Claude Goulet/2003© l Mise à jour + Comment citer ce lexique l Notre mission : Explorer la nébuleuse Psy ! Auteurs
a b c d e f g h i j k l m Revues
n o p q r s t u v w x y z Ang./Fr.
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TAC - TE - TEM - TERMAN - TEST - TH - THÉORIE - THÉRAPIE - THI - THORNDIKE - TO - TRA - TRE/TRI - TRO - TROUBLE - TU - TULVING
Tabagisme/Tabac : Voir Fumer et Prévention du tabagisme.
Tabachnick Barbara G. ( ) : Psychologue et statisticienne américaine, spécialisée en éthique et en éducation. Elle s'intéresse également aux statistiques multivariées. Collaboratrice de Fidell, Fidell, Keith-Spiegel, Pope et Whitley.
TABACHNICK, B.G. & BROTSKY, S.J. (1976). Free recall and complexity of pictorial stimuli. Memory & Cognition, 4 (5), 466-470.
TABACHNICK, B.G. (1979). Test scatter on the WISC-R. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 12 (9), 626-628.
TABACHNICK, B.G., KEITH-SPIEGEL, P. & POPE, K.S. (1991). Ethics of teaching : Beliefs and behaviors of psychologists as educators. American Psychologist, 46 (5), 506-515. [PDF]
TABACHNICK, B.G. & FIDELL, L.S. (1996). Using multivariate statistics. New York : Harper & Row.
TABACHNICK, B.G., WHITLEY, B.E. & WASHBURN, J. (1998). Why do professors ignore cheating ? Opinions of a national sample of psychology instructors. Ethics & Behavior, 8, 215-227.
Tabet Paola ( ) : Anthropologue, ethnologue et féministe italienne, spécialisée dans l'étude du racisme, des rapports de sexe et de la prostitution.
TABET, P. (1987). Du don au tarif. Les relations sexuelles impliquant compensation. Les Temps Modernes, 490, 1-53.
TABET, P. (1991). Les dents de la prostituée : échange, négociation, choix dans les rapports économico-sexuels. Dans M.-C. Hurtig, M. Kail & H. Rouch (Eds.), Sexe et genre. De la hiérarchie entre les sexes (p. 227-243). Paris : Éditions du CNRS.
TABET, P. (1998). La construction sociale de l'inégalité des sexes. Des outils et des corps. Paris : L'Harmattan/Bibliothèque du féminisme.
TABET, P. (2001). La grande arnaque. L'expropriation de la sexualité des femmes. Actuel Marx, 30, 131-152.
TABET, P. (2004). La grande arnaque. Sexualité des femmes et échange économico-sexuel. Paris : L'Harmattan.
 
DROUILLEAU, F. (2005). Paola Tabet, La grande arnaque. Sexualité des femmes et échange économico-sexuel. Paris : L'Harmattan. Bibliothèque CLIO : Histoire, Femmes et Sociétés, 22, 1-3. [PDF]
Table rase : Voir Principe de la table rase.
Table statistique : Statistical table.

  STUDENT (1917). Tables for estimating the probability that the mean of a unique sample of observations lies between -[infinity] and any given distance of the mean of the population from which the sample is drawn. Biometrika, 11, 414-417.
FISHER, R.A. & YATES, F. (1938/74). Statistical tables for biological, agricultural and medical research. London : Longman.
Tableau : Espace (réel, virtuel ou imprimé) sur laquelle on peut inscrire de l'information (mots, chiffres, etc.).Tableau, classe et école.

Type de tableau
Tableau blanc Tableau de contingence Tableau de résultats
Tableau croisé Tableau noir Tableau tactile
 
Tableau blanc intéractif (TBI) : Technologie de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Il s'agit en fait d'un grand écran intéractif commandé par ordinateur que les enseignants/professeurs peuvent utiliser en classe pour présenter la matière d'un cours et illustrer certains concepts. = tableau blanc interactif (TBI), tableau numérique interactif (TNI), tableau pédagogique interactif (TPI), tableau intéractif, tableau numérique. /tableau noir. Whiteboard.

  KARSENTI, T. (2003). Plus captivantes qu'un tableau noir : L'impact des nouvelles technologies sur la motivation à l'école. Revue de la Fédération Suisse des Psychologues, 6, 24-29.
LOVER, D., MILLER, D., AVERIS, D. & DOOR, V. (2005). The interactive whiteboard : A literature survey. Technology, Pedagogy & Education, 14 (2), 155-170.
DIGREGORIO, P. & SOBEL-LOJESKI, K. (2010). The effects of interactive whiteboards (IWBs) on student performance and learning : A literature review. Journal of Educational Technology Systems, 38 (3), 255-312.
DOSTAJ, J. (2011). Reflections on the use of interactive whiteboards in instruction in international context. The New Educational Review, 25 (3), 205-220.
HARLOW, A., COWIE, B. & HEAZLEWOOD, M. (2010). Keeping in touch with learning : The use of an interactive whiteboard in the junior school. Technology, Pedagogy & Education, 19 (2), 237-243.
TÜREL, Y.K. & JOHNSON, T.E. (2012). Teachers' belief and use of interactive whiteboards for teaching and learning. Educational Technology & Society, 15 (1), 381-394.
Tableau croisé : = tableau de fréquences. Crosstabs.

   
Tableau de contingence : Tableau croisé à double entrée montrant la relation entre deux variables qualitatives nominales (ou plus). Contingency table.

  FISHER, R. A. (1922). On the interpretation of x2 from contingency tables, and the calculation of P. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 85, 87-94.
YULE, G.U. (1923). On the application of the khi-deux method to association and contingency tables, with experimental illustrations. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 85, 95-104.
YATES, F. (1934). Contingency table involving small numbers and the χ2 test. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1 (2), 217-235.
LAURENCELLE, L. (2007). Les tableaux de fréquences 2 X 2 et leur traitement statistique. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 3, 14-25.
Voir Variables qualitatives nominales et Coefficient de contingence
 
Tableau noir : = bon vieux tableau. Blackboard.

  SZABO, A. & HASTING, N. (2000). Using IT in the undergraduate classroom : should we replace the blackboard with PowerPoint ? Computers & Education, 35, 175-187. [PDF]
KARSENTI, T. (2003). Plus captivantes qu'un tableau noir : L'impact des nouvelles technologies sur la motivation à l'école. Revue de la Fédération Suisse des Psychologues, 6, 24-29.
KINASH, S., BRAND, J. & MATHEW, T. (2012). Challenging mobile learning discourse through research : Student perceptions of Blackboard Mobile Learn and iPads. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 28 (4), 639-655.
Voir aussi École et Enseignement
Tableau de résultats : Présensation des résultats d'une recherche sous forme de cellules logiquement disposées selon deux axes, x et y (tableau à double entrée). Par convention, on place le titre au-dessus du tableau, les résultats de l'analyse principale dans les cellules du haut et les résultats de l'analyse secondaire dans les cellules du bas. = Tableau de données. Table.

Titre --»   Tableau 1
Comparaisons entre les hommes et femmes sur le plan de la scolarité, du revenu et des réponses à la question 2.
Analyse principale --»  
Indicateurs Groupes n= Test t Valeur de p <0,05 = *
Scolarité
(en année)
Hommes 15 17,20 -0,727 0,473  
Femmes 15 16,87
Revenu
annuel (en $)
Hommes 15 57669 2,684 0,006 *
Femmes 15 43297
Foui Khi carré
Question no 2 Hommes 15 10 4,821 0,028 *
Femmes 15 4
Analyse secondaire --»

  SMITH, L.D., BEST, L.A., STUBBS, D.A., ARCHIBALD, A.B. & ROBERSON-NAY, R. (2002). Constructing knowledge : The role of graphs and tables in hard and soft psychology. American Psychologist, 57, 749-761.
LAURENCELLE, L. (2007). Les tableaux de fréquences 2 X 2 et leur traitement statistique. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 3, 14-25.
Voir aussi Analyse des données
Tablette tactile : Technologie de l'information et de la communication (TIC). Il s'agit en fait d'un petit écran intéractif commandé par ordinateur que les élèves/étudiants peuvent utiliser en classe pour accéder à la matière d'un cours. = ordinateur de poche. Touch screen, I-Pad.

  GEIST, E. (2011). The game changer : Using iPads in college teacher education classes. College Student Journal, 45 (4), 758-768. HILL, J., NUSS, M., MIDDENDORF, B., CERVERO, R. & GAINES, J. (2012). Using iPads to enhance teaching and learning in third-year medical clerkships. Dans T. Bastiaens et G. Marks (Dirs.), Proceedings of World Conference on E-Learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education (pp. 1482-1488). Chesapeake, VA : AACE.
CHURCCHILL, D., FOX, B. & KING, M. (2012). Study of affordances of iPads and teachers' private theories. International Journal of Information & Education Technology, 2 (3), 251-254. [PDF] HUTCHISON, A., BESCHORNER B. & SCHMIDT-CRAWFORD, D. (2012). Exploring the use of the iPad for literacy learning. The Reading Teacher, 66 (1), 15-23.
HENDERSON, S. & YEOW, J. (2012). iPad in education : A case study of iPad adoption and use in a primary school. Dans R. H. Sprague (Dir.), Proceedings of the 45th Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp.78-87). New York, NY : IEEE. MCCLANAHAN, B., WILLIAMS, K., KENNEDY, E. & TATE, S. (2012). A break through for Josh : How use of an iPad facilitated reading improvement. Techtrends, 56 (3), 20-28.
HAHN, J. & BUSSELL, H. (2012). Curricular use of the iPad 2 by a first-year undergraduate learning community. Library Technology Reports, 48 (8), 42-47. LAU, A. & HO, S. (2012). Using iPad 2 with note-taking apps to enhance traditional blackboard-style pedagogy for mathematics-heavy subjects : A case study. In M.J.W. Lee et H. VaLeong (Dir.), Proceedings of IEEE international conference on teaching, assessment, and learning for engineering. New York, NY : IEEE.
  KIRKORIAN, H.L. & PEMPEK, T.A. (2013). Toddlers and touch screens. Zero to Three, 33 (4), 32-37.
  VIVIAN, R., BERTOLO, D. & DINET, J. (2014). Interactions tactiles sur tablettes pour l'apprentissage de la géométrie dans l'espace : présentation et premières évaluations. Revue des Interactions Humaines Médiatisées, 15 (1), 51-89. [PDF]
  KARSENTI, T. et IÉVREZA. (2014). L'iPad à l'école : de l'adoption à l'innovation. Éditions Grand Duc : Montréal.
Voir aussi Ordinateur et TIC
Tabou : Réalité -parfois trouble- qu'un groupe ou une société refuse d'admettre ou de dévoiler à autrui et qui, en conséquence, impose un silence collectif, sous peine de saction morale (humiliation, dénigrement, mépris, etc). = interdiction, occultation. Taboo.

  FREUD, S. (1972). Totem et tabou. Paris : Payot.
McMULLEN, R.J. (1990). Male rape : Breaking the silence on the last taboo. London : GMP Publishers Ltd.
STRASSMANN, B.I. (1992). The function of menstrual taboos among the Dogon : Defense against cuckoldry ? Human Nature, 3, 89-131.
TETLOCK, P.E., KRISTEL, O.V., ELSON, S.B., GREEN, M.C. & LERNER, J.S. (2000). The psychology of the unthinkable : taboo trade-offs, forbidden base rates, and heretical counterfactuals. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78, 853-870.
SIMMIE, S. & NUNES, J. (2002). The last taboo : A survival guide to mental health in Canada. Toronto : McClelland and Stewart.
POPE, K.S., SONNE, J.L. & GREENE, B.G. (2006). What therapists don't talk about and why : Understanding taboos that hurt us and our clients. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
ASTUTI, R. (2007). La moralité des conventions : tabous ancestraux à Madagascar. Terrain, 48, 101-112.
Tabou de l'inceste : Voir Inceste.
Tabula rasa : Voir Principe de la tabula rasa.
TÂCHE - TACT - TAILLE - TAJFEL - TALENT - TANAKA - TARDE - TARDIF - TAT - TAUX - TAVRIS - TAXONOMIE - TAYLOR - TE
Tâche : Le terme a au moins deux sens : a) Dans une recherche expérimentale ou quasi-expérimentale, ce que l'on demande aux participants de faire ou de dire. Cette tâche est habituellement présentée oralement ou par écrit aux sujets avant le début de l'expérience (= consignes). Elle permet d'observer et de mesurer la variable indépendante. Il peut s'agir d'un test, d'un questionnaire, d'une épreuve ou d'une mise en situation. Dans certains cas, la tâche et la variable indépendante se confondent. = épreuve, test, tâche psychologique. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. b) Une tâche, c'est aussi ce qu'il faut faire dans un contexte donné, et ce contexte varie beaucoup (travail, maison, etc.). Le tavail d'un employé est généralement divisé en tâche. Task.

Tâche
Analyse des tâches Enrichissement de la tâche Organisation des tâches
Complexité de la tâche Multitâche  
 


Types de tâche
Tâches de conservation de Piaget Tâche de Morris Tâche de Stroop
Tâche d'identification des concepts Tâche de rappel Tâche double
Tâche de Asch Tâche de rappel Brown-Peterson Test/Épreuve du détour
Tâche de dénomination rapide Tâche de sélection de Wason Test du miroir
Tâche de jugement d'identité de lettres Tâche de Sternberg Tâche motrice
    Tâche visuospatiale
 

  a
 
b
RAUSCHER, F.H., SHAW, G.L. & KY, K.N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365, 611.
Tâche (Analyse de la...) : Job analysis.

  SANCHEZ, J.I. & LEVINE, E.L. (1989). Determining important tasks within jobs : A policy capturing approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 74, 336-342.
BRANNICK, M.T., BRANNICK, J.P. & LEVINE, E.L. (1992). Job analysis, personnel selection and the ADA. Human Resource Management Review, 2, 171-182.
SANCHEZ, J.I. & LEVINE, E.L. (1999). Is job analysis dead, misunderstood or both? New forms of work analysis and design. In A.I. Kraut & A.K. Korman (Eds.), Evolving practices in human resource management (pp. 43-68). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
Tâche (Complexité de la...) : Niveau de difficulté des tâches, de leur exécution aussi bien que de leur organisation. Task complexity.

  HOGARTH, R.M. (1975). Decision time as a function of task complexity. In D. Wendt & C. Vlek (Eds.), Utility, probability, and human decision making (pp. 321-338). Dordrecht, Holland : Reidel Publishing Co.
HOGARTH, R.M. (1975). Decision time as a function of task complexity. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 13, 171-192.
SWELLER, J. (1976). The effect of task complexity and sequence on rule learning and problem solving. British Journal of Psychology, 67, 553-558.
Voir aussi Complexité, Organisation et Tâche
Tâche (Enrichissement de la...) : Tâche, organisation et travail. Job enrichment.

  PARKER, S.K. (1998). Enhancing role breadth self-efficacy : The roles of job enrichment and other organizational interventions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 835-852.
Tâche (Multi) : Terme dérivé de l'informatique. Se dit d'un ordinateur qui exécute simultanément deux tâches ou plus. Chez un organisme, capacité d'exécuter deux tâches à la fois, en alternant l'une et l'autre ou en les exécutant simultanément ou quasi-simultanément. Cette capacité est d'autant plus grande que le sujet maîtrise les habiletés qui permettent d'accomplir les tâches en question (= expert). En revanche, en phase d'apprentissage de ces habiletés, l'efficacité des sujets diminue, souvent de manière importante (l'apprentissage se fait plus lentement et les erreurs s'accumulent). Le multitâche est fréquent lorsqu'on utilise un ordinateur ou un téléphone ou lorsqu'on conduit une voiture. Multitâche, erreur et attention partagée. = Alternance des tâches. Multitasking, dual-task processing, overlapping-task performance, academic distractibility, task switching, task alternation time.

  BOTWINICK, J., BRINLEY, J.F. & ROBBIN, J.S. (1958). Task alternation time in relation to problem difficulty and age. Journal of Gerontology, 13, 414-417. SALVUCCI, D.D., TAATGEN, N.A. & KUSHLEYEVA, Y. (2006). Learning when to switch tasks in a dynamic multitasking environment. In Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Cognitive Modeling (pp. 268-273). Trieste, Italy : Edizioni Goliardiche.
SPELKE, E., HIRST, W. & NEISSER, U. (1976). Skills of divided attention. Cognition, 4, 215-230. FOERDE, K., KNOWLTON, B.-J. & POLDRACK, R.-A. (2006). Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 103, 11778-11783. [PDF]
BROOKHUIS, K.A., DE VRIES, G. & DE WAARD, D. (1991). The effects of mobile telephoning on driving performance. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 23, 309-316. BÜHNER, M., KÖNIG, C., PICK, M. & KRUMM, S. (2006). Working memory dimensions as differential predictors of the speed and error aspect of multitasking performance. Human Performance, 19, 253-275.
DE JONG, R. (1995). The role of preparation in overlapping-task performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Experimental Psychology, 48 (A), 2-25.  
ROGERS, R. & MONSELL, S. (1995). Costs of a predictable switch between simple cognitive tasks. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 124, 207-231. JEONG, S. & FISHBEIN, M. (2007). Predictors of multitasking with media : Media factors and audience factors. Media Psychology, 10, 364-384.
PESTA, B.J., SANDERS, R.E. & NEMEC, R.J. (1996). Older adults' strategic superiority with mental multiplication : A generation effect assessment. Experimental Aging Research, 22, 155-169. LEVINE, L.E., WAITE, B.M. & BOWMAN, L.L. (2007). Electronic media use, reading, and academic distractibility in college youth. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10 (4), 560-566. [PDF]
MEYER, D.E. & KIERAS, D.E. (1997). A computational theory of executive control processes and human multiple-task performance: Part 1. Basic Mechanisms. Psychological Review, 104, 3-65. SALVUCCI, D.D. & TAATGEN, N.A. (2008). Threaded cognition : An integrated theory of concurrent multitasking. Psychological Review, 115 (1), 101-130. [PDF]
WYLIE, G. & ALLPORT, A. (2000). Task switching and the measurement of "switch costs". Psychology Reports, 63 (3-4), 212-233 OPHIR, E., NASS, C. & WAGNER, A.D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (37), 15583-15587. [PDF]
GOPHER, D., ARMONY, L. & GREENSHPAN, Y. (2000). Switching tasks and attention policies. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 129, 308-339. CARRIER, L.M., CHEEVER, N.A., ROSEN, L.D., BENITEZ, S. & CHANG, J. (2009). Multi-tasking across generations : multi-tasking choices and difficulty ratings in three generations of Americans. Computers in Human Behavior, 25, 483-489. [PDF]
ALLPORT, A. & WYLIE, G. (2000). Task switching, stimulus-response bindings, and negative priming. In S. Monsell & J. Driver (Eds.), Attention and performance XVIII : Control of cognitive processes (pp. 35-70). Cambridge, MA : MIT Press. OPHIR, E., NASS, C. & WAGNER, A.D. (2009). Cognitive control in media multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106 (37), 15583-1558. [PDF]
  ELLIS, Y., DANIELS, B. & JAUREGUI, A. (2010). The effect of multitasking on the grade performance of business students. Research in Higher Education Journal, 8, 1–10.
  BOWMAN, L.L., LEVINE, L.E., WAITE, B.M. & GENDRON, M.S. (2010). Can students really multitask ? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education, 54(4), 927–931.
STRAYERS, D.L. & JOHNSTON, W.A. (2001). Driven to distraction : Dual-task studies of simulated driving and conversing on a cellular phone. Psychological Science, 12, 462-466. [PDF] KRAUSHAAR, J.M. & NOVAK, D.C. (2010). Examining the affects of student multitasking with laptops during the lecture. Journal of Information Systems Education, 21, 241-251.
  CAIN, M.S. & MITROFF, S.R. (2011). Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. Perception, 40, 1183–1192.
  JUDD, T. & KENNEDY, G. (2011). Measurement and evidence of computer-based task switching and multitasking by "net generation" students. Computers & Education, 56(3), 625–631.
RUBINSTEIN, J.S., MEYER, D.E. & EVANS, J.E. (2001). Executive control of cognitive processes intask switchig. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 27 (4), 763-797. [PDF] STRAYER, D.L., WATSON, J.M. & DREWS, F.A. (2011). Cognitive distraction while multitasking in the automobile. In B. Ross (Ed.), The psychology of learning and motivation(Vol. 54, pp. 29-58). Burlington : Academic Press. [PDF]
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  WANG, Z. & TCHERNEV, J.M. (2012). The "myth" of media multitasking : Reciprocal dynamics of media multitasking, personal needs, and gratifications. Journal of Communication, 62, 493-513.
  JUNCO, R. & COTTEN, S.R. (2012). No a 4 U: The relationship between multitasking and academic performance. Computers & Education, 59 (2), 505–514.
  ALZAHABI, R. & BECKER, M.W. (2013). The association between media multitasking, task-switching, and dual-task performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception& Performance, 39 (5), 1485–1495.
  SUBRAHMANYAM, K., MICHIKYAN, M., CLEMMONS, C., CARRILLO, R., UHLS, Y.T. & GREENFIELD, P.M. (2013). Learning from paper, learning from screens: Impact of screen reading and multitasking conditions on reading and writing among college students. International Journal of Cyber Behavior, Psychology, & Learning, 3 (4), 1–27.
  PASHLER, H., KANG, S.H.K. & IP, R.Y. (2013). Does multitasking impair studying ? Depends on timing. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 593–599.
HAZELTINE, E., TEAGUE, D. & IVRY, R.B. (2002). Simultaneous dual-task performance reveals parallel response selection after practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 28, 527-545. SANA, F., WESTON, T. & CEPEDA, N.J. (2013). Laptop multitasking hinders classroom learning for both users and nearby peers. Computers & Education, 62, 24-31. [PDF]
  HWANG, Y., KIM, H. & JEONG, S. (2014). Why do media users multitask ? : Motives for general, medium-specific, and content-specific types of multitasking. Computers in Human Behavior, 36, 542–548.
  JUDD, T. (2014). Making sense of multitasking : The role of Facebook. Computers & Education, 70, 194–202.
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  BELLUR, S., NOWAK, K.L. & HULL, K.S. (2015). Make it our time : In class multitaskers have lower academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 53, 63–70.
  CHINCHANACHOKCHAI, S., DUFF, B.R. & SAR, S. (2015). The effect of multitasking on time perception, enjoyment, and ad evaluation. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 185–191.
MONSELL, S. (2003). Task switching. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 134-140. [PDF] ZHANG, W. (2015). Learning variables, in-class laptop multitasking and academic performance : A path analysis. Computers & Education, 81, 82–88
  COURAGE, M. L., BAKHTIAR, A., FITZPATRICK, C., KENNY, S. & BRANDEAU, K. (2015). Growing up multitasking : The costs and benefits for cognitive development. Developmental Review, 35, 5–41.
  DOWNS, E., TRAN, A., MCMENEMY, R. & ABEGAZE, N. (2015). Exam performance and attitudes toward multitasking in six, multimedia-multitasking classroom environments. Computers & Education, 86, 250–259.
  CAIN, M.S., LEONARD, J.A., GABRIELI, J.D. & FINN, A.S. (2016). Media multitasking in adolescence. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23 (6), 1932–1941.
  CALDERWOOD, C., GREEN, J.D., JOY-GABA, J.A. & MOLONEY, J. M. (2016). Forecasting errors in student media multitasking during homework completion. Computers & Education, 94, 37–48.
  CHEN, Q. & YAN, Z. (2016). Does multitasking with mobile phones affect learning ? A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 34–42.
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  CHEN, Q. & YAN, Z. (2016). Does multitasking with mobile phones affect learning ? A review. Computers in Human Behavior, 54, 34–42.
  CAIN, M.S., LEONARD, J.A., GABRIELI, J.D. & FINN, A.S. (2016). Media multitasking in adolescence. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23 (6), 1932–1941.
  UNCAPHER, M.R., THIEU, M.K. & WAGNER, A.D. (2016). Media multitasking and memory : Differences in working memory and long-term memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23, 483–490.
  LAU, W.W.F. (2017). Effects of social media usage and social media multitasking on the academic performance of university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 68,286–291.
KUSHLEYEVA, Y., SALVUCCI, D.D. & LEE, F.J. (2005). Deciding when to switch tasks in time-critical multitasking. Cognitive Systems Research, 6, 41-49. [PDF] PATTERSON, M.C. (2017). A naturalistic investigation of media multitasking while studying and the effects on exam performance. Society for the Teaching of Psychology, 44, 51–57.
SALVUCCI, D.D. (2005). A multitasking general executive for compound continuous tasks. Cognitive Science, 29, 457-492. MAY, K.E. & ELDER, A.D. (2018). Efficient, helpful, or distracting ? A literature review of media multitasking in relation to academic performance. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 15 [13], 1-17. [PDF]
Voir aussi Attention partagée, Tâche, Distraction et Conduite automobile
Tâche(s) (Organisation des...) : Ensemble des règles et des principes qui régissent l'organisation du travail, donc de ce qu'il faut faire au sein d'un groupe ou d'une entreprise. La division des tâches consiste à diviser l'ensemble du travail en petites unités, que l'on nomme fonctions ou tâches. Task structure.

  DEUTSCH, M. (1951). Task structure and group process. American Psychologist, 6, 324-325.  McGRATH, J.E., ARROW, J.E., GRUENFELD, D.H., HOLLONGSHEAD, A.B. & O'COONER, K.M. (1993). Groups, tasks, and technology : the effects of experience and change. Small Group Research, 24, 406-420.
BENBASAT, I. & LIM, L.H. (1984). The effects of group, task, context, and technology variables on the usefulness of group support systems : a meta-analysis of experimental studies. Small Group Research, 24, 430-462.  BUEHLER, R., GRIFFIN, D. & ROSS, M. (1994). Exploring the planning fallacy : Why people underestimate their task completion times. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 67, 366-381.
ZACCARO, S.J. & McCOY, M.C. (1988). The effects of task and interpersonal cohesiveness on performance of a disjunctive group task. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 18, 837-851.  LAM, S.S.K. (1997). The effects of group decision support systems and task structures on group communication and decision quality. Journal of Management Information Systems Archive, 13 (4), 193-215.
ZACCARO, S.J. & LOWE, C.A. (1988). Cohesiveness and performance on an additive task : evidence for multidimensionality. Journal of Social Psychology, 128, 547-558.  MANSON, T.M., LEVINE, E.L. & BRANNICK, M. (2000). The construct validity of task inventory ratings : A multi-trait multi-method analysis. Human Performance, 13, 1-22.
Voir aussi Organisation et Travail
Tâche d'identification des concepts : Concept identification task.

  RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. (1981). A general framework for the analysis of concept identification tasks. Acta Psychologica, 49, 233-261. [PDF]
Tâche de Conservation de Piaget : Voir Conservation de Piaget. Piagetian conservation task.

Les types d'épreuve ou de tâche
Conservation des liquides Conservation des masses Conservation du nombre
Conservation des quantités    
 
Tâche de dénomination rapide : Tâche développée par Denckla et Rudel (1976), qui consiste à nommer le plus rapidement possible une série d'éléments (couleurs, chiffres, lettres ou ) présentés sur une feuille de papier ou un écran. Cette tâche est utilisée pour prédire l'apprentissage de la lecture et pour diagnostiquer la dyslexie. Rapid Automatized Naming, RAN.

  DENCKLA, M.B. & RUDEL, R.G. (1976). Naming of objects by dyslexic and other learning-disabled children. Brain & Language, 3, 1-15.
DENCKLA. M.B. & RUDEL, R.G. (1976). Rapid automatized naming (R.A.N.) : Dyslexia differentiated from other learning disabilities. Neuropsychologia, 14, 471-479.
MISRA, M., KATZIR, T., WOLF, M. & POLDRACK, R.A. (2004). Neural systems for rapid automatized naming in skilled readers: unraveling the RAN-Reading relationship. Scientific Studies of Reading, 8 (3), 241-256.
Tâche de jugement de Asch : Tâche de groupe élaborée par Asch, qui consiste à trouver quelle ligne, parmi un choix de 3 lignes (A-B-C), est de longueur identique à la ligne-étalon X. Cette tâche permet de mettre en évidence et d'évaluer le conformisme. = test de Asch. Asch's line judgment task.

  ASCH, S.E. (1951). Effects of group pressure on the modification and distortion of judgments. In H. Guetzkow (Ed.), Groups, leadership and men (pp. 177-190). Pittsburgh, PA : Carnegie Press.
ASCH, S.E. (1956). Studies of independence and conformity : a minority of one against a unanimous majority. Psychological Monographs : General & Applied, 70 (9), 1-70. [PDF]
BOND, R. & SMITH, P. (1996). Culture and conformity : a meta-analysis of studies using Asch's (1952, 1956). line judgment task. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 111-137. [PDF]
 
Tâche de jugement d'identité de lettres : Tâche développée par Posner, qui consiste à comparer des lettres. = tâche de reconnaissance des lettres.

 
Tâche de Morris : Voir Labyrinthe sous-marin.
Tâche de Piaget : Voir tâche de conservation de Piaget.
Tâche de rappel : Tâche utilisée dans les expériences sur la mémoire pour mesurer la capacité de rappel des participants. Elle comporte habituellement deux étapes : 1) Le participant doit d'abord mémoriser une liste de mots, de chiffre ou de syllabes non-sens; 2) Il doit ensuite écrire ou dire ces mots ou ces syllabes, ce qui permet au chercheur d'évaluer sa capacité de rappel. ( ): tâche Brown-Peterson, tâche de Sternberg. Task.

  TURNER, M.L. & ENGLE, R.W. (1989). Is working memory capacity task dependent ? Journal of Memory & Language, 28, 127-154.
Tâche de rappel Brown-Peterson : Tâche de rappel développé par Brown pour montrer l'effet d'interférence, qui consiste d'abord à présenter aux participants de deux groupes une suite de trois consonnes (EX: P-Z-V). Immédiatement après la présentation, on demande au premier groupe (groupe contrôle) de se rappeler les consonnes et au second groupe (groupe expérimental) de se livrer à une tâche de comptage à rebours à partir d'un nombre composé de trois chiffres, de 3 en 3 (EX: 777-774-771, etc.) avant d'effectuer la tâche de rappel des consonnes. La tâche de comptage s'effectue à haute voix au rythme d'un métronome. L'analyse des résultats indique sans surprise que le rappel immédiat (groupe 1) suscite un excellent rappel des consonnes tandis que le rappel précédé de la tâche de comptage à rebours interfère avec la mémoire à court terme, tant et si bien que le rappel est nul lorsque cette tâche dure plus de 18 secondes. Brown-Peterson's task.

  BROWN, J. (1958). Some tests of the decay theory of immediate memory. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 10, 12-21.
Tâche de sélection de Wason : Tâche logique qui met en évidence l'usage de l'implication (modus tollens et modus ponens). Tâche de Wason et raisonnement. Wason selection task.
 
