biens et services.
JACOB, C. & GUÉGUEN, N. (2002). Variations du volume d'une musique de fond et effets sur le comportement de consommation : Une évaluation dans des bars. Recherche et Applications Marketing, 4, 1-9.

Recherche en milieu naturel : Recheche qui se déroule dans le milieu dans lequel a évolué une espèce et dans lequel vivent les sujets de l'espèce qui font l'objet de cette recherche. On utilise parfois le mot terrain, notamment en anthropologie, pour désigner cette partie du milieu naturel des sujets de la recherche. /recherche en laboratoire. = étude sur le terrain, recherche sur le terrain, étude en milieu naturel. Field study.

  LATANÉ, B. (1970). Field studies in altruistic compliance. Representative Research in Social Psychology, 49-61.
Voir aussi Terrain et Milieu naturel
Recherche en laboratoire : Recheche qui se déroule dans un laboratoire. Recherche en laboratoire et méthode expérimentale. /étude sur le terrain, recherche en milieu naturel.

   
Voir aussi Laboratoire
Recherche épidémiologique : Enquête, souvent de type longitudinale, qui porte sur une cohorte ou un vaste échantillon, et dont l'objectif est de mesurer ou d'évaluer le développement, l'évolution ou la transmission d'un phénomène. = étude populationelle, étude épidéiologique.

  Voir auss Épidémiologie
Recherche expérimentale : Forme de recherche empirique qui a recours à la méthode expérimentale pour résoudre un problème scientifique. = expérience, étude expérimentale. Experimental study, experimental test.

   
KIRKPATRICK, E.A. (1894). An experimental study of memory. Psychological Review, 1, 602-609.  
CARMICHAEL, L., HOGAN, H.P. & WALTER, A.A. (1930). An experimental sudy of the effect of language on the reproduction of visually perceived form. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 15 (1), 73-86. [PDF] KEARNS, M., SURI, S. & MONTFORT, N. (2006). An experimental study of the coloring problem on human subject networks. Science, 313, (5788), 824-827
SHERIF, M. (1935). An experimental study of stereotypes. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 29, 370-375. [LIRE] AVOLIO, B.J., REICHARD, R.J., HANNAH, S.T., WALUMBA, F.O. & CHAN, A. (2009). A meta-analytic review of leadership impact research : Experimental and quasi-experimental studies. The Leadership Quarterly, 20, 764-784. [PDF]
MAYER, R.E. & ANDERSON, R.B. (1991). Animations need narrations : An experimental test of a dual-coding hypothesis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 484-490. McDERMOTT, R. (2013). The ten commandments of experimental work for political scientists. PS : Political Science & Politics 46 (3), 605-610.
BURTT, H.E. (1941). An experimental study of early childhood memory : Final report. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 58, 435-439. MAO, A., MASON, W., SURI, S. & WATTS, D.J. (2016). An experimental study of team size and performance on a complex task. PLoS ONE, 11 : 4, 1-22. [PDF]
Voir aussi Méthode expérimentale
Recherche exploratoire : Recherche qui a pour objet d'étude un phénomène nouveau, que l'on connaît mal. Ces recherches ont souvent pour but de décrire les caractéristiques du nouveau phénomène. = étude exploratoire. Exploratory study.

  ROMITO, P. & BELTRAMINI, L. (2011). Watching pornography : Gender differences, violence and victimization. An exploratory study in Italy. Violence Against Women, 17 (10), 1313-1326.
Voir aussi Recheche et Méthode exploratoire
Recherche formelle : Désigne, par opposition à la recheche empirique, toute recherche qui s'attache à construire, à étudier ou à éprouver la cohérence d'un raisonnement ou d'une théorie, plutôt que sa correspondance (empirique) avec les faits. Recherche et Méthode formelles. /recherche empirique.

  Voir aussi Méthode formelle
Recherche indépendante : Recherche commanditée par les organismes subventionnaires gouvernementaux - et non par l'industrie pharmaceutique ou tout autre entreprise privée - réalisée dans des laboratoires universitaires/centres de recherche publics par des chercheurs universitaires/centres de recherche publics au sein d'équipes de recherche ou de laboratoires subventionnés uniquement par l'état et les organismes para-publics. On peut donc classer les recherches scientifiques selon trois critères : 1) Comment : d'où provient l'argent qui a servi à réaliser l'étude (gouvernement ou entreprise privée); 2) Qui : qui réalise cette étude et rédige le rapport scientifique/article (chercheur universitaire/centre de recherche, chercheur engagé directement ou indirectement par une entreprise, auteur anonyme); 3) Où : et, finalement, où est réalisée cette recherche (dans une université ou une entreprise). En santé mentale, les études indépendantes semblent être de plus en plus rares. Il convient également de noter que la multiplication des chaires de recherche subventionnées (critère 2) par l'entreprise privée a considérablement réduit l'indépendance de la recherche en science et, par conséquent, accru le risque de conflit d'intérêt. Rappelons que l'indépendance de la recherche favorise l'objectivité et la validité des connaissances scientifiques. Étude indépendante, article bidon et validité globale. /recherche ou étude commanditée par l'industrie pharmaceutique. Independence of scientific publishing.
Degré d'indépendance de la recherche Critère I/Comment?
Commanditée/Subventionnée par l'industrie pharmaceutique?
Critère II/Qui?
Chercheur/Équipe universitaire et centre de recherche?
Critère III/Où?
Lieu de la recherche = université et centre de recherche?
Conflit d'intérêt ?
Élevé + Non Oui Oui Risque - élevée
Moyen +- Non Non Oui
Non Oui Non
Oui Non Oui Risque + élevé
Oui Oui Non
Faible - Oui Non Non
 

