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VACHER - VAILLANT - VAL - VALEUR - VALIDITÉ - VAN - VAR - VARIABLE - VARIATION - VE - VI - VIOLENCE - VO - VR - VYGOTSKY
Vacances : Summer vacation.

  COOPER, H.M., NYE, B., CHARLTON, K., LINDSEY, J. & GREATHOUSE, S. (1996). The effects of summer vacation on student achievement test scores : A meta-analytic and narrative review. Review of Educational Research, 66, 227-268.
SCHAFFNER, E., SCHIEFELE, U. & ULFERTS, H. (2016). The contributions of intrinsic and extrinsic reading motivation to the development of reading competence over summer vacation. Reading Psychology, 37, 917-941. [PDF]
Vaccin/Vaccination : Vaccination.

  TADDIO, A., NULMAN, I., GOLDBACH, M. & IPP, M. (1994). Use of lidocaine-prilocaine cream for vaccination pain in infants. Journal of Pediatrics, 124, 643-648. PRESSMAN, S., COHEN, S., MILLER, G.E., BARKIN, A., RABIN, B.S. & TREANOR, J.J. (2005). Loneliness, social network size, and immune response to influenza vaccination in college freshmen. Health Psychology, 24, 297-306. [PDF]
LEHRKE, P., NUEBLING, M., HOFMANN, F. & STOESSEL, U. (2001). Attitudes of homoeopathic physicians towards vaccination. Vaccine, 19, 4859-4864. NORMAND, M.P. & DALLERY, J. (2007). Mercury rising : Exposing the vaccine- autism myth. Skeptic, 13, 32-36. [PDF]
POLAND, G. (2001). Understanding those who do not understand : A brief review of the anti-vaccine movement. Vaccine 19, 2440-5. BREWER, N.T., CHAPMAN, G.B., GIBBONS, F. X., GERARD, M., McCAUL, K.D. & WEINSTEIN, N.D. (2007). A meta- analysis of the relationship between risk perception and health behavior : The example of vaccination. Health Psychology, 26, 136-145.
STEHR-GREEN P., TULL P., STELLFELD M., MORTENSON P.B. & SIMPSON D. (2003). Autism and thimerosal-containing vaccines : Lack of consistent evidence for an association. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 25, 101-106. BREWER, N.T., WEINSTEIN, N.D., CUITE, C.L. & HERRINGTON, J.E. (2007). Risk compensation and vaccination : Can getting vaccinated cause people to engage in risky behaviors ? Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 34, 95-99.
GEIAR, M.R. & GEIAR, D.A. (2003). Thimerosal in childhood vaccines. Neurodevelopment disorders and heart disease in the United States. Journal of American Physicians & Surgeons, 8, 6-11. WEINSTEIN, N.D., KWITEL, A., McCAUL, K.D., MAAGNAN, R.E., GERARD, M. & GIBBONS, F.X. (2007). Risk perception : Assessment and relationship to influenza vaccination. Health Psychology, 26, 146-151.
HVIID, A., STELLFELD, M., WOHTFAHRT, J. & MELBYE, M. (2003). Association between thimerosal-containing vaccines and autism. Journal of the American Medical Association, 290, 1763-1766. DE BLOOM, J., KOMPIER, M., GEURTS, S., de WEERTH, C., TARI, T. & SONNENTAG, S. (2009). Do we recover from vacation? Meta-analysis of vacation effect. Journal of Occupational Health, 51 (1), 13-25. [PDF] + [PDF]
  KAHAN, D. M., BRAMAN, D., COHEN, G.L., GASTIL, J. & SLOVIC, P. (2010). Who fears the HPV vaccine, who doesn't, and why? an experimental study of the mechanisms of cultural cognition. Law & Human Behavior, 34, 501-516.
  BETSCH, C., RENKEWITZ, F., BETSCH, T. & ULSHÖFER, C. (2010). The influence of vaccine-critical websites on perceiving vaccination risks. Journal of Health Psychology, 15, 446-455.
MILLER, G.E., COHEN, S., PRESSMAN, S., BARKIN, A., RABIN, B.S. & TREANOR, J. (2004). Psychological stress and antibody response to influenza vaccination : When is the critical period for stress, and how does it get inside the body ? Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 207-214. [LIRE] O'KEEFE, D.J. & NAN, X. (2012). The relative persuasiveness of gain-and-loss-framed messages for promoting vaccination : A meta-analytic review. Health Communication, 27, 776-783.
  BETSCH, C. & SACHSE, K. (2013). Debunking vaccination myths : Strong risk negations can increase perceived vaccination risks. Health Psychology, 32, 146-155.
  BERAN T.N., RAMIREZ-SERRANO, A., VANDERKOOI, O. & KUHN, S. (2013). Reducing children's distress towards flu vaccinations : A novel and effective use of humanoid robotics. Vaccine, 31 (25), 2772-2777.
  JOLLEY, D. & DOUGLAS, K.M. (2014). The effects of anti-vaccine conspiracy theories on vaccination intentions. PLoS One, 9 (2), 1-9. [PDF]
  LARSON, H.J., JARRETT, C., ECKERSBERGER, E., SMITH, D.M.D. & PATERSON, P. (2014). Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: A systematic review of published literature, 2007-2012. Vaccine, 32, 2150-2159.
  BROWNE, M., THOMSON, P., ROCKLOFF, M.J. & PENNYCOOK, G. (2015). Going against the herd : Psychological and cultural factors underling the vaccination confidence gap. PLoS One, 10 [9], 1-14. [PDF]
  HORNSEY, M.J., HARRIS, E.A. & FIELDING, K.S. (2018). The Psychological roots of anti-vaccination attitudes : A 24-nation investigation. Health Psychology, 37 (4), 307-315. [PDF]
Vache : Animal herbivore de la classe des mammifères. Cattle, cow.
  GRANDIN, T. (1980). Observations of cattle behavior applied to the design of cattle handling facilities. Applied Animal Ethology, 6, 19.
KONDO, S., SEKINE, J., OKUBO, M. & ASAHIDA. Y. (1989). The effect of group size and space allowance on the agonistic and spacing behavior of cattle. Applied Animal Behavior. Science, 24 (2), 127-135.
GRANDIN, T. (1993). Agitated wild behaviour is persistent over time in exotic crossbred cattle. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 36, 1-9.
ALBRIGHT, J.L. & ARAVE, C.W. (1997). The behaviour of cattle. CAB International. Cambridge, UK.
GRANDIN, T. (2001). Cattle vocalizations are associated with handling and equipment problems at beef slaughter plants. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 71, 191-200.
GRANDIN, T. (2001). Welfare of cattle during slaughter and the prevention of nonambulatory (downer) cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 219, 1377-1382.
Voir aussi Mammifère et Animal de ferme
 
Vacher (L'oiseau) Vacher (Le philosophe)
Vacher (Molothrus ater) : Oiseau. Cowbird.
  FREEBERG, T.M. (1998). The cultural transmission of courtship patterns in cowbirds. Molothrus ater. Animal Behaviour, 56, 1063–1073. [PDF]
WINFREE, R. (1999). Cuckoos, cowbirds and the persistence of brood parasitism. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14, 338-343.
SMITH, V.A., KING, A.P. & WEST, M.J. (2002). The context of social learning : association patterns in a captive flock of brown-headed cowbirds. Animal Behaviour, 63, 23-35. [PDF]
WHITE, D.J., GROS-LOUIS, J., KING, A.P., PAPAKHIAN, M.A. & WEST, M.J. (2007). Constructing culture in cowbirds (Molothrus ater). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 121 (2), 113-122. [PDF]
Voir aussi Oiseau
Vacher Laurent-Michel (1944-2005 Montréal) : Philosophe, essayiste, vulgarisateur scientifique québécois, d'origine française, et professeur au Collge Ahuntsic. Partisan d'une philosophie scientifique. Vacher et Bunge.
VACHER, L.M. (2000). La passion du réel; la philosophie devant les sciences. Montréal : Liber.
VACHER, L.M. (1993). Entretiens avec Mario Bunge : une philosophie pour l'âge de la science. Montréal : Liber.
VACHER, L.M. (1984). Pour un matérialisme vulgaire. Montréal : Les Herbes rouges.
VACHER, L.M., MARTIN, J.C. et DAOUST, M.J. (2003). Débats philosophiques : une initiation. Montréal : Liber.
VACHER, L.M. (2004). Le crépuscule d'une idole : Nietzsche et la pensée fasciste. Montréal : Liber.
Vaes Jeroen Andre Filip ( ) : Psychosociologue belge et spécialiste de l'étude des émotions et de l'humanisation. Collaborateur de Leyens.
VAES, J., PALADINO, M.P. & LEYENS, J.P. (2002). The lost e-mail: Prosocial reactions induced by uniquely human emotions. British Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 521-534.
VAES, J., PALADINO, M.P. & LEYENS, J.P. (2004). Prise de perspective et expression d'émotions typiquement humaines: Dessiner un E sur le front/Perspective taking in an intergroup context and the use of uniquely human emotions : Drawing an E on your forehead. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 17 (3), 5-26.
VAES, J., PALADINO, M.P. & LEYENS, J.P. (2006). Priming uniquely human emotions and the in-group (but not the out-group) activates humanity concepts. European Journal of Social Psychology, 36, 169-181.
VAES, J., PALADINO, M.P. & PUVIA, E. (2011). Are sexualized women complete human beings ? Why males and females dehumanize sexually objectified women. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 774-785.
VAES, J., LEYENS, J.P., PALADINO, M.P. & MIRANDA, M.P. (2012). We are human, they are not: Driving forces behind outgroup dehumanisation and the humanisation of the ingroup. European Review of Social Psychology, 23 (1), 64-106. [PDF]
Vagin : Partie de l'appareil génital féminin. Vagina.

   CANTWELL, H.B. (1983). Vaginal inspection as it relates to child sexual abuse in girls under 13. Child Abuse & Neglect, 7, 171-176.
 CANTWELL, H.B. (1987). Update on vaginal inspection as it relates to child sexual abuse in girls under 13. Child Abuse & Neglect, 4, 545-546.
Voir aussi Femme
Vaginisme : Dysfonction sexuelle. Vaginismus.

   FERTEL, N.S. (1977). Vaginismus : A review. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 3 (2), 113- 121.
BINIK, Y.M., BERGERON, S. & KHALIFE, S. (2007). Dyspareunia and vaginismus : So-called sexual pain. In S.R. Leiblum (Ed.), Principles and practice of sex therapy (pp. 124-156). New York : Guilford Press.
BINIK, Y.M. (2009). The DSM diagnostic criteria for vaginismus. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39 (2), 278-291.
 BOYER, S.C., DARGIE, E. & PUKALL, C.F. (2010). Vaginismus : A true disorder. The Female Patient, 35, 36-41. [PDF]
Voir aussi Dysfonction sexuelle et Femme
Vague (Troisième) : Voir Thérapie comportementale et cognitive (La troisième vague). Third wave of behavioral therapie.
Vaillant George Eman (New York 1934-) : Psychiatre américain spécialisé dans l'étude du développement de l'adulte. S'inspirant des mécanismes de défense du moi, il a développé une théorie du développement qui s'appuie sur le principe des mécanismes d'adaptation.
VAILLANT G.E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston, MA : Little, Brown.
VAILLANT G.E. (1983). Natural history of alcoholism. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
VAILLANT G.E. (1992). Ego mechanisms of defense : A guide for clinicians and researchers. Washington, DC : American Psychiatric Press.
VAILLANT G.E. (1993). The wisdom of the ego. Cambridge : Harvard University Press.
VAILLANT G.E. (2002). Aging well. Boston : Little Brown.
VALEUR - VALIDITÉ - VALIDITÉ D'UNE RECHERCHE - VALIDITÉ D'UNE MESURE - VALINS - VALLERAND - VAN - VAR
Valence : Valeur positive ou négative d'un phénomène, notamment l'attraction personnelle (ou d'une émotion). Valence.

  VAN DER PLIGT, J. (1984). Attributions, false consensus and valence : Two field studies. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 46, 57-68. [PDF]
GUIMELLI, C. (1995). Valence et structure des représentations sociales. Bulletin de Psychologie, 49(422), 58-72.
DELGADO, M.R., LOCKE, H.M., STENGER, V.A. & FIEZ, J.A. (2003). Dorsal striatum responses to reward and punishment : Effects of valence and magnitude manipulations. Behavioral Neuroscience, 3 (1), 27-38.
Valentino Nicholas A. ( ) : Politologue américain. Collaborateur de Sears et Zuckerman.
VALENTINO, N.A. (1999). Crime news and the priming of racial attitudes during evaluations of the president. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 63 (3), 293-320.
VALENTINO, N.A. & SEARS, D.O. (2005). Old Times There Are Not Forgotten: Race and Partisan Realignment in the Contemporary South. American Journal of Political Science, 49 (3), 672-688.
VALENTINO, N.A., HUTCHINGS, V.L., BANKS, A.J. & DAVIS, A.K. (2008). Is a worried citizen a good citizen ? Emotions, political information seeking, and learning via the internet. Political Psychology, 29 (2), 247-273.
VALENTINO, N.A., GREGOROWICZ, K. & GROENENDYK, E.W. (2009). Efficacy, emotions and the habit of participation. Political Behavior, 31, 307-330.
VALENTINO, N.A., BRASER, T., GROENENDYK, E. W., GREGOROWICZ, K. & HUTCHINGS, V.L., (2011). Election night's alright for fighting: The role of emotions in political participation. Journal of Politics, 73 (1), 156-170.
Valeur : Importance - chiffrée ou non - que l'on accorde à une chose, à un comportement. Value.

Types de valeur
Valeur (personnelle) Valeur de P Valeur nominale
Valeur adaptative Valeur de vérité Valeur renforçante
Valeur aléatoire Valeur Eigen Valeur monétaire
Valeur au livre (valeur comptable) Valeur heuristique Valeur scientifique
Valeur chiffrée Valeur immobilière Valeur scolaire
Valeur d'un groupe Valeur mobilière Valeur sélective
 

Valeur (personnelle) : En psychologie et en sociologie, importance (généralement élevée) qu'un individu ou un groupe accorde à un comportement ou à une idée (cognition). EX: Le mariage, le travail, la famille, la religion, la franchise, etc. Valeur, culture et norme. = idéal personnel, idéal social. Value, social value.

  TARDE, G. (1888). Les deux sens de la valeur. Revue d'économie politique, 2, 526-540/561-576. BILSKY, W. & KOCH, M. (2000). On the content and structure of values : universals or methodological artefacts ? In J. Blasius, J. Hox, E. deLeeuw & P. Schmidt (Eds.), Social science methodology in the New Millennium. Cologne, Germany. Leverkusen : Leske + Budrich. [PDF]
DEWEY, J. (1913). The problems of value. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology & Scientific Methods 10, 268-269. [LIRE] TYLER, T.R., LIND, E.A. & HUO, Y.J. (2000). Cultural values and authority relations : The psychology of conflict resolution across cultures. Psychology, Public Policy & Law, 6, 1138-1163.
THURSTONE, L.L. (1927). The method of paired comparisons for social values. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 21, 384-400. [LIRE] PRENTICE, D.A. (2000). "Values" and "norms". In A.E. Kazdin (Eds.), Encyclopedia of psychology. New York : Oxford University Press.
ALLPORT, G.W. & VERNON, P.E. (1931). Study of values : A scale for measuring the dominant interests in personality. Boston : Houghton Mifflin. BARON, J. & LESHNER, S. (2000). How serious are expressions of protected values ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : Applied, 6 (3), 183-194.
VERNON, P.E. & ALLPORT, G.W. (1931). A test for personal values. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 26 (3), 231-248.  
BRUNER, J.S. & GOODMAN, C.C. (1947). Value and need as organizing factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 42, 33-44.  
POSTMAN, L.J., BRUNER, J.S. & McGINNIES, E. (1948). Personal values as selective factors in perception. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 18, 142-154. BUSS, D.M. SHACKELFORD, T.K., KIRKPATRICK, L.A. & LARSEN, R.J. (2001). A half century of mate preferences : The cultural evolution of values. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 63, 491-502. [PDF]
LAVELLE, L. (1950/91). Traité des valeurs. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. SCHWARTZ, S.H. & BARDI, A. (2001). Value hierarchies across cultures : Taking a similarities perspective. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 32, 268-290.
ARROW, K.J. (1951). Social choice and individual values. New Haven, CT : Yale University Press. MAIO, G.R., OLSON, J.M., ALLEN, L. & BERNARD, M.M. (2001). Addressing discrepancies between values and behavior : The motivating effect of reasons. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37, 104-117. [PDF]
THURSTONE, L.L. (1954). The measurement of value. Psychological Review, 61 47-58. [LIRE]  
PENNEY, R.K. (1960). On a distinction between fact versus value in child psychology. Ontario Psychological Association Quarterly, 13, 92-94.  
ALLPORT, G.W., LINDZEY, G. & VERNON, P.E. (1960). Manuel, study of values. Cambridge : Houghton Mifflin.  
WALLACH, M.A. & WING, C. (1968). Is risk a value ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 9, 101-106.  
ROKEACH, M. (1968). Beliefs, attitudes, and values. San Francisco, Jossey-Bass.  
ALLPORT, G.W., VERNON, P.E. & LINDZEY, G (1970). Study of values. New York : Houghton Mifflin.  
SOLOMON, D., ALI, F., KFIR, D., HOULIHAN, K. & YAEGER, J. (1972). The development of democratic values and behavior among Mexican-American children. Child Development, 43, 625-683.  
ROKEACH, M. (1973). The nature of human values. New York : Free Press. FEATHER, N.T. (2002). Values and value dilemmas in relation to judgments concerning outcomes of an industrial conflict. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 (4), 446-459.
HENRY, W.A. (1976). Cultural values do correlate with consumer behavior. Journal of Marketing Research, 13, 121-127.  
GARVIN, B.J. (1976). Values of male nursing students. Nursing Research, 25, 352-357.  
HURKA, S.J. (1980). Business administration students in five Canadian universities : A study of values. The Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 10 (1), 84-93. [PDF]  
TRIANDIS, H.C. (1980). Values, attitudes and interpersonal behavior. In M.M. Page (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation : Beliefs, attitudes and values. Lincoln : University of Nebraska Press. RENNER, W. (2002). Human values : a lexical perspective. Personality & Individual Differences, 34, 127-141.
LEPPER, M.R. (1983). Social-control processes and the internalization of social values : An attributional perspective. In E.T. Higgins, D.N. Ruble & W.W. Hartup (Eds.), Social cognition and social development (pp. 294-330). New York : Cambridge University Press. ECCLES, J.S. & WIGFIELD, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132. [PDF]
SCHWARTZ, S.H. & BILSKY, W. (1987). Toward a universal psychological structure of human values. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 53, 550-562. MAIO, G.R. (2002). Values - Truth. The Psychologist, 15 (6), 296-299. [PDF]
KRISTIANSEN, C.M. & ZANNA, M.P. (1988). Justifying attitudes by appealing to values : a functional perspective. British Journal of Social Psychology, 27, 247-256. ECCLES, J.S. & WIGFIELD, A. (2002). Motivational beliefs, values, goals. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 109-132. [PDF]
SCHWARTZ, S.H. & STRUCH, N. (1989). Values, stereotypes and intergroup antagonism. In D. Bar-tal, C.F. Graumann, A.W. Kruglanski & W. Stroebe (Eds.), Stereotyping and prejudice (pp. 151-167). New York : Springer-Verlag. GOODWIN, R. & TINKER, M. (2002). Value priorities and preference for a relationship partner. Personality & Individual Differences, 32, 1339-1349. [PDF]
BIERNAT, M. (1989). Achievement motives and values : Different constructs with different effects. Journal of Personality, 57, 69-95. STRUCH, N., SCHWARTZ, S.H. & VAN DER KLOOT, W.A. (2002). Meanings of basic values for women and men : a cross-cultural analysis. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28 (1), 16-28.
LEVINE, J.M. & MORELAND, R.L. (1989). Social values and multiple outcome comparisons. In N. Eisenberg, J., Reykowski & E. Staub (Eds.), Social and moral values : Individual and societal perspectives (pp. 195-210). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. WOODS, L.N. & JAGERS, R.J. (2003). Are cultural values predictors of moral reasoning in African American adolescents ? Journal of Black Psychology, 29 (1), 102-118.
SCHWARTZ, B. (1990). The creation and destruction of value. American Psychologist, 45, 7-15. [PDF] WACH, M. et HAMMER, B. (2003). La structure des valeurs est-elle universelle ? Paris : L'Harmattan.
ELLIS, A. (1991). Psychotherapy and the value of a human being. New York : Albert Ellis Institute. MAIO, G.R., OLSON, J.M., BERNARD, M. & LUKE, M.A. (2003). Ideologies, values, attitudes, and behavior. In J. DeLamater (Ed.), Handbook of social psychology (pp. 283-308). New York, NY : Kluwer Academic.
BEUTLER, L.E. & BERGAN, J. (1991). Value change in counseling and psychotherapy : A search for scientific credibility. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 16-24. BERNARD, M., MAIO, G.R. & OLSON, J.M. (2003). Effects of introspection about values : Extending research on values as truisms. Social Cognition, 21 (1), 1-25. [PDF]
WEATHERS, P.L., THOMPSON, C.E., ROBERT, S. & RODRIGUEZ, J. (1994). Black college women's career values : A preliminary investigation. Journal of Multicultural Counseling & Development, 22, 96-105. BOND, M.H., LEUNG, K., AU, L., TOMG, K.K. & CHEMONGES-NIELSON, C. (2004). Combining social axioms with values in predicting social behaviours. European Journal of Personality, 18, 177-191. [PDF]
SCHWARTZ, S.H. (1994). Are there universal aspects in the content and structure of values ? Journal of Social Issues, 50, 19-45. [PDF] SCHWARTZ, S.H. & BOEHNKE, K. (2004). Evaluating the structure of human values with confirmatory factor analysis. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 230-255.
KRISTIANSEN, C.M. & ZANNA, M.P. (1994). The rhetorical use of values to justify social and intergroup attitudes. Journal of Social Issues, 50 (4), 47-65. HITLIN, S. & PILIAVIN, J.A. (2004). Current research, methods, and theory of values. Annual Review of Sociology, 30, 359-393.
KRISTIANSEN, C.M. & ZANNA, M.P. (1994). The rhetorical use of values to justify social and intergroup attitudes. Journal of Social Issues, 50 (4), 47-65. ALUJA, A. & GARCIA, L.F. (2004). Relationships between big five personality factors and values. Social Behavior & Personality, 32 (7), 619-626. [PDF]
BILSKY, W. & SCHWARTZ, S.H. (1994). Values and personality. European Journal of Personality, 8, 163-181. SAROGLOU, V., DELPIERRE, V. & DERNELLE, R. (2004). Values and religiosity : A meta-analysis of studies using Schwartz's model. Personality & Individual Differences, 37, 721-734.
MAIO, G.R. & OLSON, J.M. (1994). Value-attitude-behaviour relations : The moderating role of attitude functions. British Journal of Social Psychology, 33, 301-312. FEATHER, N.T. (2005). Values, religion and motivation. In Advances in motivation and achievement: Motivation and religion. (pp. 35-73). Oxford, UK : JAI Press.
KASSER, T., RYAN, R.M., ZAX, M. & SAMEROFF, A.J. (1995). The relations of maternal and social environments to late adolescents' materialistic and prosocial values. Developmental Psychology, 31, 907-914. SCHWARTZ, S.H. & RUBEL, T. (2005). Sex differences in value priorities : Cross-cultural and multi-method studies. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 89, 1010-1028. [PDF]
LUBINSKI, D., SCHMIDT, D.B. & BEMBOW, C.P. (1996). A 20-year stability analysis of the study of values for intellectually gifted individuals from adolescence to adulthood. Journal of Applied Psychology, 81 (4), 443-451. [PDF] CHANGEUX, J.P., DAMASIO, A.R., SINGER, W. & CHRISTEN, Y. (Eds.) (2005). Neurology of human values. Springer.
KRISTIANSEN, C.M. & HOTTE, A.M. (1996). Morality and the self : implications for the when and how of value-attitude-behavior relations. In C. Seligman, J.M., Olson & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values (pp. 77-105). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum. ARIELY, D., LOWENSTEIN, G. & PRELEC, D. (2006). Tom Sawyer and the construction of Value. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 60 1-10. [PDF]
SCHWARTZ, S.H. (1996). Value priorities and behavior : applying a theory of integrated value systems. In C. Seligman, J.M. Olson & M.P. Zanna (Eds.), The psychology of values. (pp. 1-24). Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum. BERNARD, M., GEBAUER, J. & MAIO, G.R. (2006). Cultural estrangement : The role of personal and social value discrepancies. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 78-92. [PDF]
BRETHERTON, I., GOLBY B. & CHO, E. (1997). Attachment and the transmission of values. In J. Grusec and L. Kucszynski (Eds.). Parenting and children's internalization of values (pp. 103-134). New York : Wiley. MALLE, B.F. & DICKERT, S. (2007). Values. In R.F. Baumeister & K.D. Vohs (Eds.), The Encyclopedia of Social Psychology. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
TOOLEY, M. (1998). Values, obligation, and the asymmetry question. Bioethics, 1 (2), 111-124. DE SOUSA, R. (2008). Really, what else is there ? Emotions, value and morality. Critical Quarterly, 50 (4), 12-23. [PDF]
PRIBRAM, K.H. (Ed.) (1998). Brain and values : is a biological science of values possible. Mahwah, N.J. : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. FEATHER, N.T. & McKEE, I.R. (2008). Values and prejudice : predictors of attitudes towards Australian Aborigines. Australian Journal of Psychology, 60 (2), 80-90.
MAIO, G.R. & OLSON, J.M. (1998). Values as truisms : Evidence and implications. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74, 294-311. [PDF] HEAP, S.P.H. & ZIZZO, D.J. (2009). The value of groups. American Economic Review, 99 (1), 295-323. [PDF]
SCHWARTZ, S.H. (1999). A theory of cultural values and some implications for work. Applied Psychology : An International Review, 48 (1), 23-47. [PDF] SCHWARTZ, S.H. & RUBEL-LIFSCHTZ, T. (2009). Cross-national variation in the size of sex differences in values : Effects of gender equality. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 97 (1), 171-185. [PDF]
FEATHER, N.T. (1999). Values, achievement, and justice : Studies in the psychology of deservingness. New York : Plenum. SCHWARTZ, S.H. (2012 An Overview of the Schwartz eory of Basic Values. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2 (1), 1-20. [PDF]
CHAPMAN, G.B. & JOHNSON, E.J. (1999). Anchoring, activation, and the construction of values. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 79, 115-153. KOKESI, E.K. & AGYEMANG, C.B. (2014). Perceived job insecurity and psychological distress : The moderating role of work values. International Journal of Management, Economics & Social Sciences, 3 (1), 18-35. [PDF]
Voir aussi Culture et Norme
Valeur (d'un groupe). : Ensemble des valeurs qui caractérise un groupe (ou le distingunte des autres). Value of group.

  HEAP, S.P.H. & ZIZZO, D.J. (2009). The value of groups. American Economic Review, 99 (1), 295-323. [PDF]
Valeur adaptative : Voir Valeur sélective. Fitness.
Valeur aléatoire : Valeur déterminée par le hasard. Random variable.
Valeur aux livres : Anglicisme. Utilisé plutôt valeur comptable. /Valeur au marché.

 
Valeur chiffrée : En méthodologie, mesure des variations d'un phénomène, de ses propriétés. = donnée brute, résultat chiffré. Value, data.

 
Valeur de P : En statistique, la valeur de P est obtenue au moyen d'un test statistique de signification qui permet de rejeter ou non l'hypothèse nulle d'une recherche. On compare cette valeur au seuil de signification fixé par le chercheur. P correspond à la probabilité de commettre une erreur lorsque l'on prend une décision statistique. Elle correspond au risque de se tromper en rejetant l'hypothèse nulle et, ce faisant, d'affirmer qu'il existe une différence entre les deux groupes/mesures (X1 - X2) de notre étude. Autrement dit, P est la probabilité d'obtenir les résultats observés ou décrits si l'hypothèse nulle est bel est bien vraie. L'étendue de cette erreur se situe toujours entre 0 et 1 (ou 100 % d'erreur). En psychologie, une marge de 5 % est considérée comme acceptable. Cela signifie que lorsque la valeur de P est inférieure à ce seuil, on rejette l'hypothèse nulle qui affirme que X1 = X2; ce faisant on accepte alors l'hypothèse alternative, qui postule l'existence d'une relation entre les deux variables à l'étude. Par contre, si la valeur de P est supérieure à ce seuil, on ne peut rejeter l'hypothèse nulle. Ce non-rejet ne signifie pas que l'hypothèse nulle est acceptée puisque cela reviendrait à dire que X1 est effectivement = à X2 ce que les tests statistiques ne permettent pas d'affirmer. Il convient également de préciser que la valeur P désigne deux types d'erreur : l'erreur alpha et l'erreur beta; par défaut, cette probabilité renvoie à l'erreur alpha. = coefficient de signification, P. P value, p-value.