 
WASON, P.C. (1960). On the failure to eliminate hypothesis in a conceptual task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 14, 129-140. FIDDICK, L., COSMIDES, L. & TOOBY, J. (2000). No interpretation without representation: The role of domain-specific representations in the Wason selection task. Cognition, 77, 1-79.
WASON, P.C. & SHAPIRO, D. (1966). Natural and contrived experience in a reasoning problem. In B.M. Foss (Ed.), New horizons in psychology. Harmondsworth : Penguin.  LEIGHTON, J.P. & DAWSON, M.R.W. (2001). A parallel processing model of Wason's card selection task. Cognitive Systems Research, 2-3, 207-231.
GRIGGS. R. & COX, J. (1982). The elusive thematic-materials effect in Wason's selection task. British Journal of Psychology, 73, 407-420. VAN DER HENST, J.-B. (2002). Le raisonnement humain. In G. Politzer (Ed.), Une interprétation pragmatique de la tâche de Wason. Hermès.
TUKEY, D.D. (1986). A philosophical and empirical analysis of subjects' modes of inquiry in Wason's 2-4-6 task. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 38A, 5-33.  
COSMIDES, L. (1989). The logic of social exchange : Has natural selection shaped how humans reason ? Studies with the Wason selection task. Cognition, 31 (3), 187-276. [PDF] MAYO, R., ALFASI, D. & SCHWARZ N. (2014). Distrust and the positive test heuristic : Dispositional and situated social distrust improves performance on the Wason rule discovery task. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 143 (3), 985-990. [PDF]
Tâche de Sternberg : Tâche de rappel développé par Sternberg qui consiste à présenter au participant des listes de 1 à 6 chiffres. À la fin de chaque liste, on présente au participant un chiffre-cible et on lui demande de dire si ce chiffre fait partie ou non de la liste mémorisée. L'analyse des résultats révèlent que le temps de réaction lors du rappel augmente de façon linéraire en fonction du nombre de chiffres de la liste et ce, que le chiffre-cible appartienne ou non à la liste. Selon Sternberg, ces résultats indiquent que le rappel en mémoire à court terme s'effectue au moyen d'un balayage exhaustif par comparaison séquentielle de l'information-cible et de l'information en mémoire à court terme. Sternerg's task.

  STERNBERG, S. (1966). High-speed scanning in human memory. Science, 153, 652-654.
Tâche de Stroop : Voir Effet Stroop.
Tâche double : Tâche cognitive qui consiste à demander aux participants de réaliser simultanément deux tâches. = tâche concurrente. Tâche double et multi-tache. Dual task.

 
Tâche domestique : Ensemble des tâches qui consistent à nettoyer et à entrenir son domicile et son environnement immédiat. Tâches et division des tâches. = tâche ménagère. Household labor.

  PRESSER, H.B. (1994). Employment schedules among dual-earner spouses and the division of household labor by gender. American Sociological Review, 59, 348-364.
PRESSER, H.B. (2000). Nonstandard work schedules and marital instability. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 62, 93-110.
LAROCHE, D. (2001). Le partage du temps productif et des tâches domestiques. Institut de la statistique du Québec, Portrait social du Québec.
Tâche motrice : Tâche qui nécessite l'usage de ses muscles. Tâche et habiletés motrices. Motor task.

  STRAUSS, B. (2002). Social facilitation in motor tasks : A review of research and theory. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 3, 237-256. [PDF]
MAMASSIAN, P. (2008). Overconfidence in an objective anticipatory motor task. Psychological Science, 19 (6), 601-606. [PDF]
Tâche(s) simultanée(s) : Dual-Task Performance.

 
SIGMAN, M. & DEHAENE, S. (2008). Brain mechanisms of serial and parallel processing during dual-task performance. Journal of Neuroscience, 28 (30), 7585-7598.
Tâche visuospatiale : Spatial task.

  RAUSCHER, F.H., SHAW, G.L. & KY, K.N. (1993). Music and spatial task performance. Nature, 365, 611.
Tachylalie : Du grec tacky qui signifie "vitesse". Chez les schizophrènes, accélération du débit verbal qui rend le discours incompréhensible. Tachylia.

 
Tact : Concept développé par Skinner pour désigner un lien ou un "con-tact" entre un mot (ou comportement verbal) et un objet (stimulus), lien qui peut-être renforcé ou puni. Tact et commande. = contact avec les contingences. Tact.

  SKINNER, B.F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts. SUNDBERG, M.L., ENDICOTT, K. & EIGENHEER, P. (2000). The use of intraverbal prompts to teach tacts to children with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 17, 89-104. [PDF]
WENRICH, W.W. (1964).The tact relation : An experiment in verbal behavior. Journal of General Psychology, 71,71-78. LOWE, F.C., HORNE, P.J., HARRIS, F.D. & RANDLE, V.R.L. (2002). Naming and categorization in young children : vocal tact training. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 78 (3), 527-549. [PDF]
LEMARRE, J. & HOLLAND, J.G. (1985). The functional independence of mands and tacts. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 43 (1), 5-19. [PDF] ARNTZEN, E. & ALMAAS, I.K. (2002). Effects of mand-tact vs. tact-only training on the acquisition of tacts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35 (4), 419-422. [PDF]
PLACE, U.T. (1985). Three senses of the word "tact". Behaviorism, 13 (1), 63-74. NUZZOLO-GOMEZ, R. & GREER, R.D. (2004). Emergence of untaught mands or tacts of novel adjective-object pairs as a function of instructional history. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 20, 63-76. [PDF]
SKINNER, B.F. (1985). Reply to Place : Three senses of the word "tact".Behaviorism, 13 (1), 75-76. LOWE, F.C., HORNE, P.J. & HUGHES, J.C. (2005). Naming and categorization in young children : III. Vocal tact training and transfer of function. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 83 (1), 47-65.
CARROLL R.J. & HESSE, B.E. (1987). The effects of alternating mand and tact training on the acquisition of tacts. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 5, 55-65. [PDF] MIGUEL, C.F., PETURSDOTTIR, A. & CARR, J. (2005). The effects of multiple-tact and receptive-discrimination training on the acquisition of intraverbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 27-41. [PDF]
STAFFORD, M.W., SUNDBERG, M.L. & BRAAM, S.J. (1988). A preliminary investigation of the consequences that define the mand and the tact. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 31-41. [PDF] BARBERA, M.L. & KUBINA, R.M. (2005). Using transfer procedures to teach tacts to a child with autism. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 21, 155-161. [PDF]
RIBEIRO, A.D. (1989). Correspondence in children's self-report : Tacting and manding aspects. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 51, 361-367. [PDF] WALLACE, M., IWATA, B.A. & HANLEY, G.P. (2006). Establishment of mands following tact training as a function of reinforcer strength. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39 (1), 17-24. [PDF]
 SIGAFOOS, J., REICHLE, J., DOSS, S., HALL, K. & PETIT, L. (1990)."Spontaneous" transfer of stimulus control from tact to mand contingencies. Research in Developmental Disabilities,11,165-176. WILLIAMS, G., CARNERERO, J.J. & PÉREZ-GONZALEZ, L.A. (2006). Generalization of tacting actions in children with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39 (2), 233-237. [PDF]
SUNDBERG, M.L., SAN JUAN, B., DAWDY, M. & ARGUELLES, M. (1990). The acquisition of tacts, mands, and intraverbals by individuals with traumatic brain injury. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 8, 83-99. [PDF] MIGUEL, C.F., PETURSDOTTIR, A.I., CARR, J.E. & MICHAEL, J. (2008). The role of naming in stimulus categorization by preschool children. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 89 (3), 383-405. [PDF]
PARTINGTON, J.W., SUNDBERG, M.L., NEWHOUSE, L. & SPENGLER, S. (1994). Overcoming an autistic child's failure to acquire a tact repertoire. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27 (4), 733-734. [PDF] GREER, R.D. & DU, L. (2010). Generic instruction versus intensive tact instruction and the emission of spontaneous speech. The Journal of Speech-Language Pathology & Applied Behavior Analysis, 5 (1), 1-19.
TWYMAN, J.S. (1996). The functional independence of impure mands and tacts of abstracts stimulus properties. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 13, 1-19. LEDOUX, S.F. (2010). Increasing tact control and student comprehension through such new postcedent terms as added and subtracted reinforcers and punishers. Behaviorology Today, 13 (1), 3-6. [PDF]
  LÖHR, T., & GILL, M.S.C.A. (2015). Learning by playing: echo and tact in expanding the verbal repertoire of infants. Paidéia, 25, 77-85.
HORNE, P.J. & LOWE, C.F. (1996). On the origins of naming and other symbolic behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65, 185-241. [PDF] EBY, C.M. & GREER, R.D. (2017). Effects of social reinforcement on the emission of tacts by preschoolers. Behavioral Development Bulletin, 22 (1), 23-43.
Voir aussi Skinner, Mand et Comportement verbal
Taguieff Pierre-André (Paris 1946-) : Philosophe et politologue français, spécialiste de la théorie du complot et du racisme.
TAGUIEFF, P.-A. (1995). Les fins de l'antiracisme. Paris : Michalon.
TAGUIEFF, P.-A. (1998). Le Racisme. Un exposé pour comprendre, un essai pour réfléchir. Paris : Flammarion.
TAGUIEFF, P.-A. (2000). L'Effacement de l'avenir. Paris : Galilée/Débats.
TAGUIEFF, P.-A. (2005). La foire aux illuminés : Esotérisme, théorie du complot, extrémisme. Paris : Mille et une nuits.
TAGUIEFF, P.-A. (2007). L'imaginaire du complot mondial. Aspects d'un mythe moderne. Paris : Mille et une nuits.
Tai chi :

  NGUYEN, M. H. & KRUSE, A. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 7, 185-190.
Taille : Mesure de la longueur ou de la hauteur d'un organisme, ou de certaines de ses caractéristiques. EX: longueur des défenses. Taille et poids. Body size, physical growth, height, stature.
Taille
Taille (en général) Mesure et évaluation de la taille Taille réel/Ttaille perçue
Différence de taille    
 
  GALTON, F. (1886). Hereditary stature. Nature, 33, 295-298. SLATER, A., MATTOCK, A. & BROWN, E. (1990). Size constancy at birth : Newborn infants' responses to retinal and real size. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 49, 314-322.
  KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A. BOSTRÖM, G. & RÖSSNER, S. (1990). Influence of body image on estimation of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice, 10 (S), 155-158.
  KEYL, PM, FLEGAL, K.M. & NIETO-GARCIA, F.J. (1991). Effects of using self-reported versus measured weight and height in epidemiologic analyses. American Journal of Epidemiology, 134, 733-734.
TUDDENHAM, R.D. & SNYDER, M.M. (1954). Physical growth of California boys and girls from birth to eighteen years. University of California Publications in Child & Development, 1, 183-364. BEAUGRAND, J.P., GOULET, C. & PAYETTE, D. (1991). Outcome of dyadic conflict in male green swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) : Effects of body size and prior dominance. Animal Behaviour, 41, 187-194.
  SHANON, B., SMICKILAS-WRIGNT, H. & WANG, M.Q. (1991). Inaccuracies in self-reported weights and heights of a sample of sixth-grade children. Journal of The American Dietetic Association, 91, 675-678.
  TIENBOON, P., WAHLQVIST, M.L. & RUTISHAUSER, I.H.E. (1992). Self-reported weight and height in adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 528-5323.
  FORTENBERRY, J.D. (1992). Reliability of adolescents' reports of height reliability of adolescents' reports of height and weight. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 114-117.
OLIVIER, G. (1980). The increase of stature in France. Journal of Human Evolution, 9, 645 649. DAVIS, H. & GERGEN, P.J. (1994). The weights and heights of Mexican-American adolescents : The accuracy of self-reports. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 459-462. [PDF]
SCHLICHTING, P.F., HOILUND-CARLSEN, P.F. & QUAADE, F. (1981). Comparison of self-reported height and weight with controlled height and weight in women and men. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 67-76. VINCENT, J.P., BIDEAU, E., HEWISON, A.J.M. & ANGIBAULT, J.M. (1995). The influence of increasing density on body weight, kid production, home range and winter grouping in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Journal of Zoology, 236, 371-382.
PIRIE, P., JACOBS, D., JEFERY, R. & HANNA, P. (1981). Distortion in self-reported height and weight data. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 78, 601-606. BEAUGRAND, J.P., PAYETTE, D. & GOULET, C. (1996). Conflict outcome in male green swordtail fish dyads (Xiphophorus helleri) : Interaction of body size, prior dominance/subordination experience and prior residency. Behaviour, 133, 303-319.
ZIBERGELD, B. (1983). The shrinking of America : Myths of psychological change. Boston : Little Brown. SAND, H. (1996). Life history patterns in female moose (Alces alces) : the relationship between age, body size, fecundity and environmental conditions. Oecologia, 106, 212-220.
WELLS, M.S. (1988). Effects of body size and resource value on fighting behaviour in a jumping spider. Animal Behaviour, 36, 321-326. AMBROSI-RANDIC, N. (2000). Perception of current and ideal body size in preschool age children. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 90, 885- 889.
  THOMAS, P., PEABODY, J., TURNIER, V. & CLARK, R.H. (2000). A new look at intrauterine growth and the impact of race, altitude, and gender. Pediatrics, 106 (2), 1-6. [PDF]
  McCABE, M., RICCIARDELLI, L. & RIDGE, D. (2006). Who thinks I need a perfect body ? Perceptions and internal dialogue among adolescents about their bodies. Sex roles, 55 (5-6) 409-419.
  BRIFFA, M. (2008). Decisions during fights in the house cricket, Acheta domesticus : mutual or self assessment of energy, weapons and size ? Animal Behaviour, 75, 1053-1062. [PDF]
  WEEDON, M.N. & FRAYLING, T.M. (2008). Reaching new heights : Insights into the genetics of human stature. Trends in Genetics, 24, 595-603.
  VISSCHER, P.M. (2008). Sizing up human height variation. Nature Genetics, 40, 489-490. [PDF]
  YANG, J., BENYAMIN, B., MCEVOY, B.P., GORDON, S., HENDERS, A.K., NYHOLT, D.R., MADDEN, P.A., HEATH, A.C., MARTIN, N.G., MONTGOMERERY, G.W., GODDARD, M.E. & VISSCHER, P.M. (2010). Common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height. Nature Genetics, 42, 565-569. [PDF]
BEACHAM, J.L. (1988). The relative importance of body size and aggressive experience as determinants of dominance in pumpkinseed sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus. Animal Behaviour, 36, 621-623.  COUTURIER, S., OTTO, R.D., CÔTÉ, S.D., LUTHER, G. & MAHONEY, S.P. (2010). Body size variations in caribou ecotypes and relationships with demography. Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 395-404.
KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A., KARLSSON, P., STOLT, M. & RÖSSNER, S. (1989). The predictive validity of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 441-453. VISSCHER, P.M., YANG, J. & GODDARD, M.E. (2010). A commentary on "Common SNPs explain a large proportion of the heritability for human height" by Yang et al. (2010). Twin Research & Human Genetics, 13, 517-524.
Voir aussi Différence sexuelle sur le plan anatomique, Poids et Dimorphisme
 
Tailles (Différence de...) : Body size.

  ZAYAN, R.C. (1976). Modifications des effets liés à la priorité de résidence chez Xiphophorus (Pisces, Poeciliidae), le rôle de l'isolement et des différences de taille. Zeitschrift für Tierpsychologie, 41, 142-190.
BEAUGRAND, J.P., GOULET, C. & PAYETTE, D. (1991). Outcome of dyadic conflict in male green swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) : Effects of body size and prior dominance. Animal Behaviour, 41, 187-194.
BEAUGRAND, J.P., PAYETTE, D. & GOULET, C. (1996). Conflict outcome in male green swordtail fish dyads (Xiphophorus helleri) : Interaction of body size, prior dominance/subordination experience and prior residency. Behaviour, 133, 303-319.
 COUTURIER, S., OTTO, R.D., CÔTÉ, S.D., LUTHER, G. & MAHONEY, S.P. (2010). Body size variations in caribou ecotypes and relationships with demography. Journal of Wildlife Management, 74, 395-404.
Voir aussi Différence sexuelle sur le plan anatomique et Dimorphisme
 
Taille (Mesure et évaluation de la...) : Ensemble des critères de diagnostic, des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer la taille. Measuring height.

  SCHLICHTING, P.F., HOILUND-CARLSEN, P.F. & QUAADE, F. (1981). Comparison of self-reported height and weight with controlled height and weight in women and men. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 67-76. KEYL, PM, FLEGAL, K.M. & NIETO-GARCIA, F.J. (1991). Effects of using self-reported versus measured weight and height in epidemiologic analyses. American Journal of Epidemiology, 134, 733-734.
PIRIE, P., JACOBS, D., JEFERY, R. & HANNA, P. (1981). Distortion in self-reported height and weight data. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 78, 601-606. TIENBOON, P., WAHLQVIST, M.L. & RUTISHAUSER, I.H.E. (1992). Self-reported weight and height in adolescents and their parents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 528-5323.
KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A., KARLSSON, P., STOLT, M. & RÖSSNER, S. (1989). The predictive validity of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 441-453.  
KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A. BOSTRÖM, G. & RÖSSNER, S. (1990). Influence of body image on estimation of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. Diabetes Research & Clinical Practice, 10 (S), 155-158. FORTENBERRY, J.D. (1992). Reliability of adolescents' reports of height reliability of adolescents' reports of height and weight. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 114-117.
SHANON, B., SMICKILAS-WRIGNT, H. & WANG, M.Q. (1991). Inaccuracies in self-reported weights and heights of a sample of sixth-grade children. Journal of The American Dietetic Association, 91, 675-678. DAVIS, H. & GERGEN, P.J. (1994). The weights and heights of Mexican-American adolescents : The accuracy of self-reports. American Journal of Public Health, 84, 459-462. [PDF]
Voir aussi Taille et Poids
Taille réelle/Taille perçue : Body size overestimation, Body size distortion.

  TAYLOR, M.J. & COOPER, P.J. (1986). Body size overestimation and depressed mood. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 25, 153-154.
ThHOMPSON, J.K. & THOMPSON, C.M. (1986). Body size distortion and self-esteem in asymptomatic, normal weight males and females. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 5, 1061-1068.
Taiwan : Pays.

CHIU, S.-I., LEE, J.-Z. & HUANG, D.-H. (2004). Video game addiction in children and teenagers in Taiwan. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 7, 571-581.
WAN, C.S. & CHIOU, W.B. (2006). Why are adolescents addicted to online gaming ? An interview study in Taiwan. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 9 (6), 762-766.
HSIEH, P.-H. (2010). KM-oriented school space-allocation programs integrated with ITS: examples from middle schools in Taipei, Taiwan. International Journal of Management & Enterprise Development, 9 (1), 43-62.
HSIEH, P.-H. (2012). Taiwan's education cloud : Current development and future challenge. Journal of Education Research, 216, 57-72.
HSIEH, P.-H., LEE, C.-I. & CHEN, W.-F. (2015). Students' perspectives on e-portfolio development and implementation : A case study in Taiwanese higher education. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 31 (6), 641-656. [PDF]
 
Voir aussi Pays
Tajfel Henri ( ) : Psychosociologue belge, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'identité sociale et de la discrimination. Il s'intéresse également aux groupes. Professeur de Bourhis. Collaborateur de Gardner, Moscovici et Turner.
TAJFEL, H. & Wilkes, A.L. (1963). Classification and quantitative judgment. British Journal of Psychology, 54, 101-114.
TAJFEL, H. (1970). Experiments in intergroup discrimination. Scientific American, 233 (5), 96-102.
TAJFEL, H., BILLIG, M.G., BUNDY, R.P. & FLAMENT, C. (1971). Social categorization and intergroup behavior. European Journal of Social Psychology, 1 (2), 149-178. [PDF]
TAJFEL, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Social Science Information, 13, 65-93.
TAJFEL, H. (1982). Social psychology of intergroup relations. Annual Review of Psychology, 33, 1-39.
 
CORNEILLE, O., KLEIN, O., LAMBERT, S. & JUDD, C.M. (2002). On the role of familiarity with units of measurement in categorical accentuation : Tajfel and Wilkes (1963) revisited and replicated. Psychological Science, 4, 380-383. [PDF]
Takeuchi Hirotaka (1946-) : Spécialiste japonais des organisations, des entreprises et de la mise en marché. On lui doit le concept de spirale des connaissances. Collaborateur de Nonaka.
TAKEUCHI, H. (1981). Productivity : Learning from the Japanese. California Management Review, 23 (4), 5-19.
TAKEUCHI, H. & QUELCH, J. (1983). Quality Is more than making a good product. Harvard Business Review, 61 (4), 139-145.
TAKEUCHI, H. (1985). The changing role of the Japanese market and its impact on global strategy. Hitotsubashi Journal of Commerce & Management, 20 (1) , 49-61.
TAKEUCHI, H. & NONAKA, I. (1986). The new new product development game. Harvard Business Review, 64 (1), 137-146. [PDF]
TAKEUCHI, H. (12013). Wise leadership and wise capitalism. Kindai Management Review, 1, 15-26.
Talent/Talentueux : Ensemble des facteurs physiques et psychologiques qui permettent à un individu de se distinguer, de s'élever au dessus de la moyenne dans un domaine particulier. = don. *douance. Innate talent, talent.

  RÉVÉSZ, G. (1941). The indivisibility of mathematical talent. Acta Psychologica, 5, 1-21. BENBOW, C.P. & LUBINSKI, D. (Eds.) (1996). Intellectual talent : Psychometric and social issues. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.
GAGNÉ, F. (1983). Douance et talent : deux concepts à ne pas confondre. Apprentissage et Socialisation, 6, 146-159.  
REIS, S.M. & RENZULLI, J.S. (1984). Key features of successful programs for the gifted and talented. Educational Leadership, 41 (7), 28-34. [PDF] HOWE, M.J.A., DAVIDSON, J.W. & SLOBODA, J.A. (1998). Innate talents : Reality or myth ? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 21, 399-442. [PDF]
 BLOOM, B. (Éd.) (1985). Developing talent in young people. New York : Ballantine Books. CÔTÉ, J. (1999). The influence of the family in the develo- pment of talent in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 395-417. [PDF]
BARTON, J.M. & STARNES, W.T. (1988). Distinguishing characteristics of gifted and talented/learning disabled students. Special Issue : Gifted students with disabilities. Roeper-Review, 12 (1), 23-29. SIMONTON, D.K. (1999). Talent and its development : An emergenic and epigenetic model. Psychological Review, 106, 435-457.
GAGNÉ, F. (1991). Toward a differentiated model of giftedness and talent. In N. Colangelo & G.A. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of gifted education (pp. 65-80). Boston : Allyn and Bacon.  WILLIAMS, A.M. (2000). Perceptual skill in soccer : Implications for talent identification and development. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 737-740.
MILLS, C.J. (1992). Academically talented children : The case for early identification and nurturance. Pediatrics, 89, 156-157.  WILLIAMS, A.M. & REILLY, T. (2000). Talent identification and development in soccer. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 657 - 667.
PALMQUIST, M. & YOUNG, R.E. (1992). The notion of giftedness and student expectations about writing. Written Communication, 9 (1), 137-168. HELSEN, W.F., HODGES, N.J., VAN WICKEL, J. & STARKES, J.L. (2000). The roles of talent, physical precocity and practice in the development of soccer expertise. Journal of Sports Sciences, 18, 1-10. [PDF]
PALMQUIST, M. & YOUNG, R.E. (1992). Is writing a gift? The impact on students who believe it is. In J.R. Hayes, R.E. Young, M.L. Matchett, M. McCaffrey, C. Cochran & T. Hajduk (Eds.) Reading empirical research studies : The rhetoric of research. Hillsdale NJ : Erlbaum. HELLER, K.A., MÖNKS, F.J., STERNBERG, R.J. & SUBOTNIK, R. (Eds.) (2000). International handbook for research on giftedness and talent. Oxford : Pergamon Press.
RENZULLI, J.S. (1994). Schools for talent development : A practical plan for total school improvement. Mansfield Center, CT : Creative Learning Press. SHEA, D.L., LUBINSKI, D. & BENBOW, C.P. (2001). Importance of assessing spatial ability in talented young adolescents : A 20-year longitudinal study. Journal of Educational Psychology, 93, 604-614.
VALLERAND, R.J., GAGNÉ, F., SÉNÉCHAL. C. & PELLETIER, L.G. (1994). A comparison of the school intrinsic motivation and perceived competence of gifted and regular students. Gifted Child Quarterly, 38 (4), 172-175. REIS, S.M. SCHADER, R., MILNE, H. & STEPHENS, R. (2003). Music and minds : Using a talent development approach for young adults with Williams syndrome. Exceptional Children, 69, 293-314.
LUBINSKI, D. & BENBOW, C.P. (1995). Optimal development of talent : Respond educationally to individual differences in personality. Educational Forum, 59, 381-392. LOHMAN, D.F. (2005). The role of nonverbal ability tests in identi- fying students for participation in programs for the academically gifted. Gifted Child Quarterly, 49, 111-138.
   
Voir aussi Intelligence et Douance
Talent Development & Excellence : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'expertise et au talent. Éditeur : IRADTE.
GRUBER, H., JANSEN, P., MARIENHAGEN, J. & ALTENMUELLER (2010). Adaptations during acquisition of expertise. Talent Development & Excellence, 2 (1), 3-15. [PDF]

Talwar Victoria ( ) : Psychologue québécoise et spécialiste de l'étude du mensonge. Elle enseigne à l'Université Mcgill. Collaboratrice de Fu, Lee et Xu.
TALWAR, V. & LEE, K. (2002). Development of lying to conceal a transgression : Children's control of expressive behavior during verbal deception. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26 (5), 436-444. [PDF]
TALWAR, V. & LEE, K. (2002). Emergence of white-lie telling in children between 3 and 7 years of Age. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48 (2), 160-181. [PDF]
TALWAR, V., GORDON, H. & LEE, K. (2007). Lying in the elementary school : : Verbal deception and its relation to second-order belief understanding. Developmental Psychology, 43, 804-810.
TALWAR, V. & LEE, K. (2008). Social and cognitive correlates of children's lying behavior. Child Development, 79, 866-881.
TALWAR, V. & LEE, K. (2011). A punitive environment fosters children's dishonesty : A natural experiment. Child Development, 82, 1751-1758.
Tamarin : Singe. Teasing.

HAUSER, M.D., KRALOK, J. & BOTTO, MHAN, C. (1999). Problem solving and functional design features : experiments with cotton-top tamarins. Animal Behaviour, 57, 565-582.
HAUSER, M., PEARSON, H.E. & SEELIG, D. (2002). Ontogeny of tool use in cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) : innate recognition of functionally relevant features. Animal Behaviour, 64, 299-311.
HAUSER, M., CHEN, M.K., CHEN, F. & CHUANG, E. (2003). Give unto others : genetically unrelated cotton-top tamarin monkeys preferentially give food to those who altruistically give food back. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 270, 2363-2370. [PDF]
Voir aussi Animal et Singe
Tamminga Carol A. ( ) : Psychiatre américaine et spécialiste de l'étude et du traitement de la schizophrénie.
TAMMINGA, C.A., SCHAFFER, M.H., SMITH, R.C. & DAVIS, J.M. (1978). Schizophrenic symptoms improve with apomorphine. Science, 200, 567-568.
TAMMINGA, C.A., CRAYTON, J.W. & CHASE, T.N. (1979). Improvement in tardive dyskinesia after muscimol therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry, 36, 595-598.
TAMMINGA, C.A. & SCHAFFER, M.H. (1979). Treatment of schizophrenia with ergot derivatives. Psychopharmacology, 66, 239-242.
TAMMINGA, C.A. (2005). Partial dopamine agonists and thetreatment of psychosis. Current Neuropharmacology, 3, 3-8. [PDF]
TAMMINGA, C.A., STAN, A.D. & WAGNER, A.D. (2010). Theh hippocampal formation in schizophrenia. American Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 1178-1193. [PDF]
Tampon : Voir Mémoire-tampon ou Mémoire tampn épisodique. Buffer momory.
Tanaka James W. ( ) : Neurocognitiviste canadien et spécialiste de l'étude de la catégorisation et de la reconnaissance des visages. Collaborateur de Izard, Lee, Pascalis et Quinn.
TANAKA, J.W. & TAYLOR, M. (1991). Object categories and expertise : Is the basic level in the eye of the beholder ? Cognitive Psychology, 23, 457-482. [PDF]
TANAKA, J.W. & FARAH, M.J. (1993). Parts and wholes in face recognition. Quarterly Journal of Experiment Psychology, 46A, 225-245. [PDF]
TANAKA, J.W. & SENGCO, J. (1997). Features and their configuration in face recognition. Memory & Cognition, 25, 583-592. [PDF]
TANAKA, J.W. (2001). The entry point of face recognition : evidence for face expertise. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 130 (3), 534-543. [PDF]
TANAKA, J.W., MEIXNAR, T.R. & KANTNER, J. (2011). Exploring the perceptual spaces of faces, cars and birds in children and adults. Developmental Science, 14, 762-768. 122-131. [PDF]
Tanner Wilson P. ( ) : Psychophysiologiste américain et spécialiste de la perception et de la détection du signal. = Spike Tanner. Professeur de Swets.
TANNER, W.P. & SWETS, J.A. (1954). A decision-making theory of visual detection. Psychological Review, 61, 401-409.
TANNER, W.P. & SWETS, J.A. (1954). The human use of information-I-II: Signal detection for the case of the signal known exactly. Transactions of the IRE Professional Group on Information Information Theory, 4, 213-221/222-227.
TANNER, W.P. (1956). Theory of recognition. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 28, 882-888.
TANNER, W.P. & BIRDSALL, T.G. (1958). Definitions of d' and n as psychophysical measures. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 30, 922-928.
SWETS, J.A., TANNER, W.P. & BIRDSALL, T.G. (1961). Decision processes in perception. Psychological Review, 68 (5), 301-340. [PDF]
Tannock Rosemary ( ) : Psychiatre américaine et spécialiste de l'étude du trouble d'attention avec hyperactivité et de l'un de ses traitements (methylphenidate). Collaboratrice de Castellanos, Joanisse, Johansen, Killeen, Logan, Sagvolden, Schachar, Tripp et Wickens.
TANNOCK, R., SCHACHAR, R.J., CARR, R.P., CHAJCZYK, D. & LOGAN, G.D. (1989). Effect of mythylphenidate on inhibititory control in hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 17 (5), 473-491. [PDF]
TANNOCK, R., SCHACHAR, R.J., CARR, R.P. & LOGAN, G.D. (1989). Dose-response effects of methylphenidate on academic performance and overt behavior in hyperactive children. Pediatric, 84, 648-657. [PDF]
TANNOCK, R., SCHACHAR, R.J. & LOGAN, G.D. (1993). Does methylphenidate induce overfocusing in hyperactive children? Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 22, 28-41.
TANNOCK, R., SCHACHAR, R.J., CARR, R.P. & LOGAN, G.D. (1995). Methylphenidate and cognitive flexibility : Dissociated dose effects on behavior and cognition in hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 23, 235-266. [PDF]
TANNOCK, R. (2005). Hypodopaminergic function influences learning and memory as well as delay gradients. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 28, 444-445.
Tantam Digby John Howard ( ) : Psychologue anglais et spécialiste du syndrome d'Asperger et la thérapies à distance.
TANTAM, D. (1988). Asperger's syndrome. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 29, 245-255.
TANTAM, D., MONOGHAN, L., NICHOLSON, H. & STIRLING, J. (1989). Autistic children's ability to interpret faces : a research note. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 30 (4), 623-630.
TANTAM, D. (2003). The challenge of adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome. Child & Adolescent Psychatric Clinics in North America, 12, 143-163.
TANTAM, D. (2003). The flavour of emotions. Psychology & Psychotherapy, 76, 23-45
TANTAM, D. (2006). Opportunities and risks in e-therapy. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 12, 368-374
Taoïsme : Religion. Taoism.