  ROSENTHAL, R. (1978). Combining results of independent studies. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 185-193. LO, B., WOLF, B.E. & BERKELEY, A. (2000). Conflict-of-interest policies for investigators in clinical trials. New England Journal of Medicine, 343, 1616-1620.
MAJERUS, P.W. (1982). Fraud in medical research. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 70 (1), 213-217. FAVA, G. (2002). Long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs : the spectacular achievements of propaganda. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatics, 71, 127-132.
MILLER, D.J. & HERSEN, M. (1992). Research fraud in the behavioral and biomedical sciences. New York : John Wiley. ANTONUCCIO, D. BURNS, D.D. & DANTON, W.G. (2002). Antidepressants : a triumph of marketing over science ? Prevention & Treatment, 5, 25. [LIRE]
MAYNARD, A. & BLOOR, K. (1997). Regulating the pharmaceutical industry. British Medical Journal, 315, 200-201. BEKELMAN, J., LI, Y. & GROSS, C. (2003). Scope and impact of financial conflicts of interest in biomedical research. Journal of the American Medical Association, 289 (4), 454-465.
BJORK, R.A. (2000). Independence of scientific publishing : Reaffirming the principle. American Psychologist, 55, 981-984. ANTONUCCIO, D.O., DANTON, W.G. & McCLANAHAN, T.M. (2003). Psychology in the prescription era : Building a firewall between marketing and science. American Psychologist, 58, 1028-1043.
BODENHEIMER, T. (2000). Uneasy alliance-clinical investigators and the pharmaceutical industry. New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 1539-1544 WYATT, W.J. & MIDKIFF, D. (2006). Biological psychiatry : A practice in search of science. Behavior & Social Issues, 15, 132-151.
ANGELL, M. (2000). Is academic medicine for sale? New England Journal of Medicine, 342, 1516-1518. FAVA, G. (2007). Financial conflicts of interest in psychiatry. World Psychiatry, 6 (1), 19-24.
Voir aussi Recherche, Article bidon, Validité, Objectivité scientifique et Chaire de recherche
Recherche longitudinale : Recherche à mesure répétées (1 à 4 dans l'exemple ci-dessous) auprès d'un seul échantillon/groupe (A), qui se déroule sur plusieurs années (0 à 4 ans) et dont l'objectif est de mesurer ou d'évaluer le développement ou l'évolution d'un phénomène. EX: Observer les comportements de jeu d'enfants à deux ans, quatre ans, six ans, etc. = étude longitudinale, analyse longitudinale. Longitudinal study, lonitudinal program, longitudinal investigation, longitudinal analysis.

Exemple d'une recherche longitudinale
Groupe Mesure 1 Mesure 2 Mesure 3 Mesure 4
A 0-1 an      
A   1-2 ans    
A     2-3 ans  
A       3-4 ans

   
  DEAMICI, D., KLERSY, C., RAMAJOLI, F., BRUSTIA, L.& POLITI, P. (2000). Impact of the Hawthorne effect in a longitudinal clinical study : The case of anesthesia. Controlled Clinical Trials, 21 (2), 103-114.
ROBINS, L.N. (1978). Sturdy childhood predictors of adult antisocial behaviour : replications from longitudinal studies. Psychological Medicine, 8, 611-622. ROBINS, R.W., FRALEY, R.C., ROBERTS, B.W. & TRZESNIESKI, K.H. (2001). A longitudinal study of personality change in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 69, 617-640.
HUBER, G., GROSS, G., SCHUTTLER, R. & LINZ, M. (1980). Longitudinal studies of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 6, 592-605. GOTTFRIED, A.E., FLEMING, J.S. & GOTTFRIED, A.W. (2001). Continuity of academic intrinsic motivation from childhood through late adolescence : A longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93 (1), 3-13. [PDF]
OVERALL, J.U. & MARSH, H.W. (1980). Students' evaluations of instruction : A longitudinal study of their stability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 321-325. VAUGHN, B.E (2001). A hierarchical model of social competence for preschool-age children : Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 14, 13-40.
KILPATRICK, D.G., RESICK, P.A. & VERONEN, J.L. (1981). Effects of a rape experience : A longitudinal study. Journal of Social Issues, 37 (4), 105-122. CHARLEBOIS, P., VITARO, F., NORMANDEAU, S. & RONDEAU, N. (2001). Predictors of persistence in a longitudinal preventive program for young disruptive boys. Preventive Science, 2, 133-143.
McCORD, J. (1982). The psychopath and milieu therapy : A longitudinal study. New York : Academic Press. ZHOU, L., IWATA, B.A., GOFF, G.A. & SHORE B.A. (2001). Longitudinal analysis of leisure-time preferences. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34 (2), 179-184. [PDF]
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Voir aussi Recherche
Recherche longitudinale de Montréal : Recherche longitudinale réalisée par Tremblay.
  TREMBLAY, R.E. (2010). The Montreal longitudinal and experimental study : Tracing the developmental trajectories of behavior problems and assessing their prevention. International Society for the Study of Behavioural Development Bulletin, 34, 21-24.
 