Décision/Condition/Conclusion/Analyse SI... ALORS... DONC...
Je ne rejette pas l'hypothèse nulle... P > 0.05 %
Il n'y a pas de différence significative entre X1 et X2
X n'influence pas Y
Je rejette l'hypothèse nulle... P < 0.05 %
J'accepte l'hypothese alternative; il y a une différence significative entre X1 et X2
X influence Y

 
FISHER, R.A. (1922). On the interpretation of χ2 from contingency tables, and the calculation of P. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 85, 87–94.  SELLKE, T., BAYARRI, M.J. & BERGER, J.O. (2001). Calibration of p values for testing precise null hypotheses. American Statistician, 55 (1), 62-71. [PDF]
  POOLE, C. (2001). P-values or narrow confidence intervals : which are more durable ? Epidemiology, 12, 291-294.
  BROWNER, W.S. (2003). The reliability of P values. Science, 301, 167-168.
 GIBBONS, J. & PRATT, J. (1975). P values : Interpretation and methodology. The American Statistician, 29, 20–25. SENN, S. (2001). Two cheers for P-values ? Journal of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, 6, 193-204.
 RYAN, T.A. (1985). Ensemble-adjusted p values: How are they to be weighted ? Psychological Bulletin, 97, 521-526. GOODMAN, S. (2003). Commentary : the p-value, devalued. International Journal of Epidemiology, 32, 699-702.
 GARDNER, M.J. & ALTMAN, D. G. (1986). Confidence intervals rather than P values : Estimation rather than hypothesis testing. British Medical Journal, 292, 746-750. [PDF]  MORAN, J.L. & SOLOMON, P.J. (2004). A farewell to P-values ? Critical Care & Resuscitation, 6 (2), 130-137. [PDF]
 BERGER, J.O. & SELLKE, T. (1987). Testing a point null hypothesis : The irreconcilability of p values and evidence. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 82, 112-122. [PDF] IACOBUCCI, D. (2005). On p-values. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 32 (1), 6-11. [PDF]
 WRIGHT, P.S. (1992). Adjusted p- values to simultaneous inference. Biometrics, 48, 1005-111. [PDF]  THOMPSON, B. (2006). Critique of p-values. International Statistical Review, 74 (1), 1-14.
LOFTUS, G.R. (1993). A picture is worth a thousand p values. On the irrelevance of hypothesis testing in the microcomputer age. Behavioral Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 25, 250-256.  HOEKSTRA, R., FINCH, S., KIERS, H.A.L. & JOHNSON, A. (2006). Probability as certainty : Dichotomous thinking and the misuse of p-values. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 13, 1033-1037.
BELHOUSE, D.R. (1993). P values, hypothesis tests, and likelihood. American Journal of Epidemiology, 137, 497-498. CUMMING, G. (2006). Understanding replication : Confidence intervals, p values, and what's likely to happen next time. Proceedings of ICOTS-7, 1-6. [PDF]
COHEN, J. (1994). The earth is round (p < .05). American Psychologist, 49, 997-1003. [PDF] WAGENMAKERS, E.-J. (2007). A practical solution to the pervasive prob- lem of p values. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 14, 779-804.
 ONGHENA P. & MAY, R.B. (1995). Pitfalls in computing and interpreting randomization test p values : A commentary on Chen and Dunlap. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments & Computers, 27, 408-411. CUMMING, G. (2008). Replication and P intervals: P values predict the future only vaguely, but confidence intervals do much better. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 2(4), 86-300. [PDF]
 SCHERVISH, M. (1996). P values: What they are and what they are not. The American Statistician, 50, 203-206. BOURQUE, J., BLAIS, J.-G. et LAROSE, F. (2009). L’interprétation des tests d’hypothèses : p, la taille de l’effet et la puissance. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 35 (1), 211-226. [PDF]
GREENWALD, A.G., GONZALEZ, R., HARRIS, R.J. & GUTHRIE, D.G. (1996). Effect sizes and p-values : What should be reported and what should be replicated ? Psychophsysiology, 33, 175-183. [PDF] FIDLER, F. & LOFTUS, G.R. (2009). Why figures with error bars should replace p values: Some conceptual arguments and empirical demonstrations. Zeitschrift Für Psychologie/Journal of Psychology, 217, 27-37.
FEINSTEIN, A.R. (1998). P-values and confidence intervals: two sides of the same unsatisfactory coin. Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, 51, 355-360. CUMMING, G. (2010). p values versus confidence intervals as warrants for conclusions that results will replicate. In B. Thompson & R. Subotnik (Eds.) Methodologies for conducting research on giftedness (pp. 53-69). Washington, DC : APA Books.
 GOODMAN, S. (1999). Toward evidence-based medical statistics. 1: The P-value fallacy. Annals of Internal Medicine, 130, 995-1004. BOOS, D.D. & STEFANSKI, L.A. (2011).P-Value precision and reproducibility. The American Statistician 65 (4), 213-221.
DONAHUE, R. (1999). A note on information seldom reported via the P value. The American Statistician, 53, 303-306. HUBBARD, R. (2011). The widespread misinterpretation of p-values as error probabilities. Journal of Applied Statistics 38 (11), 2617-2626.
SACORWITZ H. & SAMUEL-CAHN, E. (1999). P values as random variables. The American Statistician, 53, 326-331. LAI, J., FIDLER, F. & CUMMING, G. (2012). Subjective p intervals: Researchers underestimate the variability of p values over replication. Methodology : European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral & Social Sciences, 8, 51-62.
Voir aussi Intervalle de confiance, Seuil de signification et Test d'hypothèse
Valeur de vérité :

Valeur Eigen : = valeur propre d'un vecteur. Eigen values, eigen vector.

WET, D. & MANDL, F. (1950). On the asymptotic distribution of eigenvalue. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series A, Mathematical & Physical Sciences, 200 (1063), 572-580.
GARNER, M. & ENGELHARD, G. (2002). An eigenvector method for estimating item parameters of the dichotomous and polytomous Rasch models. Journal of Applied Measurement, 3 (2), 107-128
Valeur heuristique : En science, on utilise ce mot pour qualifier une théorie féconde, qui permet de découvrir de nouveaux faits ou de formuler de nouvelles explications. Se dit également d'une hypothèse qui donne lieu à de nouvelles recherches. Valeur heuristique et heuristique. = fécondité.

 
Valeur immobillière : Type de titres financiers, qui peut être soit un titre de créance (obligation), soit un titre de propriété (action).

Valeur mobilière :

Valeur monétaire : Voir théorie de l'utilité marginale.

Valeur nominale :

Valeur renforçante : Voir Renforcement
Valeur scolaire : Ensemble des valeurs et des habiletés promues par les autorités scolaires/ministère de l'Éducation, corps enseignant, qui assurent à l'école un haut niveau de qualité.

Valeurs scolaires
Accessibilité Effort  
Capacité de suivre des règles Formalisme Respect de l'autorité morale et intellectuelle
Coopération Pensée critique Rigueur
Créativité Pensée scientifique Sociabilité
Curiosité    
Discipline Précision Travail en équipe
 
 
 
Valeur sélective : Survie x Fécondité. = valeur de survie, valeur adaptative. Fitness, genotypic fitness.

  CARACO, T. (1988). Fitness, currencies, and models : commentary. Behavioral & Brain Sciences 11, 133.
BERAN, M.J., RATLIFF, C.L. & EVANS, T.A. (2009). Natural choice in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) : Perceptual and temporal effects on selective value. Learning & Motivation, 40 (2), 186-196. [PDF]
SILK, J.B. (2007). The adaptative value of sociality in mammalian groups. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 362, 539-559. [PDF]
ELLEGREN, H. & SHELDON, B.C. (2008). Genetic basis of fitness differences in natural populations. Nature Reviews, 452, doi:10.1038/nature06737 [PDF]
Voir aussi Survie et Fécondité
Validation : Procédure méthodologique visant à évaluer la validité d'un outil, d'un test, d'une technique de mesure, d'un questionnaire, etc. Validation.
  VAN ZELST, R.H. (1952). Validation of a sociometric regrouping procedure. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 47, 299-301. PAVOT, W.G., DIENER, E., COLVIN, C.R. & SANDVIK, E. (1991). Further validation of the Satisfaction with Life Scale : Evidence for the cross-method convergence of well-being measures. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 149-161.
CAMPBELL, D.T. & FISKE, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait-multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105. MARTIN, N. K., YIN, Z. & BALDWIN, B. (1998). Construct validation of the attitudes and beliefs on classroom control inventory. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33 (2), 6-15.
VALLERAND, R.J. & HALLIWELL, W.R. (1983). Vers une méthodologie de validation trans-culturelle de questionnaires psychologiques : Implications pour la psychologie du sport. Journal canadien des sciences appliquées au sport, 8, 9-18. [PDF] FARIES, D.E., YALCIN, I., HARDER, D. & HEILIGENSTEIN, J.H. (2001). Validation of the ADHD Rating Scale as a clinician administered and scored instrument. Journal of Attention Disorders, 5, 107-115. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (1989). Vers une méthodologie de validation trans-culturelle de questionnaires psychologiques : Implications pour la recherche en langue française. Revue Canadienne de Psychologie, 30, 662-680. [PDF] TROTTIER, C., TRUDEL, P., MAGEAU, G. & HALLIWELL, W.R. (2008). Validation de la version canadienne-française du Life Orientation Test–Revised. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 40 (4), 238-243. [PDF]
Voir aussi Méthodologique et Validité
Validation subjective : Tendance à percevoir des causes entre les événements là où il n'y a que des coïncidences. Validation subjective et effet Barnum. = effet personnel de validation.

 
Validité : Valeur de vérité d'une chose. Validity.

Validité d'une intervention Validité d'une recherche Validité d'un test/d'une mesure

Validité (d'une intervention) : Validity for behavioral assessment.

CONE, J.D. (1977). The relevance of reliability and validity for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapy, 8, 411-426.
Validité (d'une recherche) : Échelle ou indice de qualité qui permet d'évaluer la valeur ou la qualité d'une recherche scientifique. Elle comprend 4 éléments : la validité interne, la validité externe, la validité écologique et le degré d'indépendance de la recherche. Cette validité est menacée par les biais méthodologiques inhérent à toute recheche. = validité globale, validité générale. Validity.

Validité générale d'une recherche = Validité interne + Validité externe + Validité écologique + Validité de la mesure + Degré d'indépendance de la recherche


 
CAMPBELL, D.T. (1957). Factors relevant to validity of experiments in social settings. Psychological Bulletin, 54, 297-312. [PDF] BROOKS-GUNN, J., WARREN, M.P., ROSSO, J. & GARGIULO, J. (1987). Validity of self-report measures of girls' pubertal status. Child Development, 58 (3), 829-841.
GHISELLI, E.E. (1963). Moderating effects and differential reliability and validity. Journal of Applied Psychology, 47 (2), 81-86. ROBINSON, C.A. & THORNE, S.E. (1988). Dilemmas of ethics and validity in qualitative nursing research. The Canadian Journal of Nursing Research, 20 (1), 65-76.
CATTELL, R.B. (1964). Validity and reliability : A proposed more basic set of concepts. Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 1-22. FUCHS, L.S., FUCHS, D. & MAXWELL, L. (1988). The validity of informal reading comprehension measures. Remedial & Special Education, 9 (2), 20-28.
  ROBERT, M. (1988). Validité, variable et contrôle. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 1-34). St-Hyacinthe : Edisem.
  DOHRENWEND, B.P. (1989). The problem of validity in field studies of psychological disorders revisited. In L.N. Robins & J.E. Barrett (Eds.), The validity of psychiatric diagnosis (pp. 35-53). New York : Raven Press.
DAWES, R.M. & MEEHL, P.E. (1966). Mixed group validation : A method for determining the validity of diagnostic signs without using criterion groups. Psychological Bulletin, 66, 63-67. SCHLOSSBERGER, N.M., TURNER, R.A. & IRWIN, C.E. (1992). Validity of self-report of pubertal maturation in early adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13 (2), 109-113.
HEISE, D.R. & BOHRNSTEDT, G. (1970). Validity, invalidity, and reliability. In E. Borgatta & G. Bohrnstedt (Eds.), Sociological methodology (pp. 104-29). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass. KVALE, S. (1995). The social construction of validity. Qualitative Inquiry, 1 (1), 19-40.
KRUGLANSKI, A.W. (1975). Context, meaning and the validity of results in psychological research. British Journal of Psychology, 66 (3), 373-382. CHOW, S.L. (1996). Statistical significance : rationale, validity and utility. London, United Kingdom : Sage.
CONE, J.D. (1977). The relevance of reliability and validity for behavioral assessment. Behavior Therapy, 8, 411-426. WILSON, T.D., LAFLEUR, S.J. & ANDESON, D.E. (1996). The validity and consequence s of verbal reports about attitudes. In N. Schwarz & S. Sudman (Eds.), Answering questions : Methodology for determining cognitive and communicative processes in survey research (pp. 91-114). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
WOLF, M.M. (1978). Social validity : The case for subjective measurement, or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203-214. [PDF] GREENWALD, A.G. (1997). Validity concerns and usefulness of student ratings of instruction. American Psychologist, 52, 1182-1186. [PDF]
BRAUN, C.M. & BONTA, J.L. (1979). Cross-cultural validity, reliability, and stimulus characteristics of the Luscher Color Test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 43, 459-460 QUITKIN, F.M., RABKIN, J.G., GERALD, J., DAVIS, J. & KLEIN, D.F. (2000). Validity of clinical trials of antidepressants. American Journal of Psychiatry, 157, 327-337. [PDF]
COOK, T.D. & CAMPBELL, D.T. (1979). Quasi-experimentation : Designs and analysis issues for field settings. Boston : Hougton Mifflin Company. BREWER, M. (2000). Research design and issues of validity. In H. Reis & C. Judd (Eds.), Handbook of research methods in social and personality psychology. Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
LECOMPTE, M.D. & GOETZ, J.P. (1982). Problems of reliability and validity in educational research. Review of Educational Research, 52 (2), 31-60. [PDF] CRESWELL, J.W. & MILLER, D.L. (2000). Determining validity in qualitative inquiry. Theory into Practice, 39 (3), 124-131.
SMITH, T.F.M. (1983). On the validity of inferences from non-random samples. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 146, 394-403. FRIMAN, P.C., ALLEN, K.D., KERWIN, M.L. & LARZELERE, R. (2000). Questionable validity, not vitality. American Psychologist, 55 (2), 274-275.
NEEDLE, R., McCUBBIN, H.I., LORENCE, J. & HOCHHAUSER, M. (1983). Reliability and validity of adolescent self-reported drug use in a family based study : A methodological report. International Journal of Addictions, 18, 901-912. MILLER, N., PEDERSEN, W.C. & POOLOCK, V.E. (2000). Discriminative validity. In L. Bickman (Ed.), Donald Campbell's legacy : Validity and social experimentation (pp. 65-99). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage. [PDF]
KIRK, J. & MILLER, M. (1986). Reliability and validity in qualitative research. London : Sage. SMITH, J.A. (2003). Validity and qualitative psychology. Dans J.A. Smith (Ed.), Qualitative psychology : A practical guide to research methods (p. 232-235). London : Sage.
KERLINGER, F.N. (1986). Foundations of behavioral research. New York : Holt, Rinehart & Winston.  LEIGHTON, J.P. (2008). Validity. In N.J. Salkind (Ed.), Encyclopedia of educational psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 995-1000). Thousand Oakes, CA : Sage.
Voir aussi Validité d'une mesure et Outil de collecte de données
 
Validité d'un outil de mesure/évaluation : Qualité d'un outil de collecte de données (grille d'observation, d'analyse de contenu, test psychométrique, questionnaire, appareils de mesures physiologiques, etc.) qui mesure ce qu'il est censé mesurer. EX: Chez les enfants, il est très difficile de distinguer les comportements agressifs des comportements de jeu. Une grille d'observation sera valide si elle permet à l'observateur de bien distinguer ces deux phénomènes (jeu et agressivité) et si elle mesure toutes les dimensions de ce phénomène (ou du moins celles que le chercheur souhaite mesurer). Validité, précision et fidélité de la mesure/évaluation. = validité de la mesure, validité d'un test. ( ): Voir ci-dessous. Validity of a measure.

 
Types de validité
Validité concurrente Validité d'apparence Validité de convergence
Validité critériale Validité de cohérence Validité de la mesure
Validité critériale prédictive Validité de concordance Validité discriminante
Validité critériale concomitante Validité de contenu Validité incrémentielle
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BERNSTEIN, E. & PUTNAM, F. (1986). Development, reliability, and validity of a dissociation scale. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 174, 727-735. SIRECI, S.G. (2003). Validity. Encyclopedia of psychological assessment (pp. 1067-1069). London : Sage.
SHADISH, W.R. (1986). The validity of a measure of intimate behavior. Small Group Behavior, 17, 113-120. SAUNDERS, S.M. & WOJCIK, J.V. (2004). The reliability and validity of a brief self-report questionnaire to screen for mental health problems : The Health Dynamics Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 11, 233-241.
GOLDBERG, L.R. (1986). The validity of rating procedures to index the hierarchical level of categories. Journal of Memory & Language, 25, 323-347. HALADYNA, T.M. & KRAMER, G.A. (2004). The validity of subscores for a credentialing test. Evaluation & the Health. 27 (4), 349-368.
ANASTASI, A. (1986). Evolving concepts of test validations. Annual Review of Psychology, 37, 1-15. [PDF] HACK, M., TAYLOR, H.G., DROTAR, D., SCHLUCHTER, M., CARTAR, L., WILSON-COSTELLO, D., KLEI, N., FRIEDMAN, H., MERCURI-MINICH, N. & MORROW, M. (2005). Poor predictive validity of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development for cognitive function of extremely low birth weight children at school age. Pediatrics, 116 (2), 333-341. [PDF]
BELSON, W.A. (1986). Validity in survey research. Brookvield, VT : Gower. WIERZBICKI, M. (2005). Reliability and validity of the Wender Utah Rating Scale for college students. Psychoogical Report, 96 (3), 833-839. [PDF]
NEINMEYER, R.A. & SHADISH, W.R. (1987). Optimizing scientific validity : Toward an interdisciplinary science studies. Knowledge : Creation, Diffusion, Utilization, 8, 463-485. SIRECI, S.G. (2005). Validity theory and applications. In Encyclopedia of statistics in the behavioral sciences (Vol. 4, pp. 2103-2107). West Sussex, UK : John Wiley & Sons.
BROOKS-GUNN, J., WARREN, M.P., ROSSO, J. & GARGIULO, J. (1987). Validity of self-report measures of girls' pubertal status. Child Development, 58, 829-841.  
YOPP, H.K. (1988). The validity and reliability of phonemic awareness tests. Reading Research Quarterly, 23, 159-177.  
HONTS, C.R. & RASKIN, D.C. (1988). A field study of the validity of the directed lie control question. Journal of Police Science & Administration, 16, 56-61.  
WAINER, H. & BRAUN, H.I. (1988). Test validity. Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum. WALLSTON, K.A. (2005). The validity of the Multidimensional Health Locus of Control Scales. Journal of Health Psychology, 10, 623-631.
NORRIS, S.P. (1989). Can we test validly for critical thinking ? Educational Researcher, 18 (9), 21-26. [PDF]  
McCONAGHY, N. (1989). Validity and ethics of penile circumference measures of sexual arousal : A critical review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 18, 357-369. DAIGLE, M., LABELLE, R. & CÔTÉ, G. (2006). Further evidence on the validity of the Suicide Risk Assessment Scale for prisoners. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 29, 343-354.
FRANZEN, M.D. (1989). Reliability and validity in neuropsychological assessment. New York : Plenum. SIRECI, S.G. & PARKER, P. (2006). Validity on trial : Psychometric and legal conceptualizations of validity. Educational Measurement : Issues & Practice, 25 (3), 27-34.
RUSSO, J., JOHNSON, E. & STEPHENS, D. (1989). The validity of verbal protocols. Memory & Cognition, 17 (6), 759-769.  
BARNETT, J.L. & HENSWORTH, P.H. (1990). The validity of physiological and behavioural measures of animal welfare. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 25 (1-2), 177-187. PORTER, S.R. (2011). Do college student surveys have any validity? The Review of Higher Education, 35 (1), 45-76. [PDF]
VAN DER VOORT, T.H.A. & VOOIJS, M.W. (1990). Validity of children’s direct estimates of time spent viewing. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media 34 (1), 93–99. ROSAY, A.B., SKROBAN, S. & HERZ, D.C. (2007). Differences in the validity of self-reported drug use across five factors : Gender, race, age, type of drug, and offense seriousness. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 23, 41-58. [PDF]
RANKIN, H. (1990). Validity of self-reports in clinical settings. Behavioral Assessment, 12 (1), 107-116. FELDON, D.F. & YATES, K.A. (2007). Increasing validity in the evaluation of new distance learning technologies. Computers in Human Behavior, 23, 2355-2366.
TREVISAN, M. S., SAX, G. & MICHAEL, W.B. (1991). The effects of the number of options per item and student ability on test validity and reliability. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 51 (4), 829-837. SARTORI, R. & PASINI, M. (2007). Quality and quantity in test validity: how can we be sure that psychological tests measure what they have to ? Quality & Quantity, 41, 359-374.
GORDON, M.J. (1991). A review of the validity and accuracy of self-assessments in health professions training. Academic Medicine, 66, 762-769. KESSLER, R.C., ADLER, L, GRUBER, M.J., SARAWATE, C.A, SPENCER, T. & VAN BRUNT, D.L. (2007). Validity of the World Health Organization Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) Screener in a representative sample of health plan members. International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 16 (2), 52-65. [PDF]
BATSON, C.D. & SCHOENRADE, P. (1991). Measuring religion as quest : Validity concerns. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30 (4), 416-429. SUNO, K., KAWAKAMI, N., INOUE, A. & ABE, K. (2010). Measuring workplace bullying : reliability and validity of the Japanese version of the negative acts questionnaire. Journal of Occupational Health, 52 (4), 216-226. [PDF]
MOSS, P.A. (1992). Shifting conceptions of validity in educational measurement: Implications for performance assessment. Review of Educational Research, 62 (3), 229-258. HOLBROOK, A.L. & KROSNICK, J.A. (2010). Measuring voter turnout by using the randomized response technique: Evidence calling into question the method’s validity. Public Opinion Quarterly, 74, 328-343.
O’TOOLE, B.I. & STANKOV, L. (1992). Ultimate validity of psychological tests. Personality & Individual Differences, 13, 699–716. YEAGER, D.S. & KROSNICK, J.A., (2011). Response to the validity of self-reported nicotine product use in the 2001- 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Medical Care, 49 (3), 332.
HIMES, J.H. & STORY, M. (1992). Validity of self- reported weight and stature of American Indian youth. American Indian youth. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13, 118-120. PORTER, S.R. (2011). Do college student surveys have any validity ? The Review of Higher Education, 35 (1), 45-76. [PDF]
SCHLOSSBERGER, N.M., TURNER, R.A. & IRWIN, C.E. (1992). Validity of self-report of pubertal maturation in early adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 13 (2), 109-113. WANG-FLAHIVE, M.-H., CHUANG, Y.-C. & LI, C.M. (2011). Reliability and validity evidence of the Chinese Piers-Harris children's self-concept scale scores among Taiwanese children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 29 (3), 273-285.
WIGGINS, G. (1993). Assessment : Authenticity, context, and validity. Phi Delta Kappan, 75, 200-21  
MESSICK, S. (1993). Validity. In R.L. Linn (Ed), Educational measurement (pp. 13-104). Phoenix : American Council on Education and Oryx Press. RAMO, D.E., HALL, S.M. & PROCHASKA, J.J. (2011). Reliability and validity of self-reported smoking in an anonymous online survey with young adults. Health Psychology, 30 (6), 693-701. [PDF]
BAGBY, R.M., TAYLOR, G.J. & PARKER, J.D.A. (1994). The twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale: II. Convergent discriminant, and concurrent validity. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 38, 33-40. FIEDLER, K., KUTZNER, F. & KRUEGER, J.I. (2012). The long way from a-error to validity proper : Problems with a short-sighted false-positive debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7, 661-669. [PDF]
MESSICK, S. (1994). Foundations of validity: Meaning and consequences in psychological assessment. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 10 (1), 1-9. LAKES, K.D., SWANSON, J.M. & RIGGS, M. (2012). The reliability and validity of the English and Spanish Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD and Normal behavior rating scales in a preschool sample : continuum measures of hyperactivity and inattention. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16 (6), 510-516. [PDF]
Voir aussi Fdélité de la mesure, Outil de collecte de données et Validité d'une recherche
 
Validité concurrente : En psychométrie, évaluation de la qualité d'un nouvel outil de collecte de données, par comparaison avec les outils déjà validés. Concurrent validity, comparative validity.

GRANT, A. (1938). The comparative validity of the Metropolitan readiness tests and the Pintner-Cunningham primary mental test. Elementary School Journal, 38, 599–605. BOGGS, S.R., EYBERG, S.M. & REYNOLDS, L. (1990). Concurrent validity of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 75-78. [PDF]
THYER, B.A. & PAPSDORF, J.D. (1981). Concurrent validity of the Rational Behavior Inventory. Psychological Reports 49, 255-258. UMPRHESS, V.J., LAMBERT, M.J., SMART, D.W. & BARLOW, S.H. (1997). Concurrent and construct validity of the outcome questionnaire. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 15, 40-55.
WILSON, F.R. & COOK, E.P. (1984). Concurrent validity of four androgyny instruments. Sex Roles, 11, 813-837. HOLT, C.L. (1998). Assessing the current validity of the Bem Sex-Role Inventory. Sex Roles, 39 (11/12), [PDF]
HOPKINS, K.D., GEORGE, C.A. & WILLIAMS, D.D. (1985). The concurrent validity of standardized achievement tests by content area using teachers' ratings as criteria. Journal of Educational Measurement, 2 (2), 177-182. LEUNG, S.A. & HOU, Z.J. (2001). Concurrent validity of the 1994 Self-Directed Search for school students in Hong Kong. Journal of Career Assessment, 9, 283-296.
ROTTEN, J. & KELLY, I. (1985). A scale for assessing belief in lunar effects : Reliability and concurrent validity. Psychological Reports, 57 (1), 239-245. BELL, S.M., McCALLUM, R.S., BURTON, B., GRAY, R., WINDINGSTAD, S. & MOORE, J. (2006). Concurrent validity of the test of silent word reading fluency. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 31 (3), 1-9.
Voir aussi Outil de collecte de données et Validité d'une mesure
Validité critériale : Qualité d'un test qui prédit la performance d'un participant en fonction d'un critère concret d'intérêt, critère extérieur au test et indépendant du score au test. = validité empirique, validité critérié, validité pragmatique. Criterion-related validity, criterion validity, predictive validity.

HALL, C.W., BOLEN, L.M. & GUPTON, R.H. (1995). Predictive validity of the study process questionnaire for undergraduate students. College Student Journal, 29, 234–239.
SCHWAB-STONE, M.E., SHAFFER, D., DULCAN, M.K., JENSEN, P.S., FISHER, P., BIRD, H.R., GOODMAN, S.H., LAHEY, B.B., LICHTMAN, J.H., CANINO, G., RUBIO-STIPEC, M. & RAE, D.S. (1996). Criterion validity of the NIMH. Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Version 2.3 (DISC-2.3). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 35, 878-888.
EGLOFF, E. & SCHMUKLE, S.C. (2002). Predictive validity of an Implicit Association Test for assessing anxiety. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83, 1441–1455.
LAW, K.S., WONG, C.-S. & SONG, L.J. (2004). The construct and criterion validity of emotional intelligence and its potential utility for management studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 483-496.
BORNEMAN, M.J. (2010). Criterion validity. In N.J. Salkind, B. Frey & D.M. Dougherty (Eds.), Encyclopedia of research design (pp. 291-296). Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
Voir aussi Validité d'une mesure
Validité critériale concomitante : Forme de validité critériale qui renvoie à la capacité d'un test à prédire la performance d'un participant en fonction d'un critère qui n'existe pas actuellement, mais qui existera dans le futur du participant étudié.
 