  DE GROOT, J.J.M. (1912). Religion in China : Universism, a key to the study of Taoism and Confucianism. New York : G.P. Putnam.
CAPRA, F. (1975). The Tao of physics : An exploration of the parallels between modern physics and Eastern mysticism. Berkeley : Shambhala Publications.
WONG, E. (1996). Teachings of the Tao. Berkeley : Shambhala Publications.
Taquiner/Taquinerie : Taquinerie, humour et harcèlement. = moquerie. Teasing.

GRILO, C.M., WILFLEY, D.E., BROWNELL, D.D. & RODIN, J. (1994). Teasing, body image, and self esteem in a clinical sample of obese women. Addictive Behaviors, 19, 443-450.
KELTNER, D., YOUNG, R.C., HEEREY, E.A., OEMIG, C. & MONARCH, N.D. (1998). Teasing in hierarchical and intimate relations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75, 1231-1247.
KELTNER, D., CAPPS, L.M., KRING, A.M., YOUNG, R.C. & HEEREY, E.A. (2001). Just teasing : A conceptual analysis and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 229-248. [PDF] + [PDF]
Tarabulsy George M. ( ) : Psychologue écologiste québécois et professeur à l'Université Laval. Collaborateur de Moss et Tessier.
TARABULSY, G.M., TESSIER, R. & KAPPAS, A. (1996). Contingency detection and the contingent organization of behavior in interactions : Implications for socioemotional development in infancy. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 1-17.
LAROSE, S., BERNIER, A. & TARABULSY, G.M. (2005). Attachment state of mind, students' learning dispositions, and academic performance during the college transition. Developmental Psychology, 41, 281-289.
TARABULSY, G.M., BERNIER, A., PROVOST, M.A., MARANDA, J., LAROSE, S., MOSS, E., LAROSE, M. & TESSIER, R. (2005). Another look inside the gap : Ecological contributions to the transmission of attachment in a sample of adolescent mother-infant dyads. Developmental Psychology, 41, 212-224.
TARABULSY, G.M., PASCUZZO, K., MOSS, E., ST-LAURENT, D., BERNIER, A. & CYR, C. (2008). Attachment-based interventions for maltreating families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 78, 322-332.
TARABULSY, G.M., MORAN, G., PEDERSON, D.R., PROVOST, M. & LAROSE, S. (2011). Adolescent motherhood, maternal sensitivity and early infant development. In D.W. Davis & C. Logdson (Eds.), Maternal sensitivity : A critical review for practitioners. Haupauge, NY : Nova Publishers.
Tarbox Rachel S.F. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine et spécialiste de l'étude de l'autisme et des soins parentaux. Collaboratrice de Friman, Ghezzi et Williams.
TARBOX, R., WALLACE, M.D. & WILLIAMS, W.L. (2003). Assessment and treatment of elopement : a replication and extension. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36 (2), 239-244. [PDF]
TARBOX, R., WILLIAMS, W.L. & FRIMAN, P.C. (2004). Extended diaper wearing : effects on continence in and out of the diaper Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37 (1), 97-100. [PDF]
TARBOX, R.S.F., GHEZZI, P.M. & WILSON, G. (2006). The effects of token reinforcement on attending in a young child with autism. Behavioral Interventions, 21, 155-164.
TARBOX, R., WALLACE, M.D., PENROD, B. & TARBOX, J. (2007). Effects of three-step prompting on compliance with caregiver requests. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40 (4), 239-244. [PDF]
TARBOX, R., TARBOX, J. GHEZZI, P.M., WALLACE, M.D. & YOO, J.-H. (2007). The effects of blocking mouthing of leisure items on their effectiveness as reinforcers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 40 (4), 761-765. [PDF]
Tarde Gabriel (Sarlat France 1843-1904 Paris) : Criminologue, sociologue et philosophe français. Il s'est notamment intéressé aux foules et à l'imitation. Il fut également un farouche adversaire des thèses de Durkheim.
TARDE, G. (1880). La croyance et le désir ; la possibilité de leur mesure. Revue Philosophique, 10, 150-180/264-283.
TARDE, G. (1887). Publications récentes sur la psychologie criminelle. Revue philosophique, 24, 625-644.
TARDE, G. (1889). Le crime et l'épilepsie. Revue Philosophique, 27, 49-469.
TARDE, G. (1890/2001). Les lois de l'imitation. Paris : Alcan/ Paris : Les empêcheurs de penser en rond.
TARDE, G. (1901/1989/2006). L'opinion et la foule. Paris : Prresses Universitaires de France/L'Harmattan.
Tardif
Jacques Tardif Maurice Tardif
 
Tardif Jacques ( ) : Pédagogue socio-constructivisme et professeur à l'Université de Sherbrooke, spécialisé dans l'étude des compétences et du transfert des connaissances. Collaborateur de Meirieu.
TARDIF, J. (1992). Pour un enseignement stratégique. L'apport de la psychologie cognitive. Montréal : Éditions Logiques.
TARDIF, J. et MEIRIEU, P. (1996). Stratégie pour favoriser le transfert des connaissances. Vie Pédagogique, 98, 4-7.
TARDIF, J. (1998). Intégrer les nouvelles technologies de l'information. Quel cadre pédagogique ? Paris : ESF.
TARDIF, J. (1999). Le transfert des apprentissages. Montréal : Éditions Logiques.
TARDIF, J. (2006). L'évaluation des compétences. Documenter le parcours de développement. Montréal : Chenelière Éducation.
Tardif Maurice ( ) : Pédagogue québécois et professeur à l'Université du Québec à Montréal. Collaborateur de Gauthier, Karsenti et Lessard.
TARDIF, M., BÉLANGER, N. et GRENIER, D. (1994). L'idéologie cognitiviste et l'éducation. Canadian Journal of Education/Revue canadienne de l'éducation, 19 (3), 316-330.
TARDIF, M., LESSARD, C. et GAUTHIER, C. (Dirs.) (1998). Formation des maîtres et contextes sociaux. Perspectives internationales. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
TARDIF, M. et LESSARD, C. (1999). Le travail enseignant au quotidien. Expérience, interactions humaines et dilemmes professionnels. Québec : Presses de l'Université Laval/ Bruxelles : De Boeck.
TARDIF, M. et GAUTHIER, C. (Dirs.) (1999). Pour ou contre un ordre professionnel des enseignantes et des enseignants au Québec. Québec : Les Presses de l'Université Laval.
TARDIF, M. et LESSARD, C. (2004). La profession d'enseignant aujourd'hui. Évolutions, perspectives et enjeux internationaux. Québec/Belgique : Presses de l'Université Laval/de Boeck.
Tarski Alfred (Varsovie 1902-1983 Berkeley États-Unis) : Philosophe et logicien américain d'origine polonaise. Collaborateur de Nagel et Suppes.
TARSKI, A. (1944). The semantic conception of truth and the foundations of semantics. Philosophy & Phenomenological Research, 4, 341-376.
NAGEL, E., SUPPES, P. & TARSKI, A. (1962). Logic, methodology and philosophy of science. Stanford : Stanford University Press.
TARSKI, A. (1972). Logique, sémantique, mathématique. Paris : Armand Collin.
 
Tashakkori Abbas ( ) : Psychosociologue américain et spécialiste des méthodes mixtes.
TASHAKKORI, A. & TEDDLIE, C. (1998). Mixed methodology : Combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
TASHAKKORI, A. & TEDDLIE, C. (2003). Handbook of mixed methods in social and behavioral research. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
TEDDLIE, C. & TASHAKKORI, A. (2006). A general typology of research designs featuring mixed methods. Research in the Schools, 13 (1), 12-28.
TASHAKKORI, A. & CRESWELL, J. (2008). Mixed methodology across disciplines. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 2 (1), 1-5.
TASHAKKORI, A. & TEDDLIE, C. (2010). Putting the human back in "human research methodology" : The researcher in mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 4 (4), 271-277.
T.A.T. : Voir Test d'aperception thématique.
Tatham Thomas A. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain et spécialiste de l'étude du conditionnement opérant, notamment de l'histoire des contingences. Collaborateur de Barrett, Hineline et Wanchisen.
TATHAM, T.A., GYORDA, A.M. & BARRETT, J.E. (1993). Generalization of behavioral history across responses in the reversal of the effects of d-amphetamine and cocaine on the punished responding of squirrel monkeys. Behavioural Pharmacology, 4, 61-68.
TATHAM, T.A. & BARRETT, J.E. (1993). Shock avoidance but not DRL history reverses the effects of cocaine on punished behavior of squirrel monkeys. Behavioural Pharmacology, 4, 159-166
TATHAM, T.A. & WANCHISEN, B.A & HUINELINE, P.N. (19938). Effects of fixed and variable ratios on human behavioral variability. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 59 (2), 349-359. [PDF]
TATHAM, T.A., GYORDA, A.M. & BARRETT, J.E. (1994). Shock postponement reverses the effects of cocaine on the punished pecking of pigeons. Pharmacology Biochemistry & Behavior, 48, 491-495.
TATHAM, T.A. & WANCHISEN, B.A. (1998). Behavioral history : A definition and some common findings from two areas of research. The Behavior Analyst, 21, 241-251. [PDF]
Tatouage : Signe corporel - indélébile ou non - inscrit dans la peau. Tattoo.

  SINGH, D. & BRONSTAD, P.M. (1997). Sex differences in the anatomical locations of human body scarification and tattooing as a function of pathogen prevalence. Evolution & Human Behavior, 18, 403-416.
DEGELMAN, D. & PRICE, N.D. (2002). Tattoos and ratings of personal characteristics. Psychological Reports, 90, 507-514.
D'AMBROSIO, A., CASILLO, N. & MARTINI, V. (2013). Piercings and tattoos : psychopathological aspecs. Activitas Nervosa Superior Rediviva, 51 (3-4), 146-149. [PDF]
Tautologie : Raisonnement dont le prédicat ne dit rien de plus que l'objet (et ses propriétés essentielles). EX : Tous les chiens (objet) sont des mammifères (prédicat). Tautology.

  RACHLIN, H.C. (1971). On the tautology of the matching law. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 15 (2), 249-251. [PDF]
PETERS, R.H. (1976). Tautology in evolution and ecology. American Naturalist, 110, 1-12.
Taux : Le taux est un rapport entre deux quantités, qui exprime une réalité décrite, mesurée et souvent inférée à partir d'un échantillon. EX : Le taux de dépression dans une population. Il est souvent exprimé en pourcentage. ( ): Taux de réponse à un questionnaire, taux de réponse motrice. Rate.

  FLEISS, J.L. (1981). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York : John Wiley.
GALLISTEL C.R. & GIBBON, J. (2000). Time, rate and conditioning. Psychological Review, 107, 289-344. [PDF]
FLEISS, J.L., LEVIN, B. & PAIK, M.C. (2003). Statistical methods for rates and proportions. New York : Wiley.
GILLES, A. (1984). Éléments de méthodologie et d'analyse statistique pour les sciences sociales. St-Laurent : Mcgraw-Hill Éditeurs.
Taux de réponse (d'un organisme) : Voir Réponse (taux d'une) et Comportement (fréquence du). Behavior rate.
Taux de réponse à un questionnaire : Voir Réponse (taux d'une). Response rates at a survey.
Tavris Carol Anne (1944-) : Psychosociolologue et féministe américaine. Collaboratrice d'Aronson, Aronson, Russo, Shaver et Zajonc.
TAVRIS, C. (1989). Anger : The misunderstood emotion. New York : Simon & Schuster/Touchstone.
TAVRIS, C. (1993). The mismeasure of woman. Feminism & Psychology, 3, 149-168.
TAVRIS, C. (1992). The longest war : Sex differences in perspective. Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
TAVRIS, C. (1992). The mismeasure of woman : Why women are not the better sex, the opposite sex, or the inferior sex. New York : Simon and Schuster.
TAVRIS, C. & SADD, S. (1977). The redbook report on female sexuality. New York : Delacorte.
Taxage : À l'école, dans les gangs de rue et autres groupes criminalisés, forme d'intimitation et de harcèlement qui consiste à réclamer les effets personnels d'autrui (vêtements, souliers, casse-croûte, Ipod, montre, bracelet, bijou, argent de poche, etc.) en échange de protection ou d'une promesse de non-agression.

   
Voir aussi Intimidation, Harcèlement et Vol
Taxe/Taxer/Taxation : Taxation.

  COURANT, P.N. (1977). General equilibrium model of heterogeneous local property taxes. Journal of Public Economics, 8, 313-327. [PDF] ENGEN, E. & SKINNER, J. (1996). Taxation and economic growth. National Tax Journal, 49 (4), 617-642. [PDF]
DEATON, A. (1981). Optimal taxation and the structure of preferences. Econometrica, 49, 1245-1260. HEIJMAN, W.J.M. & VAN OPHEM, J.A.A.C. (2005). Willingness to pay tax The Laffer curve revisited for 12 OECD countries. The Journal of Socio-Economic, 34, 714-723. [PDF]
  XIN LI, S., ECKEL, C.C GROSSMAN, TP.J. & LARSON BROWN, T. (2011). Giving to government : Voluntary taxation in the lab. Journal of Public Economics 95, 1190-1201.
PICCIOTTO, S. (1992). International taxation and intra-firm pricing in transnational corporate groups. Accounting, Organizations & Society, 17 (8), 759-792. PIKETTY, T. & SAEZ, E. (2013). A theory of optimal inheritance taxation. Econometrica, 81 (5), 1851-1886.
PICCIOTTO, S. (1992). International business taxation. London : Weidenfeld & Nicolson/Butterworths. PIKETTY, T., SAEZ, E. & STANTCHEVAA, S. (2014). Optimal taxation of top labor incomes : A tale of three elasticities. American Economic Journal, 6 (1), 230-271.
Voir aussi Gouvernement et Justice
Taxie : Chez les animaux, réactions innées d'orientation et de locomotion provoquées par des stimuli de l'environnement physique (lumière, humidité, chaleur). Taxie et tropisme. Taxis.

  ABERCROMBIE, M., HICKMAN, C.J. & JOHNSON, M.L. (1980). Dictionary of biology. Londres : Penguin.
Taxon : Regroupement ordonné, hiérarchique et homogène d'organismes réels en fonction de leurs similitudes dans le le but de les identifier et de les classer. L'espèce est le taxon étalon. = classement scientifique, catégorie biologique. Taxon.

Règne
  Embranchement  
  Classe  
  Ordre  
  Famille  
  Genre  
  Espèce  
  Population  


   GEIST, V. (1988). Phantom subspecies : the Wood Bison Bison bison "athabascae", Rhoads 1887, is not a valid taxon, but an ecotype. Arctic, 44, 283-300.
MEEHL, P.E. (2004). What's in a taxon ? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 39-43.
Taxonomie : Classement d'objets réels ou de leurs propriétés selon certaines règles et critères (inclusion, similitude, hiérarchie, etc.), notamment des animaux (objet réel). = taxinomie. Taxonomy.
  SOKAL, R.R. & CAMIN, J.H. (1965). The two taxonomies : areas of agreementand conflict. Systematic Zoology, 14, 175-195. SZIRMAK, Z. & DE RAAD, B. (1994). Taxonomy and structure of Hungarian personality traits. European Journal of Personality, 8, 95-117.
PEARCE, P.L. & AMATO, P.R. (1980). A taxonomy of helping : A multidimensional scaling analysis. Social Psychology Quarterly, 43 (4), 363-371. TRYON, W.W. (1996). Observing contingencies: Taxonomy and methods. Clinical Psychology Review, 16, 215-230.
WIESLER, N.A., HANSON, R.H., CHAMBERLAIN, T.P. & THOMPSON, T. (1985). Functional taxonomy of stereotypic and self-injurious behavior. Mental Retardation, 23, 230-234. GATI, I., KRAUSZ, M. & OSIPOW, S.H. (1996). A taxonomy of difficulties in career decision making. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 43 (4), 510-526.
ELLIOTT, R. (1985). Helpful and nonhelpful events in brief counseling interviews : An empirical taxonomy. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 32, 307-322. CARSON, R.C. (1996). Aristotle, Galileo, and the DSM taxonomy : The case of schizophrenia. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 64, 1133-1139. [PDF]
RAVEN, B.H. (1986). A taxonomy of power in human relations. Annals of Psychiatry, 16, 633- 636. PELAEZ, M. & MORENO, R. (1998). A taxonomy of rules and their correspondence to rule-governed behavior. Mexican Journal of Behavior Analysis, 24, 197-214. [PDF]
BLACKBURN, R. (1986). Patterns of personality deviation among violent offenders : replication and extension of an empirical taxonomy. British Journal of Criminology, 26, 254-269. KIPNIS, D. (1997). Ghosts, taxonomies, and social psychology. American Psychologist, 52, 205-211.
THISSEN, D. & LYNNE, S. (1986). A taxonomy of item response models. Psychometrika 51, 567-577. SLIFE, B.D., YANCHAR, S.C. & WILLIAMS, B. (1999). Conceptions of determinism in radical behaviorism : A taxonomy. Behavior & Philosophy, 27 (2), 75-96. [PDF]
KORNBLUM, S., HASBROUCQ, T. & OSMAN, A. (1990). Dimensional overlap: Cognitive basis for stimulus-response compatibility — A model and taxonomy. Psychological Review, 97, 253-270. FOSTER, E.K. (2004). Research on gossip : Taxonomy, methods, and future directions. Review of General Psychology, 8, 78-99.
 GEIST, V. (1991). On the taxonomy of giant sheep (Ovis ammon Linnaeus 1766). Canadian Journal of Zoology, 69, 706-723. DEHAENE, S., CHANGEUX, J.P., NACCACHE, L., SACKUR, J. & SERGENT, C. (2006). Conscious, preconscious, and subliminal processing : A testable taxonomy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 10, 204-211.
 GEIST, V. (1991). Taxonomy : on the objective defintion of subspecies, taxa vs legal entities, and its application to Rangifer tarandus Linnaeus 1758. In C.E. Butler & S.P. Mahoney (Eds.), Proc. 4th N. American Caribou Workshop (pp. 1-21). St. Johns, Newfoundland. ZHENG, A.Y., LAWHORN, J.K., LUMLEY, T. & FREEMAN, S. (2008). Application of Bloom's taxonomy debunks the «MCAT myth». Science, 319, 414-415.
MARRADI, A. (1990). Classification, typology, taxonomy. Quality & Quantity, 24 (2), 129-157. [PDF] KUBINA, R.M., KOSTEEWICZ, D.E. & LIN, F.-Y. (2009). The taxonomy of learning and behavioral fluency. Journal of Precision Teaching & Celeration, 25, 17-27. [PDF]
BORMAN, W.C. & BRUSH, D.H. (1993). More progress toward a taxonomy of managerial performance requirements. Human Performance, 6, HASLAM, N., HOLLAND, E. & KUPPENS, P. (2012). Categories versus dimensions in personality and psychopathology : A quantitative review of taxometric research. Psychological Medicine, 42, 903-920.
ABERCROMBIE, M., HICKMAN, C.J. & JOHNSON, M.L. (1980). Dictionary of biology. Londres : Penguin.
Taxonomie de Bloom : Taxonomie des objectifs d'apprentissage conçue par Bloom. Ces six objectifs sont : 1) Savoir; 2) Compréhension; 3) Application; 4) Analyse; 5) Synthèse; 6) Évaluation. Bloom's taxonomy.
Niveaux Objectifs généraux Objectifs spécifiques/Verbes d'action
 1 Savoir Arranger, définir, dupliquer, étiqueter, lister, mémoriser, nommer, ordonner, identifier, relier, rappeler, répéter, reproduire
2 Compréhension Classifier, décrire, discuter, expliquer, exprimer, identifier, indiquer, situer, reconnaître, rapporter, reformuler, réviser, choisir, traduire
3 Application Appliquer, choisir, démontrer, dramatiser, employer, illustré, interpréter, opérer, pratiquer, planifier, schématiser, résoudre, utiliser, écrire
4 Analyse Analyser, estimer, calculer, catégoriser, comparer, contraster, critiquer, différencier, discriminer, distinguer, examiner, expérimenter, questionner, tester
 5 Synthèse Arranger, assembler, collecter, composer, construire, créer, concevoir, développer, formuler, gérer, organiser, planifier, préparer, proposer, installer, écrire
6 Évaluation Arranger, argumenter, évaluer, rattacher, choisir comparer, justifier, estimer, juger, prédire, chiffrer, élaguer, sélectionner, soutenir


  BLOOM, B.S. & KRATHWOHL, D.R. (1956/75). Taxonomy of educational objectives : The classification of educational goals, by a committee of college and university examiners. Handbook I : Cognitive Domain. New York : Longmans Green / Taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques : Vol. 1 : Domaine cognitif. Montréal : PUQ.
KRATHWOHL, D.R., BLOOM, B.S. et MASIA, B.B. (1970). Taxonomie des objectifs pédagogiques. Tome 2 (le domaine affectif). Éducation nouvelle.
ANDERSON, L. & KRATHWOHL, D.R. (2000). Taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing : A revision of Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives. New York : Longman.
 WITTROCK, M.C. (2001). A taxonomy for learning, teaching and assessing : A revision of Bloom's taxonomy. New York : Allyn & Bacon.
KRATHWOHL, D.R. (2002). A Revision of Bloom's Taxonomy : An Overview. Theory into Practice, 41 (4), 212-218.
CROWE, A., DIRKS, C. & WENDEROTH, M.P. (2008). Biology in bloom : implementing Bloom's taxonomy to enhance student learning in biology. CBE-Life Sciences Education, 7, 368-381.
ZHENG, A.Y., LAWHORN, J.K., LUMLEY, T. & FREEMAN, S. (2008). Application of Bloom's taxonomy debunks the «MCAT myth». Science 319, 414-415.
LEGENDRE, R. (1993). Dictionnaire actuel de l'éducation. Montréal : Guérin/Paris : ESKA.
Taylor
Calvin W. Taylor Frédérick Winslow Taylor Taylor Marylee C.
Charles Taylor Marjorie Taylor Shelley E. Taylor
Donald M. Taylor Richard Taylor Janet Taylor Spence
 
Taylor Calvin W. (1915-2000) : Psychométricien américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'intelligence et de la créativité. Étudiant de Thurstone.
TAYLOR, C.W. (1968). Cultivating new talents : A way to reach the educationally deprived. The Journal of Creative Behavior, 2, 83-90.
TAYLOR, C.W. (1964). Creativity: Progress and potential.
TAYLOR, C.W. (1972). Climate for creativity. New York : Pergamon.
TAYLOR, C.W. (1986). Cultivating simultaneous student growth in both multiple creative talents and knowledge. In J.S. Renzulli (Ed.), Systems and models for developing programs for the gifted and talented (pp. 307-350).
 
AUTEUR INCONNU (2001). Calvin W. Taylor (1915-2000) : Obituary. American Psychologist, 55 (6/7), 519.
Taylor Charles (1931-) : Philosophe québécois. Il s'est notamment intéressé aux concepts d'identité sociale, d'individualisme et de modernité.
TAYLOR, C. (1964). The explanation of behaviour. Londres : Routledge & Kagan Paul.
TAYLOR, C. (1987/98). The sources of the self / Les sources du moi : la formation de l'identité moderne. Harvard : Harvard University Press/Montréal : Boréal.
TAYLOR, C. (1992). Grandeur et misère de la modernité. Québec : Éditions Bellarmin.
TAYLOR, C. (1994). Multiculturalisme, différence et démocratie. France : Aubier.
Taylor Donald M. ( ) : Psychosociologue québécois et spécialiste de l'étude des stéréotypes raciaux/ethniques et des langues autochtones. Il enseigne à l'Université McGill. Collaborateur de De la Sablonnière.
TAYLOR, D.M. & GARDNER, R.C. (1969). Ethnic stereotypes : Their effects on the perception of communicators of varying credibility. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 23, 161-173.
TAYLOR, D.M., CAOUETTE, J., USBORNE, E. & WRIGHT, S.C. (2008). Aboriginal languages in Québec : Fighting linguicide with bilingual education. Diversité Urbaine, 8, 69-90.
TAYLOR, D.M. & De la SABLONNIÈRE, R. (2013). Why interventions in dysfunctional communities fail : the need for a truly collective approach. Canadian Psychology, 54, 22-29.
TAYLOR, D.M., De la SABLONNIÈRE, R. & FRENCH-BOURGEOIS, L. (2014). Genuine community ownership of northern education : From theory to practice. Northern Public Affairs, 2, 55-59.
TAYLOR, D.M. & De la SABLONNIÈRE, R. (2014). Towards constructive change in Aboriginal communities : A social psychology perspective. Montréal : McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Taylor Frederick Winslow (Germantown États-Unis 1856-1915) : Ingénieur, spécialiste de l'organisation systématique du travail et père d'un mouvement qui porte maintenant son nom, le taylorisme.
TAYLOR, F.W. (1912). Shop management.
TAYLOR, F.W. (1916). Principles of scientific management. Bulletin of the Taylor Society. In D. Mankin, R.E. Ames & M.A. Grodski, (Eds.), (1980). Classics of industrial and organizational psychology. (pp. 15-28). Oak Park, Illinois : Moore Publishing Company.
 
 
 
 
Taylor Marjorie ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude du développement, notamment du mensonge et des amis imaginaires.
TAYLOR, M. & CARLSON, S.M. (1997). The relation between individual differences in fantasy and theory of mind. Child Development, 68, 436-455. [PDF]
TAYLOR, M., LUSSIER, G.L. & MARING, B.L. (2003). The distinction between lying and pretending. Journal of Cognition & Development, 4, 299-324. [PDF]
TAYLOR, M., CARLSON, S.M., MARING, B.L., GEROW, L. & CHARLEY, C. (2004). The characteristics and correlates of high fantasy in school-aged children : Imaginary companions, impersonation and social understanding. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1173-1187. [PDF]
TAYLOR, M. & MOTTWEILER, C.M. (2008). Imaginary companions : Pretending they are real but knowing they are not. American Journal of Play, 1, 47-54. [PDF]
TAYLOR, M., HULETTE, A.C. & DISHION, T.J. (2010). Longitudinal outcomes of young high-risk adolescents with imaginary companions. Developmental Psychology, 46, 1632-1636. [PDF]
Taylor Marylee C. (Oakland 1943-) : Psychosociologue américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude des relations ethniques. Collaboratrice de Hall et Pettigrew.
TAYLOR, M.C. (1979). Race, Sex, and self-fulfilling prophecy effects in a laboratory teaching situation. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 37, 897-912.
TAYLOR, M.C. & HALL, J.A. (1982). Psychological androgyny : Theories, methods, and conclusions. Psychological Bulletin, 92, 347-366.
TAYLOR, M.C. (1995). The impact of affirmative action on beneficiary groups : Evidence from the 1990 general social survey. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 15, 143-178.
TAYLOR, M.C. (1995). White backlash to workplace affirmative action : Peril or myth ? Social Forces 73, 1385-1414.
TAYLOR, M.C. (1998). How white attitudes vary with the racial composition of local populations : Numbers count. American Sociological Review, 63, 512-535.
Taylor Richard (1919-2003) : Philosophe américain et spécialiste de la métaphysique. Étudiant de Chisholm et professeur de Lehrer.
TAYLOR, R. (1963). Metaphysics.
TAYLOR, R. (1966). Action and purpose.
TAYLOR, R. (1970). Good and evil.
TAYLOR, R. (1991). Virtue ethics.
 
Taylor Shelley E. ( ) : Psychosociologue américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude du soutien social. Collaboratrice de Buunk, Etcoff, Fiske, Kim, Peplau, Sears et Sherman.
TAYLOR, S.E., FISKE, S.T., ETCOFF, N.L. & RUDERMAN, A.J. (1978). Categorical and contextual bases of person memory and sereotyping. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 36 (7), 778-793. [PDF]
TAYLOR, S.E. (1983). Adjustment to threatening events : A theory of cognitive adaptation. American Psychologist, 38, 1161-1173. [PDF]
TAYLOR, S.E. (1991). Asymmetrical effects of positive and negative events : The mobilization-minimization hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 110 (1), 67-85. [PDF]
TAYLOR, S.E., KLEIN, L.C., LEWIS, B.P., GRUENEWALD, T.L., GURUNG, R.A. & UPDEGRAFF, J.A. (2000). Biobehavioral responses to stress in females : Tend-and-befriend, not fight-or-flight. Psychological Review, 107, 411-429. [PDF]
TAYLOR, S.E. & STANTON, A. (2007). Coping resources, coping processes, and mental health. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 3, 129-153. [PDF]
Taylorisme : Doctrine et système d'organisation du travail formulés par Taylor. qui s'appuie sur trois grands principes : 1) une analyse minitieuse dite "scientifique" des modes de production de l'entreprise; 2) organisation et division systématique des tâches (parcellisation et spécialisation du travail) permettant cette production; 3) Offrir aux employés des conditions qui les encouragent à travailler, à réaliser leurs tâches. Taylorisme et fordisme. Taylorism.
  TAYLOR, F.W. (1916). Principles of scientific management. Bulletin of the Taylor Society. In D. Mankin, R.E. Ames & M.A. Grodski, (Eds.), (1980). Classics of industrial and organizational psychology. (pp. 15-28). Oak Park, Illinois : Moore Publishing Company.
TDAH : Voir Trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperativité.
TEASDALE - TECHNIQUE - TECHNOLOGIE - Technologie Information/Communication (TIC) - TÉLÉ - TÉLÉPHONE - TÉLÉVISION - TEM
Te Nijenhuis Jan ( ) : Psychométricien néérlandais et spécialiste de l'étude de l'intelligence, notamment de l'intelligence générale (facteur G).
TE NIJENHUIS, J., EVERS, A. & MUR, J.P. (2000). The validity of the Differential Aptitude Test for the assessment of immigrant children. Educational Psychology, 20, 99-115.
TE NIJENHUIS, J., VAN VIANEN, A.E.M. & VAN DER FLIER, H. (2007). Score gains on g-loaded tests: No g. Intelligence, 35, 283-300.
TE NIJENHUIS, J. & VAN DER FLIER, H. (2007). The secular rise in IQs in the Netherlands : Is the Flynn effect on g ? Personality & Individual Differences, 43, 1259-1265. [PDF]
TE NIJENHUIS, J. & VAN DER FLIER, H. (2013). Is the Flynn effect on g ? A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 41, 802-807. [PDF]
TE NIJENHUIS, J., JONGENEEL-GRIMEN, B. & ARMSTRONG, E.L. (2015). Are adoption gains on the g factor ? A meta-analysis. Personality & Individual Differences, 73, 56-60.
Teacher Educator (The...) : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'enseignement. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
MOORE, K.D. & MARKAM, J.S. (1983). A competency model for the evaluation of teacher education program graduates. The Teacher Educator, 19 (1), 20-31.