Recherche longitudinale de New York : Recherche longitudinale réalisée par Thomas, Chess et Birch, qui ont étudié le développement affectif et social de 133 enfants de leur naisance jusqu'à l'âge de 10 ans (à partir de 1956). New York longitudinal study.
  THOMAS, A., CHESS, S. & BIRCH, H.G. (1970). The origin of personality. Scientific American, 223 (2), 102-109. [LIRE]
 
Recherche préliminaire : Recherche réalisée à petite échelle (peu de sujets, peu de temps) dont le but est de tâter le terrain d'un nouveau domaine en vue d'évaluer la pertinence de réaliser un projet ou de procéder à une recherche de plus vaste envergure. = étude pilote, données préliminaires. Pilot survey, pilot study.

  ANDERSON, B., PUUR, A., SILVER, B., SOOVA, H. & VOORMANN, R. (1994). Use of a lottery as an incentive for survey participation : a pilot survey in Estonia. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 6, 64-71.  
DORÉ, C. et COHEN, D. (1996). La prescription de stimulants aux enfants "hyperactifs" : une étude pilote des incitatifs et des contraintes pour les parents, les médecins et les enseignants. Santé Mentale au Québec, 22 (1), 216-238.  
ZARETSKY, A.E., SEGAL, Z.V. & GEMAR, M. (1999). Cognitive therapy for bipolar depression : A pilot study. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 44, 491-494. DRAKE C. E., KELLUM, K.K., WILSON, K.G., LUOMA, J., WEINSTEIN, J. & ADAMS, C. (2010). Examining the implicit relational assessment procedure : Four pilot studies. Psychological Record, 81-86.
SCOTT, J., GARLAND, A. & MOORHEAD, S. (2001). A pilot study of cognitive therapy in bipolar disorders. Psychological Medicine, 31, 459-467. KEUTHEN, N.J., ROTHBAUM, B.O., WELCH, S.S., TAYLOR, C., FALKENSTEIN, M., HEEKIN, M., JORDAN, C.A., TIMPANO, K., MEUNIER, S., FAMA, J. & JENIKE, M.A. (2010). Pilot trial of dialectical behavior therapy-enhanced habit reversal for trichotillomania. Depression & Anxiety, 27 (10), 953-959. [PDF]
BITNER, R., HILLMAN, L., VICTOR, B. & WALSH, R. (2003). Subjective effects of antidepressants : A pilot study of the varieties of antidepressant-induced experiences in meditators. The Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 191 (10), 660-667. [PDF] LAM, R.W., LUTZ, K., PREECE, M., CAYLEY, P.M. & WALKER, A.B. (2011). Telephone-administered cognitive-behavioral therapy for clients with depressive symptoms in an employee assistance program : A pilot study. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 23 (1), 11-16. [PDF]
Voir aussi Recherche
Recherche qualitative : Toute recherche qui utilise des techniques comme l'entrevue, l'analyse de contenu ou les tests projectifs pour collecter les données (qualitatives, donc non-quantitatives) et comprendre son objet d'étude. Dans une recherche qualitative, la collecte de données et l'analyse sont non-quantitatives. Recherche qualitative, donnée qualitative et science idiographique. = méthode qualitative, analyse qualitative. Qualitative research, qualitative analysis, qualitative data analysis.


  SI
Type de méthodes et d'outils
Type de données   Type d'analyse  
Type de recherche
Méthodes et outils quantitatifs Tout outil qui permet de transformer un phénomène en chiffre (Test, questionnaire, grille d'observation) Donnée quantitative La donnée mesurée est chiffrée (EX: je fais 102 degrés de fièvre) OU Analyse quantitative La donnée 102 est utilisée telle quelle par un test statistique DONC Recherche quantitative
Analyse qualitative
La donnée 102 est transformée en classe, ordonnée ou non, avant d'être analysée par un test statistique
DONC Recherche quantitative
Choix de la méthode et de l'outil
Collecte des données Préparation et analyse de ces données  
  SI Méthodes et outils qualitatifs Tout outil qui permet de transformer un phénomène en mot (entrevue, observation libre, etc.) Donnée qualitative La donnée évaluée est notée sous forme de mot (EX: Je fais beaucoup de fièvre) OU Analyse qualitative La donnée beaucoup est utilisée telle quelle lors de l'interprétation DONC Recherche qualitative
Analyse quantitative
La donnée beaucoup est transformée en chiffre avant d'être analysée par un test statistique
DONC Recherche quantitative


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