Validité critériale prédictive : Forme de validité critériale. qui consiste en la capacité d'un test à prédire la performance d'un participant en fonction d'un critère qui existe actuellement. = validité prédictive. Predictive validity, predictor validity.
KUSKOWSKA-WOLK, A., KARLSSON, P., STOLT, M. & RÖSSNER, S. (1989). The predictive validity of body mass index based on self-reported weight and height. International Journal of Obesity, 5, 441-453.
THUMIN, F.J. (1993). Predictor validity as related to criterion relevance, restriction of range, and ethnicity. Journal of Psychology, 127, 553-563.
O'CONNOR, R.M. & LITTLE, I.S. (2003). Revisiting the predictive validity of emotional intelligence : Self-report versus ability-based measures. Personality & Individual Differences, 35, 1893-1902.
EGLOFF, B. & SCHMUKLE, S.C. (2002). Predictive validity of an Implicit Association Test for assessing anxiety. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83, 1441-1455.
BARKER, E.D., BOIVIN, M., BRENDGEN, M., FONTAINE, N., ARSENAULT, L., VITARO, F., BISSONNETTE, C. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (2008). Predictive validity and early predictors of peer victimization trajectories in preschool. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65 (10), 1185-1192. [PDF]
FRIESE, M., HOFMANN, W. & WÄNKE, M. (2008). When impulses take over : Moderated predictive validity of explicit and implicit attitude measures in predicting food choice and consumption behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology, 47, 397-419. [PDF]
Voir aussi Validité d'une mesure
Validité d'apparence : Voir Validité de cohérence.
Validité de cohérence : Élément de la validité de contenu. Renvoie à la qualité d'un outil de collecte de données (questionnaire ou entrevue) obtenue en évaluant la compréhension des questions du point de vue du répondant ou d'un profane (sens des mots choisis, compréhension des phrases, des consignes, des questions, etc.). Ce que le répondant comprend correspond-il à l'objectif de la question, à ce que l'on veut savoir, mesurer/évaluer. = validité d'apparence. Face vallidity.

MOSIER, C.I. (1947). A critical examination of the concepts of face validity. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 7, 191-205.
ALLEN, M.J. & YEN, W.M. (1979). Introduction to measurement theory. Monterey, CA : Brooks/Cole.
NEVO B. (1985). Face validity revisited. Journal of Educational Measurement, 22, 287-293.
SARTORI, R. (2010). Face validity in personality tests : psychometric instruments and projective techniques in comparison. Quality & Quantity, 44 (4), 749-759.
Validité conceptuelle/de construit : Qualité qui permet d'établir jusqu'à quel point un test fournit une mesure adéquate du concept théorique que ce test est censé mesurer, autrement dit dans quelle mesure la mesure correspond-elle au concept mesuré. = validité de construit. Construct validity.
CRONBACH, L.J. & MEEHL, P.E. (1955). Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin, 52, 281-302. [PDF] NICHOLSON, R.A. & HOGAN, R. (1990). The construct validity of social desirability. American Psychologist, 45, 290-292.
JESSOR, R. & HAMMOND, K.R. (1957). Construct validity and the Taylor anxiety scale. Psychological Bulletin, 54 (3), 161 -170. SHORE L.M. & TETRICK, L.E. (1991). A construct validity study of the survey of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76, 637–643.
TVERSKY, A. & KAHNEMAN, D. (1974). Judgment under uncertainty : Heuristics and biases. Science, 185, 1124-1130. WOOD, P.K. (1991). Construct validity and theories of adults development : Testing for necessary but not sufficient relationships. In M.L. Commons, C. Armon, L. Kohlberg, F, Richards, J.T., Grotzer & J.D. Sinnott (Eds.), Beyond formal operations II : Development of adolescent and adult thought and reasoning (pp. 113-132). New York : Praeger.
LYKKEN, D.T. & TELLEGEN, A. (1974). On the validity of the preception hypothesis. Psychophysiology, 11, 125-132. GURTMAN, M.B. (1992). Construct validity of interpersonal personality measures : The interpersonal circumplex as a nomological net. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 63, 105-118.
ARANOW, E., REZNIKOFF, M., TRYON, R.C. & RAUCWAY, A. (1977). On the construct validity of the concept of interpersonal distance. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 45, 550. ALLEN, N.J. & MEYER, J.P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization : an examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 252-276.
ROSENZWEIG, S. & ADELMAN, S. (1977). Construct validity of the Rosenzweig Picture-Frustration Study. Journal of Personality Assessment, 41 (6), 578-588. UMPRHESS, V.J., LAMBERT, M.J., SMART, D.W. & BARLOW, S.H. (1997). Concurrent and construct validity of the outcome questionnaire. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 15, 40-55.
WATERS, E., WIPPMAN, J. & SROUFE, L.A. (1979). Attachment, positive affect, and competence in the peer group: Two studies in construct validation. Child Development, 1979, 50, 821-829. ERZRBERGER, C. & PREIN, G. (1997). Triangulation : Validity and empirically based hypothesis construction. Quality & Quantity, 31, 141-154.
REYNOLDS, C.R. (1980). Differential construct validity of a preschol battery for blacks, whites, males, and females. Journal of School Psychology, 18 (2), 112-125. [PDF] MARTIN, N.K., YIN, Z. & BALDWIN, B. (1998). Construct validation of the attitudes and beliefs on classroom control inventory. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 33 (2), 6-15.
LARSEN, K.S., REED, M. & HOFFMAN, S. (1980). Attitudes of heterosexuals toward homosexuality : A Likert-type scale and construct validity. Journal of Sex Research, 16, 245-257. GIANCOLA, P.R. & CHERMACK, S.T. (1998). Construct validity of laboratory aggression paradigms : a response to Tedeschi and Quigley (1996). Aggression & Violent Behavior, 3, 237-253.
SCHWAB, D.P. (1980). Construct validity in organizational research. Research in Organizational Behavior, 2, 3-43. MARCUS, B. (2003). An empirical examination of the construct validity of two alternative self-control measures. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 63, 674-706.
FISHBEIN, M. & AIZEN, I. (1981). On construct validity : A critique of Miniard and Cohen's paper. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 17, 340-350. TERRACCIANO, A., McCRAE, R.R. & COSTA, P.T. (2003). Factorial and construct validity of the Italian Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 19 (2), 131-141. [PDF]
PETER, P.J. (1981). Construct validity : A review of basic issues of marketing and practices. Journal of Marketing Research, 18, 133-145. McDERMUT, W., ZIMMERMAN, M. & CHELMINSKI, I. (2003). The construct validity of depressive personality disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 112, 49-60.
EMBRETSON, W.S. (1983). Construct validity : Construct representation versus nomothetic span. Psychological Bulletin, 93, 179-197. DREW, W. & ROSENTHAL, R. (2003). Quantifying construct validity : Two simple measures. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 84 (3), 608-618. [PDF]
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  WOOLFOLK, R.L. (2004). Self-complexity : An assessment of construct validity. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 23 (4), 463-463.
   SALTHOUSE, T.A., BERISH, D.E. & SIEDLECKI, K.L. (2004). Construct validity and age sensitivity of prospective memory. Memory & Cognition, 32, 1133–1148.
MAXWELL, S.E. & DELANEY, H.D. (1985). Measurement and statistics : an examination of construct validity. Psychological Bulletin, 97 (1), 85-93. LUBOW, R.E. (2005). The construct validity of the animal-latent inhibition model of selective attention deficits in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 31, 139-153. [PDF]
McMcCAUL, K.D. & GLASGOW, R.E. (1985). Preventing adolescent smoking : What have we learned about treatment construct validity ? Health Psychology, 4, 361-387. EKEHAMMAR, B., ZUBER, I. & KONSTENIUS, M. (2005). An empirical look at the Defence Mechanism Test (DMT): Reliability and construct validity. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 46, 285-296.
  BERAN, T. (2006). A construct validity study of bullying. Alberta Journal of Educational Research, 52 (4), 238-247. [PDF]
HOWARD, G.S., CONWAY, C.G. & MAXWELL, S.E. (1985). Construct validity of measures of college teaching Effectiveness. Journal of Educational Psychology, 77, 187-196. MARTIN, N.K., YIN, Z. & MAYALL, H. (2007). The Attitudes and beliefs on Classroom Control Inventory-Revised and revisited : A continuation of construct validation. Journal of Classroom Interaction, 42 (2), 11-20. [PDF]
BAER, J.S., HOLT, C.S. & LICHTENSTEIN, E. (1986). Self-efficacy and smoking re-examined : Construct validity and clinical utility. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 54, 846-852. KANE, M.J., CONWAY, A.R.A., MIURA, T.K. & COLFLESH, G.J.H. (2007). Working memory, attention control, and the N-back task : A cautionary tale of construct validity. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 33, 615-622.
GOLDBERG, L.R. (1986). The validity of rating procedures to index the hierarchical level of categories. Journal of Memory & Language, 25, 323-347. [PDF] STRAUSS, M.E. & SMITH, G.T. (2009). Construct validity : Advances in theory and methodology. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 1-25.
RASKIN, R. & TERRY, H. (1988). A principal-components analysis of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and further evidence of its construct validity. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 52 (5), 890-902. [PDF] GIBBS, S.J. & ELLIOTT, J.G. (2010). Dyslexia : a categorical falsehood without validity or utility. In T.E. Scruggs & M.A. Mastropieri (Eds.), Advances in learning and behavioral disabilities (Vol. 2). Emerald Literacy and Learning.
CHEEK, J.M. & WATSON, A.K. (1989). The definition of shyness : Psychological imperialism or construct validity ? Journal of Social Behavior & Personality, 4 (1), 85-95. [PDF] SCHIMMACK, U. (2010). What multi-method data tell us about construct validity. European Journal of Personality, 24, 241-257. [PDF]
CRONBACH, L.J. (1989). Construct validation after thirty years. In R. L. Linn (Ed.), Intelligence: Measurement, theory, and public policy (pp. 147-171). Chicago: University of Illinois Press. TONKOVIC, M., GALIC, Z. & JERNEIC, Z. (2011). The construct validity of over-claiming as a measure of egoistic enhancement. Review of Psychology, 18 (1), 11-19. [PDF]
Voir aussi Validité d'une mesure et Outil de collecte de données
Validité de concordance :

 
Validité de contenu : Propriété d'un outil de collecte de données dont le choix des éléments - généralement des questions ou des comportements - constitue un échantillon représentatif de l'ensemble des phénomènes que l'on cherche à mesurer/évaluer. = validation de contenu. Content validity.
LENNON, R.T. (1956). Assumptions underlying the use of content validity. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 16, 294-304. LINEHAN, M.M. (1980). Content validity : Its relevance to behavioral assessment. Behavioral Assessment, 2, 147-159.
LAWSHE, C.H. (1975). The quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575. LYNN, M.R. (1986). Determination and quantification of content validity. Nursing Research, 35, 382-385.
GUION, R.M. (1977). Content validity : The source of my discontent. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 1-10. CROCKER, L., LLABRE, M. & MILLER, M.D. (1988). The generalizability of content validity ratings. Journal of Educational Measurement 25, 287-299.
GUION, R.M. (1978). "Content validity" in moderation. Personal Psychology, 31, 205-213. HAYNES S.C., RICHARD, D.C.S. & KUBANY, E.S. (1995). Content Validity in Psychological Assessment: A Functional Approach to Concepts and Methods. Psychological Assessment, 7 (3), 238-247. [PDF]
Voir aussi Validité d'une mesure
Validité de convergence : En psychométrie, évaluation du degré de convergence d'un outil de collecte de données, de ses d'indicateurs. Convergent validity.

CAMPBELL, D.T. & FISKE, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105. [PDF]
SIMPSON, J.A. & GANGESTAD, S.W. (1991). Individual differences in sociosexuality : Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 60, 870-883. [PDF]
CUNNINGHAM, W.A., PREACHER, K.J. & BANAJI, M.R. (2001). Implicit attitude measures : Consistency, stability, and convergent validity. Psychological Science, 12, 163-170.
GAWRONSKI, B. (2002). What does the Implicit Association Test measure ? A test of the convergent and discriminant validity of prejudice-related IATs. Experimental Psychology, 49, 171–180.
STILES, W.B., AGNEW-DAVIES, R, BARKHAM, M., CULVERWELL, A., GOLDFRIED, M.R., HALSTEAD, J., HARDY, G.E., RAUE, P.J., REES, A. & SHAPIRO, D.A. (2002). Convergent validity of the Agnew Relationship Measure and the Working Alliance Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 14, 209-220.
LANKTREE, C.B., GILBERT, A.M., BRIERE, J., TAYLOR, N., CHEN, K., MAIDA, C.A. & SALTZMAN, W.R. (2008). Multi-informant assessment of maltreated children : Convergent and discriminant validity of the TSCC and TSCYC. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 621-625. [PDF]
Voir aussi Validité d'une mesure
Validité discriminante : Qualité d'un outil de collecte de données qui mesure seulement ce qu'il est censé mesurer, plutôt que de confondre des phénomènes distincts (EX: Un test pour mesurer l'agressivité a une forte validité discriminante s'il parvient à distinguer agressivité et jeu chez les jeunes enfants, deux phénomènes distincts mais qui se ressemblent. Discriminant validity.

CAMPBELL, D.T. & FISKE, D.W. (1959). Convergent and discriminant validation by the multitrait multimethod matrix. Psychological Bulletin, 56, 81-105. [PDF]
BERNSTEIN, S., RICHARDSON, D. & HAMMOCK, G. (1987). Convergent and discriminant validity of the Taylor and Buss measures of physical aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 13, 15–24.
SIMPSON, J.A. & GANGESTAD, S.W. (1991). Individual differences in sociosexuality : Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 60, 870-883. [PDF]
LUCAS, R., DIENER, E. & SUH, E. (1996). Discriminant validity of well-being measures. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71, 616-628.
GAWRONSKI, B. (2002). What does the Implicit Association Test measure? A test of the convergent and discriminant validity of prejudice-related IATs. Experimental Psychology, 49, 171–180.
LANKTREE, C.B., GILBERT, A.M., BRIERE, J., TAYLOR, N., CHEN, K., MAIDA, C.A. & SALTZMAN, W.R. (2008). Multi-informant assessment of maltreated children : Convergent and discriminant validity of the TSCC and TSCYC. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 621-625. [PDF]
Voir aussi Validité d'une mesure
Validité écologique : Échelle ou indice qui permet d'évaluer la qualité d'une recherche, et plus particulièrement sa valeur écologique. Cette valeur repose sur les diverses caractéristiques d'une recherche qui permettent au chercheur de généraliser ses conclusions, tirées de l'observation d'un milieu artificiel (laboratoire), aux conditions réelles du phénomène étudié (= écologiques). Ces caractéristiques sont : les caractéristiques de l'échantillon et les caractéristiques +- artificielles du test. La validité écologique d'une recherche permet de répondre à la question suivante: Ce que j'ai observé en laboratoire existe-t-il dans le milieu naturel des sujets, dans la «vraie vie»? La réponse à cette question sera fort probablement oui, si la validité écologique de la recherche est élevée. Pour certains méthodologistes, la validité écologique est un élément de la validité externe. Validité écologique, validité interne, et validité externe. = validité sociale. Ecological validity, social validity.
FAWCETT, S.B. & MILLER, L.K. (1975). Training public-speaking behavior : an experimental analysis and social validation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 8,125-136. [PDF] KENNEDY, C.H. (1992). Trends in the measurement of social validity. The Behavior Analyst, 15, 147-156. [PDF]
MINKIN, N., BRAUKMANN, C.J., MINKIN, B.L., TIMBERS, GD., TTIMBERS, B.J., FIXSEN, D. L., PHILLIPS, E.L. & WOLF, M.M. (1976). The social validation and training of conversation skils. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (2), 127-139. [PDF] BANAJI, M.R. (1992). The lures of ecological realism. The Psychologist, 5, 448. [PDF]
WOLF, M.M. (1978). Social validity : The case for subjective measurement or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11 (2), 203-214. [PDF] CONROY, M., FOX, J., CRAIN, L., JENKINS, A. & BELCHER, K. (1996). Evaluating the social and ecological validity of analog assessment procedures for challenging behaviors in young children. Education & Treatment of Children, 19, 233-256.
SOBELL, M.B. & SOBELL, L.C. (1978). Evaluating the external validity of Ewing and Rouse. British Journal of Addiction, 73, 323-345. ANDERSON, C.A. & DILL, K.E. (2000). Video games and aggressive thoughts, feelings, and behavior in the laboratory and in life. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78 (4), 772-790.
WOLF, M. (1978). Social validity : the case for subjective measurement, or how applied behavior analysis is finding its heart. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 11, 203–214. SCHMUCKLER, M.A. (2001). What Is ecological validity ? A dimensional analysis. Infancy, 2 (4), 419-436. [PDF]
LINCOLN, Y.S. & GUBA, E.G. (1986). But is it rigorous? Trustworthiness and authenticity in naturalistic evaluation. In D.D. Williams (Ed.), Naturalistic evaluation (pp. 73-84). New Directions for Program Evaluation, 30. San Francisco, CA : Jossey-Bass. EVANS, S.W., SMITH, B.H., GNAGY, E.M., PELHAM, W.E., BUKSTEIN, O. & GREINER, A.R. (2001). Dose-Response Effects of methylphenidate on ecologically valid measures of academic performance and classroom behavior in adolescents with ADHD. Experimental & Clinical Psychopharmacology, 9 (2), 163-175. [PDF]
WINETT, R.A., MOORE, J.F. & ANDERSON, E.S. (1991). Extending the concept of social validity : behavior analysis for disease prevention and health promotion. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24 (2), 215-230. [PDF] LICKLITER, R. & BAHRICK L.E. (2001). The salience of multimodal sensory stimulation in early development : Implications for the issue of ecological validity. Infancy, 2, 451-467. [PDF]
BANAJI, M.R. & CROWDER, R.G. (1991). Some everyday thoughts on ecologically valid methods. American Psychologist, 46 (1(, 78-79. [PDF] SOLANTO, M.V., ABIKOFF, H., SONUGA-BARKE, E., SCHACHAR, R., LOGAN, G.D., WIGAL, T., HECHTMAN, L., HINSHAW, S. & TURKEL, E. (2001). The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD : A supplement to the NIMH Multimodal Treatment Study of ADHD. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 29, 215-228.
SCHWARTZ, I.S. & BAER, D.M. (1991). Social validity assessments : Is current practice state of the art ? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24 (2), 189-204. [PDF] EGNER, T. & GRUZELIER, J.H. (2003). Ecological validity of neurofeedback : Modulation of slow wave EEG enhances musical performance. NeuroReport, 14, 1221-1224.
BARKLEY, R.A. (1991). The ecological validity of laboratory and analogue assessments of ADHD symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 19, 149-178. KVAVILASHVILI, L. & ELLIS, J. (2004). Ecological validity and twenty years of real-life/laboratory controversy in memory research : A critical (and historical) review. History & Philosophy of Psychology, 6, 59-80. [PDF]
GELLER, E.S. (1991). Where's the validity in social validity ? Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 179-184. STRAIN, P.S., BARTON, E.E. & DUNAP, G. (2012). Lessons learned about the utility of social validity. Education & Treatment of Children, 35 (2), 183-200.
Voir aussi Validité externe et Validité d'une recherche
Validité externe : Échelle ou indice qui permet d'évaluer la qualité d'une recherche, et plus particulièrement ses conclusions externes. Elle repose sur les diverses caractéristiques d'une recherche qui permettent au chercheur de généraliser les conclusions de sa recherche - qui porte sur un petit nombre de sujets, son échantillon - à l'ensemble de la population. Il s'agit donc d'une inférence. La validité externe permet d'affirmer, avec plus ou moins de certitude, que les participants de l'échantillon et de la population se comporteront de la même façon (ou auront les mêmes caractéristiques). Le mot externe renvoie ici à la capacité de généraliser les résultats à un groupe qui n'a pas été étudié (la population), et qui, selon le cas, possède plus ou moins les caractéristiques du groupe qui a été étudié (l'échantillon). Ces caractéristiques sont : un échantillon représentatif et le choix des tests statistiques. La validité externe d'une recherche permet de répondre à la question suivante : Monsieur et madame Tout-le-monde (= population) vont-ils se comporter comme les n ième participants de mon échantillon ? La réponse à cette question sera fort probablement oui si la validité interne et externe de votre recherche est grande. L'utilisation de procédure d'échantillonnage non-aléatoire, le refus de participer des sujets ou leur désistement sont des facteurs qui diminuent la validité externe d'une recherche. N.D.L.R. La question de la validité externe ne se pose que si, au préalable, la validité interne d'une recherche est acceptable. Validité externe, validité interne et validité écologique. = valeur d'une recherche. External validity.
  Échantillon  
Généraliser/Inférence Échantillonner
Population


Échelle de validité externe
Validité élevée -------------- Validité moyenne -------------- Validité faible
Conclusions très fiables --------------------------------------- Conclusions peu fiables

BRACHT, G.H. & GLASS, G.V. (1968). The external validity of experiments. America Educational Research Journal, 5, 437-474. KIRSCH, I. & ROSADINO, M.J. (1993). Do double-blind studies with informed consent yield externally valid results ? An empirical test. Psychopharmacology, 110, 437-442.
KRUGLANSKI, A.W. (1975). The two meanings of external invalidity. Human Relations, 66, 373-382. WHITLEY, B.E. (1996). The external validity of research. In B.E. Whitley (Ed.), Principles of research in behavioral science (pp. 465-491). Mountain View, CA : Mayfield.
KONECNI, V.J. & EBBESEN, E.B. (1979). External validity of research in legal psychology. Law & Human Behavior, 3, 39-70. ANDERSON, C.A. & BUSHMAN, B.J. (1997). External validity of "trivial" experiments : The case of laboratory aggression. Review of General Psychology, 1 (1), 19-41. [PDF]
BERKOWITZ, L. & DONNERSTEIN, E. (1982). External validity is more than skin deep : Some answers to criticisms of laboratory experiments. American Psychologist, 37, 245-257. MITCHELL, G. (2002). Revisiting truth or triviality : The external validity of Research in the Psychological Laboratory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7 (2), 109-117. [PDF]
CALDER, B.J., Phillips, L.W. & Tybout, A.M. (1982). The Concept of External Validity.Journal of Consumer Research, 9, 1982, PP.240-244. GLASGOW, R.E., BULL, S.S., GILLETTE, C., KLESGES, L.M. & DZEWALTOWSKI, D.A. (2002). Behavior change intervention research in health care settings : A review of recent reports, with emphasis on external validity. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 23 (1), 62-69.
CALDER, B.J., PHILLIPS, L.W. & Tybout, A.M. (1983). Beyond external validity. Journal of Consumer Research, 10, 112-114. ONWUEGBUZIE, A.J. (2003). Expanding the framework of internal and external validity in quantitative research. Research in the Schools, 10, 71-90.
MOOK, D.G. (1983). In defense of external invalidity. American Psychologist, 38, 379-387.  LEIGHTON, J.P. (2010). External validity. In N.J. Salkind (Ed.), The encyclopedia of research design (pp. 466-469). Thousand Oakes, CA : Sage Publications.
SMITH, T. M. F. (1983). On the validity of inferences from non-random samples. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society – Series A (General), 146 (4), 394-403.  
McKILLIP, J. & RIEDEL, S.L. (1983). External validity of matching on physical attractiveness for same and opposite sex couples. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 13, 328-337. McDERMOTT, R. (2011). Internal and external validity. J. Druckman, D. Green, J. Kuklinski & A. Lupia (Eds), Handbook of experimental political science (pp. 27-40). Cambridge University Press.
EKEHAMMAR, B., SIDANIUS, J. & NILSSON, E. (1988). Social class status : Construct and external validity. The Journal of Social Psychology, 127, 473-481. MITCHELL, G. (2012). Revisiting truth or triviality : The external validity of research in the psychological laboratory. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 7 (2), 109-117. [PDF]
CATCHPOLE, C.K. (1989). Pseudoreplication and external validity : playback experiments in avian bioacoustics. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 4, 286–287. MADDUX, C.D. & JOHNSON, D.L. (2012). External validity and research in information technology in education. Computers in the Schools, 29 (3), 249-252.
BEIDEL, D.C., TURNER, S.M., STANLEY, M.A. & DANCU, C.V. (1989). The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory : Concurrent and external validity. Behavior Therapy, 20, 417-427. HOUDEK, P. (2017). A perspective on research on dishonesty : Limited external validity due to the lack of possibility of self-selection in experimental designs. Frontiers in Psychology 8: [1566], 1-6.[PDF]
Voir aussi Validité d'une recherche
Validité incrémentielle : Incremental validity.

SECHREST, L. (1963). Incremental validity : A recommendation. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 23, 153-158. WATKINS, M.W. & GLUTTING, J.J. (2000). Incremental validity of WISC–III profile elevation, scatter, and shape information for predicting reading and math achievement. Psychological Assessment, 12 (4), 402-408. [PDF]
  LOFLAND, K.R., CASSISI, J.E., LEVIN, J.B., PALUMBO, N.L. & BLONSKY, E.R. (2000). The incremental validity of lumbar surface. Validité écologique, validité interne et validité externe. EMG, behav- ioral observation, and a symptom checklist in the assessment of patients with chronic low-back pain. Applied Psychophysiology & Biofeed-back, 25, 67-78.
SCHWARTZ, S. & WIEDEL, T.C. (1981). Incremental validity of the MMPI in neurological decision-making. Journal of Personality Assessment, 45, 424-426. DAWES, R.M. (2001). Incremental validity of the Ego Impairment Index : it's fine when it's there. Psychological Assessment, 13 (3), 408-409.
GARB, H.N. (1985). The incremental validity of information used in personality assessment. Clinical Psychology Review, 4, 641-655. CLEVENGER, J., PEREIRA, G.M., WIECHMANN, D., SCHMITT, N. & HARVEY, V.S. (2001). Incremental validity of situational judgment tests. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 410-417.
STROM, D.A., GRAY, J.W., DEAN, R.S. & FISHER, W.E. (1987). The incremental validity of the Halstead–Reitan Neuropsychological Battery in predicting achievement for learning-disabled children. Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, 2, 157–165. PERRY, W. (2001). Incremental validity of the Ego Impairment Index: A re-examination of Dawes (1999). Psychological Assessment, 13 (3), 403-407.
  HUNSLEY, J. & MEYER, G.J. (2003). The incremental validity of psychological testing and assessment: Conceptual, methodological, and statistical issues. Psychological Assessment, 15 (4), 446-455. [PDF]
GLUTTING, J.J., YOUNGSTROM, E.A., WARD, T., WARD, S. & HALE, R.L. (1997). Incremental efficacy of WISC–III factor scores in predicting achievement : What do they tell us ? Psychological Assessment, 9, 295-301. GARB, H.N. (2003). Incremental validity and the assessment of psychopathology in adults. Psychological Assessment, 15 (4), 508-520.
DAWES, R.M. (1999). Two methods for studying the incremental validity of a Rorschach variable. Psychological Assessment, 11, 297–302. HAYNES, S.N. & LENCH, H.C. (2003). Incremental validity of new clinical assessment measures. Psychological Assessment, 15 (4), 456-466. [PDF]
  SMITH, G.T., FISCHER, S. & FISTER, S.M. (2003). Incremental validity principles in test construction. Psychological Assessment, 15, 467–477.
Voir aussi d'une Validité d'une mesure
Validité interne : Échelle ou indice qui permet d'évaluer la valeur ou la qualité d'une recherche, et plus particulièrement ses conclusions internes. Le mot interne renvoie ici à la portée des conclusions que l'on tire de l'étude de l'échantillon (et non de la population). La validité interne repose sur les diverses caractéristiques d'une recherche qui permettent de vérifier l'hypothèse (est-elle vraie ou fausse?). Elle permet d'affirmer, avec plus ou moins de certitude, que les variations observées/mesurées de Y sont bel et bien attribuables aux variations manipulées/assignées de X, et ainsi de répondre à la question : le variable indépendante (ou le traitement) a-t-elle eu l'effet escompté (par l'hypothèse) ? Ces caractéristiques sont : 1) le contrôle de la situation de recherche; 2) le contrôle de la variable indépendante; 3) le contrôle des variables parasites (autre X potentiel). De nombreux facteurs peuvent menacer la validité interne d'une recherche (Voir tableau ci-dessous). Si la validité interne d'une recherche est maximale, on peut répondre sans ambiguïté à la question de recherche : le phénomène X (variable indépendante de la recherche) est-il bel et bien la cause du phénomène Y (variable dépendante) ? Si la validité interne d'une recherche est minimale, la prudence est de mise. Il est alors préférable d'éviter de tirer des conclusions hâtives et d'insister davantage sur les correctifs à apporter pour améliorer cette validité et éviter de répéter les erreurs déjà commises. Par ailleurs, en vertu de la logique de la démarche scientifique, il apparaît peu utile de s'interroger sur la validité externe d'une recherche lorsque la validité interne de celle-ci est faible ou nulle. = valeur d'une recherche. Validité interne, validité externe et validité écologique. Internal validity.
  X1 --» ------- Échantillon ----- » Y  
  X2 --»  
Variable indépendante = X Variable dépendante
  X4 --»  
  X5 --»  


Échelle de validité interne
Validité élevée -------------- Validité moyenne -------------- Validité faible
Conclusions très fiables --------------------------------------- Conclusions peu fiables


Facteurs qui menacent la validité interne
Fluctuations de l'outil de mesure/Évaluation Perte différentielle des participants Régression statistique
Attentes du chercheur Non équivalence des groupes Répétition des mesures
Attentes des participants  
 


   KENNY, D.A. (1972). Threats to the internal validity of cross-lagged panel inference, as related to "Television violence and child aggression : A follow up study." In G.A. Comstock & E.A. Rubinstein (Eds.), Television and social behavior (Vol. 3, pp. 136-140). Government Printing Office.
PIERCE, W.D. & HARRELL, W.A. (1978). Threats to internal validity in the Burgess and Neilsen social exchange experiment. American Sociological Review, 43, 592-597.
WHITLEY, B.E. (1996). Principles of research in behavioral science. Mountain View, CA : Mayfield.
ONWUEGBUZIE, A.J. (2003). Expanding the framework of internal and external validity in quantitative research. Research in the Schools, 10, 71-90.
BARTSCH, R. A., ENGELHARD, BITTNER, W.M. & MORENO, J.E. (2008). A design to improve internal validity of assessments of teaching demonstrations. Teaching of Psychology, 35 (4), 357-359.
McDERMOTT, R. (2011). Internal and external validity. J. Druckman, D. Green, J. Kuklinski & A. Lupia (Eds), Handbook of experimental political science (pp. 27-40). Cambridge University Press.
Voir aussi Validité d'une recherche
Validité prédictive : Voir Validité critériale prédictive.
Validité sociale : Voir Validité écologique.
Valins Stuart C. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain. Il s'est notamment intéressé au rôle du contexte dans l'interprétation des émotions. Étudiant de Schachter. Collaborateur de Baum, Jones, Kelly, Nisbett, Singer et Weiner.