Teachers College Record : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'enseignement.Éditeur : .
HUBERMAN, A.M. & MILES, M.B. (2002). Rethinking the quest for school improvement : Some findings from the DESSI study. Teachers College Record, 86 (1), 34-54.

Teachers Exceptional Children/Plus : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'enseignement des enfants surdoués et talentueux.
LINDSLEY, O.R. (1990). Precision teaching : By teachers for children. Teaching Exceptional Children, 22 (3), 10-15.

Teaching & Teacher Education : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'enseignement. Éditeur : Elsevier.
GOOD, T.L, SLAVINGS, R. & MASON, D. (1988). Learning to ask questions : Grade and school effects. Teaching & Teacher Education, 4 (4), 363-378.

Teaching of Psychology : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'enseignement de la psychologie. Éditeur : Routdlege.
BROTHEN, T. & WAMBACH, C. (2001). Effective student use of computerized quizzes. Teaching of Psychology, 28 (4), 292-294.

Teaching Thinking & Problem Solving (1979-1995) : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'enseignement. Éditeur : Routdlege.
JACKENDOFF, R. (1991). The paradox of language acquisition. Teaching Thinking & Problem Solving, 13 (5), 1-6.

Teasdale John D. ( ) : Psychologue cognitif américain, d'origine anglaise, spécialisé dans l'étude de la dépression et des rechutes. Collaborateur de Abramson, Segal, Seligman, Shapiro, Watkins et Williams.
TEASDALE, J.D., FENNELL, M.J.V., HIBBERT, G.A. & AMIES, P.L. (1984). Cognitive therapy for major depressive disorder in primary care. British Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 400-406.
TEASDALE, J.D. (1985). Psychological treatments for depression : How do they work ? Behaviour Research & Therapy, 23, 157-165.
TEASDALE, J.D., WILLIAMS, J.M.G., SOULSBY, J.M. SEGAL, Z.V., RIDGEWAY, V.A. & LAU, M.A. (2000). Prevention of relapse/Recurrence in major depression by mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 68 (4), 615-623. [PDF]
TEASDALE, J.D., SCOTT, J., MOORE, R.G., HAYHURS, H., POPE, M. & PAYKEL, E.S. (2001). How does cognitive therapy prevent relapse in residual depression ? Evidence from a controlled trial. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 69 (3), 347-357. [PDF]
TEASDALE, J.D., MOORE, R.G., HAYHURST, H., POPE, M., WILLIAMS, S. & SEGAL, Z.V. (2002). Metacognitive awareness and prevention of relapse in depression : Empirical evidence. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70, 278-287. [PDF]
 
ROBINS, C.J. & BLOCK, P. (1989). Cognitive theories of depression viewed from a diathesis-stress perspective : Evaluation of the models of Beck and Abramson, Seligman & Teasdale. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 13 (4), 297-313.
LAU, M.A., SEGAL, Z. & WILLIAMS, J.M.G. (2004). Teasdale's differential activation hypothesis : Implications for mechanisms of depressive relapse and suicidal behaviour. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 42, 1001-1017. [PDF]
Technique : Terme générique qui désigne «ce que l'on fait» pour résoudre un problème ou atteindre un objectif (Le comment), par opposition à la méthode qui décrit et explique les raisons ou les causes pour lesquelles on fait ce que l'on fait (Le pourquoi). En principe, une technique est une façon particulière de faire les choses qui repose sur des connaissances et des méthodes qui sont reproduites et transmises en raison de leur efficacité (avérée ou supposée), mais il existe également des techniques efficaces sans rationnel clair ou évident. EX: les techniques d'anesthésie qui, à l'origine, se sont développées sans que l'on comprenne exactement pourquoi et comment le cerveau "s'endort". = marche à suivre, façon de faire, le comment, ce que l'on fait. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. /Le pourquoi, méthode. Technique, procedure.

Formes de technique
Technique d'apprentissage Technique de relaxation Technique de la porte-dans-la-face
Technique d'enseignement Technique de tri qualitatif Technique du leurre
Technique de mise en marché Technique thérapeutique Technique du low-ball
Technique de modification du comportement Technique thérapeutique directive Technique du pied-dans-la-bouche
Technique de persuasion Technique thérapeutique non-directive Technique du pied-dans-la-porte
Technique de recherche   Technique pédagogique
 

 
Technique d'apprentissage : Voir Apprentissage.
Technique d'enseignement : Voir Enseigner.
Technique de la porte-dans-la-face : Technique de persuasion en deux temps qui consiste d'abord à faire une demande ou une offre exagérée à autrui, sachant pertinemment qu'elle sera refusée, puis de revenir à la charge avec une offre ou une demande beaucoup plus raisonnable, demande qui sera probablement acceptée, alors qu'en temps normal elle ne l'aurait probablement pas été. Technique du pied-dans-la-porte et persuasion. = stratégie de la porte-au-nez. Door-in-the-face technique, door-in-the-face procedure, DITF.
  CIALDINI, R.B., VINCENT, J.E., LEWIS, S.K., CATALAN, J., WHEELER, D. & DARBY, B.L. (1975). Reciprocal concessions procedure for inducing compliance : The door-in-the-face technique. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 31, 206-215. [PDF] REEVES, R.A., BAKER, G.A., BOYD, J.G. & CIALDINI, R.B. (1991). The door-in-the-face technique: Reciprocal concessions vs. self-presentation explanations. Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 6, 545-558.
CANN, A., SHERMAN, S.J. & ELKES, R. (1975). Effects of initial request size and timing of a second request on compliance : The foot in the door and the door in the face. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 32, 774-782. DILLARD, J.P. & HALE, J.L. (1992). Prosocial parameter of sequential request strategies : Limits to the foot-in-the-door and the door-in-the-face ? Communication Studies, 43, 220-232.
PENDLETON, M.G. & BATSON, C.D. (1979). Self-presentation and the door-in-the-face technique for inducing compliance. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 5 (1), 77-81. ABRAHAMS, M.F. & BELL, R.A. (1994). Encouraging charitable contributions : An examination of three models of door-in-the-face Compliance. Communication Research, 21, 131-153.
  BELL, R.A., ABRAHAMS, M.F., CLARK, C. & SCHLATTER, C. (1996). The door-in-the-face compliance strategy : an individual differences analysis of two models in an aids fund raising context. Communication Quarterly, 44, 107-124.
SCHWARZWALD, J., RAZ, M. & ZVIBEL, M. (1979). The applicability of the door-in-the face technique when established behavioral customs sexist. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9 (6), 576-586. O'KEEFE, D.J. & FIGGE, M. (1997). A guilt-based explanation of the door-in-the-face influence strategy. Human Communication Research, 24 (1), 64-81. [PDF]
SHANAB, M. & ISONIO, S. (1980). The effects of delay upon compliance with socially undesirable requests in the door-in-the-face paradigm. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society 15, 76-78. O'KEEFE, D.J. & HALE, S.L. (1998). The door-in-the-face influence strategy : A random-effects meta-analytic review. Communication Yearbook, 2, 1-33. [PDF]
  O'KEEFE, D.J. & FIGGE, M. (1999). Guilt and expected guilt in the door-in-the-face technique. Communication Monographs, 66, 312-324. [PDF]
  HALE, J.J. & LALIKER, M. (1999). Explaining the door-in-the-face : Is it really time to abandon reciprocal concessions ? Communication Studies, 10, 203-210.
  O'KEEFE, D.J. (1999). Three reasons for doubting the adequacy of the reciprocal-concessions explanation of door-in-the-face effects. Communication Studies, 50, 211-220. [PDF]
MOWEN, J.C. & CIALDINI, R.B. (1980). On implementing the door-in-the-face compliance technique in a business context. Journal of Marketing Research, 27, 253-258. TUSING, K.J. & DILLARD, J.P. (2000). The psychological reality of the door-in-the-face : It's Helping, not Bargaining. Journal of Language & Social Psychology, 19 (1), 5-25.
GOLDMAN, M. & CREASON, C. (1981). Inducing compliance by a two-door-in-the face procedure and a self-determination request. The Journal of Social Psychology, 114, 229-235. O'KEEFE, D.J. & HALE, S.L. (2001). An odds-ratio-based meta-analysis of research on the door-in-the-face influence. Communication Reports, 14, 31-38. [PDF]
GROVES, R.M. & MAGILAVY, L. (1981). Increasing response rates to telephone surveys : A door in the face for foot in the door ? Public Opinion Quarterly, 45 (3), 346-358. GUADAGNO, R.E., DEMAINE, L.J. & CIALDINI, R.B. (2001). When saying yes leads to saying no : Preference for consistency and the reverse foot-in-the-door effect. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27 (7), 859-867. [PDF]
DILLARD, J.P. & BURGOON, M. (1982). An appraisal of two sequential request strategies for gaining compliance : Foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face. Communication, 11, 40-57. MILLAR, M. (2002). Effects of a guilt induction and guilt reduction on door in the face. Comminication Research, 29 (6), 666-680. [PDF]
  GUÉGUEN, N. (2003). Fund raising on the Web : The effect of the electronic foot-in-the-door on prosocial request. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 6 (2), 189-193. [PDF]
  PASCUAL, A. & GUÉGUEN, N. (2005). Foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face : A comparative Meta-analytic study. Psychological Reports, 96 (1), 122-128. [PDF]
DILLARD, J.P., HUNTER, J.E. & BURGOON, M. (1984). Sequential-request persuasive strategies : Meta-analysis of foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face. Human Communication Research, 10, 461-488. MITCHELL-TURNER, M., TAMBORINI, R., LIMON, M.S. & ZUCKREMAN-HYMAN, C. (2007). The moderators and mediators of door-in-the-face requests : Is it a negotiation or a helping experience ? Communication Monographs, 74 (3), 333-356. [PDF]
GOLDMAN, M., McVEIGH, J.F. & RICHTERKESSING, J.L. (1984). Door-in-the-face procedure : Reciprocal concession, perceptual contrast, or worthy person. Journal of Social Psychology, 123, 245-251. EBSTER C. & NEUMAYR, B. (2008). Applying the door-in-the-face compliance technique to retailing. The International Review of Retail, Distribution & Consumer Research, 18 (1), 121-128.
OLDMAN, M. (1986). Compliance employing a combined foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face procedure. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 111-116. GUÉGUEN, N. & JACOB, C. MEINERI, S. (2011). Effects of the door-in-the-face technique on restaurant customers' behavior. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 30, 759-761. [PDF]
FEELEY, T.H., ANKER, A.E. & LOE, A.M. (2012). The door-in- the-face persuasive message strategy : A meta-analysis of the first 35 years. Communication Monographs, 79, 316-343.
Voir aussi Technique de persuasion
Technique de mise en marché : Voir Mise en marché.
Technique de modification du comportement : Voir Comportement ou Changement de comportement.
Technique de persuasion : Voir Persuasion.

Techniques de persuasion
Technique de la porte-dans-la-face Technique du low-ball Technique du pied-dans-la-porte
Technique du leurre Technique du pied-dans-la-bouche  
 
Technique de recherche : Manière systématique et formelle de collecter les données d'une recherche empirique.

 
Technique de relaxation : Voir Relaxation.
Techniques de tri qualitatif : Test projectif d'évaluation du point de vue d'un sujet, de ses opinions, inventée par Stephenson. Le sujet doit choisir à partir d'une liste d'énoncés décrivant des traits, des comportements ou des attitudes celles qui lui semblent le mieux correspondre à ses opinions, à son point de vue. Q-sort method.
  STEPHENSON, W. (1935). Technique of factor analysis. Nature, 136, 297.
STEPHENSON, W. (1953). The study of behavior : Q-technique and its methodology. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
STEPHENSON, W. (1982). Q-methodology, interbehavioral psychology, and quantum theory. Psychological Record, 32, 235-248.
STEPHENSON, W. (1987). Q-methodology : Interbehavioral and quantum theoretical connections in clinical psychology. In D.H. Ruben & D.J. Delprato (Eds.), New ideas in therapy (pp. 95-106). Westport, CT : Greenwood.
Voir aussi Stephenson
Technique du leurre : Technique de persuasion fondée sur l'engagement. = stratégie du leurre.

  GUÉGUEN, N. & JACOB, C. (2008). La technique du leurre en situation d'achat : impact du renforcement d'une décision sur le renoncement. La Revue des Sciences de Gestion - direction et gestion des entreprises, 234, 115-120. [PDF]
Voir aussi Technique de persuasion
Technique du low-ball : Technique de persuasion fondée sur l'engagement. = stratégie du low-ball. Low-ball procedure.

  CIALDINI, R.B. & CACIOPPO, J., BASSET, R. & MILLER, B.L. (1978). Low-ball procedure for producing compliance : Commitment then cost. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 36, 599-604. [PDF]
POLLOCK, C.L., SMITH, S.D., KNOWLES, E.S. & BRUCE, H.J. (1998). Mindfulness limits compliance with the that's-not-all technique. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, 1153-1 157.
BURGER, J.M. REED, M., DECESARE, K., RAUNER, S. & ROZOLIS, J. (1999). The effects of initial request size on compliance : More about the that's-not-all technique. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 21,243-249. [PDF]
GUÉGUEN, N., PASCUAL A. & DAGOT L. (2002). The low-ball technique : An application in a field setting. Psychological Reports, 91, 81-84. [PDF]
BURGER, J.M. & CORNELIUS, T. (2003). Raising the price of agreement : public commitment and the low-ball compliance procedure. J. Appl. Soc. Psychol [PDF]
Voir aussi Technique de persuasion
Technique du pied-dans-la-bouche : Technique de persuasion. Foot-in-the-mouth.

  AUNE, R.K. & ASIL. M.D. (1994). A relational obligations approach to the foot-in-the-mouth effect. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 546-556.
MEINERI, S. & GUÉGUEN, N. (2011). I hope I don't disturb you, Am I ? Another operationalization of the foot-in-the-mouth paradigm. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 41 (4), 965-975. [PDF]
   
Voir aussi Technique de persuasion
Technique du pied-dans-la-porte : Technique de persuasion en deux temps qui consiste d'abord à faire une demande à autrui peu exigente ou une offre-que-l'on-ne-peut-refuser, sachant qu'elle sera d'emblé acceptée, puis de revenir à la charge avec une offre ou une demande beaucoup plus importante, qui en temps normal n'aurait probablement pas été accepté. Technique du pied-dans-la-porte et persuasion. = stratégie du pied-dans-la-porte, le pied-dans-la-porte. FITD, foot-in-the-door technique, foot-in-the-door technique.
  FREEDMAN, J.L. & FRASER, S.C. (1966). Compliance without pressure : The foot-in-the-door technique. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 4, 196-202. DILLARD, J. (1990). Self-inference and the foot-in-the-door technique : Quantity of behavior and attitudinal mediation. Human Communication Research, 16, 422-447.
BEAMAN, A.L., SVANUM, S., MANLOVE, S. & HAMPTON, C. (1974). An attribution theory explanation of the foot-in-the-door effect. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 1, 122-123. DILLARD, J.P. & HALE, J.L. (1992). Prosocialness and sequential request compliance techniques : Limits to the foot-in-the-door and the door-in-the-face ? Communication Studies, 43, 220-232.
CANN, A., SHERMAN, S.J. & ELKES, R. (1975). Effects of initial request size and timing of a second request on compliance : The foot in the door and the door in the face. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 32, 774-782. GORASSINI, D. & OLSON, J. (1995). Does self-perception change explain the foot-in-the door effect ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 69, 91-105. [PDF]
ZUCKERMAN, M., AZZARO, M. & WALDGEIR, D. (1979). Undermining effects of the foot-in-the-door technique with extrinsic rewards. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 9, 292-296. DOLIN, D.J. & BOOTH-BUTTERFIELD, S. (1995). Foot-in-the-door and cancer prevention. Health Communication, 7 (1), 55.
GROVES, R.M. & MAGILAVY, L. (1981). Increasing response rates to telephone surveys : A door in the face for foot in the door ? Public Opinion Quarterly, 45 (3), 346-358. BURGER, J.M. (1999). The foot-in-the-door compliance procedure : A multiple-process analysis and review. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 3, 303-325. [PDF]
  CHIN, M.L., BOND, J.R. & GEVA, N. (2000). A foot in the door : An experimental study of PAC and constituency effects on access. The Journal of Politics, 6 (2), 534-549.
BEAMAN, A.L., COLE, M., PRESTON, M., LENTZ, B. & MEHRKENS-STEBLAY, N. (1983). Fifteen years of foot-in-the-door research : A meta-analysis. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 9, 181-196. GUÉGUEN, N. & JACOB, C. (2001). Fund raising on the Web : The effect of the electronic foot-in-the-door on prosocial request. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 4 (6), 705-709. [PDF]
DILLARD, J., HUNTER, J. & BURGOON, M. (1984). Sequential request persuasive strategies : Meta-analysis of foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face. Human Communication Research, 10, 461-488. GUÉGUEN, N. (2002). Foot-in-the-door and computer-mediated communication. Computers in Human Behavior, 18 (1), 11-15. [PDF]
OLDMAN, M. (1986). Compliance employing a combined foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face procedure. Journal of Social Psychology, 126, 111-116. BURGER, J.M. & CALDWELL, D.F. (2003). The effects of monetary incentives and labeling on the foot-in-the-door effect : Evidence for a self-perception process. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 25 (3), 235.
JOULE, R.-V. (1987). Le pied-dans-la-porte: Un paradigme à la recherche d'une théorie. Psychologie Française, 32, 301-306. PASCUAL, A. & GUÉGUEN, N. (2005). Foot-in-the-door and door-in-the-face : A comparative meta-analytic study. Psychological Reports, 96 (1), 122. [PDF]
JOULE, R.-V. (1987). Tobacco deprivation: The foot-in-the-door technique versus the lowball technique. European Journal of Social Psychology, 17, 361-365. GRIFFITHS, M. (2010). Online gambling, social responsibility and 'foot-in-the-door' techniques. i-Gaming Business, 62, 100-101. [PDF]
VREDENBURG, H. & MARSHALL, J. (1988). Extending the external validity of the FITD effect to the industrial marketplace. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16 (2), 49-56. GUÉGUEN, N., MEINERI, S., GRANDJEAN, I. & MARTIN, A. (2010). The combined effect of the Foot-in-the-Door technique and the "But you are free of technique" : An evaluation on the selective sorting of household wastes. EcoPsychology, 2 (4), 231-237. [PDF]
Voir aussi Technique de persuasion
Technique pédagogique : Voir Enseigner.
Technique thérapeutique : Désigne une façon particulière d'aider et de guérir un patient/client. En principe, une thérapie est un ensemble de techniques qui reposent sur des principes et des données scientifiques (qui expliquent l'efficacité de ces techniques) et l'exercice de ces techniques en conditions réelles (pratique).

  Voir aussi Thérapie
Technique thérapeutique directive : Ensemble des techniques utilisées par la plupart des psychologues, sauf les humanistes, techniques qui, comme le nom l'indique, tentent d'amener systématiquement le client/patient vers un but précis (révéler son inconscient, modifier ses comportements, prendre conscience de ses erreurs de raisonnement (biais), accepter son sort, etc.). La plupart des humanistes préconisent plutôt des techniques qui permettent au client de trouver sa voie, de fixer ses propres objectifs, reléguant ainsi le thérapeute à un rôle d'accompagnateur ou de simple guide (plutôt qu'un expert).

 
Technique thérapeutique non-directive : Ensemble des techniques utilisées par les humanistes, techniques qui, comme le nom l'indique, ne tente pas d'amener systématiquement le client vers un but précis (révéler son inconscient, modifier ses comportements, prendre conscience de ses erreurs de raisonnement, etc.), mais plutôt de favoriser un climat d'échange qui encourage le client à parler de lui, de ses expériences. = orientation non directive. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous.

Techniques thérapeutiques non-directives
Écoute active Clarification Reflet
Empathie Reformulation  
 
 

  PAGES, M. (1965). L'orientation non directive en psychothérapie et en psychologie sociale. Paris : Dunod.
Technique projective : Voir Test projectif.
Technologie/Technologue : Toute discipline qui a pour but de de modifier les propriétés de son objet d'étude au moyen de techniques dont l'efficacité a été éprouvée scientifiquement (du moins en principe...). En psychologie, ces techniques se nomment thérapie. La psychologie clinique est donc une technologie car son but premier est d'aider et de guérir un patient/client/malade, donc de modifier les états psychologiques de cet individu, et non de décrire et d'expliquer ces états comme le fait la science. En principe, science et technologie travaillent en étroite collaboration : la pratique d'une technologie repose donc sur des connaissances acquises par la science (en grande partie mais non exclusivement); en retour, les praticiens des technologies communiquent à la science leurs observations cliniques et leurs interrogations, qui guident la science vers de nouveaux problèmes et contribuent à la découverte de nouvelles connaissances/solutions. EX: La médecine, le génie, la psychologie clinique. Le technologue est donc un rofessionnel qui utilise les connaissances développées par la science pour résoudre des problèmes concrets. EX: Guérir une dépression, un mal de ventre, construire un pont, analyser la qualité de l'eau, modifier le comportement d'un enfant hyperactif, etc. Science et technologie. = techniques scientifiques, thérapeutes, cliniciens. *science appliquée. Technology, practice.

Psychologie scientifique (= Science)
   
   
Psychologie clinique ( = Technologie)

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  MORRIS, E.K. (1991). Deconstructing "technological to a fault". Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24 (3), 411-416. [PDF]
SKINNER, B.F. (1968). The technology of teaching. New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts. LATOUR, B. (1992). Aramis ou l'amour des techniques. Paris : La Découverte.
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  LERMAN, D.C. & IWATA, B.A. (1996). Developing a technology for the use of operant extinction in clinical settings : an examination of basic and applied research. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 29 (3), 345-3821/383-5. [PDF]
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Technologie de l'information et de la communication (TIC) : Expression qui désigne l'ensemble des technologies - principalement l'ordinateur et ses logiciels - qui favorisent l'apprentissage et la transmission des connaissances, à l'école, en entreprise ou à distance. TIC, tutoriel et enseignement assisté par ordinateur. = NTIC, TIC, TICE, IT, multimedia. E-Learning, ICT, educationnal technology, new technology, multimedia learning, information technology in school.
TIC
Baladodiffusion Ordinateur Télévision éducative
Blogue PowerPoint Télévoteur
Classe multimedia Site pédagogique Tutoriel
Cliqueur électronique Tableau blanc Vidéo
Logiciel Tablette tactile Wiki
 
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BASQUE, J. & LUNDGREN-CAYROL, K. (2002). Une typologie des typologies des applications des TIC en éducation. Sciences et Techniques Éducatives, 9 (3-4), 263-289. BERK, R.A. (2011). Research on PowerPoint®: From basic features to multimedia. International Journal of Technology in Teaching & Learning, 7 (1), 24-35. [PDF]
FREY, B. & BIRNAUM, P. (2002). Learners' perceptions on the use of PowerPoint in lectures. Computers & Education, 41, 72-86. DAVIDSON, A.-L. & DESJARDINS, F. (2011). Vers l'identification d'une relation entre les représentations de la pédagogie et de l'usage des TIC chez des formateurs d'enseignants. Revue Canadienne de l'Éducation, 34 (3), 47-67. [PDF]
KARSENTI, T., LEPAGE M. & GERVAIS, C. (2002). @ccompagnement des stagiaires à l'ère des TIC : forum électronique ou groupe de discussion ? Formation et Profession, 8 (2), 7-12.  
MAYER, J.D. & MORENO, R. (2003). Nine ways to reduce cognitive load in multimedia learning. Educational Psychologist, 38, 43-52.  
WANG, F. & REEVES, T.C. (2003). Why do teachers need to use technology in their classrooms? Issues, problems, and solutions. Computers in the Schools, 20 (4), 49-65.  
KARSENTI, T. (2003). Plus captivantes qu'un tableau noir : L'impact des nouvelles technologies sur la motivation à l'école. Revue de la Fédération Suisse des Psychologues, 6, 24-29. LIVINGTSONE, S. (2012). Critical reflections on the benefits of ICT in education. Oxford Review of Education, 38 (1), 9-24
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POIRIER, C.R. & FELDMAN, R.S. (2004). Teaching in cyberspace : Online versus traditional instruction using a waiting-list experimental design. Teaching of Psychology, 31 (1), 59-61.  
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KALYUGA, S., CHANDLER, P. & SWELLER, J. (2004). When redundant on-screen text in multimedia technical instruction can interfere with learning. Human Factors : The Journal of the Human Factors & Ergonomics Society, 46 (3), 567-584. [PDF] COLLIN, S.S. et KARSENTI, T. (2013). Usages des technologies en éducation : analyse des enjeux socioculturels. Éducation et Francophonie, 41 (1), 192-210. [PDF]
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SCHULT, C.A. & McINTSOH, J.L. (2004). Employing computer-administered exams in general psychology : student anxiety and expectations. Teaching of Psychology, 31 (3), 209-211. CABOT, I. & LÉVESQUE, M.C. (2014). Avec les TIC, ça clique! : Stimuler l'intérêt des collégiens par l'intégration des TIC en classe. Pédagogie Collégiale, 28 (1), 18-23. [PDF]
CYPHERT, D. (2004). The problem of Powerpoint : Visual aid or visual rhetoric ? Business Communication Quarterly, 67, 80-84.  
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Voir aussi Ordinateur, Enseignement à distance, Logiciel, Cliqueur électronique et Tablette tactile
 
Technostructure/Technocrate : Chez Galbraith, concept selon lequel les individus qui prennent les décisions au sein des entreprises appartiennent de moins en moins à la classe des détenteurs de capitaux - les propriétaires ou les actionnaires - mais plutôt à une nouvelle catégorie d'acteurs qui se distinguent par ses connaissances technologiques et scientifiques - les gestionnaires (ou technocrates) - qui forment cette technostructure.

 
Tectum : Partie sous-corticale du cerveau, plus précisément du mésencéphale.

  CARPENTER, M.B. & SUTIN, J. (1983). Human neuroanatomy. Londres : Williams & Wilkins.
Ted : Site pédagogique qui offre des conférences internet sur divers thèmes, notamment les sciences et les technologies. Technology, Entertainment and Design.
 
Tegmentum : Partie sous-corticale du cerveau, plus précisément du mésencéphale. Il s'agit d'un réseau de neurones multisynaptique situé dans le tronc cérébral. Elle contient la substance noire (ou substentia nigra) et le noyau rouge, qui sont contribue à la posture du corps, à son maintien, ainsi qu'aux mouvements volontaires.

  CARPENTER, M.B. & SUTIN, J. (1983). Human neuroanatomy. Londres : Williams & Wilkins.
Teigen Karl Havlen ( ) : Psychologue norvégien et spécialiste de l'étude de la perception du hasard et de la chance.
TEIGEN, K.H. (1995). How good is good luck ? : The role of counterfactual thinking in the perception of lucky and unlucky events. European Journal of Social Psychology, 25, 281-302.
TEIGEN, K.H. (1996). Luck : The art of a near miss. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 37, 156-171.
TEIGEN, K.H. (1997). Luck, envy, gratitude : It could have been different. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38, 318-323.
TEIGEN, K.H. (1998). Hazards mean luck : Counterfactual thinking and perceptions of good and bad fortune in reports of dangerous situations and careless behaviour. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 39, 235-248.
TEIGEN, K.H. & KEREN, G. (2003). Surprises : low probabilities or high contrasts ? Cognition, 87, 55-71.
Teilhard de Chardin Pierre (Sarcenat France 1881-1955 New-York) : Paléontologiste, géologue et philosophe français.
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, P. (1955). Le phénomène humain. Paris : Éditions du Seuil.
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, P. (1956). Le groupe zoologique Humain. Paris : Éditions Albin Michel.
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, P. (1957). Le milieu divin. Paris : Éditions du Seuil.
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, P. (1959). L'Avenir de l'Homme. Paris : Éditions du Seuil.
TEILHARD DE CHARDIN, P. (1973). Man's place in nature. New York : Harper & Row.
TEIMS (Tendance de l'Enquête International en Mathématiques et en Science) : Vaste enquête menée à l'échelle internationale tout les quatre ans depuis 1995 sur le rendement des élèves de 4e année/2e secondaire en mathématiques et en sciences. Ce programme est une initiative de l'Association internationale pour l'évaluation du rendement scolaire (AIE).
  Voir aussi TEIMS et PISA
Télé : Préfixe qui signifie «à distance».

Télé
Téléologie Téléphone Télévision pour enfants
Téléonomie Télétravail Télévoteur
Télépathie Télévision Téluq
 
Téléologie : /téléonomie Teleology, teleological explanation.


  ROSENBLUETH, A., WIENER, N. & BIGELOW, J. (1943). Behavior, purpose and teleology. Philosophy of Science, 10, 18-24. [PDF] WRIGHT, L. (1976). Teleological explanation. Berkeley : University of California Press.
 CANFIELD, J. (1964). Teleological explanation in biology. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 14 (56), 285-295. WRIGHT, L. (1977). Teleology. International Studies in Philosophy, 9, 187-189.
WRIGHT, L. (1968). The case against teleological reductionism. The British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 19, 211-223. NAGEL, E. (1979). Teleology revisited and other essays in the philosophy and history of science. New York : Columbia University Press.
 AYALA, F.J. (1970). Teleological explanations in evolutionary biology. Philosophy of Science, 37, 1-15. RACHLIN, H. (1992). Teleological behaviorism. American Psychologist, 47, 1371-1382.
WRIGHT, L. (1972). Explanation and teleology. Philosophy of Science, 39 (2), 204-218. REESE. H.W. (1994). Teleology and teleonomy in behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 17 (1), 75-91. [PDF]
  STOUT, R. (1996). Things that happen because they should : A teleological approach to action. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
  RACHLIN, H. (1999). Philosophical behaviorism : a review of things that happen because they should : a teleological approach to action, by Rowland Stout. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 72 (2), 273-277. [PDF]
WOODFIELD, A. (1976). Teleology. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press. CUMMINS, R. (2002). Neo-teleology. In A. Ariew, R. Cummins, and M. Perlman (Eds.), Functions : New essays in the philosophy of psychology and biology (pp. 157-173). Oxford : Oxford University Press. [PDF]
  GERGELY, G. & CSIBRA, G. (2003). Teleological reasoning about actions : The one-year-old's naïve theory of rational action. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (7), 287-292. [PDF]
Voir aussi Téléonomie
Téléonomie : Du grec telos, qui signifie "but" et nomos, qui veut dure "loi". /Teléologie. Telonomy.

  ALLPORT, F.H. (1937). Teleonomic description in the study of personality. Character & Personality, 5, 202-214.
MONOD, J. (1970). Le hasard et la nécessité. Paris : Seuil. /Chance and necesity : An essay on the natural philosophy of modern biology. NewYork : VintageBooks.
REESE. H.W. (1994). Teleology and teleonomy in behavior analysis. The Behavior Analyst, 17 (1), 75-91. [PDF]
Voir aussi Teléologie
 
Télépathie : Du grec tele qui signifie "à distance" pathos qui signifie «être touché par, être affecté». Forme de perception extra-sensorielle. Il s'agit en fait d'une croyance, donc d'un pseudophénomène qui consisterait en la capacité de communiquer à distance, par la pensée, sans la parole. Télépathie, perception extra-sensorielle et parapsychologie. Telepathy.
  ROHEIM, G. (1932). Telepathy in a dream. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 1, 277-291. ULLMAN, M., KRIPPNER, S. & VAUGHAN, A. (1973). Dream telepathy : Experiments in nocturnal ESP. Jefferson, NC : McFarland.
ELLIS, A. (1947). Telepathy and psychoanalysis : a critique of recent findings. Psychiatric Quarterly, 21, 607-659. MEEHL, P.E. (1978). Precognitive telepathy I : On the possibility of distinguishing it experimentally from psychokinesis. Noüs, 12, 235-266.
SOAL, S.G. & BATEMAN, F. (1954). Modern experiments in telepathy. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press. MEEHL, P.E. (1978). Precognitive telepathy II : Some neurophysiological conjectures and metaphysical speculations. Noûs, 12, 371-395.
HANSEL, C.E.M. (1959). Experiments on telepathy. New Scientist, 5, 457-459.  
HANSEL, C.E.M. (1960). Experiments on Telepathy. British Journal of Statistical Psychology, 13, 175-178.  
ULLMAN, M. (1969). Telepathy and dreams. Experimental Medicine & Surgery, 27, 19-38. HACKING, I. (1988). Telepathy : Origins of randomization in experimental design. Isis, 79 (S), 427-451.
KRIPPNER, S. & ULLMAN, M. (1970). Telepathy and dreams : Controlled experiment with electroencephalogram-electro-oculogram monitoring. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 151, 394-403.  
Voir Parapsychologie et Perception extra-sensorielle
Téléphone : Le téléphone est à la fois : a) un objet d'étude, surtout en ce qui concerne ses effets négatifs sur l'attention, notamment en classe, au volant d'une voiture (comportement nuisible et distraction) ou lors d'une conversation (décrochage). Dans certains cas, où l'usage nuit à la vie sociale et au travail , on parle même de dépendance. = Téléphone dit "intelligent". Telephone, cell phone, mobile, mobile phone, smart phone. b) il s'agit également d'un procédé de collecte de données à distance dans le cadre d'une enquête. Telephone survey. c) Le téléphone est aussi utilisé pour conduire des thérapies à distance surtout lorsque qu'il s'agit de problèmes mineurs ou passagers. Telephone-administered therapy.

  a
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Voir Dépendance, Tricherie, Multitâche, Distraction, Capital social, Réseau social, Classe et Conduite automobile
b
SUDMAN, S. (1973). The uses of telephone directories for survey sampling. Journal of Marketing Research, 10, 204-207. DILLMAN, D.A. (1978). Mail and telephone surveys : The total design method. New York : John Wiley & Sons.
  Voir aussi Enquête par téléléphone et Sondage
c
MOHR, D.C., HART, S., JULIAN, L., CATLEDGE, C., HONOS-WEBB, L., VELLA, L. & TASCH, E.T. (2005). Telephone-administered psychotherapy for depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 1007-1014. [PDF] MOHR, D.C., HO, J., DUFFECY, J., REIFLER, D., SOKOL, L., BURNS, M.N., JIN, L. & SIDDIQUE, J. (2012). Effect of telephone-administered vs face-to-face cognitive behavioral therapy on adherence to therapy and depression outcomes among primary care patients : A randomized trial. Journal of American Medical Association, 307 (21), 2278-2285. [PDF]
Voir aussi Thérapie par téléphone
Téléphone dit "intelligent" : Voir Téléphone. Smart phone, cell phone.
Télévision : Média d'information et de divertissement. = TV. Television, small screen.
Télévision
Télévision (Général) Télévision + Violence Télévision éducative
Télévision + Jeunes/Ados    
 

 
 
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Voir aussi Publicité et Représentation de la violence
Télévision (pour enfants + adolescents) : Média d'éducation et de divertissement qui s'adresse plus particulièrement aux enfants. = TV. Childhood television.
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VALKENBURG, P.M. & VAN DER VOORT, T.H. (1994). Influence of TV on daydreaming and creative imagination : A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 316-339. WATT, E., FITZPATRICK, C., DEREVENSKY, J.L. & PAGANI, L.S. (2015). Too much television ? Prospective associations between early childhood televiewing and later self-reports of victimization by sixth grade classmates. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral, Pediatrics, 36, 426-433.
Voir aussi Représentation de la violence, Publicité, Enfant et Télévision
 
Télévision (Violence à la...) : Voir Violence.
Télévision éducative : Télévision dont l'objectif est de favoriser l'apprentissage de contenu scolaire et de certaines valeurs (tolérance, partage, coopération, etc). Télévision et Éducation.

  BOGATZ G.A. & BALL, S. (1972). The impact of Sesame Street on children's first school experiences. Princeton, NJ : Educational Testing Service.
FRIEDRICH, L.K. & STEIN, A.H. (1975). Prosocial television and young children : The effects of verbal labeling and role playing on learning and behavior. Child Development, 46, 27-38.
COOK, T.D., APPLETON, H., CONNOR, R. & SCHAFFER, A. (1975). Sesame Street revisited : A case study in evaluation research. New York : Russell Sage.
SINGER, D.G., ZUCKERMAN, D.M. & SINGER, J.L. (1980). Helping elementary school children learn about T.V. Journal of Communication, 30, 166-174.
WEAVER, J., ZILLMAN, D. & BRYANT, J. (1988). Effects of humorous distortions on children's learning from educational television : Further evidence. Communication Education, 37, 181-187.
ANDERMAN, E.M. & JOHNSTON, J. (1998). TV news in the classroom : What are adolescents learning ? Journal of Adolescent Research, 13, 73-100.
WEAVER, J. (2013). Sesame Street provides lessons about natural brain development in children. PLoS Biology, 11 (1), e1001463. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001463 [PDF]
Voir aussi Télévision et Éducation
Télévoteur : Manette électronique couplée à un ordinateur qui permet aux individus d'un groupe de répondre individuellement à des questions, et de compiler le résultat de ces réponses. En classe, les enseignants/professeurs se servent de ce petit gadget pour animer leur enseignement, favoriser la participation élèves/étudiants, vérifier leur mémoire à court terme et leur compréhension d'une explication ou d'un segement de matière et connaître leurs opinions. Télévoteur et technologie de l'information et de la communication (TIC). = Cliqueur électronique. *cliqueur. Clicker, voting machine, electronic quizz system, student response systems (SRS), audience response system, electronic-keypad responses, personal response system in the classroom, electronic audience response system.
  ELLIOT, C. (2003). Using a personal response system in economics teaching. International Review of Economics Education, 1(1), 80-86. MOLLBORN, S. & HOEKSTRA, A. (2010). A meeting of minds : Using Clickers from critical thinking and discussion in large sociology classes. Teaching Sociology, 38 (1), 18-27.
WOOD, W.B. (2004). Clickers : a teaching gimmick that works. Developmental Cell, 7 (6), 796-798. [PDF] LANTZ, M.E. (2010). The use of "clickers" in the classroom : Teaching innovation or merely an amusing novelty ? Computers in Human Behavior, 26, 556-561.
BEATTY, I. (2004). Transforming student learning with classroom communication systems. Educause Research Bulletin, 3, 1-13. [PDF]  
DRAPER, S.W. & BROWN, M.I. (2004). Increasing interac- tivity in lectures using an electronic voting system. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 20, 81-94. SPRAGUE, E.W. & DAHL, D.W. (2010). Learning to click : An evaluation of the personal response system clicker technology in introductory marketing courses. Journal of Marketing Education, 32 (1), 93-103.
JOHNSON, D. & McLEOD, S. (2004). Get answers : Using student response systems to see students' thinking. Learning & Leading with Technology, 32 (4),  
DUNCAN, D. (2005). Clickers in the classroom : How to enhance science teaching using classroom response systems. San Francisco : Pearson Education PATTERSON, B., KILPATRICK, J. & WOEBKENBERG, E. (2010). Evidence for teaching practice : The impact of clickers in a large classroom environment. Nurse Education Today, 30, 603-607.
REAY, N.W., BAO, L., PENGFEI, L., WARNAKULASOORIYA, R. & BOUGH, G. (2005). Toward an effective use of voting machines in physics lectures. American Journal of Physics, 73 (6), 554-558. [PDF] STOWELL, J.R., OLDHAM, T. & BENNETT, D. (2010). Using student response systems ("clickers") to combat conformity and shyness.Teaching of Psychology, 37, 135-140.
FIES, C. & MARSHALL, J. (2005). Electronic response systems in classrooms. American Association of Physics Teachers : Announcer, 34 (4), 111. WOLTER, B., LUNDEBERG, M., KANG, H. & HERRIED, C. (2011). Students' perceptions of using personal response systems "clickers" with cases in science. Journal of College of Science Teaching, 4 (40), 14-19. [PDF]
KENNEDY, G.E. & CUTTS, Q.I. (2005). The association between students' use of an electronic voting system and their learning outcomes. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 21, 260-268. ELICKER, J.D. & McCONNELL, N.L. (2011). Interactive learning in the classroom : Is student response method related to performance ? Teaching of Psychology, 38, 147-150.
EL-RADY, J. (2006). To click or not to click: That's the question. Innovate 2 (4), 1-5.  
FIES, C. & MARSHALL, J. (2006). Classroom response systems: A review of the literature. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 15(1), 101-109. RUSSELL, J. S., MCWILLIAMS, M., CHASEN, L. & FARLEY, J. (2011). Using clickers for clinical reasoning and problem solving. Nurse educator, 36 (1), 13-15.
HOFFMAN, C. & GOODWIN, S. (2006). A clicker for your thoughts : Technology for active learning. New Library World, 107 (9/10), 422-433. WHITE, P., SYNCOX, D. & ALTERS, B. (2011). Clicking for grades ? Really ? Investigating the use of clickers for awarding grade-points in post-secondary education. Interactive Learning Environments, 19, 551-561.
DUNCAN, D. (2006). Clickers in the astronomy classroom. New York : Pearson/Addison-Wesley. ROBINSON, W. & SEVIAN, H. (2011). Clickers promote learning in all kinds of classes - small and large, graduate and undergraduate, lecture and lab. Journal of College of Science Teaching, 4 (40), 14-18.
BEATTY, I.D., GERACE, W.J., LEONARD, W.J. & DUFRESNE, R.J. (2006). Designing effective questions for classroom response system teaching. American Journal of Physics, 74, 31-39. FALLON, M. & FPRREST, S.L. (2011). High-tech versus low-tech instructional strategies : A comparison of clickers and handheld response cards. Teaching of Psychology, 38, 194-198.
DUNCAN, D. (2006). Clickers : A new teaching aid with exceptional promise. Astronomy Education Review, 5 (1), 70-88. [PDF] DALLAIRE, D.H. (2011). Effective use of personal response "clicker" systems in psychology courses. Teaching of Psychology, 38, 199-204.
HERREID, C.F. (2006). "Clicker" cases : Introducing case study teaching in large classrooms. Journal of College Science Teaching, 36 (2), 43-47. ANTHIS, K. (2011). Is it the clicker, or is it the question? Untangling the effects of student response system use. Teaching of Psychology, 38, 189-193.
LABRIE, J., EARLEYWINE, M., LAMB, T. & SHELESKY, K. (2006). Comparing electronic-keypad responses to paper-and-pencil questionnaires in group assessments of alcohol consumption and related attitudes. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 2334-2338. [PDF] GACHAGO, D., MORRIS, A. & SIMON, E. (2011). Engagement levels in a graphic design clicker class : Students' perceptions around attention, participation and peer Learning. Journal of Information Technology Education, 10, 253-268. [PDF]
BEEKES, W. (2006). The "millionaire" method for encouraging participation. Active Learning in Higher Education 7 (1), 25-36. [PDF] BARTSCH, R.A. & MURPHY, W. (2011). Examining the effects of an electronic classroom response system on student engagement and performance. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 44, 25-33.
PRATHER, E.E., SLATER, T.F., BRISSENDEN, G. & DOKTER, E.F. (2006). To click or not to click is not the question : How research with clickers develops a better understanding of when learning happens in your classroom. Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 38, 948. PREIS, M.W., KELLAR, G.M. & CORSBY, E. (2011). Student acceptance of clickers in large introductory business classes. American Journal of Business Education, 4, 1-14.
LOWERY, R.C. (2006). Clickers in the classroom: A comparison of interactive student-response keypad systems. National Social Science Association, 1-22. ANDERSON, L.S., HEALY, A.F., KOLE, J.A. & BOURNE, L.E. (2011). Conserving time in the classroom : The clicker technique. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Experimental Psychology, 64, 1457-1462.
STOWELL, J. & NELSON, J. (2007). Benefits of electronic audience response systems on student participation, learning, and emotion. Teaching of Psychology, 34, 253-258. POWELL, S., STARUB, C., RODRIGUEZ, J. & VAN HORN, B. (2011). Using clickers in large college psychology classes : Academic achievement and perceptions. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 11 (4), 1-11. [PDF]
POIRIER, C.R. & FELDMAN, R.S. (2007). Promoting active learning using individual response technology in large introductory psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 34, 194-196. BOJINOVA, E.D. & OIGARA, J.N. (2011). Teaching and learning with clickers : Are clickers good for students? Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning & Learning Objects, 7, [PDF]
TREES, A. & JACKSON, M. (2007). The learning environment in clicker classrooms : Student processes of learning and involvement in large university-level courses using student response systems. Learning, Media & Technology 32 (1), 21-40. KEOUGH, S.M. (2012). Clickers in the classroom : A review and a replication. Journal of Management Education, 36, 822-847.
CALDWELL, J.E. (2007). Clickers in the large classroom : Current research and best-practice tips. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6 (1), 9-20. [PDF] SHAPIRO, A.M. & GORDON, L.T. (2012). A controlled study of clicker-assisted memory enhancement in college classrooms. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26, 635-643. [PDF]
BARBER, M. & NJUS, D. (2007). Clicker evolution : seeking intelligent design. CBE Life Sciences Education, 6 (1), 1-8. HOEKSTRA, A. & MOLLBORN, S. (2012). How clicker use facilitates existing pedagogical practices in higher education: Data from interdisciplinary research on student response systems. Learning, Media & Technology, 33, 329-341.
LANGLEY, M.M., CLEARY, A.M. & KOSTIC, B.N. (2007). On the use of wireless response systems in experimental psychology : Implications for the behavioral researcher. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 816-823. LI, P. & LAMBRIGHT, J. (2012). Using clickers in physics lectures with predominant minority students. R.E.A.L. Education, 3 (01), [PDF]
SIMPSON, V. & OLIVER, M. (2007). Electronic voting systems for lectures then and now : A comparison of research and practice. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 23, 187-208.  
MARTYN, M. (2007). Clickers in the classroom : An active learning approach. Educause Quarterly, 2, 71-74. ROTH, K.A. (2012). Assessing clicker examples versus board examples in calculus. Primus, 22, 353-364.
RIBBENS, E. (2007). Why I like clicker personal response systems. Journal of College Science Teaching, 37, 60-62.  
RUDOLPH, A. (2007). Interactive learning and "clickers". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, 38, 949. KANG, H., LUNDEBERG, M., WOLTER, B., DELMAS, R. & HERREID, C.F. (2012). Gender differences in student performance in large lecture classrooms using personal response systems ("clickers") with narrative case studies. Learning, Media & Technology, 37, 53-76.
NELSON, M.L. & HAUCK, R.V. (2008). Clicking to learn : A case study of embedding radio-frequency based clickers in an introductory management information systems course. Journal of Information Systems Education, 19 (1), 55-65. BROUSSARD, B.B. (2012).To click or not to click : Learning to teach to the microwave generation. Nurse Education in Practice, 12 (1), 3-5.
YOURSTONE, S.A., KRAYE, H.S. & ALBAUM, G. (2008), Classroom questioning with immediate electronic response do clickers improve learning. Journal of Innovative Education, 6 (1), 75-88. [PDF] STERNBERGER, C.S. (2012). Interactive learning environment : engaging students using clickers. Nursing Education Perspectives, 33 (2), 121-124.
MORLING, B., MCAULIFFE, M., COHEN, L. & DILORENZO, T. M. (2008). Efficacy of personal response systems ("clickers") in large, introductory psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 45-50. BLASCO-ARCAS, L., BUIL, I., HERNANDEZ-ORTEGA, B. & SESE, F.J. (2013). Using clickers in class : The role of interactivity, active collaborative learning and engagement in learning performance. Computers & Education, 62, 102-110
LASRY, N. (2008). Clickers or flashcards: Is there really a difference? The Physics Teacher, 46, 242-244. [PDF] RICHARDSON, C.T. & O'SHEA, B.W. (2013). Assessing gender differences in response system questions for an introductory physics course. American Journal of Physics, 81, 231
KING, D. & JOSHI, S. (2008). Gender differences in the use and effectiveness of personal response devices. Journal of Science and Education Technology, 17 (6), 544-552. LANDRUM, R.E. (2013). The ubiquitous clicker : SoTL applications for scientist-educators. Teaching of Psychology, 40, 98-103
MORGAN, R.B. (2008). Exploring the pedagogical effectiveness of clickers. Insight : A Journal of Scholarly Teaching, 3, 31-36.  
DEBOURGH, G.A. (2008). Use of classroom "clickers" to promote acquisition of advanced reasoning skills. Nurse Education in Practice, 8 (2), 76-87.  
WIEMAN, C. et al. (2008). Clicker resource guide : An instructors guide to the effective use of personal response systems (clickers) in teaching. Vancouver : University of British Columbia. [PDF]  
LINCOLN, D.J. (2008). Teaching with clickers in the large-size principles of marketing class. Marketing Education Review, 18(1), 39-45. GARVER, M.S. & ROBERTS, B.A. (2013). Flipping and clicking your way to higher-order learning. Marketing Education Review, 23(1), 17- 22.
MACGEORGE, E.L., HOMAN, S.R., DUNNING, J.B., ELMORE, D., BODIE, G.D., EVANS, E. & GEDDES, B. (2008). Student evaluation of audience response technology in large lecture classes. Education Technology Research & Development, 56, 125-145. ANDERSON, L.S., HEALY, A.F., KOLE, J.A. & BOURNE, L.E. (2013). The clicker technique : Cultivating efficient teaching and successful learning. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27, 222-234.
MORLING, B., MCAULIFFE, M., COHEN, L. & DILORENZO, T. M. (2008). Efficacy of personal response systems ("clickers") in large, introductory psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 45-50. [PDF] BRADY, M., SELI, H. & ROSENTHAL, J. (2013). "Clickers" and metacognition : A quasi-experimental comparative study about metacognitive self-regulation and use of electronic feedback devices. Computers & Education, 65, 56-63.
HOEKSTRA, A. (2008). Vibrant student voices : exploring effects of the use of clickers in large college courses. Learning, Media & Technology, 33 (4), 329-341. [PDF] OSWALD, K.M. & RHOTEN, S.E. (2014). Improving classroom clicker practices : Effects of incentives and feedback on retention. North American Journal of Psychology, 16, 79-88.
LASRY, N. (2008). Clickers or flashcards: Is there really a difference ? The Physics Teacher, 46, 242-244.  
CROSSGROVE, K. & CURRAN, K.L (2008). Using clickers in nonmajors- and majors-level biology courses : Student opinion, learning, and long-term retention of course material. CBE Life Sciences Education, 7, 146  
WATKINS, E.P. & SABELLA, M.S. (2008). Examining the effectiveness of clickers on promoting learning by tracking the evolution of student responses. American Institute of Physics. 223-226.  
CLEARY, A.M. (2008). Using wireless response systems to replicate behavioral research findings in the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 35, 42-44. FORTNER-WOOD, C., ARMISTEAD, L., MARCHAND, A. & MORRIS, F.B. (2013). The effects of student response systems on student learning and attitudes in undergraduate psychology courses. Teaching of Psychology, 40, 26-30.
BUGEJA, M. (2008). Classroom clickers and the cost of technology. Chronicle of Higher Education, 55(15), A31.  
CAMEY, J.P., GRAY, G.T. & WERTGRAY, S. (2008). Evaluating the impact of student response systems on student performance. Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education, 13 1-7.  
LASRY, N. (2008). Clickers of flashcards : Is the realy a difference. The Physical Teacher, 46, 242-244. [PDF] + [PDF] SUTHERLIN, A.L., SUTHERLIN, G.R. & AKPANUDO, U.M. (2013). The effect of clickers in university science courses. Journal of Science Education & Technology, 22, 651-666
SHAFFER, D.M. & COLLURA, M.J. (2009). Evaluating the effectiveness of a personal response system in the classroom. Teaching of Psychology, 36, 273-277. KELLY, K.F.G. (2013). Student response systems ("Clickers") in the psychology classroom : A beginner's guide. Office of Teaching Resources in Psychology. [PDF]
PRATHER, E.E. & BRISSENDEN, G. (2009). Clickers as data gathering tools and students' attitudes, motivations, and beliefs on their use in this application. Astronomy Education Review, 8 (1), 1-10. [PDF] OSWALD, K.M., BLAKE, A.B. & SANTIAGO, D.T. (2014). Enhancing immediate retention with clickers through individual response identification. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 28, 438-442.
MAYER, R. E., STULL, A., DELEEUW, K., ALMEROTH, K., BIMBER, B., CHUN, D., BULGER, M., CAMPBELL, J., KNIGHT, A. & ZHANG, H. (2009). Clickers in college classrooms : Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34, 51-57.  
PERKINS, K. & TURPEN, C. (2009). Student perspectives on using clickers in upper division physics courses. American Institute of Physics Conference Proceedings, 225-228.  
SHAPIRO, A.M. (2009). An empirical study of personal response technology for improving attendance and learning in a large class. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 9, 13-26. HEDGCOCK, W.H. & ROUWENHORST, R.M. (2014). Clicking their way to success : Using student response systems as a tool for feedback. Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education, 22 (2), 16-25. [PDF]
KENWRIGHT, K. (2009). Clickers in the classroom. TechTrends, 53 (1), 74-77.  
MAYER, R. E., STULL, A., DELEEUW, K., ALMEROTH, K., BIMBER, B., CHUN, D., BULGER, M., CAMPBELL, J., KNIGHT, A. & ZHANG, H. (2009). Clickers in college classrooms : Fostering learning with questioning methods in large lecture classes. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 34 (1), 51-57.  
MULA J.M. & KAVANAGH, M. (2009). Click go the students, click-click-click : The efficacy of a student response system for engaging students to improve feedback and performance. E-Journal of Business Education & Scholarship of Teaching, 3 (1), 1-17.  
KORTEMEYER, G. (2009). Gender differences in the use of an online homework system in an introductory physics course. Physical Review Physics Education Research, 5, 1-8. [PDF] LANTZ, M.E. & STAWISKI, A. (2014). Effectiveness of clickers : Effect of feedback and the timing of questions on learning. Computers in Human Behavior, 31, 280-286.
SMITH, M.K., WOOD, W.B., ADAMS, W.K., WIEMAN, C., KNIGHT, J.K., GUILD, N. & SU, T.T. (2009). Why peer discussion improves student performance on in-class concept questions. Science 323, 122-124. [PDF]  
PATRY, M. (2009). Clickers in large classes : From student perceptions towards an understanding of best practices. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 3 (2), 1-11. LANDRUM, R.E. (2015). Teacher-Ready Research Review : Clickers. Scholarship of Teaching & Learning in Psychology, 1 (3), 250-254. [PDF]
Voir aussi TIC, Jeu-questionnaire et Question
Tellegen Auke ( ) : Psychométricien américain et spécialiste de l'étude et la mesure de la personnalité, notamment du test du MMPI. Collaborateur de Ben-Porath, Bouchard, Butcher, Lubinski, Lykkenet Watson.
TELLEGEN, A. & ATKINSON, G. (1974). Openness to absorption and self-altering experiences : A trait related to hypnotic susceptibility. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 268-277.
TELLEGEN, A. & LUBINSKI, D. (1983). Some methodological comments on labels, traits, interaction, and types in the study of "femininity" and "masculinity" : Reply to Spence. al of Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 44 (2), 447-455. [PDF]
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TELLEGEN, A., LYKKEN, D.T., BOUCHARD, T.J., WILCOX, K.J., SEGAL, N.L. & RICH, S. (1988). Personality similarity in twins reared apart and together. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54, 1031-1039.
TELLEGEN, A., BEN-PORATH, Y.S. & SELBOM, M. (2009). Construct validity of the MMPI-2- Restructured Clinical (RC) Scales : Reply to Rouse, Greene, Butcher, Nichols, & Williams. Journal of Personality Assessment, 91 (3), 211-221.
Téluq : Université du réseau de l'Université du Québec.
   
TÉMOIN - TEMPÉRAMENT - TEMPS - TERMAN - TERRACE - TERRITOIRE - TERRORISME - TEST - TESTOSTÉRONE - TET - TH
Temas em Psicologia : Revue scientifique. diteur : Sociedade Brasileira de Psicologia.
RACHLIN, H. (2010). Pain and behavior after 25 years. Temas em Psicologia, 18 (2), 425-427. [PDF]

Témoin/Témoignage : Personne présente au moment de la commission d'un crime, d'un accident ou d' un simple incident, et à qui l'on demande de rapporter avec exactitude ce qu'il a vu ou entendu. *passant. Eyewitness, witness, testimony.