VALINS, S. (1966). Cognitive effects of false heart-rate feedback. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 4, 400-408.
VALINS, S. & RAY, A.A. (1966). Effects of cognitive desensitizationon avoidance behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 7 (4), 345-350.
JONES, E.E., KANOUSE, D., KELLY, H.H., NISBETT, R.E., VALINS, S. & WEINER, B. (1972). Attribution : Perceiving the causes of behavior. Morristown, N.J. : General Learning Press.
BAUM, A. & VALINS, S. (1977). Architecture and social behavior : Psychological studies of social density. Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
BAUM, A., SINGER, J.E. & VALINS, S. (Eds.) (1979). Advances in environmental psychology. Vol I - The urban environment. New York : John Wiley & Sons.
Valium : Première marque déposée du benzodiazepine. Valium.

 
Valkenburg Patti M. (1958-) : Psychologue néérlandaise et spécialiste de l'étude de la communication, notamment au moyen d'internet, chez les adolescents. Collaboratrice de Peter et Van Der Voort.
VALKENBURG, P.M. & VAN DER VOORT, T.H. (1994). Influence of TV on daydreaming and creative imagination : A review of research. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 316–339.
VALKENBURG, P.M., SCHOUTEN, A.P. & PETER, J. (2005). Adolescents' identity experiments on the Internet. New Media & Society, 7, 383-402.
VALKENBURG, P.M. & PETER, J. (2007). Preadolescents' and adolescents' online communication and their closeness to friends. Developmental Psychology, 43 (2), 267-277. [PDF]
VALKENBURG, P.M. & PETER, J. (2009). Social consequences of the Internet for adolescents : A decade of research. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18 (1), 1-5.
VALKENBURG, P.M. & PETER, J. (2011). Online communication among adolescents : An integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48,121-127. [PDF]
Valla Jean-Pierre ( ) : Psychiatre québécois et spécialiste de l'agressivité chez les enfants.
VALLA, J.P., BERGERON, L., BIDAUT-RUSSELL, M. ST-GEORGES, M. & GAUDET, N (1997). Reliability of the Dominic-R : A young child mental health questionnaire combining visual and auditory stimuli. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry & Allied Disciplines, 38, 717-724.
VALLA, J.P., BERGERON, L., ST-GEORGES, M. et BERTHIAUME, C. (2000). Le Dominique Interactif : présentation, cadre conceptuel, propriétés psychométriques, limites, et utilisation. Revue Canadienne de Psycho-éducation, 29, 327-347.
VALLA, J.P., BERGERON, L. & SMOLA, N. (2000). The Dominic-R : A pictorial interview for 6-to-11-years-old children. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 39, 85-93.
VALLA, J.P., KOVESS, V., CHAN CHEE, C., BERTHIAUME, C., VANTALON, V., PIQUET, C., GRAS-VINCENDON, A., MARTIN, C. & ALLES-JARDEL, M. (2002). A french study of the Dominic Interactive. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37, 441-448.
VALLA, J.P., ST.-GEORGES, M., BERTHIAUME, C., PICHÉ, G. & BARBE, C. (2010). Psychometric properties of a pictorial instrument for assessing psychopathology in youths aged 12 to. 15 years : the Dominic Interactive for adolescents. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 55 (4), 69-79.
Vallerand Robert J. ( ) : Psychosociologue québécois et professeur à l'Université du Québec à Montréal. Il étudie la motivation sociale et la passion, notamment chez les sportifs, en milieu scolaire et chez les joueurs normaux et compulsifs. Collaborateur de Deci, Gagné, Halliwell, Ryan Sarrazin et Sedikides.
VALLERAND, R.J. (1983). On emotion in sport : Theoretical and social psychological perspectives. Journal of Sport Psychology, 5, 197-215. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (1985). Vers une intégration de la perspective attributionnelle à la psychologie sociale appliquée : dangers, critiques et recommandations de recherches futures. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 6, 114-139. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (1998). Motivation et éducation permanente : Contributions du modèle hiérarchique de la motivation intrinsèque et extrinsèque. Éducation Permanente, 136, 15-36. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (2008). The psychology of passion : In search of what makes people's lives most worth living. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49 (1), 1-13. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (2012). From motivation to passion : In search of the motivational processes involved in a meaningful life. Canadian Psychology, 53, 42-52. [PDF]
Valorisation de soi (Sur...) : Tendance à se surévaluer, à s'accorder plus de mérite qu'il nous en revient afin de préserver notre estime de soi. Valorisation de soi, résilience et narcissisme. = surestimation de soi, sentiment de supériorité. /dénigrement de soi. Self-enhacement, sense of superiority.

  BROWN, J.D. (1986). Evaluations of the self and others : Self-enhancing biases in social judgments. Social Cognition, 4, 353-376. BOND, M.H., KWAN, V.S.Y. & LI, C. (2000). Decomposing a sense of superiority : The differential social impact of self-regard and regard for others. Journal of Research in Personality, 34, 537-553.
JOSEPHS, R.A., LARRICK, R.P., STEELE, C.M. & NISBETT, R.E. (1992). Protecting the self from the negative consequences of risky decisions.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 62 (1), 26-37, BONANNO, G.A., FIELD, N.P., KOVACEVIC, A. & KALTMAN, S. (2002). Self-enhancement as a buffer against extreme adversity: Civil war in Bosnia and traumatic loss in the United States. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 184-196.
BROWN, J.D. & GALLAGHER, F.M. (1992). Coming to terms with failure: Private self-enhancement and public self-effacement. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 28, 3-22. SEDIKIDES, C., HERBST, K.C., HARDIN, D.P. & DARDIS, G.J. (2002). Accountability as a deterrent to self-enhancement : The search for mechanisms. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 83, 592-605. [PDF]
  PAULHUS, D.L., HARMS, P.D., BRUCE, M.N. & LVSY, D.C. (2003). The over-claiming technique : Measuring self-enhancement independent of ability. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84, 890-904. [PDF]
  BAER, R.A., RINALDO, J.C. & BERRY, D.T.G. (2003). Response distortions in self-report assessment. In R. Fernandez-Ballesteros (Ed.), Encyclopedia of psychological assessment. London : Sage.
BEAUREGARD, K.S. & DUNNING, D. (1998). Turning up the contrast: Self-enhancement motives prompt egocentric contrast effects in social judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 (3), 606-621. SEDIKIDES, C., GAERTNER L. & TOGUCHI, Y. (2003). Pancultural self-enhancement. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 74 (2), 378-386.
  BONANNO, G.A., RENNICKE, C. & DEKEL S. (2005). Self-enhancement among high-exposure survivors of the September 11th terrorist attack : Resilience or social maladjustment ? Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88, 984-998.
KRUEGER, J. (1998). Enhancement bias in descriptions of self and others., Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 24 (5), 505-516. SEDIKIDES, C. & GREGG, A.P. (2008). Self-enhancement : Food for thought. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3 (2), 102-116.
PAULHUS, D.L. (1998). Interpersonal and Intrapsychic adaptiveness of trait self-enhancement : A mixed blessing ? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74 (5), 1197-1208. [PDF] GUPTA, S. & BONANO, G.A. (2010). Trait self-enhancement as a buffer against potentially traumatic events : A prospective study. Psychological Trauma : Theory, Research, Practice, & Policy, 2 (2), 83-92. [PDF]
  TONKOVIC, M., GALIC, Z. & JERNEIC, Z. (2011). The construct validity of over-claiming as a measure of egoistic enhancement. Review of Psychology, 18 (1), 11-19. [PDF]
Voir aussi Résilience et Narcissisme
Valorisation de soi (Mesure et évaluation) :

  PAULHUS, D.L. HARMS, P.D., BRUCE, M.N. & LVSY, D.C. (2003). The over-claiming technique: Measuring self-enhancement in- dependent of ability. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84, 890-904. [PDF]
Van
Marc Van Audenrode Eric Van Dijk Gerben Van Kleef
Pierre-Joseph Van Beneden Bastiaan C. Van Fraassen Colette Van Laar
Elsje Van Bergen Tim Van Gelder Paul Van Lange
Martial Van der Linden Frans Van Haaren Jacques Van Rillaer
Japp Van Der Meere Alain Van Hiel Charles Gage Van Riper
Joop Van Der Pligt Ron Van Houten Frances L. Van Voorhis
Tom H.A. Van Der Voort Marinus Van Ijzendoorn Mark Van Vugt
    Seralynne D. Vann
Van Audenrode Marc ( ) : Économiste québécois d'origine belge, spécialisé dans l'étude de la concurrence et du marché du travail. Il enseigne à l'Université de Sherbrooke. Collaborateur de Fortin.
FORTIN, P. & VAN AUDENRODE, M. (2004). Sous-traitance, emploi et salaires. Revue Gestion, 29, 33-37.
 
 
Van Beneden Pierre-Joseph ( ) : Paléantologue et éthologiste belge, spécialisé dans l'étude du parasitisme.
VAN BENEDEN, P.J. (1858). Mémoire sur les vers intestinaux. J.B. Baillière et fils. [PDF]
 
 
 
Van Bergen Elsje ( ) : Psychologue finlandaise et spécialiste de l'étude de la littératie et de la dyslexie. Étudiante de De Jong. Collaboratrice de Torppa.
VAN BERGEN, E., VAN SWIETEN, L.M., WILLIAMS, J.H.G. & MON-WILLIAMS, M. (2007). The effect of orientation on prehension movement time. Experimental Brain Research, 178 (2), 180-193. [PDF]
VAN BERGEN, E., DE JONG, P.F., REGTVOORT, A., OORT, F., S. VAN OTTERLOO, S. & VAN DER LEIJ, A. (2011). Dutch children at family risk of dyslexia : Precursors, reading development, and parental effects. Dyslexia, 17 (1), 2-18. [PDF]
VAN BERGEN, E., DE JONG, P.F., PLAKAS, A., MAASSEN, B. & VAN DER LEIJ, A. (2012). Child and parental literacy levels within families with a history of dyslexia. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 53 (1), 28-36. [PDF]
VAN BERGEN, E., DE JONG, P.F., MAASSEN, B., KRIKHAAR, E., PLAKAS, A. & VAN DER LEIJ, A. (2014). IQ of four-year-olds who go on to develop dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47 (5), 475-484. [PDF]
VAN BERGEN, E., DE JONG, P.F., MAASSEN, B. & VAN DER LEIJ, A.J. (2014). The effect of parents' literacy skills and children's preliteracy skills on the risk of dyslexia. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42 (7), 187-200. [PDF]
Van der Linden Martial ( ) : Psychologue luxembourgeois, spécialisé dans l'étude du jeu compulsif et de la dépendance aux jeux vidéo et à internet. Collaborateur Billieux.
VAN DER LINDEN, M. (1991). Une approche cognitive du syndrome amnésique. Questions de Logopédie, 24, 33-56.
VAN DER LINDEN, M., BRÉDART, S., DEPOORTER, N. & COYETTE, F. (1996). Semantic memory and amnesia : A case study. Cognitive Neuropsychology, 13, 391-413.
VAN DER LINDEN, M., D'ACREMONT, M., CESCHI, G. & ZERMATTEN, A. (2007). Does impulsivity relate to perceived dependence on and actual use of the mobile phone ? Applied Cognitive Psychology, 21 (4), 527-537.
 
 
Van Der Meere Japp ( ) : Psychologue néerlandais et spécialiste de l'étude du trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité. Collaborateur de Gross-Tsur, Sergeant, Shalev et Sonuga-Barke.
VAN DER MEERE, J. & SERGEANT, J. (1988). Focused attention in pervasively hyperactive children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 16, 627-639.
VAN DER MEERE, J., WEKKING, E. & SERGEANT, J. (1991). Sustained attention and pervasive hyperactivity. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 32 (2), 275-284.
VAN DER MEERE, J., HUGHES, K.A., BERGER, N. & SALLEE, F.R. (1995). The effect of reward on sustained attention in AD/HD children with and without CD. In J.A. Sergeant (Ed.), European approach to hyperkinetic disorder (pp. 241-253). Zurich Switzerland : Fotorotar.
VAN DER MEERE, J., SHALEV, R., BORGER N. & GROSS-TSUR, V. (1995). Sustained attention, activation and MPH in ADHD : A research note. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 36, 697-703.
VAN DER MEERE, J., MARZOCCHI, G.M. & DE MEO, T. (2005). Response inhibition and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without oppositional defiant disorder screened from a community sample. Developmental Neuropsychology, 28 (1), 459-472.
Van Der Pligt Joop (1951-2015) : Psychosociologue néerlandais et spécialiste de l'étude des attitudes. Collaborateur de Eiser, Spears et Zeelenberg.
VAN DER PLIGT, J. & VAN DIJK, J.A. (1979). Polarization and preference for judgmental labels. European Journal of Psychology, 9, 233-241. [PDF]
VAN DER PLIGT, J., EISER, J.R. & SPEARS, R. (1984). Public attitudes to nuclear energy policy. Energy Policy, 12, 302-305. [PDF]
VAN DER PLIGT, J. (1994). Healthy thoughts about unhealthy behaviour ? Psychology & Health, 9, 187-190. [PDF]
VAN DER PLIGT, J. (1996). Risk perception and self-protective behaviour. European Psychologist, 1, 34-43. [PDF]
VAN DER PLIGT, J. (1998). Perceived risk and vulnerability as predictors of precautionary health behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 3, 1-14. [PDF]
Van Der Voort Tom H.A. ( ) : Psychosociologue néerlandais et spécialiste de l'étude des effets psychologiques de la télévision. Collaborateur de Valkenburgh.
VAN DER VOORT, T.H.A. & VOOIJS, M.W. (1990). Validity of children’s direct estimates of time spent viewing. Journal of Broadcasting and Electronic Media 34 (1), 93–99.
VAN DER VOORT, T.H.A. (1991). Television and the decline of reading. Poetics: Journal of Empirical Research on Literature, the Media & the Arts 20 (1), 73–89.
VAN DER VOORT, T.H.A., BEENTJES, W.J. & BOVILL, M. (1998). Young people's ownership and uses of new and old forms of media in britain and the Netherlands. European Journal of Communication 13 (4), 457-477. [PDF]
Van Dijk Eric ( ) : Psychosociologue néerlandais et spécialiste de l'étude de la coopération au sein des groupes et des dilemmes sociaux. Collaborateur de Joireman et Van Lange.
VAN DIJK, E. & WILKE, H. (1993). Differential interests, equity, and public good provision. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 29, 1-16.
VAN DIJK, E. & WILKE, H. (1994). Asymmetry of wealth and public good provision. Social Psychology Quarterly, 57, 352-359.
VAN DIJK, E. & WILKE, H. (1995). Coordination rules in asymmetric social dilemmas: A comparison between Public Good dilemmas and Resource dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 31, 1-27.
VAN DIJK, E. & WILKE, H. (2000). Decision-induced focusing in social dilemmas : Give-some, keep-some, take-some, and leave-some games. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78, 92-104.
VAN DIJK, E. & WILKE, H. & WIT, A. (2003). Preferences for leadership in social dilemmas : Public good dilemmas versus resource dilemmas. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 170-176.
VAN DIJK, E., Van KLEEF, G. A., STEINEL, W. & VAN BEEST, I. (2008). A social functional approach to emotions in bargaining : When communicating anger pays and when it backfires. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 94, 600-614.
VAN DIJK, E., DE KWAADSTENIET, E.W. & DE CREMER, D. (2009). Tacit coordination in social dilemmas: The importance of having a common understanding. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 96, 665-678.
 
Van Fraassen Bastiaan C. (Goes Pays-Bas 1941-) : Philosophe et épistémologue canadien d'origine néerlandaise. Il est l'un des chefs de file de l'empirisme constructif.
VAN FRAASSEN, B.C. (1980). The scientific image. Clarendon Press.
VAN FRAASSEN, B.C. (1982). Rational belief and the common cause principle. In R. McLaughlin (Ed.), What? Where? When? Why? Essays in honour of Wesley Salmon, (p. 193-209). Dordrecht : Reidel.
VAN FRAASSEN, B.C. (1989). Laws and symmetry. Oxford : Oxford University Press.
VAN FRAASSEN, B.C. (2000). La fin de l'empirisme ? Revue Philosophique de Louvain, 98, 449-479.
VAN FRAASSEN, B. (2001). Constructive empiricism now. Philosophical Studies, 106, 151-170. [PDF]
Van Gelder Tim ( ) : Philosophe cognitiviste australien. Étudiant de Haugeland.

VAN GELDER, T. (1990). Compositionality : A connectionist variation on a classical theme. Cognitive Science, 14, 355-384. [PDF]
VAN GELDER, T. (1995). Is cognition categorization ? In G.V. Nakamura, R. Taraban and D.L. Medin (Eds.), Categorization by humans and machines (pp. 469-494). Academic. : San Diego. [PDF]
VAN GELDER, T. (1995). What might cognition be, if not computation ? Journal of Philosophy, 92 (7), 345-381.
VAN GELDER, T. (1998). The Roles of philosophy in cognitive science. Philosophical Psychology, 11 (2), 117-136. [PDF]
VAN GELDER, T. (2005). Teaching critical thinking : Some lessons from cognitive science. College Teaching, 53 (1), 41-48. [PDF]
Van Haaren Frans ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste et spécialiste de la pharmacologie behaviorale.

VAN HAARAN, F. & VAN DE POLL, N.E. (1984). The effect of a choice alternative on sex differences in passive avoidance behavior. Physiology & Behavior, 32, 211- 215.
VAN HAARAN, F. & VAN DE POLL, N.E. (1986). Effectsof light intensity on passive avoidance behavior of male and female Wistar rats. Physiology & Behavior, 36, 123- 125.
VAN HAARAN, F., WOUTERS, M. & VAN DE POLL, N.E. (1987). Absence of behavioral differences between male and female rats in different radial-maze procedures. Physiology & Behavior, 39, 409-412.
VAN HAARAN, F., VAN HEST, A. & VAN DE POLL, N.E. (1987). Acquisition and reversal of a discriminated autoshaped response in male and female rats : Effects of long or short and fixed or variable intertrial interval durations. Learning & Motivation, 18, 220-233.
VAN HAARAN, F., VAN HEST, A. & VAN DE POLL, N.E. (1988). Self-control in male and female rats. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 49 (2), 201-211. [PDF]
Van Houten Ron ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain et spécialiste de l'éducation. Il s'intéresse également à la conduite automobile et à la mise en relief. Collaborateur de Axelrod, Bailey, Favell, Foxx, Iwata, Lovaas et Rolider.
VAN HOUTEN, R., NAU, P.A., MACKENZIE-KEATING, S., SAMEOTO, D. & COLAVECCHIA, B. (1982). Analysis of some variables influencing the effectiveness of reprimands. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15 (1), 65-83. [PDF]
VAN HOUTEN, R., ROLIDER, A., FRIEDMAN, R., BECKER, M., CHALODOVSKY, I. & SCHERER, M. (1985). Large-scale reductions in speeding and accidents in Canada and Israel : A behavioral ecological perspective. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18 (1), 87-93. [PDF]
VAN HOUTEN, R. & VAN HOUTEN, F. (1987). The effects of a specific prompting sign on speed reduction. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 19, 115-117.
VAN HOUTEN, R. & ROLIDER, A. (1989). An analysis of several variables influencing flash card instruction. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 22 (1), 111-118. [PDF]
VAN HOUTEN, R., MALENFANT, J.E.L., AUSTIN, J. & LEBBON, A. (2005). The effects of a seatbelt-gearshift delay prompt on the seatbelt use of motorists who do not regularly wear seatbelts. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 (2), 195-203. [PDF]
Van Hiel Alain ( ) : Psychosociologue belge et spécialiste de l'étude des idéologies (conservatisme, autoritarisme, etc.).
VAN HIEL, A. & MERVIELDE, I. (2005). Authoritarianism and social dominance orientation : Relationships with various forms of racism. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 2323-2344.
VAN HIEL, A., DE CREMER, D. & STOUTEN, J. (2008). The personality basis of justice : The Five-factor Model as an integrative model of personality and procedural fairness effects on cooperation. European Journal of Personality, 22 (6), 519-539.
VAN HIEL, A. & VANTEENKISTE, M. (2009). Ambitions fulfilled ? The effects of intrinsic and extrinsic goal attainment on older adults' ego-integrity and death attitudes. International Journal of Ageing & Human Development, 68, 27-51.
VAN HIEL, A. & BREBELS, L. (2011). Conservatism is good for you : Cultural conservatism protects self-esteem in older adults. Personality & Individual Differences, 50, 120-123.
VAN HIEL, A. (2012). A psycho-political profile of party activists and left-wing and right-wing extremists. European Journal of Political Research, 51 (2), 166-203. [PDF]
 Van Ijzendoorn Marinus ( ) : Psychologue et spécialiste du développement, notamment de la situation étrange et de la guerre. Collaborateur de Vaughn.
VAN IJZENDOORN, M.H., GOOSSENS, F.A., KROONENBERG, P.M. & TAVECCHIO, L.W.C. (1985). Dependent attachment. B4-children in the strange situation. Psychological Reports, 57, 439-451.
VAN IJZENDOORN, M.H. (1986). The cross-cultural validity of the strange situation from a Vygotskian perspective. The Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 9, 558-559.
VAN IJZENDOORN, M.H. (1990). The relation of moral judgment to authoritarianism, sexism, ethnocentrism, and concern about nuclear war. Journal of Moral Education, 19, 38-48.
VAN IJZENDOORN, M.H. & KROONENBERG, P.M. (1990). Cross-cultural consistency of coding the strange situation. Infant Behavior & Development, 13, 469-485. [PDF]
IJZENDOORN, M.H. & SCHUENGEL, C. (1996). The measurement of dissociation in normal and clinical populations: meta-analytic validation of the dissociative experiences scale (DES). Clinical Psychology Review, 16 (5), 365-382. [PDF]
Van Kleef Gerben A. ( ) : Psychologue organisationnel néerlandais et spécialiste de l'étude des émotions.
VAN KLEEF, G.A., ANASTASOPOULOU, C. & NIJSTAD, B.A. (2010). Can expressions of anger enhance creativity ? A test of the emotions as social information (EASI) model. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 1042-1048. [PDF]
VAN KLEEF, G.A., HOMAN, A.C., BEERSMA, B., VAN KNIPPENBERG, D., VAN KNIPPENBERG, B. & DAMEN, F. (2009). Searing sentiment or cold calculation : The effects of leader emotional displays on team performance depend on follower epistemic motivation. Academy of Management Journal, 52, 562-580.
VAN KLEEF, G.A. (2010). The emerging view of emotion as social information. Social & Personality Psychology Compass, 4, 331-343.
VAN KLEEF, G.A., De BREU, C.K.W. & MANSTEAD, A.S.R. (2010). An interpersonal approach to emotion in social decision making : The emotions as social information model. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 42, 45-96.
VAN KLEEF, G.A. VAN DOORN, E. A., HEERDINK, M.W. & KONING, L. F. (2011). Emotion is for influence. European Review of Social Psychology, 22, 114-163.
Van Laar Colette ( ) : Psychosociologue néerlandaise, spécialisée dans l'étude du racisme et des préjugés, notamment en lien avec la réussite scolaire, l'identité sociale et le statut socioéconomique. Collaboratrice de Sears, Sidanius et Pratto.
VAN LAAR, C., SIDANIUS, J., RABINOWITZ, J. & SINCLAIR, S. (1999). The three R's of academic achievement : Reading, riting, and racism. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 139-151.
VAN LAAR, C. & SIDANIUS, J. (2001). Social status and the academic achievement gap : A social dominance perspective. Social Psychology of Education, 4, 235-258. [PDF]
VAN LAAR, C., LEVIN, S. & SINCLAIR, S. & SIDANIUS, J. (2005). The effect of college roommate contact on ethnic attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 329-345.
VAN LAAR, C., DERKS, B. & ELLEMERS, N. & BLEEKERS, D. (2010). Valuing social identity : Consequences for motivation and performance in low status groups. Journal of Social Issues, 66 (3), 602-617.
VAN LAAR, C., DERKS, B. & ELLEMERS, N. (2013). Motivation for education and work in young Muslim women : The importance of value for ingroup domains. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 35 (1), 64-74. [PDF]
Van Lange Paul A.M. ( ) : Psychosociologue néerlandais et spécialiste de l'étude de la coopération au sein des groupes et des dilemmes sociaux. Collaborateur de Joireman, Parks, Sanna, Van Dijk et Van Vugt.
VAN LANGE, P.A.M., OTTEN, W., De BRUIN, E.M.N. & JOIREMAN, J. A. (1997). Development of prosocial, individualistic, and competitive orientations : Theory and preliminary evidence. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 733-746.
VAN LANGE, P.A.M. & VISSER, K. (1999). Locomotion in social dilemmas : How people adapt to cooperative, tot-for-tat, and noncooperative partners. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 77, 762–773.
VAN LANGE, P.A.M., OUWERKERK, J.W. & TAZELAAR, M.J.A. (2002). How to overcome the detrimental effects of noise in social interaction : The benefits of generosity. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82, 768-780.
VAN LANGE, P.A.M. & JOIREMAN, J. A. (2008). How we can promote behavior that serves all of us in the future. Social Issues & Policy Review, 2, 127-157.
VAN LANGE, P.A.M., SCHIPPERS, M. & BALLIET, D. (2011). Who volunteers in psychology experiments ? An empirical review of prosocial motivation in volunteering. Personality & Individual Differences, 51, 279-284.
VAN LANGE, P.A.M., JOIREMAN, J., PARKS, C.D. & VAN DIJK, E. (2013). The psychology of social dilemmas : A review. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 120, 125-141. [PDF]
Van Rillaer Jacques ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste belge et sceptiques.

VAN RILLAER, J. (1975). L'agressivité humaine. Bruxelles : Mardaga.
VAN RILLAER, J. (1980). Les illusions de la psychanalyse. Bruxelles : Mardaga.
VAN RILLAER, J. (1995). Les thérapies comportementales. Bernet-Danilo/Essentialis.
VAN RILLAER, J. (1995). La gestion de soi. Bruxelles : Mardaga.
VAN RILLAER, J. (2005). Science et pseudoscience en psychothérapie. Revue Francophone de Clinique Comportementale et Cognitive, 10 (3), 25-34.
Van Riper Charles Gage (1905-1994) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste du bégaiement.
VAN RIPER, C. (1936). Study of thoracic breathing of stutterers during expectancy and occurrence of stuttering spasms. Journal of Speech Disorders, 1, 61-72.
VAN RIPER, C. (1947/54). Speech correction : Principles and methods. New York : Prentice Hall.
VAN RIPER, C. (1958). Experiments in stuttering therapy. In J. Eisenson (Ed.), Stuttering : A symposium (pp. 273-390). New York : Harper & Row.
VAN RIPER, C. (1971). The nature of stuttering. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall.
VAN RIPER, C. (1990). Final thoughts about stuttering. Journal of Fluency Disorders, 15, 317-318.
Van Voorhis Frances L. ( ) : Psychologue américaine et spécialiste de l'implication parentale, notamment lors des devoirs et des leçons. Collaboratrice de Epstein, Sanders et Sheldon.
VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2001). Interactive science homework : An experiment in home and school connections. NASSP Bulletin, 85 (627), 20-32.
VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2003). Interactive homework in middle school : Effects on family involvement and students' science achievement. Journal of Educational Research, 96 (9), 323-339.
VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2004). Reflecting on the homework ritual : Assignments and designs. Theory into Practice, 43, 205-212.
VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2011). Adding families to the homework equation : A longitudinal study of mathematics achievement. Education & Urban Society, 43, 313-338.
VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2011). Costs and benefits of family involvement in homework : Lessons learned from students and families. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22, 220-249.
Van Vugt Mark : Psychologue organisationnel néerlandais et spécialiste de l'étude du leadership et des dilemmes sociaux. Collaborateur de Dunbar, Joireman, Johnson et Van Lange.
VAN VUGT, M. & SAMUELSON, C.D. (1999). The impact of metering in a natural resource crisis : A social dilemma analysis. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 25, 731-745. [PDF]
VAN VUGT, M., JEPSON, S., HART, C. & CREMER, DE. (2004). Autocratic leadership in social dilemmas : A threat to group stability. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 1-13. [PDF]
VAN VUGT, M. (2006). The evolutionary origins of leadership and followership. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 10, 354-372. [PDF]
VAN VUGT, M., DE CREMER, D. & JANNSEN, D. (2007). Gender differences in cooperation and competition : The male warrior hypothesis. Psychological Science, 18, 19-23. [PDF]
VAN VUGT, M. & SPISAK, B.R. (2008). Sex differences in leadership emergence during competitions within and between groups. Psychological Science, 19, 854-858. [PDF]
Vann Seralynne D. ( ) : Neuropsychologue anglaise, spécialiste de l'étude du corps mmillaire et de son rôle dans le fonctionnement de la mémoire. Collaboratrice de Aggleton et Yolelinas.

VANN, S.D. & AGGLETON, J.P. (2003). Evidence of a spatial encoding deficit in rats with lesions of the mammillary bodies or mammillothalamic tract. Journal of Neuroscience, 23 (8), 3506–3514. [PDF]
VANN, S.D., SAUNDERS, R.C. & AGGLETON, J.P. (2007). Distinct, parallel pathways link the medial mammillary bodies to the anterior thalamus in macaque monkeys. European Journal of Neuroscience, 26,1575–1586. [PDF]
VANN, S.D., TSIVILIS, D, DENBY, C.E., QUAMME, J.R., YONELINAS, A.P., AGGLETON, J.P., MONTALDI, D. & MAYES, A.R. (2009). Impaired recollection but spared familiarity in patients with extended hippocampal system damage revealed by 3 convergent methods. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106, 5442-5447. [PDF]
VANN, S.D. (2010). Re-evaluating the role of the mammillary bodies in memory. Neuropsychologia, 48, 2316–2327. [PDF]
VANN, S.D. & NELSON, A.J.D. (2015). The mammillary bodies and memory: more than a hippocampal relay. Progress in Brain Research, 219, 163-185. [PDF]
Vandalisme : Altération ou destruction de la propriété d'autrui, sans permission. Vandalism.

   GREENBERG, B. (1974). School vandalism : Its effects and paradoxical solutions. Crime Prevention Review, 1, (2), 11-18.
MAYER, G.R. & BUTTERWORTH, T.A. (1979). Preventive approach to school violence and vandalism : An experimental study. The Personnel & Guidance Journal, 57, 436-441.
MAYER, G.R. & BUTTERWORTH, T. (1981). Evaluating a preventive approach to reducing school vandalism. Phi Delta Kappan, 62, 498-499.
MAYER, G.R., BUTTERWORTH, T., NAKPAKTITIS, M. & SULZER-AZAROFF, B. (1983). Preventing school vandalism and improving discipline : a three-year study. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 16 (4), 355-369. [PDF]
MAYER, G.R., NAKPAKTITIS, M., BUTTERWORTH, T. & HOLLINGSWORTH, P. (1987). A search for the elusive setting events of school vandalism : A corelational study. Education & Treatment of Children, 10, 259-270.
MAYER, G.R. & SULZER-AZAROFF, B (1990). Interventions for vandalism. In G. Stoner, M. R. Shinn, & H. M. Walker (Eds.), Interventions for achievement and behavior problems (pp. 599-580). Washington, DC : National Association for School Psychologists.
Vandelac Louise ( ) : Sociologue et féministe québécoise, spécialisée dans l'étude de la santé et de l'environnement. Collaboratrice de Descarries.
VANDELAC, L. (1996). Technologies de la reproduction : l'irresponsabilité des pouvoirs publics et la nôtre. Revue Sociologie et Sociétés, 28 (2), 59-75.
VANDELAC, L. (2001). Enjeux cachés. Le cheval de troie des technologies de reproduction. Magazine L'Émilie, 1455.
VANDELAC, L. (2001). La ZLEA, un marché de dupes. Le bouquet écologique, Réseau québécois des groupes écologistes, 14 (4), 4-7.
VANDELAC, L. (2001). Les polluants persistants ou l'art de s'empoissonner la santé! Dans Agenda des femmes (p. 125-129). Montréal : Éditions du remue-ménage.
VANDELAC, L. (2001). Pour une écologie politique du vivant. Dans M. Venne (Dir.), La révolution génétique (p. 141-163). Québec : Presses de l'Université Laval.
Vansteenwegen Alfons (Louvain 1941-) : Psychologue et sexologue belge, spécialisé dans l'étude de la communication et dans la thérapie de couple.
VANSTEENWEGEN, A. (1976). L'importance de l'attitude empirique en thérapie familiale et sexuelle : résultats de thérapies de couples et de sexothérapies. In Recherche et formation en Sexologie (p. 26-34). Institut Interfacultaire des Sciences Familiales et Sexologiques. Université de Louvain.
VANSTEENWEGEN, A. (1981). Apprendre à négocier dans un couple : entraînement à la dispute constructive. Thérapie Familiale, 2, 339-349.
VANSTEENWEGEN, A. (1997). Do marital therapists do what they say they do ? A comparison between experiential and communication couple therapy. Sexual & Marital therapy, 12, 35-43.
VANSTEENWEGEN, A. (1998). Helpfulness of therapist verbal interventions in couple therapy. Sexual & Marital Therapy, 1, 15-20.
VANSTEENWEGEN, A. & LIEKENS, G. (2004). The effectiveness of audiovisual self-help material on sexual problems : a controlled study. Sexual & Relational Therapy, 19 (S), EFS-Congress Abstracts, 110.
Vapeur d'essence : Gasoline Sniffing.

  ROSS, C.A. (1982). Gasoline sniffing and lead encephalopathy.Canadian Medical Association Journal, 127, 1195-1197.
POKLIS, A. & BURKETT, C.D. (2008). Gasoline sniffing : A review. Clinical Toxicology, 11 (1), 35-41.
VARGAS - VARIABILITÉ - VARIABLE - VARIATION - VAUCLAIR - VAUGHN - VAUGHAN - VAUGEOIS - VE
Varela Francisco (1946-2001) : Biologiste et philosophe chilien, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'inscription corporelle de l'esprit. Collaborateur de Rosch.
VARELA, F., THOMPSON, E. & ROSCH, E. (1991/93). The embodied mind : Cognitive science and human experience / L'inscription corporelle de l'esprit : sciences cognitives et expérience humaine. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press/Paris : Éditions du Seuil.
 
Vargas
Ernst A. Vargas Julie S. Vargas
 
Vargas Ernest A. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain et spécialiste de l'étude des règles et du comportement verbal. Collaborateur de Fraley et Vargas.

VARGAS, E.A. & FRALEY, L.E. (1976). Process and structure : Reorganizing the university for instructional technology. Instructional Science, 5, 303-324.
VARGAS, E.A. (1985). The ABP contingency. The Behavior Analyst, 8 (1), 131-132. [PDF]
VARGAS, E.A. (1988). Verbally-governed and event-governed behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 6, 11-22. [PDF]
VARGAS, E.A. & VARGAS, J.S. (1991). Programmed instruction : What it is and how to do it. Journal of Behavioral Education, 1, 235-252.
VARGAS, E.A. (2013). The importance of form in Skinner's analysis of verbal behavior and a further step. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 29, 167-183. [PDF]
Vargas Julie S. (Minneapolis 1938-) : Béhavioriste américaine et spécialiste de l'éducation. Fille de Skinner. Collaboratrice de Barrett, Binder, Engelmann, Vargas et Watkins.
VARGAS, J.S. (1973). Writing worthwhile behavioral objectives. New York : Harper & Row.
VARGAS, J.S. (1990). Cognitive analysis of language and verbal behavior : Two separate fields. In L.J. Hayes & P.N. Chase (Eds.), Dialogues on Verbal Behavior (pp. 197-201). Reno, NV : Context Press.
VARGAS, J.S. (2004). A daughter’s retrospective of B.F. Skinner. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 7 (2), 135-140. [PDF]
VARGAS, J.S. (2004). Contingencies over B.F. Skinner's discovery of contingencies. European Journal of Behavior Analysis, 5, 137-142. [PDF]
VARGAS, J.S. (2009). Behavior analysis for effective teaching. Routledge.
Variabilité : Ce qui n'est pas constant, qui oscille autour d'un axe, d'un point central.

Variabilité
Variabilité cognitive Variabilité génétique Variabilité intra-sujet
Variabilité comportemenentale Variabilité inter-sujet  
 
Variabilité cognitive : Cognitive variability.

  SIEGLER, R.S. (1994). Cognitive variability : A key to understanding cognitive development. Current Direction in Psychological Science, 3, 1-5. [PDF]
SIEGLER, R.S. & SHIPLEY, C. (1995). Variation, selection, and cognitive change. In T. Simon & G. Halford (Eds.), Developing cognitive competence : New approaches to process modeling (pp. 31-76). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. [PDF]
Variabilité comportementale : Operant variability, behavioral variability, learned variability, behavioral diverstiy.

  ANTONITIS, J.J. (1951). Response variability in the white rat during conditioning, extinction, and reconditioning. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 42, 273-281. TATHAM, T.A., WANCHISEN, B.A. & HINELINE, P.N. (1993). Effects of fixed- and variable-ratio schedules on human variability. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 59, 349-359. [PDF]
GOETZ, E.M. & BAER, D.M. (1973). Social control of form diversity and the emergence of new forms in children's blockbuilding. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 6, 209-217. [PDF] STOKES, P. (1995). Learned variability. Animal Learning & Behavior, 23, 164-176.
VOGEL, R. & ANNAU, Z. (1973). An operant discrimination task allowing variability of reinforced response patterning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (1), 1-6. [PDF] HONEY, J., OSGOOD, D.W. & MARSHALL, I.H. (1995). Criminal careers in the short-term : Intra-individual variability in crime and its relation to local life circumstances. American Sociological Review, 60 (5), 655-673. [PDF]
SCHWARTZ, B. (1982). Failure to produce response variability with reinforcement. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37 (2), 171-181. [PDF] HUNZIKER, M.H., SALDANA, R.L. & NEURINGER, A. (1996). Behavioral variability in SHR and WKY rats as a function of rearing environment and reinforcement contingency. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 65 (1), 129-144. [PDF]
SPOONER, F. & SPOONER, D. (1983). Variability : An aid in the assessment of the effectiveness of training procedures. Journal of Precision Teaching, 4 (1), 5-14. MILLER, N. & NEURINGER, A. (2002). Reinforcing variability in adolescents with autism. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 33 (2), 151-165. [PDF]
PAGE, S. & NEURINGER, A. (1985). Variability is an operant. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 11, 429-452. NEURINGER, A. (2002). Operant variability : evidence, functions, and theory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9, 672-705. [PDF]
BOULANGER, B., INGEBOS, A.-M., LAHAK, M., MACHDO, A. & RICHELLE, M. (1987). Variabilité comportementale et conditionnement opérant chez l'animal. L'Année Psychologique, 87 (3), 417-434. SHAHAN, T.A. & CHASE, P.N. (2002). Novelty, stimulus control, and operant variability. The Behavior Analyst, 25, 175-190. [PDF]
MACHADO, A. (1989). Operant conditioning of behavioral variability using a percentile reinforcement schedule. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 52 (2), 155-166. [PDF] HOPKINSON, J. & NEURINGER, A. (2003). Modifying behavioral variability in moderately depressed students. Behavior Modification, 27 (2), 251-264.
NEURINGER, A. (1991). Operant variability and repetition as functions of interresponse time. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Animal Behavior Processes, 17, 3-12. NEURINGER, A. (2004). Reinforced variability in animals and people. American Psychologist, 59 (9), 891-906. [PDF]
NEURINGER, A. & HUNTLEY, R.W. (1991). Reinforced variability in rats : Effects of gender, age and contingency. Physiology & Behavior, 51, 145-149. ONNIS, L., MONOGHAN, P., CHRISTIANEN, M.H. & CHATER, N. (2005). Variability is the spice of learning, and a crucial ingredient for detecting and generalizing in nonadjacent dependencies. In K. Forbus, D. Gentner & T. Regier (Eds.), Proceedings of the twenty-sixth annual conference of the cognitive science society (pp. 1047-1052). Lawrence Erlbaum. [PDF]
NEURINGER, A. (1992). Reinforced variability in rats : Effects of gender, age and contingency. Physiology & Behavior, 51, 145-149. JOHANSEN, E.B., KILLEEN, P.R. & SAGVOLDEN, T. (2007). Behavioral variability, elimination of responses, and delay-of-reinforcement gradients in SHR and WKY rats. Behavioral & Brain Functions, 3, 1-12. [PDF] + [PDF]
  PALMER, D.C. (2009). How shall we account for variance ? Behavior & Philosophy, 37, 151-155. [PDF]
MACHADO, A. (1992). Behavioral variability and frequency-dependent selection. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 58, 241-263. [PDF] STAHLMAN, W.D., YOUNG, M.E. & BLAISDELL, A.P. (2010). Response variability in pigeons in a Pavlovian task. Learning & Behavior, 38, 111-118. [PDF]
MARR, M.J. (2012). Operant variability : Some random thoughts. The Behavior Analysis, 35 (2), 237-241. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Variation et Comportement
Variabilité génétique :

  MAYNARD SMITH, J. HARPER, D.G.C. & BROOKFIELD, J.F.Y. (1988). The evolution of aggresion : can selection generate variability ? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, B, 319, 557–570.
ABERCROMBIE, M., HICKMAN, C.J. & JOHNSON, M.L. (1980). Dictionary of biology. Londres : Penguin.
Variabilité inter-sujet : Voir Plan à mesures répétées.
Variabilié intra-sujet : Voir Plan à groupes indépendants.
Variable : Tout phénomène qui varie, soit naturellement (variable invoquée ou observée), soit artificiellement par suite d'une manipulation (variable provoquée). Par définition, une variable possède toujours au moins deux niveaux. En psychologie, caractéristique du comportement ou de l'expérience d'un individu (humain ou animal) ou de son environnement qui peut être décrite et mesurée sur une échelle (quantitative, nominale, ordinale). ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. /constante. Variable.

Variables
Variable à l'étude    
Variable aléatoire Variable démographique Variable nominale
Variable artificielle Variable dépendante Variable observée
Variable assignée Variable dichotomique Variable ordinale
Variable associée Variable discrète Variable parasite
Variable binaire    
Variable concomitante Variable indépendante Variable prédite
Variable contaminante Variable indépendante invoquée Variable prédictive
Variable contextuelle Variable indépendante provoquée Variable principale
Variable continue Variable intermédiaire Variable propre
Variable contrôlée Variable intermédiaire formelle Variable qualitative
Variable d'état Variable intermédiaire métaphorique Variable quantitative
Variable de confusion Variable latente Variable secondaire
Variable de nuisance Variable manipulée Variable structurale
Variable de type E Variable médiatrice Variable X
Variable de type S Variable modératrice Variable Y
Variable décrite Variable muette  
 


  WILKINSON, D.Y. & KING, G. (1987). Conceptual and methodological issues in the use of race as a variable: policy implications. The Milbank Quarterly, 65 (S), 56-71.
DURU-BELLAT, M. (1994). La "découverte" de la variable sexe et ses implications théoriques dans la sociologie de l’éducation française contemporaine. Nouvelles questions féministes, 15, 35-68.
DUGGAN, S., JOHNSON, P. & GOTT, R. (1996). A critical point in investigative work: Defining variables. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 33, 461-474.
ANGRIST, J., IMBENS, G.W. & RUBIN, D.B. (1996). Identification of causal effects using instrumental variables. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 91, 444-472.
JOEL, D. & McCARTHY, M.M. (2017). Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuropsychiatric research : Where are we now and where should we be ? Neuropsychopharmacology, 42, 379-385. [PDF]
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin.
Variable (Niveau d'une variable) : Variation artificielle (manipulée ou provoquée) ou naturelle (assignée ou invoquée) du phénomène à l'étude. Par définition, une variable possède toujours au moins deux niveaux. EX: Homme et Femme sont les deux niveaux de la variable sexe. Dans certaines expériences, chaque groupe correspond à un niveau de la variable indépendante. Le niveau zéro, ou absence de la variable indépendante, correspond quant à lui au groupe de contrôle d'une recherche. Niveau et variation d'un phénomène. = modalité ou variation des variables indépendante et dépendante, classe, étiquette, degré.


EXEMPLE 1 Variable indépendante 3 Niveaux   Variable dépendante
Présence d'un passant dans une situation d'urgence 1 passant Comportement d'aide
2 passants
3 passants

EXEMPLE 2 Variable indépendante 4 Niveaux   Variable dépendante
Scolarité Primaire Revenu
Secondaire
Cégep
Université

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable à l'étude : Variable que le chercheur choisi volontairement d'étudier lors de sa recherche. Il s'agit de la variable indépendante et de la Variable dépendante. Intentional variable.

Variables à l'étude
Variable indépendante Variable dépendante
Variable aléatoire : En statistiques, variable qui obéit aux lois du hasard. Il ne s'agit pas d'un phénomène en soi mais d'un postulat de base du modèle statistique qui décrit le comportement d'un phénomène fictif, probabiliste ou non-déterminé, et de le comparer au comportement du phénomène à l'étude, ce qui permet par contraste d'inférer que le phénomène étudié est influencé par une cause x ou agit selon les lois du hasard (absence de cause x). /cause. Random variable.

  WALD, A. (1944). On cumulative sums of random variables. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 15, 283-296.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Variables
Variable artificielle : Variable créée de toute pièce en laboratoire en vue d'en mesurer ou d'en évaluer les effets, mais dont les propriétés sont en principe identique au phénomène à l'étude. /variable naturelle.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable assignée : Synonyme de variable indépendante invoquée. /variable manipulée.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable associée : Variable observée et mesurée dans le milieu de l'objet d'étude (et non une caractéristique de l'individu). EX: Le nombre d'amis d'un enfant autiste est une variable associée. C-EX: L'âge ou le sexe d'un autiste ne sont pas des variables associées. = variable extrinsque, variable du milieu, facteurs environnementaux. /variable propre.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable binaire : Voir Variable dichotomique.
Variable concomitante : Concomitant variable.

  COX, D.R. (1957). The use of a concomitant variable in selecting an experimental design. Biometrika, 44, 150-158.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable contaminante : Variable parasite introduite involontairement en même temps que la variable indépendante manipulée et dont les effets nuisibles se confondent avec cette dernière. La différence entre une variable parasite et une variable contaminante réside dans le fait que cette dernière est produite (involontairement) par le chercheur au moment de la manipulation de la variable indépendante. = variable de confusion. Confounding variable, confounding factor.
EXEMPLE   Variable dépendante
Variable Indépendante Nombre de passants qui constatent une urgence Comportement d'aide
Variable contaminante Tous les passants qui constatent cette urgence n'ont pas le même âge

 
MACKINNON, D.P., KRULL, J.L. & LOCKWOOD, C.M. (2000). Equivalence of the mediation, confounding, and suppression effects. Prevention Science, 1, 173-181.
  Voir aussi Variables
Variable contextuelle : Ensemble des caractéristiques mesurables du contexte. Contextual variable.

  DUMAS, J.E. (1989). Primary prevention : Toward an experimental paradigm sensitive to contextual variables. Journal of Primary Prevention, 10, 27-40.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable continue : Variable quantitative dont les données numériques sont exprimées en nombres entiers et en fractions. EX: Le poids des individus est une variable quantitative continue (70,6 kg). Continuous variable.

  LAURENCELLE, L. (2005). Un test général de l'association entre deux variables continues. Lettres Statistiques, 12, 81-98.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable contrôlée : Variable parasite ou contaminante dont les effets nuisibles ont été neutralisés par une stratégie de contrôle. = facteur contrôlé. /variable non-contrôlée. Controlled variable.

  Voir aussi Variable parasite et Stratégie de contrôle
Variable d'état : Concept proposé par Skinner pour désigner les facteurs biologiques que l'on peut modifier (fatigue, sommeil, niveau hormonal) lors de l'apprentissage. State-variable.

  MEEHL, P.E. (1992). Needs (Murray, 1938) and state-variables (Skinner, 1938). Psychological reports, 70 (2), 407-450.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable de confusion : Voir Variable contaminante.
Variable de nuisance : = variable parasite. Nuisance variable.

  MEEHL, P.E. (1969). Nuisance variables and the ex post facto design. Minneapolis : University of Minnesota, Research Laboratories of the Department of Psychiatry.
MEEHL, P.E. (1970). Nuisance variables and the ex post facto design. In M. Radner & S. Winokur (Eds.), Minnesota studies in the philosophy of science : Analyses of theories and methods of physics and psychology (Vol. IV. pp. 373-402). Minneapolis : University of Minnesota Press.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable de type E : E pour expérimentale. Variable dont les niveaux sont fixés et manipulés par le chercheur. Si ces niveaux correspondent à des groupes ou à des moments de passation, les sujets peuvent y être assignés aléatoirement. Les variables de type-E peuvent avoir le statut de variables expérimentales véritables (VI). = variable expérimentale, variable indépendante provoquée ou manipulée.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable de type S : S pour sélection. Phénomène étudié qui varie naturellement par sélection. Ici le mot sélection signifie que le chercheur choisit les n variations du phénomène à l'étude (par exemple le sexe : variations = les hommes et les femmes), mais sans toutefois l'imposer aux sujets (on ne peut pas obliger une femme à être un homme, et vice-versa). Autrement dit, contrairement aux variables manipulées, le chercheur ne peut pas distribuer au hasard les sujets dans les n groupe (Le groupe d'hommes et le groupe de femmes) puisque les n niveaux de la variation sont des caractéristiques propres du sujet (son sexe), donc un phénomène non-manipulable. EX: Genre, niveau socio-économique, ethnie, âge. = variable de sélection, variable indépendante invoquée ou assignée.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable décrite (VD) : Variable décrite par les sujets de la recherche, donc non-observée ou manipulée par le chercheur. Cette variable peut être décrite au moyen d'un questionnaire, d'une grille d'auto-observation ou d'une entrevue. Descriptive variable.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable dépendante (VD) : Variable observée/décrite et mesurée/évaluée qui peut être modifiée par la variable indépendante. = variable y, VD, variable expliquée, variable mesurée, effet de la cause, effet du traitement. Dependent variable.

Variable indépendante Groupes   Variable dépendante
Âge 20 à 25 ans Comportement d'aide
26 à 31 ans

   BRAINERD, C.J. (1971). Imagery as a dependent variable. American Psychologist, 26, 599-600.
BANDURA, A. (1974). The case of the mistaken dependent variable. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 301-303. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable démographique : Demographic variable.

  DIENER, E., WESTFORD, K.L., FRASER, S.C. & BEAMAN, A.L. (1973). Selected demographic variables in altruism. Psychological Reports, 33, 226. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable dichotomique : = variable binaire.

  ALLAN, L. G. (1980). A note on measurement of contingency between two binary variables in judgment tasks. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 15, 147–149.
MacCALLUM, R.S., ZHANG, S., PREACHER, K.J. & RUCKER, D.D. (2002). On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables. Psychological Methods, 7 (1), 19-40. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable discrète : Variable quantitative dont les données numériques sont exprimées en nombres entiers (qui ne comportent ni fractions ni décimales). EX: Le nombre de gens qui pèse + de 70 kilos dans une classe (12 personnes) . C-EX: Le poids des individus est une variable quantitative continue. = variable quantitative discrète, variable discontinue. Discrete variable, discontinuous variable, meristic variable.

  COX, D.R. & WERMUTH, N. (1992). On the relation between interactions obtained with alternative codings of discrete variables. Methodika, 6, 76-85.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable indépendante (VI) : En recherche, phénomène ou facteur présumé responsable du phénomène étudié (variable dépendante). Il existe deux types de variable indépendante : 1) la variable indépendante manipulée (ou provoquée); 2) la variable indépendante assignée (ou invoquée). = variable X, VI, variable explicative. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Independent variable, Explanatory variable.

Variables indépendantes
Variable indépendante invoquée Variable indépendante provoquée
 

  GORSUCH, R.L. (1973). Data analysis of correlated independent variables. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 8, 89-107.
WODARSKI, J.S., FELDMAN, R.A. & PEDI, S.J. (1974). Objective measurement of the independent variable: a neglected methodological aspect in community-based behavioral research. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 2 (3), 239-244.
PETERSON, L., HOMER, A.L. & WONDERLICH, S.A. (1982). The integrity of independent variables in behavior analysis. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 15 (4), 477-492. [PDF]
ALKHATEEB, J.M.Y. (1988). Independent variable integrity in behavioral research : A review of the literature. Scandinavian Journal of Behavior Therapy, 17, 189-199.
LELAURIN, K. & WOLERY, M. (1992). Research standards in early intervention : Defining, describing, and measuring the independent variable. Journal of Early Intervention, 16, 275–287.
WITT, J., NOELL, G., LAFLEUR, L. & MORTENSON B. (1997). Teacher use of interventions in general education settings : Measurement and analysis of the independent variable. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30 (4), 693-696. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable indépendante invoquée : Tout phénomène X sélectionné par le chercheur, donc qui se produit naturellement, sans intervention du chercheur, et qui est susceptible d'influer sur la variable dépendante. = variable indépendante assignée, variable de type S. /variable indépendante provoquée.

Variable indépendante invoquée Groupes   Variable dépendante
Sexe Homme Comportement d'aide
Femme

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable indépendante provoquée : Tout phénomène X manipulé par le chercheur et qui est la cause présumée d'un phénomène observé/mesuré. Le mot provoqué signifie que la production ou la manipulation des variations du phénomène à l'étude est sous le contrôle du chercheur (= condition artificielle), par opposition à un phénomène qui se produit naturellement, sans intervention du chercheur ( = variable invoquée). De ce fait, le chercheur peut imposer aux sujets de la recherche une ou plusieurs expériences en les soumettant aux n variations de sa variable indépendante, et même distribuer ces sujets au hasard de manière à neutraliser les effets nuisibles des variables parasites. = variable indépendante manipulée, variable de type E. /variable indépendante invoquée. Explanatory variable,

Variable indépendante invoquée Groupes   Variable dépendante
Décharge électrique Rats qui recoivent une décharge Comportement de presser sur un levier
Rats qui ne recoivent pas une décharge

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable intermédiaire : La variable intermédiaire n'est pas un phénomène en soi, mais un concept scientifique qui a pour but d'établir une relation entre deux ou plusieurs phénomènes (X et Y). S'apparente à une fonction en mathématique, dont le rôle est d'établir une relation logique entre un domaine et un co-domaine. EX: Chez Hull, la pulsion (drive) permet d'établir une relation formelle entre l'environnement, sous forme de stimuli, et les comportements d'un sujet. En physique, de nombreux auteurs s'accordent à dire que la force d'attraction joue un rôle comparable à celui de la pulsion (drive) chez Hull. Le statut ontologique de cette variable est donc clair : il ne s'agit pas d'un phénomène mais d'une invention qui permet au scientifique d'élever temporairement le niveau d'explication de sa théorie. Toute tentative de montrer l'existence d'un tel concept est donc par définition vouée à l'échec. Toutefois, on peut mettre à l'épreuve une variable intermédiaire en vérifiant la précision de ses prédictions. Il convient également de préciser que le rôle de la variable intermédiaire au sein de la théorie est transitoire puisqu'elle devrait à plus ou moins brève échéance être remplacée par un construit hypothétique. EX: Pour certains scientifiques, la pulsion, la motivation, l'inconscient sont des variables intermédiaires qui correspondent en tout point ou partiellement à des structures biologiques (construits hypothétiques) dont l'existence peut être montrée. Notons également la tendance chez de nombreux auteurs à réifier certaines variables intermédiaires, c-à-d à les traiter comme s'il s'agissait d'un phénomène en soi. Variable intermédiaire et construit hypothétique. = variable médiatrice. *variable parasite, construit hypothétique. Intervening variable.