  BESTERMAN, T. (1932). The psychology of testimony in relation to paraphysical phenomena : Report of an experiment. Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research, 40, 363-387. KASSIN, S.M., TUBB, V.A., HOSCH, H.M. & MEMON, A. (2001). On the "general acceptance" of eyewitness testimony research : A new survey of the experts. American Psychologist, 56 (5), 405-416. [PDF]
  BEHRMAN, B.W. & DAVEY, S.L. (2001). Eyewitness identification in actual criminal cases : An archival analysis. Law & Human Behavior, 25, 475-491.
ROSENTHAL A.M. (1964). Thirty-eight witnesses. New York : McGraw-Hill. WELLS, G.L. & OLSON, E.A. (2003). Eyewitness testimony. The Annual Review of Psycychology, 54, 277-295.
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  KORIAT, A., GOLDSMITH, M., SCHNEIDER, W. & NAKASH-DURA, M. (2005). The credibility of children's testimony : Can children control the accuracy of their memory reports ? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 79 (4), 405-437.
KASSIN, S.M., ELLSWORTH, P. & SMITH, V. (1989). The "general acceptance" of psychological research on eyewitness testimony : A survey of the experts. American Psychologist, 44 (8), 1089-1098. ALLWOOD, C.M., ASK, K. & GRANHAG, P.A. (2005). The cognitive interview : Effects on the realism in witnesse s' confidence in their free recall. Psychology, Crime & Law, 11, 183-198.
  PETERSON, C. (2007). Reliability of child witnesses: A decade of research. Canadian Journal of Police & Security Services, 5 (3/4), 142-151. [PDF]
  ASK, K. & GRANHAG, P.A. (2007). Motivational bias in criminal investigators' judgments of witness reliability. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 37, 561-591.
CECI, S.J. & BRUCK, M. (1993). Suggestibility of the child witness : A historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 403-439. [PDF] WILCOCK, R., BULL, R. & VRIJ, A. (2007). Are old witnesses always poorer witnesses ? Psychology : Crime & Law, 13, 305-316.
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LOFTUS, E.F. & KETCHAM, K. (1996). Witness for the defense : The accused, the eyewitness and the expert who puts memory on trial. St. Martin's Press. WEBER, N. & PERFECT, T.J. (2012). Improving eyewitness identification accuracy by sreening out those who say they don't know. Law & Human Behavior, 36 (1,) 28-36.
  PERFECT, T.J. & WEBER, N. (2012). How should witnesses regulate the accuracy of their identification decisions : one step forward, two steps back ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 38 (6), 1810-1818.
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Voir aussi Fabuler, Mythomanie et Mensonge
Tempérament : Ensemble des réactions ou comportements innées relativement stables qui modulent l'expression du niveau d'activité, le style d'approche et de réaction à un stimulus ou à une situation donnée. Temperament.
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JAMES, W.T. (1951). Social organization among dogs of different temperaments, terriers and beagles, reared together. Journal of Comparative & Physiological Psychology, 44 (1), 71-77. BRAUNGART, J.M., PLOMIN, R., DEFRIES, J.C. & FULKER, D.W. (1992). Genetic influence on tester-rated infant temperament as assessed by Bayley's Infant Behavior Record : Nonadoptive and adoptive siblings and twins. Developmental Psychology, 28, 40-47.
DIAMOND, S. (1957). Personality and temperament. New York : Harper. AHADI, S.A., ROTHBART, M.K. & YE, R. (1993). Children's Temperament in the U.S. and China : Similarities and differences. European Journal of Personality, 7, 359-378. [PDF]
LINDZEY, G., LYKKEN, D.T. & WINSTON, H. (1960). Infantile trauma, genetic factors, and adult temperament. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 61, 7-14. ROTHBART, M.K., AHADI, S.A. & HERSHEY K.L. (1994). Temperament and social behaviour in childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40 (1), 21-39. [PDF]
BIRNS, B., BARTERN, S. & BRIDGER, W. (1969). Individual differences in temperamental charactenstics of infants Transactions of the New York Academy of Sciences, 31, 1071-1082  
CAREY, W.B. (1970). A simplified method for measuring infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics, 77, 188-194.  
BUSS, A.H. & PLOMIN, R.A. (1975). A temperament theory of personality. New York : Wiley. CLARK, L.A. & WATSON, D. & MINEKA, S. (1994). Temperament, personality, and the mood and anxiety disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 103, 103-116.
ROWE, D.C. & PLOMIN, R. (1977). Temperament in early childhood. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41, 150-156. MARTIN, R.P. (1994). Child temperament and common problems in schooling : Hypotheses about causal connections. Journal of School Psychology, 32, 119-134.
THOMAS, A. & CHESS, S. (1977). Temperament and development. New York : Brunner/Mazel. PICHOT, P. (1995). Histoire du concept de tempérament. Revue Internationales de Psychopathologie, 17, 5-23.
TORGENSEN, A.E. & KNNGLEN, E. (1978). Genetic aspects of temperament differences in infants Joumal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 17, 443-449  
RONALD S. & KING, M. (1978). Existential-phenomenological alternatives for psychology. Oxford U Press. ROTHBART, M.K., AHADI, S.A. & HERSHEY K.L. (1994). Temperament and social behaviour in childhood. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40 (1), 21-39. [PDF]
CAREY, W.B. & McDEVITT, S.C. (1978). Revision of the infant temperament questionnaire. Pediatrics, 61, 735-739. ARCUS, D. & KAGAN, J. (1995). Temperament and craniofacial variation in the first two years. Child Development, 66, 1529-1540.
CAMPBELL, S.B. (1979). Patterns of mother-infant interaction and maternal ratings of temperament. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 10, 67-76. TLEFLEY, H.P. (1998). Temperament : Theory and practice.The American Journal of Psychiatry, 155 (1), 144.
BATES, J. (1980). The concept of difficult temperament. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 26, 299-319.  
VAUGHN B., DEINARD, A. & EGELAND, B. (1980). Measuring temperament in pediatric practice. Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 510-514. ROTHBART, M.K. & JONES, L.B. (1998). Temperament, self-regulation, and education. School Psychology Review, 27 (4), 479-491. [PDF]
VAUGHN, B.E., TARALDSON, B.J., CRICHTON, L. & EGELAND, B. (1981). The assessment of infant temperamentx: A critique of the Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 4, 1-17. TARABULSY, G.M. (Dir.) (1998). Le tempérament de l'enfant : Cinq études, Sainte-Foy : Québec, Presses de l'Université du Québec.
ROTHBART, M.K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52, 569-578. [PDF] KAGAN, J. (1999). La part de l'inné; temperament et nature humaine. Paris : Bayard.
ROTHBART, M.K. (1982). The concept of difficult temperament : A critical analysis of Thomas, Chess & Korn. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 28, 35-40. [PDF] YEN, S. & ISPA, J. (2000). Children's temperament and behavior in Montessori and constructivist early childhood programs. Early Education and Development, 11, 171-186.
WILSON, R.S. & MATHENY, A.P. (1983). Assessment of temperament in infant twins. Developmental Psychology, 19, 172-183. WILLS, T., SANDY, J., YAEGER, A. & SHINER, O. (2001). Family risk factors and adolescent substance use: Moderation effects for temperament dimensions. Developmental Psychology, 37, 283-297.
BUSS, A.H. & PLOMIN, R. (1984). Temperament : Early developing personality traits. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. ROTHBART, M.K. & HWANG, J. (2002). Measuring infant temperament. Infant Behavior & Development, 25 (1), 113-116. [PDF]
ROTHBART, M.K. & GOLDSMITH, H.H. (1985). Three approaches to the study of infant temperament. Developmental Review, 5, 237-260. KEOGH, B.K. (2003). Temperament in the classroom. Baltimore : Brookes Publishing.
SROUFE, L. (1985). Attachment classification from the perspective of infant-caregiver relationships and infant temperament. Child Development, 56, 1-14. KAGAN, J. (2004). The long shadow of temperament. Harvard : Harvard University Press.
SANSON, A., PRIOR, M. & OBERKLAID, F. (1985). Normative data on temperament in Australian infants. Australian Journal of Psychology, 37 (2), 185-195. CALKINS, S.D. (2005). Temperament and its impact on child development: Comments on Rothbart, Kagan, and Eisenberg. In R.E. Tremblay, R.G. Barr & R DeV, Peters (Eds.), Encyclopedia on early childhood development (pp. 1-6). Montreal, Quebec : Centre of Excellence for Early Childhood Development. [LIRE]
ROTHBART, M.K. (1986). Longitudinal observation of infant temperament. Developmental Psychology, 22, 356-365. JONES, A.C. & GOSLING, S.D. (2005). Temperament and personality in dogs (Canis familiaris) : A review and evaluation of past research. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 95, 1-53. [PDF]
STRELAU, J. (1987). Temperament : A psychological perspective. New York : Plenum Press. TARABULSY, G.M. & PROVOST, M.A. (2006). Predicting preschool cognitive development from infant temperament, maternal sensitivity, and psychosocial risk. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 52, 779-806.
BRADSHAW, K.D.L., GOLDSMITH, H.H. & CAMPOS, J.J. (1987). Attachment, temperament, and social referencing : Interrelationships among three domains of infant affective behavior. Infant Behavior & Development, 10, 223-231. TSAI, J.L., LEVENSON, R.W. & McCOY, K. (2006). Cultural and temperamental variation in emotional response. Emotion, 6, 484-497. [PDF]
BATES, J.E. (1987). Temperament in infancy. In J. D. Osofsky (Ed.), Handbook of infant development (pp. 1101-1149). New York : Wiley. ELSE-QUEST, N.M., HYDE, J.S., GOLDSMITH, H.H. & VAN HULLE, A. (2006). Gender differences in temperament : A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 132 (1), 33-72. [PDF]
BARCLAY, L.K. (1987). Skill development and temperament in kindergarten children: A cross-cultural study. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 65, 963-972. WACHS, T.D. (2006). The nature, etiology and consequences of individual differences in temperament. In T. LeMonda & L. Balter (Eds.), Child psychology: A handbook of contemporary issues (pp. 27-52). New York : Garland.
  ROTHBART, M.K. & BATES, J.E. (2006). Temperament. In N. Eisenberg & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Social, emotional, and personality development (Vol. 3, pp.99-166). New York : Wiley.
STRELAU, J. (1987). Emotion as a key concept in temperament research. Journal of Research in Personality, 21, 510-28. SAUCIER, G. & GOLDBERG, L.R. (2006). Personnalité, caractère et tempérament : La structure translinguistique des traits. Psychologie Française, 51, 265-284. [PDF]
  RHEE, S.H., COSGROVE, V.E., SCHMITZ, S., HABERSTICK, B.C., CORLEY, R.C. & HEWITT, J.K. (2007). Early childhood temperament and the covariation between internalizing and externalizing behavior in school-aged children. Twin Research & Human Genetics, 10(1), 33-44.
SANSON, A., PRIOR, M. GARINO, E., OBERKLAID, F.M. & SEWELL, J. (1987). The structure of infant temperament : Factor analysis of the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 10 (1), 97-104. PETERSON, C. (2007). Reliability of child witnesses : A decade of research. Canadian Journal of Police & Security Servives, 5 (3/4), 142-151. [PDF]
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ROTHBART, M.K. (1988). Temperament and the development of inhibited approach. Child Development, 59, 1241-1250. KAGAN, J. (2008). The biological contributions to temperaments and emotions. European Journal of Developmental Science, 2, 38-51
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GRAY, J.A. (1991). The neuropsychology of temperament. In J. Strelau & A. Angleitner (Eds.), Explorations in temperament : international perspectives on theory and measurement (pp. 105-128). London : Plenum. ASL AMINABABI, A., PURALIBABAB, F., ERFANPARAST, L., NAJAFPOUR, E. & JAMALI, Z. (2011). Impact of temperament on child behavior in the dental setting. Journal of Dental Research, Dental Clinics, Dental Prospects, 5 (4), 119-122. [PDF]
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STRELAU, J. & AGLEITNER, A. (1991). Explorations in temperament : International perspectives on theory and measurement. London : Plenum. ROTHBART, M.K. (2011). Becoming who we are : Temperament and personality in development. Guilford Press.
Voir aussi Mesure et évaluation du tempérament
Tempérament (Mesure et évaluation de...) : Ensemble des critères de diagnostic, des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer le tempérament. Measuring temperament.

  CAREY, W.B. (1970). A simplified method for measuring infant temperament. Journal of Pediatrics, 77, 188-194.  
CAREY, W.B. & McDEVITT, S.C. (1978). Revision of the Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Pediatrics, 61, 735-739.  
VAUGHN B., DEINARD, A. & EGELAND, B. (1980). Measuring temperament in pediatric practice. Journal of Pediatrics, 96, 510-514. SANSON, A., PRIOR, M. GARINO, E., OBERKLAID, F.M. & SEWELL, J. (1987). The structure of infant temperament : Factor analysis of the Revised Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 10 (1), 97-104.
VAUGHN, B.E., TARALDSON, B.J., CRICHTON, L. & EGELAND, B. (1981). The assessment of infant temperament : A critique of the Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 4, 1-17. BRAUNGART, J.M., PLOMIN, R., DEFRIES, J.C. & FULKER, D.W. (1992). Genetic influence on tester-rated infant temperament as assessed by Bayley's Infant Behavior Record : Nonadoptive and adoptive siblings and twins. Developmental Psychology, 28, 40-47.
ROTHBART, M.K. (1981). Measurement of temperament in infancy. Child Development, 52, 569-578. [PDF]
VAUGHN, B.E., TARALDSON, B.J., CRICHTON, L. & EGELAND, B. (1981). The assessment of infant temperament: A critique of the Carey Infant Temperament Questionnaire. Infant Behavior & Development, 4, 1-17. BOER, F. & WESTENBERG, P.M. (1994). The factor structure of the Buss and Plomin EAS Temperament Survey (parental ratings) in a Dutch sample of elementary school children. Journal of Personality Assessment, 62, 537-551.
WILSON, R.S. & MATHENY, A.P. (1983). Assessment of temperament in infant twins. Developmental Psychology, 19, 172-183. ROTHBART, M.K. & HWANG, J. (2002). Measuring infant temperament. Infant Behavior & Development, 25 (1), 113-116. [PDF]
Température (du milieu) : Voir Effet de la température.
Température (du corps) : Voir Température d'un organisme. = température interne.
Tempête hormonale : Tempête hormonale, hormone et adolescence. Raging hormone.

  BUCHANAN, C.M., ECCLES, J.S. & BECKER, J.B. (1992). Are adolescents the victims of raging hormones ? Evidence for activational effects of hormones on moods and behavior at adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 62-107. [PDF]
Voir aussi Hormone et Adolescence
Tempo cognitif : Rythme avec lequel une information est traité par le cerveau virtuel. Tempo cognitif, temps de réaction et vitesse de traitement. Cognitive tempo.

  IRWIN, R.A. & GROSS, A.M. (1995). Cognitive tempo, violent video games, and aggressive behavior in young boys. Journal of Family Violence, 10, 337-350.
Voir aussi Cognition
Temporairement vraie/fausse : Expression qui souligne le caractère temporel d'une hypothèse corroborée par les faits disponibles (plutôt que possibles). EX. L'affirmation Tous les éléphants sont gris est une affirmation temporairement vraie car elles correpond aux faits actuels, mais non-définitive puisqu'on ne peut exclure la possibilité que l'on trouve un jour sur la planète Etylik-0.8 un éléphant rose. Pour y parvenir, il faudrait passer en revue toutes les époques et tous les lieux où il est possible d'observer des éléphants. Ce faisant, il se pourrait qu'un jour on découvre une nouvelle planète (Etylik-24 ou Sirhose-12) où s'ébattent en toute tranquilité des millions de troupeaux d'éléphants roses et ronds. /définitivement fausse.

  Voir aussi Définitivement fausseet Hypothèse corroborée
POPPER, K.R. (1984). La logique de la découverte scientifique. Paris : Payot.  
Temps :

Formes de temps
Manque de temps Temps de réaction Temps machine
Temps réel Temps de rétention Temps neural
Temps humain ou objectif Temps historique Temps partagé
Temps subjectif Temps libre  
 
Temps (humain) : Temps réel décomposé en portion équivalente et périodique (ou durée) par un dispositif, une machine (sablier, montre, horloge nucléaire ou solaire, etc). Temps et espace. = temps objectif.

  PIAGET, J. (1946). Le développement de la notion de temps chez l'enfant. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. ALBERT, D. (2000). Time and chance. Harvard University Press.
SHAFFER, H. & HARDWICK, J. (1969). Monitoring simultaneous auditory messages. Perception & Psychophysics, 6, 401-404. UTTAL W.R. (2008). Time, space, and number in physics and psychology. Cornwell- on-Hudson, NY : Sloan.
FREDERICK, W. & WALBERGH, J. (1980). Learning as a function of time. Journal of Educational Research, 73, 183-194. FIELD D. P. & HINELINE, P.N. (2008). Dispositioning and the obscured roles of time in psychological explanation. Behavior & Philosophy, 36, 5-69. [PDF]
ELMAN, J.L. (1990). Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14, 179-211. TOOLEY, M. (2010). Time, truth, actuality, and causation : On the impossibility of divine foreknowledge. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 1, 143-163.
DONAHOE, J.W. & BURGOS, J.E. (1999). Timing without a timer. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 71, 257-263. [PDF] NÙNEZ, R., COOPERIDDER, K., DOAN, D. & WASSMAN, J. (2012). Contours of time : Topographic construals of past, present, and future in the Yupno Valley of Papua New Guinea. Cognition, 124 (1), 25-35.
  NÙNEZ, R. & COOPERIDDER, K. (2013). The tangle of space and time in human cognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17 (5), 220-229. [PDF]
Voir aussi Chrono et Temps
Temps (Manque de...) : Incapacité de penser ou d'agir faute de temps. Time scarcity.

  KELLY, J.R. & KARAU, S.J. (1992). The effects of time scarcity and time abundance on group performance quality and interaction process. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 28, 542-571.
Voir aussi Temps
Temps (réel) : Mouvement ou changement d'état de la matière vivante ou non. Le temps est donc la différence entre deux états (T1et T2). Ainsi défini, il ne peut y avoir de temps sans mouvement (ou énergie) ou sans transformation de l'état initial (T1-----»T2 -----»Tx)., d'où l'expression «Le temps passe». Dans cette conception du temps, la matière et l'énergie précèdent donc le temps. = temps naturel. Time, real time.

  GRÜNBAUM, A. (1962). The nature of time. In R.G. Colodny (Ed.), Frontiers of science and philosophy (Vol. I., pp. 147-188). Pittsburgh, PA : University of Pittsburgh Press.
HAWKING, S.H. (1988). A brief history of time : From the big bang to black holes. Toronto : Bantam Books.
GLASS, L. & MACKEY, M. (1988). From clocks to chaos. Princeton : Princeton University Press.
UTTAL W.R. (2008). Time, space, and number in physics and psychology. Cornwell- on-Hudson, NY : Sloan.
TOOLEY, M. (2010). Time, truth, actuality, and causation : On the impossibility of divine foreknowledge. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 1, 143-163.
NORTON, J. (2010). Time really passes. Humana Mente : Journal of Philosophical Studies, 13, 23-34. [PDF]
Voir aussi Temps
Temps (subjectif) : Voir Perception du temps.
Temps de réaction : Laps de temps qui s'écoule entre le début de la présentation d'un stimulus et le début de la réponse de l'organisme. Ce concepts, initialement développé en physiologie, a été appliqué en psychologie par Donders et Galton. En psychologie cognitive, le temps de réaction permet d'inférer la vitesse de traitement d'une information (temps machine), notamment lors des tâches de rappel et de résolution de problème. Temps de réaction et balayage. = temps de réponse. Processing time, reaction time, speed, speed-of-processing, speed of information processing, response time.

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SHAW, M.L. (1978). A capacity allocation model for reaction time. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 4, 586-598. PALMER, E.M., HOROWITZ, T.S., WOLFE, J.M. & TORRALBA, A. (2011). What are the shapes of response time distributions in visual search ? Journal of Experimental Psychology, 37 (1), 58-71. [PDF]
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ANNETT, M. & ANNETT, J. (1979). Individual differences in right and left reaction time. British Journal of Psychology, 70, 393-404. LITTLE, D.R., NOSOFSKY, R.M. & DENTON, S.E. (2011). Response-time tests of logical-rule models of categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 37, 1-27. [PDF]
  DYKIERT, D., DER, G. STARR, J. & DEARY, I.J. (2012). Age differences in intra-individual variability in simple and choice reaction time : systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS ONE 7 (10), 1-23. [PDF]
RATCLIFF, R. (1979). Group reaction time distributions and an analysis of distribution statistics. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 446-461. BRAND, A. & BRADLEY, M.T. (2012). Assessing the effects of technical variance on the statistical outcomes of Web experiments measuring response times. Social Science Computer Review, 30 (3), 350-357. [PDF]
LOGAN, G.D. (1980). Short-term memory demands of reaction time tasks that differ in complexity. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 6, 375-389. [PDF] WOODLEY, M.A., TE NIJENHUIS, J. & MURPHY, R. (2013). Were the Victorians cleverer than us ? The decline in general intelligence estimated from a meta-analysis of the slowing of simple reaction time. Intelligence, 41 (6), 843-850.
ASHBY, F.G. & TOWNSEND, J.T. (1980). Decomposing the reaction time distribution : Pure insertion and selective influence revisited. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 21, 93-123. [PDF] DODONOVA, Y. A. & DDONOV , Y S. (2013). Is there any evidence of historical slowing of reaction time ? No, unless we compare apples and oranges. Intelligence, 41, 674-687.
NIEMI, P. & NÄÄTÄNEN, R. (1981). Foreperiod and simple reaction time. Psychological Bulletin, 89, 133-162. WOODLEY, M.A., MADISON, G. & CHARLTON, B.G. (2014). Possible dysgenic trends in simple visual reaction time performance in the Scottish Twenty-07 cohort : a reanalysis of Deary & Der (2005). Mankind Quarterly, 55 (1 & 2), 110-124. [PDF]
JENSEN, A.R. (1981). Reaction times and intelligence. In M.P. Friedman, J.P. Das & N. O'Connor (Eds.), Intelligence and Learning. NATO Conference Series (Vol 14, pp. 39-50). Boston, MA. : Springer. [PDF] HOPE, D., BATES T.C., DYKIERT, D., DER, G. & DEARY, I.J. (2015). More symmetrical children have faster and more consistent choice reaction times. Developmental Psychology, 51 (4), 524-532.
ASHBY, F.G. (1982). Testing the assumptions of exponential additive reaction time models. Memory & Cognition, 10, 125-134. [PDF] WOODS, D.L., KISHIYAMA, M.M., YUND, E.W., HERRON, T.J. & REED, B. (2015). Factors influencing the latency of simple reaction time. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 9 [131], 1-12. [PDF]
JASKOWSKI, P. (1983). Distribution of the human reaction time measurements. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 43, 221-225. [PDF] GALE, C.R., BATTY, G.D., COOPER, S.-A., DEARY, I.J., DER, G. , MCEWAN, B. S. & CAVANAGH, J. (2015). Reaction time in adolescence, cumulative allostatic load and symptoms of anxiety and depression in adulthood : the West of Scotland Twenty-07 Study. Psychosomatic Medicine, 7 (5), 493-505.
  WOODS, D.L., WYMA, J. M., YUND, E.W., HERRON, T. J. & REED, B. (2015). Age-related slowing of response selection and production in a visual choice reaction time task. Frontiers of Human Neuroscience, 9 [193], 1-12. [PDF]
ASHBY, F.G. (1983). A biased random walk model of two choice reaction times. Journal of Mathematical Psychology, 27, 277-297. MADISON, G., WOODLEY, M.A. & SÄNGER, J. (2016). Secular slowing of auditory simple reaction time in Sweden (1959-1985). Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10 [407], 1-8. [PDF]
HOCKLEY, W.E. (1984). Analysis of response time distributions in the study of cognitive processes. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 10 (4), 598-615. DER, G. & DEARY, I.J. (2017). The relationship between intelligence and reaction time varies with age: Results from three representative narrow-age age cohorts at 30, 50 and 69 years. Intelligence, 64, 89-97. [PDF]
   
Voir aussi Temps, Latence et Vitesse de traitement
Temps de réaction (Évaluation et mesure du...) : Ensemble des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer le temps de réaction.

  GALTON, F. (1889). An instrument for measuring reaction time. Report of the British Association for the Advancement of Science, 59, 784-785.  
GALTON, F. (1890). Exhibition of instruments (1) for testing the perception of differences of tint, and (2) for determining reaction-time. Journal of Anthropology Institute 19, 27-29  
BRICKER, P.D. (1955). Information measurement and reaction time : a review In H . Quastler (Ed.). Information theory in psychology. Glencoe : Free Press. KUTCHER, J.S., J.T., KUTCHER, J.S. & RICHARDSON, J.K. (2011). Between-seasons test- retest reliability of clinically measured reaction time in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes. Journal of Athletic Training , 46, 409-414.
JASKOWSKI, P. (1983). Distribution of the human reaction time measurements. Acta Neurobiologiae Experimentalis 43, 221-225. [PDF]  
MONTARE, A. (2010). The simplest chronoscope II : reaction time measured by meterstick versus machine. Perception & Motor Skills, 111, 819-828  
NEATH, I., EARLE, A., HALLETT, D. & SURPRENANT, A.M. (2011). Response time accuracy in Apple Macintosh computers. Behavior Research Methods, 43, 353-362.  
Voir aussi Temps de réaction et Vitesse de traitement
Temps de rétention : Propriété d'une mémoire. Laps de temps qui s'écoule entre le stockage d'une information donnée et son oubli. = durée.

  Voir aussi Temps et Durée de la mémoire
Temps historique : Découpage scientifique, donc non-arbitraire, du temps objectif en époques et périodes marquantes du développement des sociétés et des civilisations.

  HEIDEGGER, M. (1916/78). The concept of time in the science of history. Journal of the British Society for Phenomenology, 9 (1), 3-10. [PDF]
LELLO, J. (1980). The concept of time, the teaching of history, and school organization. The History Teacher, 13 (3), 341-350.
Voir aussi Civilisation, Temps et Histoire
Temps libre : Période de temps que l'on consacre à des activités de son choix, que l'on peut aménager à sa guise. Free time.

  OSBORNE, J.G. (1969). Free time as a reinforcer in the management of classroom behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2 (2), 113-118. [PDF]
Voir aussi Temps
Temps machine : Durée de traitement de l'information d'une ou de plusieurs tâches double ou quasi-simultanées (temps partagé) réalisé par un ordinateur ou un humain. Le temps machine peut être partagé entre deux ou plusieurs tâches. EX: Vous calculez le montant de vos achats (tâche no 1), vous vous demandez où est votre foutu portefeuille (tâche no 2), tout en essayant de vous rappeler le nombre de billets de 20 $ qu'il vous reste (tâche no 3). = gestion du temps machine. Time in cognitive processing.

  SHAFFER, H. & HARDWICK, J. (1969). Monitoring simultaneous auditory messages. Perception & Psychophysics, 6, 401-404.
MEDIN, D.L. (1984). Time in cognitive processing and memory : Discussion paper. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 423, 385-388.
ELMAN, J.L. (1990). Finding structure in time. Cognitive Science, 14, 179-211.
GEARY, D.C. & WILEY, J.G. (1991). Cognitive addition : Strategy choice and speed-of-processing differences in young and elderly adults. Psychology & Aging, 6, 474-483.
Voir aussi Temps
Temps neural : Neural time.

  LIBET, B. (1992). The neural time-factor in perception, volition and free will. Revue de Métaphysique, 2, 255-272.
Voir aussi Temps
Temps partagé (Traitement de l'information en...) : Voir Traitement de l'onformation en temps partagé.
Temps réel (En...) : En méthodologie, expression qui désigne la quasi-simultanéité de deux opérations; d'un côté, l'expérience qui produit le phénomène à l'étude, de l'autre, la mesure ou l'évaluation de ce phénomène, ainsi que l'analyse des données. Real time experiment.

  RATCLIFF, R. & LAYTON, W.M. (1981). A microcomputer interface for control of real time experiments in cognitive psychology. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 13, 216-220.
Voir aussi Temps
Tendance : Régularité qui se dégage de l'observation d'un phénomène, chez un individu ou un groupe, et qui donne à penser que ce phénomène n'est pas dû à l'effet du hasard, mais plutôt à l'existence d'un mécanisme psychologique (ou d'une autre nature).

  Voir aussi Régularité
Tendance à l'autoactualisation : Pour Maslow et Rogers, motivation fondamentale de tout être humain, qui pousse la personne à s'accomplir, à réaliser son plein potentiel. Pour Maslow, il s'agit chez l'humain du dernier besoin à se développer.

 
 Tennie Claudio ( ) : Biologiste et primatologue cognitiviste américain, spécialiste de la psychologie comparée et de la cognition animale, notamment chez le chimpanzé. Étudiant de Call et Tomasello. Collaborateur de Frith, Haun et Henrich.

TENNIE, C., CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (2006). Push or pull : Imitation vs. emulation in great apes and Human Children. Ethology, 112, 1159-1169. [PDF]
TENNIE, C., HEDWIG, D., CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (2008). An experimental study of nettle feeding in captive gorillas. American Journal of Primatology, 70, 584-93. [PDF]
TENNIE, C., CALL, J. & TOMASELLO, M. (2009). Ratcheting up the ratchet: on the evolution of cumulative culture. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B Biological Sciences, 364, 2405-2415. [PDF]
TENNIE, C., FRITH, U. & FRITH, C. (2010). Reputation management in the age of the world-wide web. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 14, 482-488.
TENNIE, C., O’MALLEY, R.C. & GILBY, I.C. (2014). Why do chimpanzees hunt ? Considering the benefits and costs of acquiring and consuming vertebrate versus invertebrate prey. Journal of Human Evolution, 71, 38-45.
 Tennis : Sport. Tennis.

  JONES, C.M. & MILES, T.R. (1978). Use of advance cues in predicting the flight of a lawn tennis ball. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 4, 231-235. ANSHEL, M.H. & WRISBERG, C. (1993). Reducing warm-up decrement in the performance of the tennis serve. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 290-303.
RIKLI R. & SMITH, G. (1980). Videotape feedback effects on tennis serving form. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 50 (3), 895-901. DEHOYOS, D.V., HERRING, D., GARZARELLA, L., WERBER, G., BRECHUE, W.F. & POLLOCK, M.L. (1997). Effect of strength training volume on the development of strength and power in adolescent tennis players. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 29 (S), 164.
KELLER, D. (1985). Comportement préparatoire et adaptation au tennis. Revue des Sciences et Techniques des Activités Physiques et Sportives, 6, 57-63. GIACOMINI, C.P. (1999). Association of birthdate with success of nationally ranked junior tennis players in the United States. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 89, 381-386.
  RIEMER, H.A. & TOON, K. (2001). Leadership and satisfaction in tennis : Examination of congruence, gender, and ability. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 72, 243-256.
GOULET, C., FLEURY, M., BARD, C., YERLES, M., MICHAUD, D. & LEMIRE, L. (1988). Analyse des indices visuels prélevés en réception de service au tennis. Journal Canadien des Sciences du Sport, 13, 79-87.  MORAES, L.C., SALMELA, J.H., RABELO, A. & VIANNA, N. (2004). Le rôle des parents dans le développement des jeunes joueurs de football et de tennis brésiliens. Revue STAPS, 64, 109-126.
GOULET, C., BARD, C. & FLEURY, M. (1989). Expertise differences in preparing to return a tennis serve : A visual information processing approach. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 382-398. DELFORGE, C. & LE SCANFF, C. (2006). Rôles et comportements favorables ou défavorables des parents pour les jeunes joueurs de tennis. Staps, 7, 39-56. [PDF]
Voir aussi Sport
 Tennis de table : Sport. Table tennis

   WILLIAMS, A.M., VICKERS, J. & RODRIGUES, S. (2002). The effects of anxiety on visual search, movement kinematics, and performance in table tennis : A test of Eysenck and Calvo's processing efficiency theory. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 24, 438-455.
Voir aussi Sport
 Tension : Terme utilisé pour désigner un malaise (individuel) ou une situation sociale désagréable, entre des individus ou des groupes, situation susceptible de se transformer en conflit, voire en crise.

  KUHN, T.S. (1977/90). The essential tension. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. / La tension essentielle : Tradition et changement dans les Sciences. Paris : Gallimard.
Voir aussi conflit et Crise
 Tension artérielle : Voir Pression artérielle.
 Tensions raciales : Tension racial et racisme. Racial tension.

  ARONSON, E., BLANEY, N., SIKES, J. STEPHAN, C. & SNAPP, M. (1979). Busing and racial tension : The jigsaw route to learning and liking. In V.J. Derlega & L.H. Janda (Eds.), Personal adjustment : Selected readings. Glenview, IL: Scott, Foresman.
Tentative de suicide : Voir Suicide.
Teo Thomas ( ) : Psychosociologue socioconstructiviste canadien.
TEO, T. (1997) Developmental psychology and the relevance of a critical metatheoretical reflection. Human Development 40 (4), 195-210. [LIRE]
TEO, T. (1998). Klaus Holzkamp and the rise and decline of German critical psychology. History of Psychology, 1 (3), 235-253. [PDF]
TEO, T. (1999). Functions of knowledge in psychology. New Ideas in Psychology, 17 (1), 1-15. [PDF]
TEO, T. (1999). Methodologies of critical psychology : Illustrations from the field of racism. Annual Review of Critical Psychology, 1, 119-134. [LIRE]
TEO, T. (2012). Psychology is still a problematic science and the public knows it. American Psychologist, 67 (12), 807-808.
TEP : Voir Tomograpgie par émission de positrons. Positron emission tomograph/PET.
Tepperman Lorne ( ) : Sociologue canadien. Collaborateur de Curtis.
TEPPERMAN, L. (1975). Deviance as a search process. Canadian Journal of Sociology, 1 (3), 277-294.
TEPPERMAN, L. (1975). Social mobility in Canada. Toronto : McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
TEPPERMAN, L. (1977). Crime control : The urge toward authority. Toronto : McGraw-Hill Ryerson.
TEPPERMAN, L. & CURTIS, J. (2004). What is sociology ? In L. Tepperman & J. Curtis (Eds.), Sociology : A Canadian perspective (pp. 1-31). Toronto : Oxford University Press.
TEPPERMAN, L. (2005). Straight and narrow : An introduction to the sociology of deviance and control. Toronto : Oxford University Press.
Tératogène : Voir Facteur tératogène et Grossesse.
Terman Lewis Madison (Johnson County États-Unis 1877-1956 Palo Alto États-Unis) : Psychométricien américain spécialisé dans l'étude et la mesure de l'intelligence. Inventeur du test d'intelligence Stanford-Binet (1916). Président de l'APA en 1923. N.D.L.R. La seule chose que Terman ne semble pas avoir mesurée, c'est son influence sur la psychologie ! Étudiant de Hall. Professeur de Goodenough, Kelly et Mcnemar. Collaborateur de Merrill.

No 72
TERMAN L.M. (1916). The uses of intelligence tests. Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
TERMAN, L.M. (1919). The intelligence of school children. Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
TERMAN, L.M. (1924). The mental test as a psychological method. Psychological Review, 31, 93-117.
TERMAN, L.M. & MERRILL, M. (1937). Revised Stanford-Binet scale. Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
TERMAN, L. & MERRILL, M. (1937). Measuring intelligence. Boston : Houghton Mifflin.
 
MINTON, H.L. (1998). Lewis M. Terman : Pioneer in psychological testing. New York : New York University Press.
Terme : Voir Concept et Mot.
Terme observable : En science, expression utilisée pour désigner les concepts ou les construits qui renvoient à une réalité observable et mesurable. Terme observable, construit empirique et opérationnalisation.