Variable indépendante Variable intermédiaire Variable dépendante
Stimulus X Pulsion ou Drive Comportement Y

  MacCORQUODALE, K. & MEEHL, P.E. (1948). On a distinction between hypothetical constructs and intervening variables. Psychological Review, 55, 95-107. [PDF] HUESMANN, L.R., LAGERSPETZ, K. & ERON, L.D. (1984). Intervening variables in the television violence-aggression relation : Evidence from two countries. Developmental Psychology, 20, 746-775. [PDF]
MARX, M. (1951). Intervening variable or hypothetical construct ? Psychological Review, 58 (4), 235-247. MacKINNON, D.P., LOCKWOOD, C.M., HOFFMAN, J.M., WEST, S.G. & SHEETS, V. (2002). Comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7 (1), 83-104. [PDF]
TOLMAN, E.C. (1951). The intervening variable. In M. Marx (Ed.), Psychological theory (pp. 87-102). New York : Macmillan.  
MAZE, J.R. (1954). Do intervening variables intervene ? Psychological Review, 61, 226-234.  
SPENCE, K.W. (1954). The relation of response latency and speed to the intervening variables and N in S-R theory. Psychological Review, 61 (4), 209-216. SPENCER, S.J., ZANNA, M.P. & FONG, G.T. (2005). Establishing a causal chain : Why experiments are often more effective than mediational analyses in examining psychological processes. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 89, 845-851. [PDF]
EHRLICH, H. (1969). Attitudes, behavior, and the intervening variables. American Sociologist, 4 (1), 29-34. JAMIESON, J.P. & HARKINS, S.G. (2011). The intervening task method : Implications for measuring mediation. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin 37 (5), 652-661. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable intermédiaire formelle : Variable intermédiaire qui s'apparente à une fonction mathématique, dont le rôle est d'établir une relation logique entre un domaine et un co-domaine. EX: Chez Hull, la pulsion (drive) permet d'établir une relation formelle entre l'environnement, sous forme de stimuli, et les comportements du sujet. En physique, de nombreux auteurs s'accordent à dire que la force d'attraction joue un rôle comparable à celui de la pulsion chez Hull. = fonction mathématique.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable intermédiaire métaphorique : Variable intermédiaire dont le fonctionnement ou les propriétés sont calqués par analogie sur un objet ou un phénomène mieux connu. EX: L'ordinateur qui sert à modéliser le traitement de l'information ou l'énergie dans le cas de la théorie des pulsions de Freud. On peut également citer le modèle hydraulique de Lorenz ou les démons de Maxell. = modèle, variable intermédiaire analogique.

EXEMPLE Variable indépendante Variable intermédiaire métaphorique Variable dépendante
Stimulus X Traitement de l'information/Ordinateur Comportement Y

  Voir aussi Variable intermédiaire
Variable latente : Latent variable, latent trait, latent factor.

   KENNY, D.A. & JUDD, C.M. (1984). Estimating the nonlinear and interactive effects of latent variables. Psychological Bulletin, 96, 201-210. MIYAKE, A., FRIEDMAN, N.P., RETTINGER, D A., SHAH, P. & HEGARTY, M. (2001). How are visuospatial working memory, executive functioning, and spatial abilities related ? A latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology. General, 130 (4), 621-640.
LOEHLIN, J.C. (1987/1992). Latent variable models : An introduction to factor, path, and structural analysis. Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum.  
  FRIEDMAN, N.P. & MIYAKE, A. (2004). The relations among inhibition and interference control functions : A latent-variable analysis. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 133 (1), 101-135.
MOUSTAKI, I. & KNOTT, M. (2000). Generalized latent trait models. Psychometrika, 65, 391-411. KANE, M.J. HAMBRICK, D.Z., TUHOLSKI, S.W., WILHELM, O., PAYNE, T.W. & ENGLE, R.W. (2004). The generality of working memory capacity : A latent-variable approach to verbal and visuo-spatial memory span and reasoning. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 133 (2), 189-217. [PDF]
MIYAKE, A., FRIEDMAN, N.P., EMERSON, M. J., WITZKI, A.H. & HOWERTER, A. (2000). The unity and diversity of executive functions and their contributions to complex bfrontal lobeQ tasks : A latent variable analysis. Cognitive Psychology, 41, 9-100. COLOM, R., ABAD, F.J., REBOLLO, I. & SHIH. P.C. (2005). Memory span and general intelligence : A latent-variable approach. Intelligence 33, 623-642. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
 
Variable manipulée : Synonyme de variable indépendante provoquée. /variable assignée.

  Voir aussi Variable indépendante provoquée
Variable médiatrice : Tout facteur qui explique la relation entre X et Y. Il peut s'agir d'une variable intermédiaire ou d'un construit hypothétique. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Mediator, mediator variable, mediator effect.
Types de variable médiatrice
Construit hypothétique Variable intermédiaire
 

  BARON, R.M. & RODIN, J. (1978). Personal control as a mediator of crowding. In A. Baum, J. Singer & S. Valins (Eds.), Advances in environmental psychology (pp. 145-190). Hillsdale, NJ : Erlbaum. KRAEMER, H.C., STICE, E., KAZDIN, A., OFFORD, D. & KUPFER, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together ? Moderators, mediators, independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848-856. [PDF]
JAMES, L.R. & BRETT, J.M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69 (2), 307-321.  
BARON, R.M. & KENNY, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research : Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. [PDF] HOLMBECK, G.M (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 87-96.
BUSHMAN, B.J. & GEEN, R.G. (1990). The role of cognitive-emotional mediators and individual differences in the effects of media violence on aggression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 58 (1), 156-163. MacKINNON, D.P., LOCKWOOD, C.M., HOFFMAN, J.M., WEST, S.G. & SHEETS, V. (2002). Comparison of methods to test mediation and other intervening variable effects. Psychological Methods, 7 (1), 83-104
VERPLANCK, W.S. (1992). Verbal concept "mediators" as simple operants. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 10, 45-68. [PDF] KRAEMER, H.C., WILSON G.T., FAIRBURN, C.G. & AGRAS, W.S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877-883.
BOEHM, L.E. (1994). The validity effect : A search for mediating variables. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 285-293 ROSE, B.M., HOLMBECK, G.M., MILLSTEIN COAKLEY, R. & FRANKS, E.A. (2004). Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrices, 25 (1), 58-67. [PDF]
  HARWOOD, J., HEWSTONE, M., PAOLINI, S. & VOCI, A. (2005). Grandparent-grandchild contact and attitudes toward older adults: Moderator and mediator effects. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 393-406.
O'KEEFE, M. (1998). Factors mediating the link between witnessing interparental violence and dating violence. Journal of Family Violence, 13, 39-57.  MULLER, D., JUDD, C.M. & YZERBYT, V.Y. (2005). When moderation is mediated and mediation is moderated. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 89, 852-863. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable modératrice : Variable parasite qui atténue ou augmente la relation entre la variable indépendante et la variable dépendante. EX: Vous voulez mesurer l'effet du genre (variable indépendante assignée ou invoquée) sur l'évaluation de situations sexistes de la vie quotidienne (variable dépendante mesurée au moyen d'une échelle : cette situation est sexiste, peu sexiste, pas sexiste). Votre question de recherche est : Les femmes sont-elles plus sensibles que les hommes au sexisme ? Pour répondre à cette question, vous devez donc comparer l'évaluation d'un groupe d'hommes à l'évaluation d'un groupe de femmes. Ici, l'appartenance ethnique (variable modératrice) des participants peut influencer cette évaluation; dans certains pays on ne tolère pas ou peu le sexisme (les pays A), alors que dans d'autres pays le mot sexisme n'existe même pas (les pays B). Pour neutraliser l'effet de cette variable, le chercheur veillera à former des groupes d'hommes et de femmes qui comportent autant d'individus provenant de A que de B. Moderator variable, moderator.
EXEMPLE Variable indépendante X Variable modératrice Variable dépendante
Sexe Ethnie Sexisme

 
GHISELLI, E.E. (1972). Comment on the use of moderator variables. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56 (3), 270. BRAUER, M. (2000). L'identification des processus médiateurs dans la recherche en psychologie. L'Année Psychologique, 100, 661-681.
VELICER, W.F. (1972). The moderator variable viewed as heterogeneous regression. Journal of Applied Psychology, 56, 266-269.  JUDD, C.M., KENNY, D.A. & McCELLAND, G.H. (2001). Estimating and testing mediation and moderation in within-participant designs. Psychological Methods, 6, 115-134.
JAMES, L.R. & BRETT, J.M. (1984). Mediators, moderators, and tests for mediation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 69 (2), 307-321. KRAEMER, H.C., STICE, E., KAZDIN, A., OfFFORD, D. & KUPFER, D. (2001). How do risk factors work together? Mediators, moderators, and independent, overlapping, and proxy risk factors. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 848-856.[PDF]
BARON, R.M. & KENNY, D.A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research : Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 1173-1182. [PDF] HOLMBECK, G.M. (2002). Post-hoc probing of significant moderational and mediational effects in studies of pediatric populations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 27, 87-96.
CRONBACH, L.J. (1987). Statistical tests for moderator variables : Flaws in analyses recently proposed. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 414-417. KRAEMER, H.C., WILSON, T.G., FIARBURN, C.G. & AGRAS, W.S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877-883.
HALL, J.A. & ROSENTHAL, R. (1991). Testing for moderator variables in meta-analysis : Issues and methods. Communication Monographs, 58, 437-448. MACKINNON, D.P., LOCKWOOD, C.M., HOFFMAN, J.M., WEST, S.G. & SHEETS, V. (2002). A comparison of methods to test the significance of the mediated effect. Psychological Methods, 7, 83-104. [PDF]
McCLELLAND, G.H. & JUDD, C.M. (1993). The statistical difficulties of detecting interactions and moderator effects. Psychological Bulletin, 114, 376-390. KRAEMER, H.C., WILSON G.T., FAIRBURN C.G. & AGRAS W.S. (2002). Mediators and moderators of treatment effects in randomized clinical trials. Archives of General Psychiatry, 59, 877-883.
  FRAZIOR, P.A., TIX, A.P. & BARRON, K.E. (2004). Testing moderator and mediator effects in counseling psychology research. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 115-134.
  ROSE, B.M., HOLMBECK, G.M., MILLSTEIN COAKLEY, R. & FRANKS, E.A. (2004). Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrices, 25 (1), 58-67. [PDF]
  PETTIGREW, T.F. & TROPP, L.R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38 (6), 922-934. [PDF]
  SCHMID MAST, M. & HALL, J.A. (2004). When is dominance related to smiling? Assigned dominance, dominance preference, trait dominance, and gender as moderators. Sex Roles, 50, 387-399. [PDF]
  AGUINIS, H., BEATY, J.C., BOIK, R.J. & PIERCE, C.A. (2005). Effect size and power in assessing moderating effects of categorical variables using multiple regression : A 30-year review. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 94-107.
  HARWOOD, J., HEWSTONE, M., PAOLINI, S. & VOCI, A. (2005). Grandparent-grandchild contact and attitudes toward older adults : Moderator and mediator effects. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 31, 393-406.
OVERTON, R.C. (1998). A comparison of fixed-effects and mixed (random-effects) models for meta-analysis tests of moderator variable effects. Psychological Methods, 3, 354-379.  MULLER, D., JUDD, C.M. & YZERBYT, V.Y. (2005). When moderation is mediated and mediation is moderated. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 89, 852-863. [PDF]
  EDWARDS, J.R. & LAMBERT L.S. (2007). Methods for integrating moderation and mediation : A general analytical framework using moderated path analysis. Psychological Methods, 12 (1), 1-22.
PETTIGREW, T.F. & TROPP, L.R. (2008). How does intergroup contact reduce prejudice ? Meta-analytic tests of three mediators. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38 (6), 922-934. [PDF]
KRAEMER, H.C., KIERMAN, M., ESSEX, M. & KUPFER, D. (2008). How and why criteria defining moderators and mediators differ between the Baron & Kenny and MacArthur approaches. Health Psychology, 27 (S2), 101-108. [PDF]
BRÈRE J. & JORDAN, C.E. (2009). The relationship between childhood maltreatment, moderating variables, and adult psychological difficulties in women : An overview. Trauma, Violence & Abuse : A Review Journal, 10, 375-388.
WIEMER, K., COLLOCA, L. & ENCK, P. (2015). Age and sex as moderators of the placebo response – an evaluation of systematic reviews an meta-analyses across medicine. Gerontology, 61 (2), 97-108. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable muette : Dummy variable.

  WOLF, G. & CARTWRIGHT, B. (1974). Rules for coding dummy variables in multiple regression. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 173-179.
COHEN, A. (1991). Dummy variables in stepwise regression. The American Statistician, 45, 226-228.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable nominale : Tout phénomène mesuré au moyen d'une échelle nominale. EX: Le sexe (homme-femme). Categorical variable.

  MISLEVY, R. (1986). Recent developments in the factor analysis of categorical variables. Journal of Education Statistics, 11, 3-31.
Voir aussi Variables
Variable observée : Dans une recherche descriptive par observation, phénomène observé que l'on tente de décrire.

  COX, D.R. & SNELL, E.J. (1974). The choice of variables in observational studies. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society : Series C, 23, 51-59.
Voir aussi Observer et Variables
Variable ordinale : Tout phénomène mesuré au moyen d'une échelle ordinale. EX: La scolarité exprimée sous forme de diplôme (DEC, BAC, Maîtrise, doctorat). C-EX : Le sexe d'un sujet - homme ou femme - n'est pas une variable ordinale car on ne peut ordonner ce facteur. Ranked variable, ordinal variable.

  Voir aussi Échelle ordinale et Variables
Variable parasite (VP) : Variable qui ne fait pas partie du plan de recherche, donc hors du contrôle volontaire du chercheur, et qui de ce fait nuit à la mise en évidence claire d'une relation entre la variable indépendante et la variable dépendante (ou à l'observation de Y). Ce type de variable augmente l'erreur et diminue la validité des conclusions que l'on tire d'une recherche (validité interne). Il existe deux grandes familles de variables parasites : celles dont on connaît bien les effets et que l'on peut contrôler (variables parasites connues) et celles dont on ignore jusqu'à ce jour les effets nuisibles (variables parasites potentielles). Ces deux familles se subdivisent à leur tour en cinq sources d'invalidité : les variables associées aux caractéristiques des sujets (variable propre), aux caractéristiques ou aux comportements de l'expérimentateur, aux caractéristiques de la mesure, de l'échantillonnage et de la situation de recherche. On peut neutraliser ces variables au moyen de stratégies de contrôle, qui permettent d'éliminer les effets nuisibles de ces variables, de les équilibrer ou de les maintenir constantes. = facteur parasite, variable indésirable. ( ): variable contaminante, variable modératrice. Extraneous variable.


EXEMPLE     Variable dépendante
Variable indépendante Nombre de passants qui constatent une urgence comportement d'aide
Variable parasite Les passants des deux groupes qui constatent cette urgence n'ont pas le même âge

Types de variables Sources d'invalidité connues Source inconnues
Variables propres ou de sélection Sexe, âge, ethnie, maturation et histoire personnelle des sujets, mortalité différentielle pendant la recherche, ?
Variables situationnelles Bruit, organisation du laboratoire, etc.
Variables associées à la mesure Non de la mesure, l'apprentissage ou la familiarisation avec l'outil de mesure, régression statistique, effet Hawtorne
Variables associées à l'échantillonnage Biais ou effets non-prévus du hasard
Variables associées aux sujets Conscience d'être observé ou évalué (Effet Hawthorne)
Variables associées aux chercheurs Comportements non-verbaux du chercheur, Variations dans les consignes données aux participants, Observation sélective du phénomène à observer, effet Pygmalion


Types de contrôle des VP
VP contrôlée par élimination VP contrôlée par distribution au hasard VP maintenue constante
VP contrôlée par équilibration    
 

  KORTH, B. (1979). Relationship of extraneous variables to student ratings of instructors. Journal of Educational Measurement, 16, (1), 27–37.
STREET, D.L. (1995). Controlling extraneous variables in experimental research : a research note. Accounting Education, 4 (2), 169-188. [PDF]
OMOREGIE, P.O. & ADEGBESAN, O.A. (2011). Effects of extraneous variables on performance of choking-susceptible university athletes. Ife Psychologia : An International Journal, 19 (2), 75-91
Voir aussi Variables, Validité interne et Stratégies de contrôle
Variable parasite (contrôlée par élimination) : Stratégie de contrôle qui consiste à neutraliser l'effet parasite d'une variable en éliminant cette variable. EX: Si la présence d'autrui est une variable parasite, éliminer cette présence en isolant le sujet de l'expérience.

  Voir aussi Variable parasite et Stratégie de contrôle
Variable parasite (contrôlée par équilibration) : Stratégie de contrôle qui consiste à neutraliser l'effet parasite d'une variable en distribuant cette variable également dans les x groupes expérimentaux de la recherche. EX: Si le sexe des sujets est une variable parasite, distribuer autant d'hommes que de femmes dans chacun des x groupes. Groupes A = 15 hommes - 15 femmes; Groupes B = 15 hommes - 15 femmes.

  Voir aussi Variable parasite et Stratégie de contrôle
Variable parasite (contrôlée par distribution au hasard) : Stratégie de contrôle qui consiste à neutraliser l'effet parasite d'une variable en distribuant cette variable au hasard dans les x groupes expérimentaux de la recherche. = distribution au hasard.

  Voir aussi Variable parasite et Stratégie de contrôle
Variable parasite (maintenue constante) : Stratégie de contrôle qui consiste à neutraliser l'effet parasite d'une variable en ne choisissant qu'un des niveaux de la variable parasite dans les x groupes expérimentaux de la recherche. EX: Si le sexe des sujets est une variable parasite, choisir que des femmes ou que des hommes. Groupes A = 30 hommes; Groupes B = 30 femmes.

  Voir aussi Variable parasite et Stratégie de contrôle
Variable prédite : Variable dont on tente d'évaluer ou de mesurer la valeur ou la fréquence avant qu'elle ne se produise. Criterion variable.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable prédictive : = prédicteur. Predictor variable.

  GOCKA, E.F. (1973). Stepwise regression for mixed mode predictor variables. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 33, 319-325
Voir aussi Variables
Variable principale : Dans une recherche, la ou les variables à l'étude, qui sont explicitement mentionnée(s) dans l'objectif ou l'hypothèse de la problématique et qui font l'objet de cette recherche. = analyse principale.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable propre : Caractéristique physique ou psychologique non-manipulable du sujet, qui lui appartient en propre. EX: Sexe et âge des enfants autistes. C-EX: Le nombre d'amis d'un enfant autiste n'est pas une variable propre, car il s'agit d'une caractéristique de son milieu. = variable organismique, variable de sélection, variable intrinsèque, variable individuelle. /variable associée. Intrinsic variable.

EXEMPLE Variable indépendante propre Variable dépendante
Âge Comportement d'aide

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable qualitative : Toute variable mesurée au moyen d'une échelle nominale ou ordinale. ( ): variable nominale et variable ordinale. Qualitative variable.

  GOODMAN, L.A. (1977). How not to analyze nonrecursive systems pertaining to qualitative variables. Political Methodology, 4, 23.
GOODMAN, L.A. (1987). New methods for analyzing the intrinsic character of qualitative variables using cross-classified data. American Journal of Sociology, 93, 529.
Voir aussi Échelle nominale et Variables
Variable quantitative : Toute variable mesurée au moyen d'une échelle d'intervalles ou de rapports. ( ): variable à échelle de rapports et variable à intervalles. Quantitative variable.

  MacCALLUM, R.S., ZHANG, S., PREACHER, K.J. & RUCKER, D.D. (2002). On the practice of dichotomization of quantitative variables. Psychological Methods, 7 (1), 19-40. [PDF]
Voir aussi Variables
Variable secondaire : Dans une recherche, variable(s) qui n'est pas mentionnée dans l'objectif ou l'hypothèse de recherche de la problématique, mais qui peut néanmoins faire l'objet d'une mesure et d'une analyse statistique, analyse qui, si elle se révèle significative sera discutée dans l'interprétation des résultats. = analyse secondaire.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable structurale : Variable inventée par le chercheur pour représenter des moments de mesures, ou des facteurs à contrôler dans un plan de recherche. Elles ont le statut de variable indépendante sans pour autant à elles seules rendre la recherche expérimentale, à moins que les sujets y soient assignés aléatoirement. Structural variable.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable X : Variable indépendante provoquée ou invoquée. Dans un graphique, il s'agit de la variable en abscisse. = variable indépendante.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variable Y : Variable dépendante observée ou mesurée. Dans un graphique, il s'agit de la variable en ordonnée. = ce que l'on mesure.

  Voir aussi Variables
Variance (s2) : En statistique, mesure de dispersion. Il s'agit en fait de la moyenne des carrés des écarts à la moyenne ou, dit autrement, de l'écart-type au carré. Variance et covariation. Variance.
 
 
MORGAN, W.A. (1939). A test for the significance of the differences between two variances in a sample from a normal bivariate population. Biometrika, 31, 13-19. WILCOX. R.R. (1990). Comparing the variances of two dependent groups. Journal of Educational Statistics, 15, 237-247.
YUEN, K.K. (1974). The two-sample trimmed t for unequal population variances. Biometrika, 61, 165-170. RAO, J.N.K. & SHAO, A.J. (1992). Jackknife variance estimation with survey data under hot deck imputation. Biometrika, 79, 811-822.
WOLTER, K.M. (1985). Introduction to variance estimation. New York : Springer-Verla. ENGELHARD, G. (1994). Historical views of the concept of invariance in measurement theory. In M. Wilson (Ed.), Objective Measurement : Theory into Practice (Vol. 2, pp. 73- 99). Norwood, NJ : Ablex.
ABELSON, R.P. (1985). A variance explanation paradox : When a little is a Lot. Psychological Bulletin, 97 (1), 129-133. [PDF] + [PDF] RAO, J.N.K. & SITTER, R.R. (1995). Variance estimation under two-phase sampling with application to imputation for missing data. Biometrika, 82, 453-460.
  RAO, J.N.K. (1996). On variance estimation with imputed survey data. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 91, 499-506.
WILCOX, R.R. (1987). New designs in the analysis of variance. Annual Review of Psychology, 38, 29-60. WOLTER, K.M. (2007). Introduction to variance estimation. Springer- Verlag.
WILCOX. R.R. (1989). Comparing the variances of dependent groups. Psychometrika, 54, 305-316. KAPUR, M. (2012). Productive failure in learning the concept of variance. Instructional Science, 40 (4), 651-672.
SCHERRER, B. (1984). Biostatistique. Chicoutimi : Gaëtan Morin. Voir aussi Écart-type et Mesure de dispersion
Variable/Covariance/Covariation (Co...) : Variable secondaire - le plus souvent de type propre, comme l'âge ou le sexe - introduite et mesurée dans une recherche afin de la neutraliser au moment des analyses statistiques, dans le but mettre plus clairement en évidence la relation de causalité entre les variables principales. Covariation.

  BRECKLER, S.J. (1990). Applications of covariance structure modeling in psychology : Cause for concern ? Psychological Bulletin, 107, 260–273. [PDF]
WILCOX. R.R. (1991). Nonparametric analysis of covariance based on predicted medians. British Journal of Mathematical & Statistical Psychology, 44, 221-230.
FRIGON, J.-Y. & LAURENCELLE, L. (1993). Analysis of covariance : A proposed algorithm. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 53 (1), 1-18.
SATORRA, A., & BENTLER, P.M. (1994). Corrections to test statistics and standard errors in covariance structure analysis. In A. von Eye, & C.C. Clogg (Eds.), Latent variable analysis : Applications in developmental research (pp. 399–419). Newbury Park, CA : Sage.
HU, L. & BENTLER, P.M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysi s: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling, 6, 1–55.
BUEHNER, M.J., CHENG, P.W. & CLIFFORD, D. (2003). From covariation to causation : A test of the assumption of causal power. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 29, 1119-1140
BEAUGRAND, J.P. (2004). Base de savoir en méthodologie. [LIRE]
Variation (des phénomènes) : Changement de la nature qualitative ou quantitive d'un phénomène. Variation.

Types de variation
Variation artificielle Variation du stimulus Variation naturelle
Variation culturelle Variation d'un phénomène Variation relative
Variation du renforcement Variation génétique
 

  SMITH, J.H. (1916). Individual variations in arithmetic. Elementary School Journal, 17, 195-200.
TESTU, F. (1982). Les variations journalières et hebdomadaires de l'activité intellectuelle de l'élève. Paris : Éditions du CNRS.
KOEHLER, L.J., IWATA, B.A., ROSCOE, E.M., ROLIDER, N.U. & O'STEEN, L. (2005). Effects of stimulus variation on the reinforcing capability of nonpreferred stimuli. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 (4), 469-484. [PDF]
TSAI, J.L., LEVENSON, R.W. & McCOY, K. (2006). Cultural and temperamental variation in emotional response. Emotion, 6, 484-497.
CONWAY, A.R.A., JARROLD, C., KANE, M.J., MIYAKE, A. & TOWSE, J. (2007). Variation in working memory. Oxford University Press.
Variation artificielle : Variation d'un phénomène provoquée en laboratoire ou en milieu semi-naturel, donc sous contrôle (plus ou moins grand) du chercheur. = variable indépendante manipulée ou provoquée.

 
Variation culturelle : Voir Cultures (Variation).
Variation du renforcement : Voir Renforcement (Variation).
Variation du stimulus : Voir Stimulus (Variation).
Variation d'une phénomène : Changement naturel d'un phénomène. = Variation et niveau de la variable.

 
Variation génétique : Genetic variation.

  SANKAR, P. & CHO, M.K. (2002). Genetics : Toward a new vocabulary of human genetic variation. Science, 298, 1337-1338.
JORDE, L.B. & WOODING, S.P (2004). Genetic variation, classification and "race". Nature Genetics, 36 (S), 28-33. [PDF]
JOHNSON, W. & KRUEGER, R.F. (2005). Higher perceived life control decreases genetic variance in physical health : Evidence from a national twin study. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88, 165-173. [PDF]
GRAIG, I.W. (2007). The importance of stress and genetic variation in human aggression. BioEssays, 29, 227-236. [PDF]
FOWLER, J., BAKER, L.A. & DAWES, C.T. (2008). Genetic variation in political participation. American Political Science Review, 102, 233-248. [PDF]
GORELICK, R. & HENG, H.H.Q. (2011). Sex reduces genetic variation : A multidisciplinary review. Evolution, 65, 1088-1098. [PDF]
ABERCROMBIE, M., HICKMAN, C.J. & JOHNSON, M.L. (1980). Dictionary of biology. Londres : Penguin. Voir aussi Race et Variation
Variation moyenne : Mesure de l'augmentation ou de la diminution de la valeur d'une variable par unité de temps.

 
Variation naturelle : Variation d'un phénomène que l'on peut observer en laboratoire ou en milieu naturel, mais que le chercheur ne peut manipulé (EX : L'âge de sujets). On dira alors que certaines variations d'un phénomènes sont sélectionnées par le chercheur (EX : les asujets dultes pas les enfants). = variable indépendante assignée ou invoquée.

  Voir aussi Variation, Variation artificielle et Nature
Variation relative : Pourcentage d'augmentation ou de diminution de la valeur d'une variable entre deux mesures.

 
Varimax (Criètre) : Varimax criterion.

  KAISER, H.F. (1958). The varimax criterion for analytic rotation in factor analysis. Psychometrika, 23, 187-200. [PDF]
Vasterling Jennifer J. ( ) : Neurocognitivste américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude du trouble de stress post-traumatique. Collaboratrice de Brewin.
VASTERLING, J.J. BRAILEY, K., CONSTANS, J.I. & SUTKER, P.B. (1998). Attention and memory dysfunction in posttraumatic stress disorder. Neuropsychology, 12, 125-133.
VASTERLING, J.J. CONSTANS, J.I. & HANNA-PLADDY, B. (2000). Head injury as a predictor of psychological outcome in combat veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 13, 441-451.
VASTERLING, J.J. , DUKE, L.M., BRAILEY, K., CONSTANS, J.I., ALLAIN, N. & SUTKER, P.B. (2002). Attention, learning, and memory performances and intellectual resources in Vietnam veterans : PTSD and no disorder comparisons. Neuropsychology, 16 (1), 5-14. [PDF]
VASTERLING, J.J. & VERFAELLIE, M. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder : A neurocognitive perspective. Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society 15, 826-829. [PDF]
VASTERLING, J.J., VERFAELLIE, M. & SULLIVAN, K.D. (2011). Mild traumatic brain injury and posttraumatic stress disorder in returning veterans: perspectives from cognitive neuroscience. Clinical Psychoogyl Review, 29 (8), 674-684. [PDF]
Vauclair Jacques ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste européen d'origine française, spécialisé dans l'étude de la cognition et de l'intelligence animale, notamment chez le babouin. Professeur de Houdé. Collaborateur de Hopkins, Piolat et Zayan.
VAUCLAIR, J. (1982). Sensorimotor intelligence in human and nonhuman primates. Journal of Human Evolution, 11, 757-764. [PDF]
VAUCLAIR, J. & FAGOT, J. (1993). Manual and hemispheric specialization in the manipulation of a joystick by baboons. Behavioral Neuroscience, 107, 210-214. [PDF]
VAUCLAIR, J. & HOUDÉ, O. (2000). Co-ordination of actions, visual perception, and inhibition in human and non-human primate development. Developmental Science, 3, 382-384. [PDF]
VAUCLAIR, J. & DONNOT J. (2005). Infant holding biases and their relations to hemispheric specializations for perceiving facial emotions. Neuropsychologia, 43, 564-571. [PDF]
VAUCLAIR, J. & SCOLA, C. (2009). Infant-holding biases in mothers and affective symptoms during pregnancy and after delivery. Infant & Child Development, 18, 106-121. [PDF]
Vaudou : Vaudou, magie et possession et transe. Voodoo possession.