   
Terminaison neurale : Ramifications de l'axone du neurone.

 
Termite (Macrotermes herus) : Insecte. On dit un termite. Termite.

  MCGREW, W.C. & COLLINS, D.A. (1986). Tool-use by wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) to obtain termites (Macrotermes herus) in the Mahale Mountains, Tanzania. American Journal of Primatology, 9, 47-62.
Termote Marc ( ) : Démographe québécois, professeur à l'Université de Montréal et spécialiste de l'étude de l'immigration et de la démographie linguistique. Il est aussi membre du comité scientifique de l'Institut de recherche sur le français en Amérique.
LEDENT, J. et TERMOTE, M. (1999). L'immigration et la croissance des régions métropolitaines : implications politiques. Options Politiques - Policy Options, 20, 39-44.
TERMOTE, M. (2002). The explanatory power of migration models. In R. Franck (Ed.), The explanatory power of models (pp. 165-179). Boston/Dordrecht/London : Kluwer Academic Publishers.
TERMOTE, M. (2002). La mesure de l'impact économique de l'immigration internationale. Problèmes méthodologiques et résultats empiriques. Cahiers Québécois de Démographie, 31 (1), 35-67.
TERMOTE, M. (2003). L'immigration n'est qu'une solution partielle. Le cas des États-Unis et du Canada. Forum : Revue Suisse pour l'Étude des Migrations et de la Population, 2, 32-36.
TERMOTE, M. (2002). La dynamique démolinguistique du Québec et de ses régions. Dans V. Piché et C. Le Bourdais (Dirs.), La démographie québécoise : Enjeux du XXIe siècle (p. 264-299). Montréal : Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal.
Terracciano Antonio ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, d'origine italienne, spécialisé dans l'étude de la personnalité. Collaborateur de Costa et McCrae.
TERRACCIANO, A., MERRITT, M., ZONDERMAN, A.B. & EVANS, M.K. (2003). Personality traits and sex differences in emotions recognition among African. Annals of New York Academy of Sciences, 1000, 309-312. [PDF]
TERRACCIANO, A. & COSTA, P.T. (2004). Smoking and the five-factor model of personality. Addiction, 99, 472-480. [PDF]
TERRACCIANO, A. & COSTA, P.T. (2007). Perceptions of Americans and the Iraq invasion : Implications for understanding national character stereotypes. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 38 (6), 695-710. [PDF]
TERRACCIANO, A., LOECKENHOFF, C.E., CRUM, R.M., BIENVENU, O.J. & COSTA, P.T. (2008). Five-factor model personality profiles of drug users. BMC Psychiatry, 8:22.
TERRACCIANO, A., McCRAE, R.R. & COSTA, P.T. (2010). Intra-individual change in personality stability and age. Journal of Research in Personality, 44, 31-37. [PDF]
Terrace Herbert S. ( ) : Psychologue et primatologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain. Il a mis sur pied un laboratoire d'étude de la cognition chez les primates, à l'Université Columbia. Terrace et Nim Chimpsy. Professeur de Brannon et Roitblat. Collaborateur de Balsam, Gibbon, Holloway, Locurto et Kornell.
TERRACE, H.S. (1963). Errorless transfer of a discrimination across two continua. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 6 (2), 223-232. [PDF]
TERRACE, H.S., GIBBON, J., FARRELL, L. & BALDOCK, M.D. (1975). Temporal factors influencing the acquisition and maintenance of an autoshaped keypeck. Animal Learning & Behavior, 3, 53-62. [PDF]
TERRACE, H.S., PETITTO, L.A., SNADERS, R.J. & BEVER, T.G. (1979). Can an ape create a sentence ? Science, 206, 891-902.
TERRACE, H.S., SON, L.K. & BRANNON, E.M. (2003). Serial expertise of rhesus macaques. Psychological Science, 14 (1), 66-73. [PDF]
TERRACE, H.S. (2005). The simultaneous chain : a new approach to serial learning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 9 (4), 202-210. [PDF]
Terrain : Partie du milieu naturel d'un organisme que l'on souhaite étudier (Recherche en milieu naturel). = in vivo, conditions réelles, conditions naturelles, vraie vie. /laboratoire. Natural environment.

  THARP, R.G. & WETZEL, R.J. (1969). Behavior modification in the natural environment. New York : Academic Press.
BEAUD, S. et WEBER, F. (2003). Guide de l'enquête de terrain. Paris : La Découverte.
Voir aussi Recherche en milieu naturel
Terrain : Revue scientifique d'anthropologie qui consacre ses pages aux recherches en milieu naturel.

ASTUTI, R. (2007). La moralité des conventions : tabous ancestraux à Madagascar. Terrain, 48, 101-112.
Terreur : Grande peur, qui s'accompagne de l'angoisse que l'événement qui est à l'origine de cette émotion perdure, n'ait de fin.

  MUSGRAVE, L. & McGARTY, C. (2008). Opinion-based group membership and the war on terror. Social Psychology, 39 (1), 37-47.
Terreur nocturne : Parasomnie.

  DURAND, V.M. & MINDELL, J.A. (1999). Behavioral intervention for childhood sleep terrors. Behavior Therapy, 30, 705-715.
DURAND, V.M. (2002). Treating sleep terrors in children with autism. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 4, 66-72.
DURAND, V.M. & CHRISTODULU, K.V. (2003). Sleep terrors. In T.H. Ollendick and C.S. Schroeder (Eds.), Encyclopedia of pediatric and child psychology (pp. 617- 618). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
DURAND, V.M. (2006). Sleep terrors. In J.E. Fisher & W.T. O'Donohue (Eds.), Practitioners guide to evidenced based psychotherapy (pp., 654-660). New York, Springer.
Terrisse Bernard ( ) : Psychologue québécois d'origine française, spécialisé en éducation spécialisée. Il s'intéresse notamment à la résilience. Il enseigne à l'Université du Québec à Montréal. Collaborateur de Larivée.
TERRISSE, B. et DANSEREAU, S. (1988). Une approche systémique en intervention précoce. International Journal of Early Chilhood, 20 (2), 11-22.
TERRISSE, B., ROBERTS, D., PALACIO-QUINTIN, E. & MACDONALD, B. (1998). Parenting practices and child development. Swiss Journal of Psychology, 57 (2), 114-123.
TERRISSE, B. (2001). La résilience : facteurs de risque et facteurs de protection dans l'environnement social et scolaire du jeune enfant. Cahiers du Centre de recherche sur les formes d'éducation et d'enseignement/École/Famille : Quelle médiation ? 14, 129-172. [PDF]
TERRISSE, B. (2002). Enfance et résilience. Cahiers de Psychopédagogie Curative et Interculturelle, 1 (2), 34-52.
LAROSE, F., TERRISSE, B. et BÉDARD, J. (2006). Les représentations de parents québécois au regard de l'intervention socioéducative au préscolaire. Brock Education : A Journal of Educational Research & Practice, 15 (2), 148-174. [PDF]
Territoire/Territorialité : Espace occupé (et défendu dans la plupart des cas) par un individu, un groupe, une population ou un pays. Celui qui occupe le territoire se nomme habitant ou résidant, tandis que celui qui le pénètre est un étranger (avec permission) ou un envahisseur (sans permission). Territoire et priorité de résidence. *priorité de résidence. Territory.

  GREENBERG, N. (1947). Some relations between territory, social hierarchy and leadership in the green sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus). Physiological Zoology, 20, 269-299. LUCKMANN, T. (1982). Territorial borders as system boundaries. In R. Strassoldo & G. Delli Zotti (Eds.), Cooperation and conflict in border areas (pp. 235-244). Franco Angeli Editore.
TINBERGEN, N. (1957). The fonction of territory. Bird Study, 4, 14-27. EDNEY, J.J. & BELL, P.A. (1983). The commons dilemma : comparing altruism, the Golden Rule, perfect equality of outcomes, and territoriality. The Social Science Journal, 20, 23-33
ALTMAN, I. (1970). Territorial behavior in humans : An analysis of the concept. In L. Pastalan & D. Carson (Ed.), Spatial behavior of older people (pp. 1-24). Michigan : The University of Michigan. SACHSER, N. & PRÖVE, E. (1984). Short-term effects of residence on the testosterone responses to fighting in alpha male guinea pigs. Aggressive Behavior, 10, 285-292.
SYMONS, P.E.K. (1974). Territorial behavior of juvenile Atlantic salmon reduces predatio by brook trout. Canadian Journal of Zoology, 52, 677-679. HEINSOHN, R. (1997). Group territoriality in two populations of African lions. Animal Behaviour, 53, 1143-1147. [PDF]
EDNEY, J.J. (1974). Human territoriality. Psychological Bulletin, 81 (12), 959-975. NEAVE, N. & WOLFSON, S. (2003). Testosterone, territoriality, and the "home advantage". Physiology & Behavior, 78, 269-275. [PDF]
ZAYAN, R.C. (1975). Défense du territoire et reconnaissance individuelle chez Xiphophorus (Pisces, Poeciliidae). Behaviour, 52, 266-312.  
WELLS, K.D. (1978). Territoriality in the green frog (Rana clamitans) : vocalizations and agonistic behaviour. Animal Behaviour, 26, 1051-1063.  
TULLOCK, G. (1978). On the adaptive significance of territoriality : Comment. The American Naturalist, 113 (5), 772-775. MOSSER, A. & PACKER, C. (2009) Group territoriality and the benefits of sociality in the African lion, Panthera leo. Animal Behaviour, 78, 359-370. [PDF]
 
Terrorisme/Terroriste : Stratégie militaire ou para-militaire qui vise à semer la terreur au sein de la population civile. Le but de cette «stratégie indirecte» est de déstabiliser ou de détruire ceux que l'on considère comme nos véritables ennemis (un gouvernement, une coalition, la police, l'armée, etc.). Les victimes d'un attentat sont donc rarement les véritables cibles de cet acte. Le choix des victimes dépend alors de la nature de la cause défendue. Il peut s'agir de sa propre population, dans le cas du terrorisme révolutionnaire (guerrilla), ou de la population d'un pays ennemi, lorsque l'attentat est commmis dans le contexte d'une guerre ("froide" ou non). Dans les deux cas, il s'agit d'un sous-groupe ("nous, les bons") qui en attaque un autre ("eux, les méchants"). Le plus souvent, les terroristes opèrent secrètement (complot), même s'ils révèlent parfois publiquement leur cible ou leurs motifs (tract, manifeste, lettre de menace, etc) ou revendiquent leur geste ou leur appartenance. Par définition, les victimes d'un attentat sont des civils (accidentellement des militaires); s'il s'agit de soldats, on utilise plutôt les termes "opération militaire ou déclaration de guerre" pour désigner cette stratégie. Sauf exception, le terrorisme prend généralement la forme d'un acte violent planifié par des individus bien organisées (cellule, front, bande, fraction, etc.) ayant une idéologie commune (politique, raciale, religieuse, révolutionnaire, etc.). Contrairement au meurtrier de masse, le terroriste n'agit pas en son nom; il est l'instrument de "l'organisation". Il peut être payé pour agir (meurtrier professionnel) ou se sacrifier pour la cause. En ce sens, les attentats commis en Norvège par Anders Breivik (2011) et Timothy McVeigh à Oklahoma City (1996) ne peuvents être considérés comme des attentats terroristes puisqu'ils n'étaient pas commandé par un sous-groupe organisé autour d'une idéologie commune (même si McVeigh avait trois complices qui se réclamaient des Davidiens, la secte de David Koresch). Le terroriste connaît parfois les motifs de son sous-groupe d'appartenance, mais souvent il les ignore (instrumentalisation). Terrorisme, violence et victime. ( ): 11 septembre, piazza Fontana, la gare de Bologne, les attentats de Madrid. Terrorism.

Conditions nécessaires du terrorisme
1

Acte violent

2 planifié par un sous-groupe d'individus ("nous")
3 partageant une même idéologie
4

commis par un ou des individus (terroristes) au nom de ce sous-groupe

5 à l'endroit d'un autre groupe/sous-groupe ("eux"/victime)
6 les victimes de ce groupe/sous-groupe sont des civils (Si militaire = guerre)
7 dans le but de semer la terreur chez la population de ce groupe/sous-groupe

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Voir aussi violence, Pouvoir, Complot, Guerre, Trouble de stress post-traumatique et Onze Septembre
 
Tesser/Tessier
Abraham Tesser Réjean Tessier
 
Tesser Abraham ( ) : Psychosociologue américain.
TESSER, A., MILLAR M. & MOORE, J. (1988). Some affective consequences of social comparison and reflection processes : The pain and pleasure of being close. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 54, 49-61.
TESSER, A. (1993). On the importance of heritability in psychological research : The case of attitudes. Psychological Review, 100, 129-142.
TESSER, A. & BEACH, S.R.H. (1998). Life events, relationship quality, and depression : An investigation of judgement discontinuity in vivo. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 36-52.
TESSER, A. (2000). On the confluence of self-esteem maintenance mechanisms. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 4, 290-299. [PDF]
TESSER, A. (2001). On the plasticity of self defense. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 66-69.
Tessier Réjean ( ) : Psychologue écologiste québécois et professeur à l'Université Laval. Il se spécialise dans l'étude du développement psychologique et social des enfants nés prématurément. Collaborateur de Nadeau et Tarabulsy.
TARABULSY, G.M., TESSIER, R. & KAPPAS, A. (1996). Contingency detection and the contingent organization of behavior in interactions : Implications for socioemotional development in infancy. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 1-17.
TESSIER, R., CRISTO, M.E., VELEZ, S., GIRON, M., NADEAU, L. & CHARPAK, N. (2003). Kangaroo mother-care : A method of protecting high-risk premature infants against developmental delay. Infant Behavior & Development, 26, 384-397.
NADEAU, L., TESSIER, R., BOIVIN, M., LEFEVBRE, F. & ROBAEY, P. (2003). Extreme premature and very low birthweight infants : A double hazard population ? Social Development, 12, 235-248.
NADEAU, L. & TESSIER, R. (2003). Relations sociales entre enfants à l'âge scolaire : effet de la prématurité et de la déficience motrice. Enfance, 55, 48-55.
LAGANIÈRE, J., TESSIER, R. & NADEAU, L. (2003). Attachement mère-enfant prématuré : Un lien médiatisé par les perceptions maternelles. Enfance, 55, 101-117.
Test/Tester : De façon générale, un test est la mise à l'épreuve du fonctionnement d'un objet, d'une idée. En science, le mot possède au moins six acceptions : a) En psychologie, il désigne une expérience personnelle qui consiste à confronter ses perceptions à la réalité (test de réalité). Reality test, realty testing. b) Toujours en psychologie, le mot renvoie à un outil qui permet d'évaluer de manière objective ou subjective certaines propriétés psychologique de l'humain ou de l'animal (intelligence, personnalité, apprentissage, etc); On dit passer ou administrer un test. = épreuve, tâche, inventaire, échelle. Psychological test, mental test. c) En méthodologie, le test prend la forme d'une expérience scientifique ou d'une simulation dont la fonction est de mettre à l'épreuve une hypothèse en la confrontant directement aux faits (test empirique) de manière à pouvoir affirmer que cette hypothèse est vraie ou fausse. Le test permet donc de vérifier une hypothèse, et indirectement la théorie qui a engendrée cette hypothèse. Test et inférence forte. Empirical test. d) En relation avec 3, on utilise ce terme pour désigner la procédure mathématique et logique qui permet de vérifier si une hypothèse statistique est vraie ou fausse en la confrontant aux résultats d'une recherche (données empiriques), et en comparant ces résultats à ceux que l'on pourrait obtenir au hasard (données de la variable aléatoire). = test statistique. Statistical test. e) Finalement, en éducation, le terme désigne une forme d'examen court composé de questions qui permettent de vérifier les apprentissages/connaissances acquises en lisant. Test, quizz. f) On utilise également ce terme comme synonyme d'essai clinique ou étude clinique. Clinical trial.

Types de test
Test biologique/Médical Test psychologique/
psychométrique
Test statistique
Test de lecture   Test d'une hypothèse
 


  a
HURVICH, M. (1970). On the concept of reality testing. The International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 51, 299-312.
LANDA, Y., SILVERSTEIN, S.M., SCHWARTZ, F. & SAVITZ, A. (2006). Group cognitive behavioral therapy for delusions : helping patients improve reality testing. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 36, 9-17.
b
GULLILSEN, H. (1950). Theory of mental tests. New York : Wiley.
WITKIN, H.A., OLTMAN, P.K., RASKIN, E. & KARP, S.A. (1971). A manual for the embedded figures test. Palo Alto : Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.
BURROUGHS, W. A., MURRAY J., WESLEY, S. S., MEDINA, D. R., PENN, S. L., GORDON, S. R., CATELLO, M. (1999). Easing the implementation of behavioral testing through computerization. In F. Drasgow & J. B. Olson-Buchanan (Eds.), Innovations in computerized assessment (pp. 221-247) Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum.
MEYER, G.J., FINN, S.E., EYDE, L.D., KAY, G.G., MORELAND, K.L., DIES, R.R., EISMAN, E.J., KUBISZYN, T.W. & REED, G.M. (2001). Psychological testing and psychological assessment : A review of evidence and issues. American Psychologist, 56 (2), 128-165.
LAVEAULT, D. et GRÉGOIRE, J. (2002). Introduction aux théories des tests en psychologie et en sciences de l'éducation. Bruxelles : De Boeck Université.
URBINA, S. (2004). Essentials of psychological testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
NAGLIERI, J. A., DRASGOW, F., SCHMIT, M., HANDLER, L., PRIFITERA, A., MARGOLIS, A. & VELASQUEZ, R. (2004). Psychological testing on the Internet : New problems, old issues. American Psychologist, 59 (3), 150-162. [PDF]
Voir Tests psychologiques/psychométriques
c
WILTON, R.N. & CLEMENTS, R.O. (1971). The role of information in the emission of observing responses : a test of two hypotheses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 16, 161-166. [PDF]
HACKMAN, J.R. & OLDAM, G.R. (1976). Motivation through the design of work : Test of a theory. Organizational Behavior & Human Performance, 16, 250-279
BURNS, D.J. (1990). The generation effect : A test between single- and multifactor theories. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 16, 1060-1067.
KYONKA, E.G.E. & CHURCH, R.M. (2005). Empirical tests of "Take-the-best" with non-human subjects. Behavioural Processes, 69, 133-135.
LAIDRE, M.E. (2009). How often do animals lie about their intentions ? An experimental test. The American Naturalist, 173 (3), 337-346. [PDF]
d
NEYMAN, J. & PEARSON, S.E. (1933). On the problem of the most efficient tests of statistical hypotheses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 231, 289-337. [PDF]
BUCHANAN-WOLLASTON, H.J. (1935). Statistical tests. Nature, 136, 182-183.
Voir Tests statistiques
e
TOWNSEND, N.R. & WHEATLEY, G.H. (1975). Analysis of frequency of tests and varying feedback delays in college mathematics achievement. College Student Journal, 9, 32-36.
ANDERSON, J.E. (1984). Frequency of quizzes in a behavioral science course : An attempt to increase medical student study behavior. Teaching of Psychology, 11, 34.
ZEIDNER, M. (1990). College students' reactions towards key facets of classroom testing. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 15, 151-169.
LANDRUM, R.E. (1992). Students' perceptions of the effects of test delays. College Student Journal, 26 (3), 387-389.
Voir Examen et Test de lecture
f
Voir Étude clinique
Test (Pré et post-) : Le terme prétest a deux acceptions : a) Dans une recherche quasi-expérimentale, il désigne la mesure réalisée avant le traitement; le terme post-test est donc utilisé pour désigner la mesure réalisée après le traitement. b) On utilise également les termes prétest et prétester pour désigner les tests réalisés avant une recherche pour parfaire un outil de collecte de données (grille d'obsevation, appareil de mesure, etc.). = essai. Pretest-posttest design.

  a
HUNT, S.D., SPARKMAN, R.D. & WILCOX, J.B. (1982). The pretest in survey research : Issues and preliminary findings. Journal of Marketing Research, 19, 269-273.
THYER, B.A. & CURTIS, G.C. (1983). The repeated pretest-posttest single-subject experiment : A new design for empirical clinical practice. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 14, 311-315.
VENTER, A., MAXWELL, S.E. & BOLIG, E. (2002). Power in randomized group comparisons : The value of adding a single intermediate time point to a traditional pretest-posttest design. Psychological Methods, 7 (2), 194-209.
Test biologique/Médical :

Tests biologiques/Médicaux
Test d'Ishihara Test d'Apgar
 
Test bilatéral : Tout test statistique qui permet de refuser l'hypothèse nulle (Ho) et donc d'accepter l'hypothèse alternative (H1) selon laquelle le groupe A est différent du groupe B. Différent signifie deux choses : ou bien A < B, ou bien A > B, d'où le préfixe bi qui signifie "deux". Tests unilatéral et bilatéral. = test bidirectionnel ou bicaudale. Two-sided test, two-tailed test.

  LEVENTHAL, L. & HUYNH, C.-L. (1996). Directional decisions for two-tailed tests : Power, error rates, and sample size. Psychological Methods, 1 (3), 278-292.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Test statistique
Test binomial : Test statistique qui permet notamment de comparer au hasard les données des classes d'un échantillon. = modèle de la pièce de monnaie (pile ou face), test dichotomique. Binomial test.
  KEMP, K.E. & BUTCHER, D.F. (1972). Methods of analyzing binomial data in a two-factor experiment compared by computer simulation. JRSS, Series C 21, (3).
BUTCHER, D.F. & KEMP, K.E. (1974). Analyzing binomial data in a two-factor experiment with unequal observations per cell. JRSS, Series C 23, 190.
WILCOX, R.R. (1978). Estimating true score in the compound binomial error model. Psychometrika, 43, 245-258.
D'AGOSTINO, R.B., CHASE, W. & BELANGER, A. (1988). The appropriateness of some common procedures for testing the equality of two independent binomial populations. American Statistician, 42, 198-202.
McGARTY, C. (2005). Independence and nonindependence : A simple methods for comparing groups using multiple measures and the binomial test. European Journal of Social Psychology, 35, 171-180.
LAURENCELLE, L. (2005). Le test binomial exact de la différence entre deux proportions et ses approximations. Lettres Statistiques, 12, 1-14.
ABDI, H. (2007). Binomial distribution : Binomial and sign tests. In N.J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of measurement and statistics. Thousand Oaks (CA) : Sage.
GOULET, C. (2003). Tutoriel SPSS / Comment faire un test binomial. Montréal : Collège Ahuntsic [Disponible sur ce site].
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Test d'hypothèse et Test statistique
Test clinique : Voir Essai clinique.
Test d'Ishihara : Test chromatique qui permet de diagnostiquer le daltonisme, inventé par le docteur Shinobu Ishihara (1879-1963).
 
Test d'ajustement (aux données observées/mesurées) : Famille de tests statistiques qui permet de mesurer le degré d'ajustement ou de prédiction d'un modèle statistique à un ensemble de données. Les tests de normalité sont des test d'ajustement d'un modèle statistique particulier, celui de la courbe normale. Test of goodness of fit.

Tests d'ajustement aux données
  Test de Cramer-Von Mises Test de Kolmogoovr-Smirnov
 

  ANDERSON, T.W. & DARLING, D.A. (1954). A test of Goodness-of-fit. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 49 (268), 765-769.
Test d'Ammons : Test d'intelligence inventé par Ammons et Ammons qui évalue l'intelligence verbale au moyen de liste de mot. Surtout utilisé auprès des déficients intellectuels. Ammons Quick Test.

  AMMONS, R.B. & HOLMES, C. (1949). The Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test: III. Results for a Preschool-Age Population. Child Develpment, 20 (1), 5-14. OTTO, W. & McMENEMY, R.A. (1965). An appraisal of the Ammons Quick Test in a remedial reading program. Journal of Educational Measurement, 2 (2), 193-198.
AMMONS, R.B. & HUTH, R.W. (1950). The Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test: I. Preliminary scale. The Journal of Psychology Interdisciplinary & Applied, 28 (1), 151-64. MEDNICK, M.T. (1967). Relationship of the Ammons quick test of intelligence to other ability measures. Psychology Report, 20 (2), 523-6.
AMMONS, R.B. & RACHIELE, L.D. (1950). The Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test: Ii. Selection of Items for Final Scales 1. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 10 (2), 307-319. MEDNICK, M.T. (1969). Ammons quick test validity among randomly selected referrals. Psychological Reports, 24 (2), 388-390.
AMMONS, R.B. ARNOLD, P.R. & HERMANN, R.S. (1950). The full-range picture vocabulary test: IV. Results for a white school population. Clinical Psychology, 6 (2), 164-169. SEITZ, F.C. & BRAUCHT, G.N. (1971). Ammons' quick test as a measure of adult intelligence in a psychiatric sample. Psychological Reports 29 (2), 356-358.
AMMONS, R.B., LARSON, W.L. & SHEARN, C.R. (1950). The Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test : V. Results for an adult population. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 14 (2), 150-155. VANCE, B., HANKINS, N. & BROWN, W. (1986). The Relationship among the Test of Nonverbal Intelligence, Ammons' Quick Test, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised. Assessment for Effectice Intervention, 12 (1), 47-52.
  ZAGAR, R.J., KOVACH, J.W., BUSCH, K.G., ZABLOCKI, M.D., OSNOWITZ, W., NEUHENGEN, J., LIU, Y. & ZAGAR, A.K. (2013). Ammons quick test validity among randomly selected referrals. Psychological Reports, 113 (3), 823-854.
Voir aussi Test d'intelligence
Test d'anxiété : Test psychologique objectif qui mesure l'anxiété. Test anxiety.

  ZEIDNER, M. (1991). Test anxiety and aptitude test performance in an actual college admissions testing situation : Temporal considerations. Personality & Individual Differences, 12 (2), 101-109.
ZEIDNER, M. (1998). Test anxiety : The state of the art. New York : Plenum Press.
OOSTDAM, R. & MEIJER, J. (2003). Influence of test anxiety on measurement of intelligence. Psychological Reports, 92, 3-20.
Voir aussi Test psychologique objectif
Test d'aperception thématique (TAT) : Test projectif, inventé par Murray, dans lequel on demande au répondant d'interpréter une série d'illustrations ambiguës mettant en scène des personnes. Thematic Apperception Test.
 
MURRAY, H.A. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York : Oxford University Press. HOLMSTROM, R.W., SILBER, D.E. & KARP, S.A. (1990). Development of the Apperceptive Personality Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 54 (1 & 2), 252-264.
HARRISON, R. (1940). Studies in the use and validity of the Thematic Apperception Test with mentally disordered patients. I. A quantitative validity study. Journal of Personality, 9 (2), 122-133. WESTEN, D. (1991). Clinical assessment of object relations using the TAT. Journal of Personality Assessment, 56, 56-74.
MURRAY, H.A. (1943). Thematic Apperception Test Manual. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press. MORGAN, W.G. (1995). Origin and history of the Thematic Apperception Test images. Journal of Personality Assessment, 65, 237-254.
  HOLT, R.R. (1999). Empiricism and the Thematic Apperception Test : Validity is the payoff. In L. Gieser & M. I. Stein (Eds.), Evocative Images: The Thematic Apperception Test.Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
HARRISON, R. & ROTTER, J.B. (1940). A note on the reliability of the Thematic Apperception Test. The Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 40 (1), 97-99. CRAMER, P. (1999). Future directions for the Thematic Apperception Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 72, 74-92.
HARRISON, R. (1943). The Thematic Apperception and Rorschach methods of personality investigation in clinical practice. The Journal of Psychology : Interdisciplinary & Applied, 15, 49-74. ACKERMAN, S.J., HILSENROTH, M.J., CLEMENCE, A.J., WEATHERILL, R. & FOWLER, J.C. (2001). Convergent validity of Rorschach and TAT scales of object relations. Journal of Personality Assesment, 77, 295-306.
 lien TOMKINS, S.S. (1947). The thematic apperception test. A theory and technique of interpretation. New York USA : Grune & Stratton. HIBBARD, S., MITCHELL, D. & PORCERELLI, J. (2001). Internal consistency of the object relations and social cognition scales for the thematic apperception test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 77 (3), 408-419.
ERON, L.D. (1950). A normative study of the Thematic Apperception Test. Psychological Monographs : General and Applied, 64 (9), 1-48. PICA, M. (2001). The responses of dissociative patients on the Thematic Apperception Test. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 57, 847-864.
WINCH, R.F. & MORE, D.M. (1956). Does TAT add information to interviews? Statistical analysis of the increment. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 12, 316-321. ARONOW, E., WEISS, K.A. & REZINKOFF, M. (2001). A Practical Guide to the Thematic Apperception Test. Philadelphia : Brunner Routledge.
VANE, J (1981). The Thematic Apperception test : A review. Clinical Psychology Review, 1, 319-336. LANGAN-FOX, J. & GRANT, S. (2006). The Thematic Apperception Test : Toward a standard measure of the big three motives. Journal of Personality Assessment, 87, 277-291.
FENZ, W.D. & EPSTEIN, S. (1962). Measurement of approach-avoidance conflict by a stimulus dimension in a test of thematic apperception. Journal of Personality, 30, 613-632. EURELINGS-BONTEKOE, E., ZWINKELS, K., SCHAAP-JONKER, H. & EDREDI, M. (2011). Formal characteristics of Thematic Apperception Test narratives of adult patients with an autism spectrum disorder. A preliminary study. Psycholoogy, 2 (7), 687-693. [PDF]
Voir aussi Test projectif
Test d'Apgar : Test inventé par Apgar en 1952, pour évaluer l'état d'un nouveau-né, ses signes vitaux. Le mot Apgar est un acronyme pour : Apparence (coloration), Pouls (fréquence cardiaque), Grimace (réflexe à l'irritation), Activité (tonus musculaire) et Respiration. = score d'Apgar.
Valeur Apparence
(Coloration)
Pouls
(Fréquence cardiaque)
Grimace
(Réflexe à l'irritation ou réactivité)
Activité
(Tonus musculaire)
Respiration
 0 Corps bleu (cyanose) ou gris Absente Aucune Flasque ou Faible Absente
1 Extrémité des membres bleutées < 100 Faible grimace Flexion des membres Irrégulière
2 Rose > 100 Réaction vive de l'ensemble du visage Grande activité Régulière
   

  Voir aussi Nouveau-né et Apgar
Test d'aptitude : ( ): SAT.