  MÉTRAUX, A. (1959/72). Voodoo in Haiti. New York : Schocken.
RAVENCROFT, K. (1965). Voodoo possession : A natural experiment in hypnosis. International Journal of Clinical & Experimental Hypnosis 13, 157- 182.
Vaugeois Denis (St-Tite 1935-) : Historien québécois et spécialiste de l'histoire du Québec et de la communauté juive. Collaborateur de Lacoursière.

Crédit : Sophie Imbeault
VAUGEOIS, D. (1962). L'Union des deux Canadas (1791-1840). Montréal : Éditions du Bien: Montréal.
VAUGEOIS, D. (1968). Les Juifs et la Nouvelle-France. Montréal : Boréal.
VAUGEOIS, D. (1995). La Fin des alliances franco-indiennes Enquête sur un sauf-conduit de 1760 devenu un traité en 1990. Montréal : Boréal.
VAUGEOIS, D. et L'ITALIEN, R. (2004). Champlain : La naissance de l'Amérique francaise. Québec : Septentrion.
VAUGEOIS, D. (2011). Les Premiers Juifs d'Amérique 1760-1860 : L'extraordinaire histoire de la famille Hart. Québec : Septentrion.
Vaughn/Vaughan
Brian E. Vaughn Margaret E. Vaughan
 
Vaughn Brian E. ( ) : Psychologue américain spécialisé dans l'étude du développement, et plus particulièrement de l'attachement. Collaborateur de Egeland, Flavell, Langlois, Strayer, Sroufe, Van Ijzendoorn et Waters.
VAUGHN, B.E. & SROUFE, L.A. (1979). The temporal relationship between infant heartrate acceleration and crying in an aversive situation. Child Development, 50, 565-567.
VAUGHN, B.E. & LANGLOIS, J.H. (1983). Physical attractiveness as a correlate of peer status and social competence in preschool children. Developmental Psychology, 19, 561-567.
VAUGHN, B.E. & WATERS, E. (1990). Attachment behavior at home and in the laboratory. Child Development, 61, 1965-1973.
VAUGHN, B.E., AZRIA, M.R., KRZYSIK, L., CAYA, L.R., BOST, K.K., NEWELL, W. & KAZURA, K.L. (2000). Friendship and social competence in a sample of preschool children attending Head Start. Developmental Psychology, 36, 326-338.
VAUGHN, B.E. (2001). A hierarchical model of social competence for preschool-age children : Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Revue Internationale de Psychologie Sociale, 14, 13-40.
Vaughan Margaret E. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine. Elle s'intéresse au langage et aux règles de contingences. Collaboratrice de Michael et Skinner.
SKINNER, B.F. & VAUGHAN, M.E. (1983). Enjoy old age : A program of self-management. New York : Norton.
VAUGHAN, M.E. (1989). Rule-governed behavior in behavior analysis : A theoretical and experimental history. In S.C. Hayes (Ed.), Rule-governed behavior : Cognition, contingencies and instructional control (pp. 97-115). New York : Plenum Press. [PDF]
VAUGHAN, M.E. & MICHAEL, J.L. (1982). Automatic reinforcement : An important but ignored concept. Behaviorism, 10 (2), 217-227. [PDF]
VAUGHAN, M.E. (1985). Repeated acquisition in the analysis of rule-governed behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 44 (2), 175-184. [PDF]
VAUGHAN, M.E. (1990). Reflections on B.F. Skinner. The Behavior Analyst, 13, 101-102. [PDF]
Vazire Simine ( ) : Psychologue américaine, d'origine française, spécialisée dans l'étude de la personnalité, notamment du narcissisme. Collaboratice de Bootzin, Gosling, Jussim, Krosnick et Paulhus.
VAZIRE, S. & GOSLING, S.D. (2003). Bridging psychology and biology with animal research. American Psychologist, 58, 407-408. [PDF]
VAZIRE, S. (2006). Informant reports : A cheap, fast, and easy method for personality assessment. Journal of Research in Personality, 40, 472-481. [PDF]
VAZIRE, S., NAUMANN, L.P., RENTFROW, P.J. & GOSLING, S.D. (2008). Portrait of a narcissist : Manifestations of narcissism in physical appearance. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1439-1447. [PDF]
VAZIRE, S. (2010). Who knows what about a person ? The self-other knowledge asymmetry (SOKA) model. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 98, 281-300. [PDF]
VAZIRE, S. & CARLSON, E.N. (2011). Others sometimes know us better than we know ourselves. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 104-108. [PDF]
VÉCU - VERBAL BEHAVIOR - VÉRIFICATION - VÉRIFICATION COMPULSIVE - VÉRITÉ - VERNON - VERPLANCK - VÊTEMENT - VI
Veazy Connie H. ( ) : Psychologue américaine et spécialiste de l'étude des conséquences psychologiques du Parkinson. Collaborateur de Blanchard et Hickling.
VEAZEY, C.H., AKI, S.O.E., COOK, K.F., LAI, E. & KUNIK, M. (2005). Prevalence and treatment of depression in Parkinson's disease. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 17 (3), 310-323.
VEAZEY, C.H., BLANCHARD, E.B., HICKLING, E.J. & BUCKLEY, T.C. (2004). Physiological responsiveness of motor vehicle accident survivors with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Applied psychophysiol Biofeedback, 29 (1), 51-56.
VEAZEY, C.H., WAGNER, A.L., HAYS, J.R. & MILLER, H.A. (2050). Validity of the Miller forensic assessment of symptoms test in psychiatric inpatients. Psychological Reports, 96, 771-774.
VEAZEY, C.H., AKI, S.O.E., COOK, K.F., LAI, E. & KUNIK, M.E. (2005). Prevalence and treatment of depression in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, 17 (3), 310-323.
VEAZEY, C., COOK, K., STANLEY, M., LAI, E.C. & KUNIK, M.E. (2009). Telephone administered cognitive behavioral therapy : A case study of anxiety and depression in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16, 243-253. [PDF]
Veblen Thorstein Bunde (1857-1929) : Économiste et sociologue américain. Il a mis en évidence un phénomène économique - l'effet Veblen - qui porte maintenant son nom. On lui doit aussi le concept de consommation ostentatoire.
VEBLEN, T. (1898). Why is economics not an evolutionary science ? Quarterly Journal of Economics 12, 373–397. [PDF]
VEBLEN, T.B. (1899). Theory of the leisure class. An economic study of institutions. New York : The Modem Library.
VEBLEN, T.B. (1904). Theory of business enterprise.
VEBLEN, T.B. (1918). The higher learning In America.
VEBLEN, T.B. (1921). The engineers and the price system.
Vécu : Dans la perspective humaniste, ensemble des expériences d'un individu, telles que racontées par lui-même (point de vue subjectif). = expérience subjective ou consciente. *facteur historique.

 
Vedette/Vedettariat : Toute personne populaire auprès de ses pairs ou dans la population en général et dont on reconnaît publiquement les talents, les mérites ou les compétences. Vedette et adulation. Celebrity.

  STEVER, G.S. (1991). The Celebrity Appeal Questionnaire. Psychological Reports, 68, 859–866.
ASHE, D.D. & McCUTCHEON, L.E. (2001). Shyness, loneliness, and attitude toward celebrities. Current Research in Social Psychology, 6, 124 133.
ELBERSE, A., & VERLUENN, J. (2012). The economic value of celebrity endorsements. Journal of Advertising Research, 52(2), 149-165
KRAUSS, L.M. (2015). Scientists as celebrities : Bad for science or good for society ? Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 71 (1), 26-32.
Voir aussi Adulation
Végétararisme/Végétarien : Vegetarianism.

   
LINDEMAN, M., STARK, K. & LATVALA, K. (2000). Vegetarianism and eating-disordered thinking. Eating Disorders, 8, 157-165.
LINDEMAN, M. (2002). The state of mind of vegetarians : psychological well-being or distress ? Ecology of Food and Nutrition, 41 (1), 75-86.
BARDONE-CONE, A.M., FITZSIMMONS-CRAFT, E.E., HARNEY, M. B., MALDONADO, C.R., LAWSON, M.A., SMITH, R. & ROBINSON, D.P. (2012). The inter-relationships between vegetarianism and eating disorders among females. Journal of the Academy of Nutrition & Dietetics, 112, (8), 1247-1252. [PDF]
Veille (État de...) :

 
Velicer Wayne F. ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude du comportement de fumer. Collaborateur de Collins, Goodwin et Prochaska.
VELICER, W.F. (1974). An empirical comparison of the stability of factor analysis, principal component analysis, and image analysis. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 34, 563-572.
VELICER, W.F., DICLEMENTE, C.C., PROCHASKA, J.O. & BRANDENBERG, N. (1985). A decisional balance measure for assessing and predicting smoking status. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 48, 1279-1289.
VELICER, W.F., DICLEMENTE, C.C., ROSSI, J.S. & PROCHASKA, J.O. (1990). Relapse situations and self-efficacy : An integrative model. Addictive Behaviors, 15, 271-283.
VELICER, W.F., PROCHASKA, J.O., ROSSI, J.S. & SNOW, M. (1992). Assessing outcome in smoking cessation studies. Psychological Bulletin, 111, 23-41.
VELICER, W.F., PROCHASKA, J.O., FAVA, J.L., NORMAN, G.J. & REDDING, C.A. (1998). Smoking cessation and stress management : Applications of the transtheoretical model of behavior change. Homeostasis, 38, 216-233.
Vellutino Frank R. ( ) : Psychologue anglais et spécialiste de l'étude de la lecture et de la dyslexie. Collaborateur de Lyon et Snowling.
 VELLUTINO, F. (1977). Alternative conceptualizations of dyslexia : Evidence in support of a verbal-deficit hypothesis. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 334-354.
 VELLUTINO, F.R., SCANLON, D.N. & TANZMAN, M.S. (1988). Lexical memory in poor and normal readers : Developmental differences in the use of category cues. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 42, 216-241.
 VELLUTINO, F.R., SCANLON, D.N., SMALL, S.G. & TANZMAN, M.S. (1991). The linguistic basis of reading ability : Converting written to oral language. Text, 11, 99-133.
 VELLUTINO, F.R., SCANLON, D.N. & LYON, G.R. (2000). Differentiating between difficult- to- remediate and readily remediated poor readers : More evidence against the IQ–achievement discrepancy definition of reading disability. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 33, 223-238.
 VELLUTINO, F.R., FLETCHER, J.M., SNOWLING, M.J. & SCANLON, D.N. (2004). Specific reading disability (dyslexia) : what have we learned in the past four decades ? Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45 (1), 2-40. [PDF]
Vendre/Vente : Voir Mise en marché. /acheter. Sell, selling.
Venézuela : Pays. Venezuela.

   KOLB, G.L. (1974). Democracy and dictatorship in Venezuela, 1945-1958. Hamden, CT: Shoestring Press.
Vengeance : Désir de punir celui qui nous a puni, qui nous a fait souffrir.

  KIM, S.H. & SMITH, R.H. (1993). Revenge and conflict escalation. Negotiation Journal, 9 (1), 37-43.
 COTA-McKINLEY, A.L., WOODY W.D. & BELL, P.A. (2001). Vengeance : Effects of gender, age, and religious background. Aggressive Behavior, 27, 343-350. [PDF]
Voir aussi Punir
Ver : Worm.

  RANKIN, C.H. (2004). What can't a worm learn ? Current Biology 14, 617-618
Véracité (psychologique) : Ce qu'un individu considère comme vrai (ou faux). What is true (and what is false).

   BARRES, P. & JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. (2003). On imagining what is true (and what is false). Thinking & Reasoning, 9, 1-42.
Véracité (scientifique) : Qui est vrai, qui correspond aux faits, à la réalité. Propriété d'une théorie dont les concepts et les principes correspondent à la réalité. Cette correspondance est établie au moyen d'une série de tests empiriques positifs. Véracité et cohérence interne.

 
Verbal Behavior : Livre écrit par Skinner en 1957 dans lequel il défend la thèse selon laquelle parler est un comportement, comme les autres, qui doit donc être analysé comme le résultat ou le produit d'un apprentissage(essentiellement un conditionnement opérant). Cette thèse a été contestée par de nombreux psychologues et linguistes, notamment Chomsky. N.D.L.R. Il faut lire ce livre et la critique qu'en a fait Chomsky pour constater àquel point les idées de Skinner à ce propos ont été mal comprises par l'ensemble de la communauté scientifique. Verbal behavior, analyse fonctionelle du comportement et comportement verbal.
  SKINNER, B.F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York : Appleton-Century-Crofts. PALMER, D.C. (1999). A call for tutorials on alternative approaches to the study of verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 16, 45-58. [PDF]
OSGOOD, C.E. (1958). Review of Verbal Behavior. Contemporary Psychology, 3, 209–212.  
CHOMSKY, N. (1959). A review of B.F. Skinner's Verbal behavior. Language, 35, 26-58. [PDF] BARNES-HOLMES, D., BARNES-HOLMES, Y. & CULLINAN, V. (2000). Relational frame theory and Skinner’s Verbal Behavior : A possible synthesis. The Behavior Analyst, 23, 69-84. [PDF]
BROADBENT, D.E. (1959). Review of Verbal Behavior. British Journal of Psychology, 50, 371–373.  
JENKINS, J. (1959). Review of Verbal Behavior. Journal of Speech & Hearing Disorders, 24, 73-74. PALMER, D.C. (2006). On Chomsky’s appraisal of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 29, 253-267. [PDF]
MacQUORDALE, K. (1970). A reply to Chomsky's review of Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 13 (1), 83-99. [PDF] FROST, L. & BONDY, A. (2006). A common language : Using B.F. Skinner’s Verbal Behavior for assessment and treatment of communication disabilities in SLP-ABA. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 1 (2), 103-109. [PDF]
RICHELLE, M. (1972). Analyse formelle et analyse fonctionnelle du comportement verbal. Notes sur le débat entre Chomsky et Skinner. Bulletin de Psychologie, 26, 252-259/ (1976). Formal analysis and functional analysis of verbal behavior: Notes on the debate between Chomsky and Skinner. Behaviorism, 4, 209-221. SAUTTER, R.A. & LEBLANC, L.A. (2006). Empirical applications of Skinner's analysis of Verbal Behavior with human. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 22 (1), 35-48. [PDF]
McLEISH, J.M.J. (1975). Verbal behavior : A review and experimental analysis. The Journal of General Psychology, 93, 3-66. VIRUES-ORTEGA, J. (2006). The case against B. F. Skinner 45 years later : An encounter with N. Chomsky. The Behavior Analyst, 29, 243-251. [PDF]
KNAPP, T.J. (1980). Beyond Verbal behavior. Behaviorism, 8 (2), 187-194.  
PLACE, U.T. (1981). Skinner's verbal behavior I: why we need it. Behaviorism, 9, 1-24.  
PLACE, U.T. (1981). Skinner's verbal behavior II : :What's wrong with it. Behaviorism, 9, 131-152.  
MCPHERSON, A., BONEM, M., GREEN, G. & OSBORNE, J.G. (1984). A citation analysis of the influence on research of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior. The Behavior Analyst, 7 (2), 157-167. [PDF] DYMOND, S., O’HORA, D., WHELAN, R. & O’DONOVAN, A. (2006). Citation analysis of Skinner’s Verbal Behavior : 1984-2004. The Behavior Analyst, 29, 75-88. [PDF]
MORRIS, E.K. & SCHNEIDER, S.M. (1986). References in B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 4, 39-43. [PDF] PASSOS, M.L.R.F. (2007). Skinner’s Definition of Verbal Behavior and the Arbitrariness of the Linguistic Signal. Temas em Psicologia, 15 (2), 161-172. [PDF]
KNAPP, T.J. (1992). Verbal Behavior and the history of linguistics. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 4, 39-43. [PDF] SCHLINGER, H.D. (2008). The long good-bye : why B.F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior is alive and well on the 50th anniversary of its publication. Psychological Record, 58, 329-337. [PDF]
ANDRESON, J.T. (1990). Skinner and Chomsky 30 years. Historiographia Linguistica, 17, 145-165. SALZINGER, K. (2008). Skinner's Verbal Behavior. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 8, 287-294.
STEMMER, N. (1990). Skinner’s verbal behavior, Chomsky's review, and mentalism. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 54 (3), 307-319. [PDF] CATANIA, A.C. (2008). Skinner's "Verbal Behavior" in a new century. International Journal of Psychology & Psychological Therapy, 8, 277-285. [PDF]
ANDRESEN, J. (1991). Skinner and Chomsky 30 years later or : The return of the repressed. The Behavior Analyst, 14, 49-60. [PDF] KNAPP, T.J. (2009). The Hefferline notes : B.F. Skinner's first public exposition of his analysis of Verbal Behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 25, 99-107. [PDF]
KNAPP, T.J. (1992). Verbal Behavior : The other reviews. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 10, 87-95. [PDF] DYMOND, S. & ALONSO-ALVAREZ, B. (2010). The Selective impact of Skinner's Verbal behaVior on empirical research: a reply To Schlinger (2008). The Psychological Record, 60, 355-360. [PDF]
MARR, M.J. (1995). Quantum physics and radical behaviorism : Some issues of scientific verbal behavior. In J.T. Todd & E.K. Morris (Eds.), Modern perspectives on B.F. Skinner and contemporary behaviorism (pp. 107-128). Westport, CT : Greenwood Press. SUNDBERG, M.L. (2013). Thirty points about motivation from Skinner's book Verbal Behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 29, 13-40. [PDF]
Voir aussi Hefferline et Comportement verbal
Verbe : Verbe, nom et qualificatif. Verb.

  BRAINE, M.D.S. (1966). The insufficiency of a finite state model for verbal reconstructive memory. Psychonomic Science, 2 (1-2), 291–292. [PDF] BOWERMAN, M. DE LEON, L. & CHOI, S. (1995). Verbs, particles, and spatial semantics : Learning to talk about spatial actions in typologically different languages. In E.V. Clark (Ed.), Proceedings of the Twenty-seventh Annual Child Language Research Forum (pp. 101-110). Stanford, CA : Center for the Study of Language and Information
  BERNDT, R.S., MITCHUM, C.C., HAENDIGES, A.N. & SANDSON, J. (1997). Verb retrieval in aphasia : 1. Characterizing single word impairments. Brain & Language, 56, 68-106.
  BERNDT, R.S., HAENDIGES, A.N., MITCHUM, C.C., & SANDSON, J. (1997). Verb retrieval in aphasia : 2. Relationship to sentence processing. Brain & Language, 56, 107–137.
SCHUMAKER, J. & SHERMAN, J.A. (1970). Training generative verb usage by imitation and reinforcement procedures. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3 (4), 273-287. [PDF] AKHTAR, N. & TOMASELLO, M. (1997). Young children's productivity with word order and verb morphology. Developmental Psychology, 33, 952-965.
BOWERMAN, M. (1974). Learning the structure of causative verbs : A study in the relationship of cognitive, semantic, and syntactic development. Papers & Reports on Child Language Development, 8, 142-178. TOMASELLO, M., AKHTAR, N., DODSON, K. & REKAU, L. (1997). Differential productivity in young children's use of nouns and verbs. Journal of Child Language, 24, 373-387.
  MARSLEN-WILSON, W.D. & TYLER, L.K. (1998). Rules, representations, and the English past tense. Trends in Cognitive Science, 2, 428-435.
GENTNER, D. (1975). Validation of a related-component model of verb meaning. Papers & Reports on Child Language Development, 10, 69-79. [PDF] NAIGLES, L. R. & HOFF-GINSBERG, E. (1998). Why are some verbs learned before other verbs? Effects of input frequency and structure on children’s early verb use. Journal of Child Language, 25, 95-120.
JOHNSON-LAIRD, P.N. & WYKES, T. (1977). How do children learn the meanings of verbs ? Nature, 268, 326-327. PINE, J.M., LIEVEN, E. & ROWLAND, C.F. (1998). Comparing different models of the development of the English verb category. Linguistics 36, 807-830.
  BREEDIN, S.D., SAFFRAN, E.M. & SCHWARTZ, M.F. (1998). Semantic factors in verb retrieval : An effect of complexity . Brain & Language, 63, 1–31 [PDF]
GENTNER, D. (1978). On relational meaning: The acquisition of verb meaning. Child Development, 49, 988-998. [PDF] JOANISSE, M.F. & SEIDENBERG, M.S. (1999). Impairments in verb morphology after brain injury : A connectionist model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 96, 7592–7597. [PDF]
GENTNER, D. (1981). Verb semantic structures in memory for sentences: Evidence for componential representation. Cognitive Psychology, 13, 56-83. [PDF] ALTMANN, G.T.M. & KAMIDE, Y. (1999) . Incremental interpretation at verbs : Restricting the domain of subsequent reference. Cognition, 73 (3), 247-264.
GENTNER, D. (1981). Integrating verb meanings into context. Discourse Processes, 4, 349-375. [PDF] MARSLEN-WILSON, W.D., CSIBRA, G., FORD, M., HATZAKIS, H., GASKELL, G. & JOHNSON, M.H. (2000). Associations and dissociations in the processing of regular and irregular verbs: Electrophysiological evidence. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 12, Supplement, 55E.
BOWERMAN, M. (1982). Evaluating competing linguistic models with language acquisition data: Implications of developmental errors with causative verbs. Quaderni di semantica, 3, 5-66. [PDF] THEAKSON, A.L., LIEVEN, E., PINE, J.M. & ROWLAND, C. (2001). The role of performance limitations in the acquisition of verb-argument structure : an alternative account. Journal of Child Language, 28, 127-152.
CHARLOP, M.E., SCHREIBMAN, L. & THIBODEAU, M.G. (1985). Increasing spontaneous verbal responding in autistic children using the time-delay procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 155-166. [PDF] PATTERSON, K., LAMBON RALPH, M.A., HODGES, J.R. & McCLELLAND, J.L. (2001). Deficits in irregular past-tense verb morphology associated with degraded semantic knowledge. Neuropsychologia, 39 (7), 709-724.
GERGELY, G. & BEVER, T.G. (1985). The mental representation of causative verbs. Psychology, 5, 373-439. THEAKSON, A.L., LIEVEN, E., PINE, J.M. & ROWLAND, C. (2002). Going, going, gone : The acquisition of the verb "go". Journal of Child Language, 29, 783-811. [PDF]
GERGELY, G. & BEVER, T.G. (1986). Relatedness intuitions and the mental representation of causative verbs in adults and children. Cognition, 23, 211-277. McKOON, G. & MacFARLAND, T. (2002). Event templates in the lexical representations of verbs. Cognitive Psychology, 45, 1-44. [PDF]
ZINGESER, L. B. & BERNDT, S.R. (1990). Retrieval of nouns and verbs in agrammatism and anomia. Brain and Language, 39, 14–32. HARE, M., McRAE, K. & ELMAN, J.L. (2003). Sense and structure : Meaning as a determinant of verb subcategorization preferences. Journal of Memory & Language, 48 (2), 281–303.
CARAMAZZA, A. & HILLIS, A.E (1991). Lexical organization of nouns and verbs in the brain. Nature, 349, 788–790. TYLER, K.L., STAMATAKIS, E.A., ROY, W., JONES, P., BRIGHT, P., ACRES, K. & MARSLEN-WILSON, W.D. (2004). Deficits for semantics and the irregular past tense : A causal relationship ? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 16(7), 1159-1172 [PDF]
TOMASELLO, M. (1992). First verbs : : a case study of early grammatical development. New York : Cambridge University Press. JUSTUS, T., LARSEN, J., SE MORNAY DAVIES, P. & SWICK, D. (2008). Interpreting dissociations between regular and irregular past-tense morphology: Evidence from event-related potentials. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience 2008, 8 (2), 178-194. [PDF]
TRUESWELL, J.C., TANENHAUS, M.K. & KELLO, C. (1993). Verb-specific constraints in sentence processing : Separating effects of lexical preference from garden-paths. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition, 19 (3), 528–553. WONNACOTT, E., NEWPORT, E.L. & TANENHAUS, M.K. (2008). Acquiring and processing verb argument structure: Distributional learning in a miniature language. Cognitive Psychology, 56 (3), 165-209. [PDF]
  LUPYAN, G. & THOMPSON-SCHILL, S.L. (2012). The evocative power of words : Activation of concepts by verbal and nonverbal means. Journal of Experimental Psychology : General, 141 (1), 170-186. [PDF]
Voir aussi Nom et Littéracie
Verde Michael F. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire, notamment de la familiarité. Étudiant de Rotello. Collaborateur de Perfect.
VERDE, M.F. & ROTELLO, M.C. (2003). Does familiarity change in the revelation effect ? Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 29, 739-746. [PDF]
VERDE, M.F. & ROTELLO, M.C. (2004). Strong memories obscure weak memories in associative recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 1062-1066. [PDF]
VERDE, M.F. (2009). The list-strength effect in recall : Relative-strength competition and retrieval inhibition may both contribute to forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 35, 205-220. [PDF]
VERDE, M.F., STONE, L.K., HATCH, H.S. & SCHNALL, S. (2010). Distinguishing between mnemonic and attributional sources of familiarity : Positive emotion bias as a case study. Memory & Cognition, 38 (2), 142-153. [PDF]
VERDE, M.F. (2013). Retrieval-induced forgetting in recall : Competitor interference revisited. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory & Cognition, 39, 1433-1448. [PDF]
Vergnaud Gérard (Doué-la-Fontaine, 1933-) : Psychologue cogntiviste européen, d'origine française et spécialiste de l'enseignement des mathématiques.

VERGNAUD, G. (1965). Note sur un cas de fausse conservation. Psychologie Française, 11, 277-279.
VERGNAUD, G. et COHEN R. (1968). Sur l'activité combinatoire des enfants de 8 ans. Psychologie Française, 14, 321-332.
VERGNAUD, G. (1985). Concepts et schèmes dans une théorie opératoire de la représentation. Concepts and schemes in a working theory of representation. Psychologie Française, 30, 245-252.
VERGNAUD, G. (1994). Le raisonnement en physique et en mathématiques. Psychologie Française, 39 (2), 153-160
VERGNAUD, G. (2001). Psychologie cognitive et éducation : un enjeu scientifique et social. Dialogue, 100/101, 58-64.
Verhaeghen Paul ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste du vieillissement.
VERHAEGHEN, P. (2002). Age differences in efficiency and effectiveness of encoding for visual search and memory search: A time-accuracy study. Aging, Neuropsychology & Cognition, 9, 114-126.
VERHAEGHEN, P., CERELLA, J. (2002). Aging, executive control, and attention: a review of meta-analyses. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 26, 849–857. [PDF]
VERHAEGHEN, P., CERELLA, J. & BASAK, C. (2004). A working memory workout : How to change to size of the focus of attention from one to four in ten hours or less. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 30, 1322-1337.
VERHAEGHEN, P., CERELLA, J. & BASAK, C. (2006). Aging, task complexity, and efficiency modes : The influence of working memory involvement on age differences in response times for verbal and visuospatial tasks. Aging, Neuropsychology & Cognition, 13, 254-280.
VERHAEGHEN, P. & HOYER, W. J. (2007). Aging, focus switching and task switching in a continuous calculation task : Evidence toward a new working memory control process. Aging, Neuropsychology & Cognition, 14, 22-39.
Verhoeven Ludo ( ) : Psychologue allemand et spécialiste de l'étude de la lecture et de la littéracie. Collaborateur de Perfetti.
VERHOEVEN, L. & PERFETTI, C.A. (2003). Introduction to this special issue : The role of morphology in learning to read. Scientific Studies of Reading, 7 (3), 209-217. [PDF]
VERHOEVEN, L. & VERMEER, A. (2006). Literacy achievement of children with intellectual disabilities and differing linguistic backgrounds. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 50 (10), 725-738. [PDF]
VERHOEVEN, L. (2009). Literacy outside the mainstream. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 119, (1), 1-12.
VERHOEVEN, L. & PERFETTI, C.A. (2011). Vocabulary growth and reading skill. Scientific Study of Reading, 15 (1), 1-7. [PDF]
VERHOEVEN, L. & PERFETTI, C.A. (2011). Morphological processing in reading acquisition : A cross-linguistic perspective. Applied Psycholinguistics, 32, 457-466. [PDF]
Verhofstadt Lesley L. ( ) : Psychologue belge, spécialisée dans l'étude du mariage et du soutien social.
VERHOFSTADT, L.L., BUYSSE, A., ICKES, W.DE CLERCQ, A. & PEENE, O.J. (2005). Conflict and support interactions in marriage: An analysis of couples interactive behavior and on-line cognition. Personal Relationships, 12, 23-42. [PDF]
VERHOFSTADT, L.L., BUYSSE, A., DAVIS, M., ICKES, W. & DE CORTE, K. (2007). Social support in couples: An examination of gender differences using self-report and observational methods. Sex Roles, 57, 267-282.
VERHOFSTADT, L.L., BUYSSE, A., DEVOLDRE, I. & DE CORTE, K. (2007). The influence of personal characteristics and relationship properties on marital support. Psychologica Belgica, 47 (3), 195-217.
VERHOFSTADT, L.L., BUYSSE, A., DAVIS, M., ICKES, W. & DEVOLDRE, I. (2008). Support provision in marriage : The role of emotional similarity and empathic accuracy. Emotion, 8 (6), 792-802. [PDF]
JAEKEN, M. VERHOFSTADT, L.L. & VAN BROECK, N. (2015). Qu'est-ce qui détermine l'efficacité d'une psychothérapie ? Brève mise à jour scientifique. Bulletin de psychologie, 3 (537), 237-242. [PDF]
Vérifiable : Se dit d'une hypothèse formulée de manière à ce que l'on puisse la soumettre à un test empirique. /invérifiable.