 
Test d'association implicite (TAI) : Test psychologique objectif d'évaluation des attitudes. Implicit Association Test.
  GREENWALD, A.G., McGHEE, D.E. & SCHWARTZ, J.L.K. (1998). Measuring individual differences in implicit cognition : The Implicit Association Test. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74 (6), 1464-1480. [PDF]
GREENWALD, A.G. & FARNHAM, S.D. (2000). Using the Implicit Association Test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 79 (6), 1022-1038. [PDF]
GREENWALD, A.G. & NOSEK, B.A. (2001). Health of the Implicit Association Test at age 3. Zeitschrift für Experimentelle Psychologie, 48 (2), 85-93. [PDF]
ROTHERMUND, K. & WENTURA, D. (2001). Figure-ground asymmetries in the Implicit Association Test. Zeitschrift fur Experimentelle Psychologie, 48 (2), 94-106. [PDF]
GREENWALD, A.G., NOSEK, B.A. & BANAJI, M.R. (2003). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test : I. An Improved Scoring Algorithm. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85 (2), 197-216. [PDF]
Voir aussi Mesure des attitudes
Test d'homogénéité : Test of homogeneity.
  CAMILLI, G. (1990). The test of homogeneity for 2 X 2 contingency tables : A review of and some personal opinions on the controversy. Psychological Bulletin, 108, 135-145.
Test d'hypothèse/Tester une hypothèse : Ensemble de tests statistiques conçu pour vérifier l'hypothèse statistique d'une recherche (en rejetant ou non l'hypothèse nulle et en acceptant par défaut l'hpothèse alternative). Pour ce faire, on compare la valeur P du test au seuil de signification fixé par le chercheur (souvent 5 %). Un bon test statistique est robuste et puissant. Les tests infèrent l'existence d'une cause ou d'un déterminisme en comparant les résultats d'une recherche aux lois du hasard, donc en inférant que les réusultats d'un échantillon peuvent être généraliser à l'ensemble de la population. EX: Test t. = test de signification, test de comparaison. Hypothesis testing, significance test, test of signifiance.
Comparaison Décision/Conclusion Bonne conclusion
Mauvaise conclusion
La valeur P d'un test est supérieure au seuil de signification Je ne rejette pas l'hypothèse nulle... Il n'y a donc pas de différence significative entre A et B
A = B
La valeur P d'un test est inférieure au seuil de signification Je rejette l'hypothèse nulle... Alors j'accepte l'hypothèse alternative : il y a une différence significative entre A et B
 

Type Notation Rôle
Hypothèse nulle A = B
Hypothèse que le chercheur tente de rejeter
Hypothèse alternative Unilatérale A > B ou A < B
Hypothèse que le chercheur souhaite généralement vérifier
Bilatérale A B

 
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BERKSON, J. (1942). Tests of significance considered as evidence. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 37(219), 325-335.  
FISHER, R.A. (1956). On a test of significance in Pearson's Biometrika Tables (No. 11). Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series B, 18 (1), 56-60.  
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STERLING, T.D. (1959). Publication decisions and their possible effects on inferences drawn from tests of significance: Or vice versa. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 54, 30-34. MULAIK, S.A., RAJU, N.S. & HARSHMAN, R.A. (1997). There is a time and place for significance testing. In L.L. Harlow S.A. Mulaik & J.H. Steiger (Eds.), What if there were no significant tests ? (pp. 65-116). Mahwah, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.
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HENKEL, R.E. (1976). Tests of significance. London : Sage. JOHNSON, D.H. (1999). The insignificance of statistical significance testing. Journal of Wildlife Management, 63, 763-772.
  GILL, J. (1999). The Insignificance of Null Hypothesis Significance Testing", Political Research Quarterly, Vol. 52, No. 3 , pp. 647-674.
COX, D.R. (1977). The role of significance tests. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 4, 49-63. ANDERSSON, G. (1999). The role of meta-analysis in the significance test controversy. European Psychologist, 4, 75-82.
CARVER, R.P. (1978). The case against statistical significance testing. Harvard Educational Review, 48 (3), 378-399. [PDF] BRANCH, M.N. (1999). Some things significance testing does and does not do. The Behavior Analyst, 22, 87-92.
CHASE, L.J. & SIMPSON, T.J. (1979). Significance and substance: An examination of experimental effects. Human Communication Research, 5, 351-354. MBENGUE, A. (1999). Tests de comparaison. In R.A. Thiétart (Dir.), Méthodes de recherche en management. Paris : Dunod.
BENTLER, P.M. & BONNETT, D.G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588-606. HSU, L.M. (2000). Effects of directionality of significance tests on the bias of accessible effect sizes. Psychological Methods, 5, 333-342. [PDF]
  LECOUTRE, M-P., POITEVINEAU, J. (2000). Aller au delà des tests de signification traditionnels : vers de nouvelles normes de publication. L'Année Psychologique, 100 (4), 683-713. [PDF]
SAWYER A.G. & PETER, J. P. (1983). The significance of statistical significance tests in marketing research. Journal of Marketing Research, 20 (2), 122-133. JONES, L. & TUKEY, J.W. (2000). A sensible formulation of the significance test. Psychological Methods, 5 (4), 411-414. [PDF]
FLEISS, J.L. (1986). Confidence intervals vs significance tests: quantitative interpretation. American Journal of Public Health, 76, 587-588. NICKERSON, R.S. (2000). Null hypothesis significance testing : A review of an old and continuing controversy. Psychological Methods, 5 (2), 241-301. [PDF]
GARDNER, M.J. & ALTMAN, D.G. (1986). Confidence intervals rather than P values : Estimation rather than hypothesis testing. British Medical Journal, 292, 746-750. [PDF] STERNE, J.A.C. & SMITH, G.D. (2001). Sifting the evidence : what's wrong with significance tests ? British Medical Journal, 322, 226-331.
ZIMMERMAN, D.W. & WILLIAMS, R.H. (1986). Note on the reliability of experimental measures and the power of significance tests. Psychological Bulletin, 100, 123-124. KRUEGER, J. (2001). Null hypothesis significance testing: On the survival of a flawed method. American Psychologist, 56 (1), 16-26. [PDF] + [PDF]
  LECOUTRE, M-P., LECOUTRE,M.-P. & POITEVINEAU, J. (2001). Uses, abuses and misuses of significance tests in the scientific community : Won't the Bayesian choice be unavoidable ? International Statistical Review, 69, 399-418.
OAKES, M.J. (1986). Statistical inference : A commentary for social and behavioral sciences. New York : Wiley. GORDON, H.R.D. (2001). American Vocational Education Research Association members' perceptions of statistical signif- icance tests and other statistical controversies. Journal of Vocational Educational Research, 26 (2), 1-18.
  LECOUTRE B., LECOUTRE M.-P., POITEVINEAU J. (2001). Uses, abuses and misuses of significance tests in the scientific community : Won't the Bayesian choice be unavoidable? International Statistical Review, 69, 399-417. [PDF]
 BERGER, J.O. & SELLKE, T. (1987). Testing a point null hypothesis : The irreconcilability of p values and evidence. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 82, 112-122. [PDF] MARKUS, K.A. (2001). The converse inequality argument against tests of statistical significance. Psychological Methods, 6 (2), 147-160.
 BERGER, J.O. & DELAMPADY, M. (1987). Testing precise hypothesis (with discussion). Statistical Science, 2 (3), 317-352. [PDF] STERNE, J.A. (2002) Teaching hypothesis tests - time for significant change ? Statistics in Medicine 21, 985-994.
CHOW, S.L. (1988). Significance test or effect size ? Psychological Bulletin, 103, 105-110. [PDF] MACKINNON, D.P., LOCKWOOD, C.M., HOFFMAN, J.M., WEST, S.G. & SHEETS, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test the significance of the mediated effect. Psychological Methods, 7, 83-104. [PDF]
  SAWILOWSKY, S. (2003). Deconstructing arguments from the case against hypothesis testing. Journal of Modern Applied Statistical Methods, 2 (2), 467-474.
STEINFATT, T.M. (1990). Ritual versus logic in significance testing in communication research. Communication Research Reports, 7, 90-93. LECOUTRE, M-P., POITEVINEAU, J. & LECOUTRE, B. (2003). Even statisticians are not immune to misinterpretations of null hypothesis significance tests. International Journal of Psychology, 38 (1), 37-45.
LEHMAN, E.L. (1991), Testing statistical hypotheses. Pacific Grove, California : Wadsworth & Brooks. TRAFINOW, D. (2003). Hypothesis testing and theory evaluation at the boundaries: Surprising insights from Bayes's theorem. Psychological Review, 11 (3), 526-535. [PDF]
  RUTLEDGE, T. et LOH, C. (2004). Effect sizes and statistical testing in the determination of clinical significance in behavioral medicine research. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27, 138-145.
SHAVER, J. (1992), What significance testing is, and what it isn't. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Francisco, CA. POITEVINEAU, J. (2004). L'usage des tests statistiques par les chercheurs en psychologie : aspects normatif, descriptif et prescriptif. Mathématiques et Sciences Humaines / Mathematics & Social Sciences, 42 (3), 5-25. [PDF]
CARVER, R.P. (1993). The case against statistical significance testing, revisited. Journal of Experimental Education, 61 (4), 287-292. LECOUTRE, B., POITENIVEAU, J. et LECOUTRE, M.-P. (2005). Une raison pour ne pas abandonner les tests de signification de l'hypothèse nulle. Modulab, 33, 243-248.
HUBERTY, C.J. (1993). Historical origins of statistical testing practices : The treatment of Fisher versus Neyman-Pearson views in textbooks. The Journal of Experimental Education, 61(4), 317-333. KILLEEN, P.R. (2005). An alternative to null hypothesis statistical tests. Psychological Science, 16, 345-353. [PDF]
BELHOUSE, D.R. (1993). P values, hypothesis tests, and likelihood. American Journal of Epidemiology, 137, 497-498. KLINE, R. (2004). Beyond significance testing : Reforming data analysis methods in behavioral research. Washington, DC : APA.
THOMPSON, B. (1993). The use of statistical significance tests in research : Bootstrap and other alternatives. Journal of Experimental Education, 61, 361-377. GELMAN, A. & STERN, H. (2006), The difference between “significant” and “not significant” is not itself statistically Significant. The American Statistician, 60 (4), 328-331.
COHEN, J. (1994). The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist, 49, 997-1003. [PDF] ARMSTRONG, J.S. (2007). Statistical significance tests are unnecessary even when properly done and properly interpreted: Reply to commentaries. International Journal of Forecasting, 23 (2), 335-336.
McCLURE, J. & SUEN, H.K. (1994). Interpretation of statistical significance testing : A matter of perspective. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 14, 88-100. LEVINE, T.R., WEBER, R., HULLETT, C., PARK, H.S. & MASSI-LINDSAY, L.L. (2008). A critical assessment of null hypothesis significance testing in quantitative communication research. Human Communication Research, 34, 171-187. [PDF]
APA (1996). Board of scientific affairs : Task force on statistical inference initial report. KESELMAN, H.J., AALGINA, J., LIX, L. M., WILCOX, R.R. & DEERING, K.N. (2008). A generally robust approach for testing hypotheses and setting confidence intervals for effect sizes. Psychological Methods, 13, 110-129. [PDF]
 BERGER, J.O., BROWN, L.D. & WOLPERT, R.L. (1994). A unified conditional frequentist and Bayesian test for fixed and sequential simple hypothesis testing. The Annals of Statistics, 22, 1787-1807. [PDF] BALLUERKA, N., IRAETA, A.I.V. & GRAS, J.A. (2009). Calculating the main alternatives to null-hypothesis-significance testing in between-subject experimental designs. Psicothema, 21 (1), 141-151. [PDF]
  SEDLMEIER, P. (2009). Beyond the significance test ritual. What is there ? Zeitschrift für Psychologie / Journal of Psychology, 217 (1), 1-5. [PDF]
THOMPSON, B. (1996). AERA editorial policies regarding statistical significance testing : Three suggested reforms. Educational Researcher 25 (2), 26-30. BOURQUE, J., BLAIS, J.-G. et LAROSE, F. (2009). L'interprétation des tests d'hypothèses : p, la taille de l'effet et la puissance. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 35 (1), 211-226. [PDF]
FRICK, R.W. (1996). The appropriate use of null hypothesis testing. Psychological Methods, 1 (4), 379-390. [PDF] MBENGUE, A. (2010). Faut-il brûler les tests de signification statistique ? M@N@Gement, 13, 100-127. [PDF]
KIRK, R.E. (1996). Practical significance : A concept whose time has come. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 56, 746-759. KESELMAN, H.J., MILLER, C.W. & HOLLAND, B. (2011). Many tests of significance : new methods for controlling type I errors. Psychological Methods, 16, 420-431. [PDF]
SCHIMDT, F. (1996). Statistical significance testing and cumulative knowledge in psychology : Implications for the training of researchers. Psychological Methods, 1 (2), 115-129. [PDF] FILHO, D.B.F., PARANHOS, R., DA ROCHA, E.C., BATISTA, M. DA SILVA. J.E., SANTOS, M.L.W. & MARINO, J.G. (2013). When is statistical significance not signicant ? Brazilian Political Science Review, 7 (1), 31-55. [PDF]
  BENJAMIN, D.J., BERGER, J.O., JOHANNESSON, M., NOSEK, B.A., WAGENMAKERS, E.J., BERK, R., CESARINI, D. ET AL. (2017). Redefine statistical significance. Nature Human Behaviour, 2, 6-10. [PDF]
Voir aussi Test d'hypothèse, Seuil de signification, Hypothèse statistique et Vérification d'une hypothèse
 
Test d'hypothèse (pusisance d'un ) : Voir Test statistique (puissance).
Test d'intelligence : Voir Intelligence.
Test de Asch : Voir Tâche de jugement de Asch.
Test de Barbeau-Pinard : Test d'intelligence inventé par Barbeau et Pinard.

  BARBEAU, G. & PINARD, A. (1951-1963). Épreuve individuelle d'intelligence globale. Montréal : Le Centre de Psychologie et de Pédagogie.
GORETTI, M. (1961). L'épreuve individuelle d'intelligence générale de Barbeau et Pinard: étude sur l'administration collective de quatre-sous-tests verbaux. Québec : Université Laval.
Test de Bartlett : Test statistique visant à comparer l'homoscédascité de deux échantillons. Il permet d'estimer si les différentes sous-catégories d'une variable de distribution normale ont la même variance. Bartlett test.

  BARTLETT, M.S. (1937). Properties of sufficiency and statistical tests. Proceedings of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A 160, 268-282.
KNAPP, T.R. & SWOYER, V.H. (1967). Some empirical results concerning the power of Bartlett's test of the significance of a correlation matrix. American Educational Research Journal, 4, 13-17.
DYER, D. & KEATING,P. (1980). On the determinationf of critical values for Bartlett's test. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 75, 313-319.
Voir aussi Test statistique
Test de Binet-Simon : Premier test d'intelligence, inventée en 1905 par Binet et Simon. = test d'intelligence Binet-Simon, le Binet-Simon, échelle métrique d'intelligence.

  Voir aussi Test d'intelligence
Test de Cochran : Test statistique non-paramétrique d'analyse des données binaires développé par Cochran. Il permet de tester l'hypothèse que k échantillons appariés de fréquences ou de proportions proviennent de la même population. Cochran Q-test.
  SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Test de comparaison : Test statistique qui permet de comparer l'homoscédascité de deux échantillons. Il permet d'estimer si les différentes sous-catégories d'une variable de distribution normale ont la même variance. Bartlett test.

  Voir aussi Test statistique et Homoscédascité
Tests de conformité : ( ):

  ANSCOMBE, F. (1963). Tests of goodness of fit. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society B, 25, 81-94.
Test de contingence : = coefficient de contingence.

  GOULET, C. (2003). Tutoriel SPSS/Comment calculer un coefficient de contingence. Montréal : Collège Ahuntsic. [Disponible sur ce site]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Test de continuité de Yates : Yates continuity correction.

  CONOVER, W.J. (1974). Some reasons for not using the Yates continuity correction on 2 x 2 Contingency Tables. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 69, 374-382.
Test de corrélation : Test statistique développé par Pearsons, à partir du concept de variation proposé par Galton, qui permet de mesurer l'intensité d'un lien linéaire entre deux ou plusieurs variables quantitatives (= corrélation). = corrélation de Pearson, coefficient R. Correlation.

  FISHER, R.A. (1921). On the "probable error" of a coefficient of correlation deduced from a small sample. Metron, 4, 1-32.
GOULET, C. (2003). Tutoriel SPSS/Comment calculer un coefficient de corrélation. Montréal : Collège Ahuntsic. [Disponible sur ce site]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Corrélation et Test statistique
Test de Cramer-Von Mises : Test d'ajustement.

  SMIRNOV, N.V. (1959). On the Cramer-Von Mises criterion. Uspekhi Matematicheskikh Nauk, 14, 196-197.
Voir aussi Test d'ajustement
Test de dépression : Voir Mesure et évaluation de la dépression.
  Voir aussi Mesure et évaluation de la dépression
Test de différence d'aptitude : Ensemble de tests qui permettent de mesurer les différences d'aptitude. DAT.

  Voir aussi aptitude
Test de dépistage des retards de développement : Cette famille de tests psychologiques confie aux parents le soin de dépister les retards de développement de leurs enfants. ( ): Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status (PEDS). Developmental Screening Test, screening for developmental delay.
  GLASCOE, F.P., MARTIN, E.D. & HUMPHREY, S. (1999). A comparative review of developmental screening tests. Pediatric, 86, 547-554.
SQUIRES, J., BRICKER, D. & POTTER, L. (1997). Revision of a parent-completed development screening tool : Ages and Stages Questionnaires. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 22, 313-328.
GLASCOE, F.P. (1999). The validation and standardization of Parents' Evaluations of Developmental Status. Diagnostique, 23, 185-203.
MALHI, P. & SINGH, P. (2002). Role of Parents' Evaluation of Developmental Status in detecting developmental delay in young children. Indian Pediatrics, 39, 271-275.
BROTHERS, K.B., GLASCOE, F.P. & ROBERTSHAW, N.S. (2008). PEDS: developmental milestones - an accurate brief tool for surveillance and screening. Clinical Pediatrics, 47, 271-279.
LIMBOS, M.M. & JOYCE, D.P. (2011). Comparison of the ASQ and PEDS in screening for developmental delay in children presenting for primary care. Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, 32 (7), 1-13. [PDF]
Voir aussi Test psychologique
Test de Duncan : Test statistique post-hoc élaboré par Duncan. Duncan's new multiple range test.

  DUNCAN, D.B. (1955). Multiple range and multiple F tests. Biometrics, 11 (1), 1-42.
Voir aussi Duncan et Test statistique
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Test de Dunnett :

  DUNNETT, C.W. (1955). A multiple comparisons procedure for comparing several treatments with a control. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 50, 1096-1121.
DUNNETT, C.W. (1964). New tables for multiple comparisons with a control. Biometrics, 20 (3), 482-491.

Voir aussi Test statistique
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Test de Fisher-Yates : Test statistique non-paramétrique.

  YATES, F. (1934). Contingency tables involving small numbers and the χ2 test. Supplement. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 1, 217-235.
Voir aussi Test statistique non-paramÉtrique
Test de Fligner-Kileen : Test statistique non-paramétrique de comparaison de variances pour la sous-catégorie des variables continues.

  FLIGNER, M.A. & KILLEEN, T.J. (1976). Distribution-free two sampls tests for scale. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 71 (353), 210-213.
Voir aussi Test statistique non-paramétrique
Test de frustration de Rosenzweig (P-F) : Test projectif, inventé par Rosenzweig, qui comporte 24 mises en situation mettant en scène deux personnages et des phylactères que le répondant doit remplir pour donner un sens à ce qu'il voit. Rosenzweig Picture Frustration (P-F).
  ROSENZWEIG, S. (1945). The picture-association method and its application in a study of reactions to frustration. Journal of Personality, 14 (1), 3-23. ROSENZWEIG, S. & ROSENZWEIG, L. (1952). Aggression in problem children and normals as evaluated by the Rosenzweig P-F Study. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 47 (3), 683-687.
CLARKE, H.J. & ROSENZWEIG, S. (1945). The reliability of the scoring of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 3 (4), 364-370. LINDZEY, G. & GOLDWYN, R.M. (1954). Validity of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. Journal of Personality, 22 (4), 519-547.
ROSENZWEIG, S. (1945). Frustration tolerance and the picture frustration study. Psychological Service Center Journal, 2, 109115. PICHOT, P.et DANJON, S. (1955). La fidélité du test de frustration de Rosenzweig. Revue de Psychologie Appliquée, 5, 1-11.
ROSENZWEIG, S., CLARKE, H.J., GARFIELD, M.S. & LENDORFF, A. (1946). Scoring Samples for the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary & Applied, 21 (1), 45-72. PAREEK, U.N. (1958). Reliability of the Indian adaptation of scoring of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study (children's form). Journal of the Psychologial Reseaeches, 2, 18-23.
ROSENZWEIG, S., FLEMING, E.E. & CLARKE, H.J. (1947). Revised scoring manual for the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary & Applied, 24 (2), 165-208. ROSENZWEIG, S. (1960). Rosenzweig Picture Frustration (P-F) Study children's form. In A.I. Rabin & M. Haworth (Eds.), Projective technique with children (pp. 149-176). New York : Grune & Stratton.
CLARKE, H.J., FLEMING, E.E. & ROSENZWEIG, S. (1947). The reliability of the scoring of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 3, 364-370. ROSENZWEIG, S., LUDWIG, D.J. & ADELMAN, S. (1975). Retest reliability of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study and similar semiprojective techniques. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39 (1), 3-12.
ROSENZWEIG, S., FLEMING, E.E. & ROSENZWEIG, L. (1948). The children's form of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. The Journal of Psychology : Interdisciplinary & Applied, 26 (1), 141-191. ROSENZWEIG, S. (1976). Aggressive behavior and the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration (P-F) study. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 32 (4), 885-891.
BERNARD, J. (1949). The Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration evaluation. The Journal of Psychology : Interdisciplinary & Applied, 28 (2), 325-332. ROSENZWEIG, S. & ADELMAN, S. (1977). Construct validity of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41 (6), 578-588.
ROSENZWEIG, S. (1950). Levels of behavior in psychodiagnosis with special reference to the Picture-Frustration Study. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 20, 63-72. ROSENZWEIG, S. (1978). An investigation of the reliablitiy of the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration (P-F) Study children's form. Journal of Personality Assessment, 42, 483-488.
LINDZEY, G. (1950). An experimental test of the validity of Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. Journal of Personality, 18, (3), 315-320. ROSENZWEIG, S. (1978). Aggresive behavior and the Rosenzweig Picture Frustration (P-F) Study. New York : praeger.
ROSENZWEIG, S. (1950). Revised norms for the adult form of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. Journal of Personality, 18 (3), 344-346 ROSENZWEIG, S. (1978). The Rosenzweig Picture Frustration (P-F) Study. St. Louis : Rana House.
Voir aussi Rosenzweig et Test projectif
Test de Hue : Test of hue memory.

  BURNHAM, R.W. & CLARKE, J.R. (1955). A test of hue memory. Journal of Applied Psychology, 39 (3), 164-172.
Test de Jarque-Bera : Test statistique de normalité.

  JARQUE C.M. & BERA, A.K. (1987). A test for normality of observations and regression residuals. International Statistical Review 55, 163-172.
Voir aussi Test statistique de normalité
Test de Kappa : Voir Kappa (coefficient de...).
Test de Klotz : Test statistique non-paramétriquequi consiste à comparer K échantillons indépendants. Klotz scale test.

  KLOTZ, J. (1962). Nonparametric tests for scale.The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 33 (2), 498-512. [PDF]
KARAMAN, F. (2009). Generalisation of Klotz'S test. Journal of applied Sciences, 9 (16), 2916-2924. [PDF]
Voir aussi Test statistique non-paramétrique
Test de Kolmogorov-Smirnov : Test statistique de normalité développé par Smirnov. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, K-S test.

  SMIRNOV, N.V. (1939). Estimate of deviation between empirical distribution function in two independent samples. Bulletin Mathématique de Mouscou, 2 (2), 3-16.
SMIRNOV, N.V. (1948). Table for estimating the goodneess of fit of empirical distributions. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics 19, 279-281
GOODMAN, L.A. (1954). Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests for psychological research. Psychological Bulletin, 51 (2), 160-168.
FASANO, G. & FRANCESCHINI, A. (1987). A multidimensional version of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 225, 155-170.
HASSANI, H. & SIRIMAL-SILVA, E. (2015). A Kolmogorov-Smirnov based test for comparing the predictive accuracy of two sets of forecasts. Econometrics, 3, 590-609. [PDF]
MAGEL, R.C. & WIBOWO, S.H. (1997). Comparing the powers of the Wald-Wolfowitz and Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests. Biometrical Journal, 39 (6), 665-675.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Smirnov et Statistique de normalité
Test de Kruskal-Wallis : Test statistique non-paramétrique développé par Kruskal et Wallis. Il est utilisé lorsqu'il faut décider si k échantillons indépendants sont issus de la même population. Il permet aussi de comparer la moyenne des rangs des données de groupes indépendants. Test de Kruskal-Wallis et test de Friedman. = ANOVA univariée sur les rangs, Anova avec données ordinales. Kruskal-Wallis 1 way anova.
  KRUSKAL, W. & WALLIS, W.A. (1952). Use of ranks in one-criterion variance analysis. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 47 (260), 583-621.
RUXTON, G.D. & BEAUCHAMP, G. (2008). Some suggestions about appropriate use of the Kruskal-Wallis test. Animal Behaviour, 76, 1083-1087.
Voir aussi Kruskal et Wallis. Test statistique non-paramétrique
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.  
Test de Kuiper : Test statistique non-paramétrique.

  Voir aussi Test statistique non-paramétrique
Test de Lehmann : Test statistique.

  GHOSH, B.K. (1972). On Lehmann' test for of homogeneity of variances. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series C 34, 221-234.
Voir aussi Test statistique non-paramétrique
Test de la médiane : Test paramétrique. Median test.
  SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Test paramétrique
Test de la personnalité : Ensemble de tests objectifs et projectifs qui permet d'évaluer les diverses facettes de la personnalité. ( ): test objectif, test projectif, MMPI, Échelle F, 16 pf, TAT, test de Rorschach. Personality scales.
  CATTELL, R.B. (1952). Objective personality tests : A reply to Dr. Eysenck. Occupational Psychology, 38, 69-86.
MEEHL, P.E. (1945). The dynamics of "structured" personality tests. In L.D. Goodstein & R.I. Lanyon (Eds.), Readings in personality assessment (pp. 245-253). New York : Wiley. [PDF]
GOLDBERG, L.R. (1971). A historical survey of personality scales and inventories. In P. McReynolds (Ed.), Advances in psychological assessment (Vol. 2, pp. 293-336). Palo Alto, CA : Science and Behavior Books.
Voir aussi Tests objectifs et projectifs
Test de la falaise visuelle : Voir Falaise visuelle.
Test de lecture : Forme d'examen composé de questions à choix multiples ou de questions ouvertes, qui permet d'évaluer les apprentissages réalisées grâce aux lectures faites dans le cadre d'un cours, d'une formation. Le test peut se faire en classe ou à la maison via internet. Test de lecture, examen et jeu questionnaire. Quizz, quizzes on the Web, nettest, out-of-class quizzes internet quizzes, online study question.

  CLASS, E.C. (1935). The effect of test announcement on students preparation. Journal of Educational Research, 28, 358-361. WHITE, R.J. & HAMMER, C.A. (2000). Quiz-o-Matic : A free Web-based tool for construction of self-scoring on-line quizzes. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 32 (2), 250-253. [PDF]
  THORNE, B.M. (2000). Extra credit exercise: A painless pop quiz. Teaching of Psychology, 27, 204-205.
FITCH, M.L., DRUCKER, A.J. & NORTON, J.A. (1951). Frequent testing as a motivating factor in large lecture classes, Journal of Educational Psychology, 42, 1-20. CONNOR-GRENE, P.A. (2000). Assessing and promoting student learning: Blurring the line between teaching and testing. Teaching of Psychology, 27 (2), 84-88.
STANDLEE, L.S. & PASHAN, W.J. (1960). "Quizzes" contribution to learning.Journal of Educational Psychology, Vol. 51, pp. 322-325. BROTHEN, T. & WAMBACH, C. (2001). Effective student use of computerized quizzes. Teaching of Psychology, 28 (4), 292-294.
OLSEN, R.E., WEBER, L.J. & DORNER, J.L. (1968). Quizzes as teaching aids. Journal of Medical Education, 43, 941-942. WILDER, D.A., FLOOD, W.A & STROMESNES, W. (2001). The use of random extra credit quizzes to increase student attendance. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 28, 117-120.
MAWHINNEY, V.T., BOSTOW, D.E., LAWS, D.R., BLUMENFELD, G.J. & HOPKINS, B.J. (1971). A comparison of students studying behavior produced by daily, weekly, and three week testing schedules. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 4 (4), 257-264. [PDF] MAKI, W.S. & MAKI, R.H. (2001). Mastery quizzes on the Web : Results from a Web-based introductory psychology course. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 33, 212-216.
MARTIN, R.R. & SRIKAMESWARAN, K. (1974). Correlation between frequent testing and student performance. Journal of Chemical Education, 51, (7), 485-486. ZHANG, J., COOLEY, D.H. & NI, Y. (2001). NetTest : An integrated web-based test tool. International Journal of Educational Telecommunication, 7, 33-55.
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Voir aussi Examen, Réussite scolaire et Jeu questionnaire
Test de Levene : Test d'homogénéité des variances, développé par Levene, qui permet d'évaluer si les variances de deux populations sont égales ou non. Levene's test.
  CARROLL R.J. & SCHNEIDEIR, H. (1985). A note on Levene's tests for equality of variances. Statistics & Probability Letters 3, 191-194.
LEVENE, H. (1990). Robust tests for equality of variances. In I. Olkin (Ed.), Contributions to probability and statistics (pp. 278-292). Palo Alto, California : Stanford University Press.
GASTWIRTH, J.L., GEL, Y.L. & MIAO, W. (2009). The impact of Levene's test of equality of variances on statistical theory and practice. Statistical Science, 24 (3), 343-360.
Voir aussi Test d'homogénéité et Levene
 
Test de Luria-Nebraska : Batterie de tests objectifs qui permet d'évaluer la santé neurocognitive d'un patient. Luria-Nebraska, neuropsychological battery, LNNB.
  Voir aussi Test objectif
Test de Mann-Whitney : Test statistique non-paramétrique proposé par Wilcoxon, Mann et Whitney. Test U de Mann-Whitney.

   WILCOXON, F. (1945). Individual comparisons by ranking methods. Biometrics Bulletin, 1 (6), 80-83.
MANN, H.B. & WHITNEY, D.R. (1945). On a test of whether one of two random variables is stochastically larger than the other. The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 18 (1), 50-56.
NEWCOMBE, R.G. (2006). Confidence intervals for an effect size measure based on the Mann-Whitney statistic. Part 1: General issues and tail-area-based methods. Statistics in Medicine, 25, 543-557.
NEWCOMBE, R.G. (2006). Confidence intervals for an effect size measure based on the Mann-Whitney statistic. Part 2: Asymptotic methods and evaluation. Statistics in Medicine, 25, 559-573.
DE WINTER, J.C.F. & DODOU, D. (2012). Five-point Likert items : t test versus Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 15 (11), 1-16. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Test de McNemar : Le McNemar est un Khi-deux à mesures répétées. Test statistique non-paramétrique développé par McNemar. McNemar test.