  JOHNSON, H.M. (1954). On verifying hypotheses by verifying their implicates. American Journal of Psychology, 67, 723–727.
Types de vérification
Vérification empirique Vérification logique Vérification compulsive
Vérification d'une hypothèse    
 
Vérification empirique/Vérifier : Épreuve scientifique qui consiste à confronter une hypothèse à un ensemble d'observations directes ou indirectes. Cette épreuve a pour but de vérifier si l'hypothèse est vraie (hypothèse confirmée) ou fausse (hypothèse infirmée). Vérification, vérificationnisme et empirisme scientifique. = épreuve scientifique, soumettre à un test, tester empiriquement, tester une hypothèse. Empirical verification, verifying hypothese, hypothesis test.

  JOHNSON, H.M. (1954). On verifying hypotheses by verifying their implicates. American Journal of Psychology, 67, 723-727.  
MEEHL, P.E. (1967). Theory testing in psychology and physics: A meth- odological paradox. Philosophy of Science, 34, 103-118. CONWAY, L.G. & SCHALLER, M. (2002). On the verifiability of evolutionary psychological theories : An analysis of the psychology of scientific persuasion. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 6, 152-166. [PDF]
BANDURA, A. (1978). On distinguishing between logical and empirical verification. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 19, 97-99. TRAFIMOW, D. (2003). Hypothesis testing and theory evaluation at the boundaries : Surprising insights from Bayes’s theorem. Psychological Review, 110, 526-535.
WRIGHT, C. (1986). Scientific realism, observation and the verification principle. In G. Macdonald, & C. Wright (Eds.), Fact, Science, and morality. Oxford : Basil Blackwell. WAGENMAKERS, E.-J. & GRÜNWALD, P. (2006). A Bayesian perspective on hypothesis testing : A comment on Killeen (2005). Psychological Science, 17, 641-642.
KLAYMAN, J. & HA, Y. (1987). Confirmation, disconfirmation, and information in hypothesis testing. Psychological Review, 94 (2), 211-228. [PDF] MOREY, R.D., ROUDER, J.N., VERHAGEN, J. & WAGENMAKERS, E.-J. (2014). Why hypothesis tests are essential to psychological science : A Comment on Cummings. Psychological Science. 24, 1291-1292. [PDF]
Voir aussi Hypothèse confirmée, Hypothèse infirmée et Hypothèse
 
Vérification logique : Démonstration logique qu'une proposition est vraie ou probablement vraie. En statistique, cette démonstration se fait au moyen d'un test statistique.

  SCHLICK, M. (1936). Meaning and verification. Philosophical Review, 45, 339-369. [PDF]
BERLIN, I. (1938-39). Verification. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 3, 225-48.
Vérification compulsive : Symptôme du trouble obsessionnel-compulsif. Comportement qui consiste à vérifier et à contre-vérifier ce que l'on vient de faire correctement, de peur qu'un drame survienne ou qu'on nous blâme. EX: Vérifier à plusieurs reprises si la porte est correctement verrouillée, si la cuisinière était fermée. Vérification compulsive et trouble obsessionnel-compulsif. Compulsive checkers, repeated checking, safety behaviour.

  RACHMAN, S. (1976). Obsessional-compulsive checking. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 14, 269-277. RADOMSKY, A.S., RACHMAN, S. & HAMMOND, D. (2001). Memory bias, confidence and responsibility in compulsive checking. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 39 (7), 813-822.
FROST, R.O, SHER, K.J. & GEEN, T. (1986). Psychopathology and personality characteristics of nonclinical compulsive checkers. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 24, 133-143. ANDERSON, C.A., BENJAMIN, A J., WOOD, P.K. & BONACCI, A.M. (2006). Development and testing of the Attitudes Toward Violence scale : Evidence for a four-factor model. Aggressive Behavior, 32, 122-136.
SHER, K., MANN, B. & FROST, R. (1984). Cognitive dysfuntion in compulsive checkers : Further explorations. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 22, 493-502. ROSSY, L. & BISHOP, A.K. (2000). Distinguishing manifestations of anxiety : How do personality traits of compulsive checkers differ from other anxious individuals? Behaviour Research & Therapy, 38 (3), 229-241.
FROST, R. & SHER, K. (1989). Checking behavior in threatening situation. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 27, 385-390. RACHMAN, S. (2002). A cognitive theory of compulsive checking. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 40, 625-639.
SHER, K.J., MARTIN, E.D., RASKIN, G. & PERRIGO, R. (1991).Prevalence of DSM-III-R disorders among nonclinical compulsive checkers and noncheckers in a college student sample. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 29 (5), 479-483. RADOMSKY, A.S., GILCHRIST, P.T. & DUSSAULT, D. (2006). Repeated checking really does cause memory distrust. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 44 (2), 305-316
  ZERMATTEN, A., VAN DER LINDEN, M., LAROI, F. & CESCHI, G. (2006). Reality monitoring and motor memory in checking-prone individuals. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 20, 580-596.
LOPATKA C. & RACHMAN, S. (1995). Perceived responsibility and compulsive checking: an experimental analysis. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 33 (6), 673-684. WOODS, C.M., VEVEA, J.L., CHAMBLESSE, D.L. & BAYEN, U.T. (2006). Are compulsive checkers impaired in memory ? A meta-analytic review. Clinical Psychology : Science & Practice, 9 (4), 353-366.
  RADOMSKY, A.S., ASHBAUGH, A.R. & GELFAND, L.A. (2007). Relationships between anger, symptoms and cognitive factors in OCD checkers. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 45 (11), 2712-2725.
  RACHMAN, S., RADOMSKY, A.S. & SHAFRAN, S. (2008). Safety behaviour : A reconsideration. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 46 (2), 163-173. [PDF]
  BELAYACHI, S. & VAN DER LINDEN, .M (2009). Level of agency in sub-clinical checking. Consciousness & Cognition, 18, (1), 293-299.
SZECHTMAN, H., SULIS, W. & EILAM, D. (1998). Quinpirole induces compulsive checking behavior in rats : A potential animal model of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Behavioral Neuroscience, 112, 1475-1485. RADOMSKY, A.S. & ALCOLADO, G.M. (2010). Don’t even think about checking : Mental checking causes memory distrust. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 345-351. [PDF]
  BELAYACHI, S. & VAN DER LINDEN, M. (2010). Feeling of doing in obsessive–compulsive checking. Consciousness & Cognition, 19, (2), 534–546.
RADOMSKY, A.S., SHAFRAN, S. & RACHMAN, S. (2010). Cognitive-behavior therapy fo rcompulsive checking in OCD . Cognitive & Behavioral Practice, 17, 119-131 [PDF]
SALKOVSKIS, P.M., MILLAR, J., GREGORY, J. & WAHL, K (2017). The termination of checking and the role of just right feelings : A study of obsessional checkers compared with anxious and non-clinical controls. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 45 (2), 139-155.
Voir aussi Trouble obsessionnel-compulsif
Vérification d'une hypothèse : Démarche logique qui consiste à soumettre une hypothèse à un test statistique visant à démonter que cette hypothèse est vraie ou fausse. Testing hypothesis, tests of statistical hypothese.

  FISHER, R.A. (1923). Statistical tests of agreement between observation and hypothesis. Economica 3 (8), 139-147.
NEYMAN, J. (1933). The testing of statistical hypotheses in relation to probabilities a priori. Mathematical Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 29, 492-510.
NEYMAN, J. & PEARSON, E.S. (1933). On the problem ofthe most efficient tests of statistical hypotheses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, Series A, 231, 289-337.
WALD, A. (1939). Contributions to the theory of statistical estimation and testing hypothesis. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 10, 299-326. [PDF]
LEHMANN, E.L. (1993). The Fisher, Neyman-Pearson theories of testing hypotheses : One theory or two ? Journal ofthe American Statistical Association, 88, 1242-1249.
Voir aussi Test d'hypothèse et Hypothèse statistique
Vérificationnisme : Verificationism.

  SCHLICK, M. (1936). Meaning and verification. Philosophical Review, 45.
MISAK, C. (1985). Verificationism. London : Routledge.
WRIGHT, C. (1986). Scientific realism, observation and the verification principle. In G. Macdonald, & C. Wright (Eds.), Fact, Science, and morality. Oxford : Basil Blackwell.
Vérisimilitude : Plus ou moins grande correspondance entre une proposition qui décrit le monde et ses propriétés et ce monde, entre nos connaissances de la réalité et la réalité. = versimilitude. Verisimilitude.

  POPPER, K.R. (1984). La logique de la découverte scientifique. Paris : Payot.
ZAMORA-BONILLA, J.P. (1996). Verisimilitude, structuralism, and scientific method. Erkenntnis 44, 25–47.
ZAMORA-BONILLA, J.P. (2002). Verisimilitude and the dynamics of scientific research programmes. Journal for General Philosophy of Science, 33, 349-368.
Vérité : Thruth.

Types de vérité
Vérité empirique Vérité logique Vérité psychologique
 
Vérité (Critère de...) : . En logique, les critères de vérité permettent d'affirmer qu'une proposition est vraie ou fausse. En science, il existe deux critères de vérité : la confirmation et la falsification.

 
Vérité (empirique ou objective) : Toute propostion ou énoncé qui correpond aux faits, à la réalité mesurée ou évaluée. EX : Il est vrai de dire que tous les éléphants possèdent quatre pattes. Thruth, thruth by aggrement.

  LEQUIER, J. (1865/1985). La recherche d’une première vérité et autres textes. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. DUMMETT, M. (1978). Truth and other enigmas. London : Duckworth.
  DAVIDSON, D. (1984/93). Inquiries into thruth and interpretation. Oxford : Clarendon Press. / Enquêtes sur la vérité et l'interprétation. Nîmes : J. Chambon.
JAMES, W. (1909). The meaning of truth : a sequel to pragmatism. New York : Longmans, Green. YABLO, S. (1985). Truth and reflection. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 14, 297-349.
RANK, O. (1936). Truth and reality. Knopf. YABLO, S. (1985). Truth, definite truth, and paradox. Journal of Philosophy, 86, 539-541.
QUINE, W.V.O. (1936/76). Truth by convention/Ways of paradox and other essays. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press. HORWICH, E. (1990). Thruth. Oxford : blackwell.
RUSSEL, B. (1940). Inquiry into meaning and truth. New York : Norton. QUINE, W. (1990/93). The pursuit of truth. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. / La poursuite de la vérité. Paris : Seuil.
TARSKI, A. (1956). The concept of truth in formalized languages. In Logic, semantics and metamathematics. Oxford, UK : Oxford University Press. SOSA, E. (1993). The truth of modest realism. Philosophical Issues : Science and Knowledge. Ridgeview Press.
TARSKI, A. (1969/1972). Truth and proof. In O. Hanfling (Ed.), Fundamental problems of philosophy (pp. 261-287). Blackwell : Oxford. MARKHAM, M.R. (1995). Truth, philosophy and behavioral science : A reply to Hocutt. Behavior & Philosophy, 23, 73-78. [PDF]
DAVIDSON, D. (1969). True to the facts. The Journal of Philosophy, 66, 748-64. [PDF] HECKMAN, S. (1997). Truth and method : Feminist standpoint theory revisited. Signs, 22, 341-365.
KRIPKE, S.A. (1971). Outline of a theory of truth. The Journal of Philosophy, 72, 690-716. MAIO, G.R. (2002). Values : truth and meaning. The Psychologist, 15, 296-299.
CUMMINS, R. (1975). Truth and logical form. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 4, (1), 29-44. [PDF] BEAULIEU, A. (2002). Images are not the (only) truth : Brain mapping, visual knowledge, and iconoclasm. Science, Technology & Human Values, 27, 53–86.
  THAGARD, P. (2007). Coherence, truth, and the development of scientific knowledge. Philosophy of Science, 4, 28-47. [PDF]
TOOLEY, M. (2010). Time, truth, actuality, and causation : On the impossibility of divine foreknowledge. European Journal for Philosophy of Religion, 2 (1), 143-163.
Voir aussi Théorie de la correspondance
Vérité (logique) : Toute proposition qui est cohérente avec un ensemble de règles ou de principes dont l'organisation est logique. EX : Il est vrai de dire que si A > B et que B > C, donc A > C. = cohérence.

  SCHLICK, M. (1936). Meaning and verification. Philosophical Review, 45.
MISAK, C. (1985). Verificationism. London : Routledge.
Vérité (psychologique ou subjective) : Qui consiste à dire ce que l'on fait, et vice-versa. Vérité et exactitude. = cohérence interne psychologique. /mensonge. Thruth.

  FALLER, K.C. (1984). Is the child victim of sexual abuse telling the truth ? Child Abuse & Neglect, 8, 473-481.
LOFTUS, E.F. (1992). When a lie becomes memory's truth : Memory distortion after exposure to misinformation. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1, 121-123.
DEPAULO, B.M. & BELL, K.L. (1996). Truth and investment : Lies are told to those who care. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 71 (4), 703-716.
REBER R. & SCHWARZ, N. (1999). Effects of perceptual fluency on judgments of truth. Consciousness & Cognition, 8, 338-342.
HOUDÉ, O. (2003). La construction du vrai dans le développement cognitif de l’enfant. In J.-P. Changeux (Ed.), La vérité dans les sciences (pp. 103-122). Paris : Odile Jacob.
BLANDON-GITLIN. I., PEZDEK, K., LINDSAY, S. & HAGEN, L. (2009). Criteria-based content analysis of true and suggested accounts of event. Applied Cognitice Psychology, 23, 901–917 [PDF]
Voir aussi Fabuler, Mythomanie et Mensonge
Verkuyten Maykel ( ) : Psychosociologue néerlandais et spécialiste du multiculturalisme.
VERKUYTEN, M. (1992). Ethnic group preferences and the evaluation of ethnic identity among adolescents in the Netherlands. The Journal of Social Psychology, 132, 741-750.
VERKUYTEN, M. & MASSON, K. (1995). "New racism", self-esteem and ethnic relations among minority and majority youth in the Netherlands. Social Behavior & Personality, 23, 137-154.
VERKUYTEN, M. & THIJS, J. (2002). Multiculturalism among minority and majority adolescents in the Netherlands. International Journal of Inter-cultural Relations, 26, 91-108. [PDF]
VERKUYTEN, M. (2005). Ethnic group identification and group evaluation among minority and majority groups : Testing the multiculturalism hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 88 (1), 121-138. [PDF]
VERKUYTEN, M. (2007). Social Psychology and multiculturalism. Social & Personality Psychology Compass, 1 (1), 280-297. [PDF]
VERKUYTEN, M., SIERKSMA J. & THIJS, J. (2015). First arrival and owning the land : How children reason about ownership of territory. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 41, 58-64.
Vernon
P.A. Vernon P.E. Vernon
 
Vernon Philip Anthony ( ) : Psychologue canadien et spécialiste de l'étude de la personnalité. Il est un des signataires du Groupe des 52. Collaborateur de Ashton, Furham, Jackson, Martin, Petrides et Schermer.
VERNON, P.A., MARTIN, R.A., SCHERMER, J.A., CHERKAS, L.F. & SPECTOR, T.D. (2008). Genetic and environmental contributions to humor styles : A replication study. Twin Research & Human Genetics, 11 (1), 44-47. [PDF]
VERNON, P.A., VILLANI, V.C. SCHERMER, J.A. & PETRIDES, K.V. (2008). Phenotypic and genetic associations between the big five and trait emotional intelligence. Twin Research & Human Genetics, 11 (5), 524-530. [PDF]
VERNON, P.A., VILLANI, V.C., VICKER, L.C. & HARRIS, J.A. (2008). A behavioral genetic investigation of the dark triad and the big 5. Personality & Individual Differences, 44, 445-452.
VERNON, P.A., PETRIDES, K.V., BRATKO, D. & SCHERMER, J.A. (2008). A behavioral genetic study of trait emotional intelligence. Emotion, 8, 635-642.
VERNON, P.A., VILLANI, V.C., SCHERMER, J.A., KIRILOVIC, S., MARTIN, R.A., PETRIDES, K.V. & SPECTOR, T. D. (2009). Genetic and environmental correlations between trait emotional intelligence and humor styles. Journal of Individual Differences, 30, 130-137.
Vernon Philip Ewart (Oxford Angleterre 1905-1987) : Psychologue anglais, spécialisé en éducation et plus particulièrement dans l'étude de l'intelligence.Collaborateur d'Allport, Lindzey, Olson et Mace.
VERNON, P.E. & ALLPORT, G.W. (1931). A test for personal values. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 26 (3), 231-248.
VERNON, P.E. (1950). The structure of human abilities. London : Methuen.
VERNON, P.E. (1979). Intelligence : Heredity and environment. San Francisco : W.H. Freeman & Company.
VERNON, P.E. (Ed.) (1987). Speed of information processing and intelligence. Norwood, NJ : Ablex.
VERNON, P.E. (1993). Biological approaches to the study of human intelligence. Norwood, NJ : Ablex.
 
JENSEN, A.R. (1989). Obituary : Philip Ewart Vernon (1905-1987). American Psychologist, 44 (6), 844.
Verplanck William Samuel (New York 1916-2002) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain. Il s'est notamment intéressé au comportement verbal. Il a également intégré certaines méthodes de l'éthologie à l'étude du conditionnement opérant. Collaborateur de Skinner, Kantor et Tinbergen.
VERPLANCK, W.S., HAYES, J.R. (1953). Eating and drinking as a function of maintenance schedule. Journal of Comparative Physiology & Psychology, 46 (5), 327-333.
VERPLANCK, W.S. (1955). An hypothesis on imprinting. British Journal of Animal Behavior, 5, 123.
VERPLANCK, W.S. (1956). The operant conditioning of human motor behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 53, 70-83.
VERPLANK, W.S. & LAHEY, B.B. (1970). Contiguity and reinforcement factors in multiple-choice verbal learning : parametric influences. Psychonomic Science, 19 (2), 93-95.
VERPLANCK, W.S. (1992). Verbal concept "mediators" as simple operants. Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 10, 45-68. [PDF]
 
BURGHARDT, G.M. (2003). William Samuel Verplanck, Jr. (1916-2002) : Obituary. American Psychologist, 58 (6/7), 491.
Verrue : Tumeur bénigne de la peau. Wart.

  VOLLMER, H. (1946). Treatment of warts by suggestion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 8, 138-142, 1946 STANKLER, L. (1967). A critical assessment of the cure of warts by suggestion. Practitioner, 198, 690-694.
COUPER, L. & DAVIS, T. (1952). A difficult wart treated by suggestion. British Medical Jounal, 2,1398. TENZEL, J.H. & TAYLOR, R.L. (1969). An evaluation of hypnosis and suggestion as treatment for warts. Psychosomatics 10:252-257, 1969
SINCLAIR-GIEBEN, A.H.C. & CHALMERS, D. (1959). Evaluation of treatment of warts by hypnosis. Lancet 11, 480-482. SUMAN, O.S., GOTTLIEB, S.K., HACKETT, T.P. & SILVERBERG, E.L. (1973). Hypnosis in the treatment of warts. Archives of General Psychiatry, 28, 439-441.
ULLMAN, M. (1959). On the psyche and warts : I. Suggestion and warts, a review and comment. Psychosomatic Medicine, 21, 473-488. JOHNSON, R.F.Q. & BARBER, T.X. (1978). Hypnosis, suggestion and warts: An experimental investigation implicating the importance of "believed in efficacy". American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis, 20, 165-174.
ULLMAN, M. & DUDEK, S. (1960). On the psyche and warts: II. Hypnotic suggestion and warts. Psychosomatic Medicine, 21, 68-76. SPANOS, N.P., STENSTROM, R.J. & JOHNSTON, J.C. (1988). Hypnosis, placebo, and suggestion in the treatment of warts. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50 (2), 45-260. [PDF]
Voir aussi Peau

Vert : Voir Couleur.
Vertébré :

Règne
  Embranchement  
  Classe  
  Ordre  
  Famille  
  Genre  
  Espèce  
  Population  

  MaCPHAIL, E.M. (1982). Brain and intelligence in vertebrates. Clarendon Press : Oxford.
MACKINTOSH, N.J., WILSON, B. & BOAKES, R.A. (1985). Differences in mechanisms of intelligence among vertebrates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, London, 308B, 53-66.
FREEBERG, T.M. (2000). Culture and courtship in vertebrates : A review of social learning and transmission of courtship systems and mating patterns. Behavioural Processes, 51, 177-192. [PDF]
Voir aussi Animal
Vertige : Sensation désagréable (parfois excitante) qui donne l'illusion que notre corps est animé d'un mouvement d'oscillation ou de rotation. Vertigo.

   
Vertu : Attitude ou disposition que l'on souhaite acquérir et que la plupart des gens considère comme une qualité. /vice. Virtue.

  RAND, A. (1964). The virtue of selfishness. New York : New American Library.
LOCKE, E.A. (1988). The virtue of selfishness. American Psychologist, 43 (6), 481.
Voir aussi Vice
Vertu épistémique : Vertu qui favorise le développement et la diffusion de la connaissance scientifique et qui teinte notre point de vue sur le monde. On peut acquérir ces vertus à l'école (de moins en moins on dirait...), en fréquentant les scientifiques ou en pratiquant soi-même la science. Montaigne a dit : «La vraie science est une ignorance qui se sait». Vertu épistémique, orthodoxie scientifique et épistémologie. = qualité scientifique, valeur scientifique. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. /antiscientifique, pseudoscientifique. Scientific virtue, conduct.

Vertus épistémiques
Auto-correction Modestie scientifique Scepticisme
Cohérence Objectivité Systématicité
Diffusion/Communication du savoir Précision Vérité empirique
Doute systématique Relativisme Vérité logique
Minutie Rigueur Vulgarisation scientifique
 

  HOOKWAY, C. (1994). Cognitive virtues and epistemic evaluations. International Journal of Philosophical Studies, 2,211-27.
WOODWARD, J. & GOODSTEIN, D. (1996). Conduct, misconduct and the structure of science. American Scientist, 84 (5), 479-491. [PDF] + [PDF]
KILLEEN, P.R. (2003). The yins and yangs of science. Behavior & Philosophy, 31, 251-258. [PDF]
ZAMORA-BONILLA, J.P. (2013). Why are good theories good ? Reflections on epistemic values, confirmation, and formal epistemology. Synthese, 190 (9), 1533-1553. [PDF]
JUSSIM, L., CRAWFORD, J.T., STEVENS, S.T.ANGLIN, S.M. & DURTE, J.L (2016). Can high moral purposes undermine scientific integrity ? In J. Forgas, P. van Lange, & L. Jussim (Eds), The Sydney Symposium on the social psychology of morality. [PDF]
Voir aussi Publier ou périr, Scientificité et Marchandisation de la connaissance
Vervet (Cercopithecus aethiops/Chlorocebus sabaeus) : Singe de la famille des cercopthecidae. = singe vert. Vervet.
 
SEYFARTH, R.M., CHENEY, D.L. & MARLER P. (1980). Vervet monkey alarm calls : semantic communication in a free ranging primate. Animal Behaviour, 28, 1070-1094. ISBELL, L.A. & CHENEY, D.L. & SEYFARTH, R.M. (1993). Are immigrant vervet monkeys, Cercopithecus aethiops, at greater risk of mortality than residents ? Animal Behaviour, 45, 729-734. [PDF]
IVERSEN, I.H., RAGNARSDOTTIR, G.A. & RANDRUP, K.I. (1984). Operant conditioning of autogrooming in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 42 (2), 171-189. [PDF] ISBELL, L.A. (1994). The vervets' year of doom. Natural History, 8, 48-55.
ISBELL, L.A. (1990). Costs and benefits of home range shifts among vervet monkeys (Cercopithecusaethiops)in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 27, 351-358. [PDF] ISBELL, L.A., PRUETZ, J.D. (2008). Differences between vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) in agonistic interactions between adult females. International Journal of Primatology, 19 (5), 837-855. [PDF]
ISBELL, L.A. (1990). Sudden short-term increase in mortality of vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) due to leopard predation in Amboseli National Park, Kenya. American Journal of Primatology 21, 41-52. ISBELL, L.A., PRUETZ, J.D., LEWIS, M. & YOUNG, T.P. (1999). Rank differences in ecological behavior : a comparative study of patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) and vervets (Cercopithecus aethiops). International Journal of Primatology, 20, 257-272. [PDF]
ISBELL, L.A., CHENEY, D.L. & SEYFARTH, R.M. (1991). Group fusions and minimum group sizes in vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). American Journal of Primatology, 25, 57-65. [PDF] PRUETZ, J.D. & ISBELL, L.A. (2000). Correlations of food distribution and patch size with agonistic interactions in female vervets (Chlorocebus aethiops) and patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) living in simple habitats. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 49, 38-47. [PDF]
DAWKINS, R. (2004/07). The ancestor's tale : A pilgrimage to the dawn of evolution / Il était une fois l'évolution. New York : Houghton Mifflin/ Paris : Hachette. ALEXANDER, G.M. & HINES, M. (2002). Sex differences in responses to children’s toys in a non-human primate (cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus). Evolution & Human Behavior, 23, 467-479. [PDF]
  Voir aussi Singe
Vesale André (1514-1564) : Médecin et anatomiste bruxellois. Il révolutionna la médecine en pratiquant les premières dissections systématiques du corps humain, notamment du cerveau, puis en décrivant ses dissections avec clarté et précision.
VESALE, A. (1543). De Humani Corporis Fabrica. Johann Oporinus.
 
 
 
 
Vésicule synaptique : Petit sac situé dans les boutons terminaux qui contient des neurotransmetteurs, notamment la glutamate, GABA, acétylcholine. l'histamine, etc.

  Voir aussi Neurotransmetteur
Vestibulite :

  NYIRJESY, P., SOBEL, J.D., WEITZ, M.V., LEAMAN, D.J., SMALL, M.J. & GELONE, S.P. (2001). Cromolyn cream for recalcitrant idiopathic vulvar vestibulitis : results of a placebo controlled study. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 77 (1), 53-57.
ROSEN, N.O., MUISE, A., BERGERON, S., DELISLE, I. & BAXTER, M.L. (2015). Daily associations between partner responses and sexual and relationship satisfaction in couples coping with provoked vestibulodynia. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12, 1028-1039. [PDF]
Vêtements (Influence des...) : Voir Habiller/Habillement.
Vétéran (de la guerre) : Militaire à la retraite, parfois éclopé ou traumatisé par les drames et les horreurs de la guerre. Vétéran, arméee et syndrome post-traumatique. Combat veteran, National Guard soldiers .

  BOREN, J.J & COLMAN, A.D. (1970). Some experiments on reinforcement principles within a psychiatric ward for delinquent soldiers. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 3 (1), 29–37. [PDF] SHIN, L.M., ORR, S.P., CARSON, M.A., RAUCH, S.L., MACKLIN, M.L., LASKO, N.B., MARZOL PETERS, P., METZGER, L.J., DOUGHERTY, D.D., CANNISTRARO, P.A., ALPERT, N.M., FISCHMAN, A.J. & PITMAN, R.K. (2004). Regional cerebral blood flow in amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 168-176. [PDF]
BUTLER, J. & Wilson, K.L. (1978). The American soldier revisited: Race relations and the military. Social Science Quarterly, 59 (3), 451-467. GRAMMER, K., RENNINGER, L. & FISCHER, B. (2004). Disco clothing, female sexual motivation, and relationship status : Is she dressed to impress ? Journal of Sex Research, 41, 66-74.
ROBINS, N.L. (1993). Vietnam veterans rapid recovery from heroin addiction : A fluke or normal expectation ? Addiction 88, 1041-1054. TURNER, C.M., FRUEH, C.B. & BEIDEL, D.C. (2005). Multicomponent behavioral ltreatment for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder : Trauma Management Therapy. Behavior Modification, 29, 39-69.
  MONSON, C.M., SCHNURR, P.P., RESICK, P.A., FRIEDMAN, M.J., YOUNG-XU, Y. & STEVENS, S.P. (2006). Cognitive processing therapy for veterans with military-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 74, 898-907.
FRUEH, C.B., SMITH, D.W. & LIBET, J.M. (1996). Racial differences on psychological measures in combat veterans seeking treatment for PTSD. Journal of Personality Assessment, 66, 41-53. JAKUPCAK, M., ROBERTS, L., MARTELL, C., MULICK, P., MICHAEL, S., REED, R., BALSAM, K., YOSHIMOTO, D. & McFALL, M. (2006). A pilot study of behavioral activation for veterans with post- traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 19 (3), 387-391.
HAMNER, M.B. (1996). Clozapine treatment for a veteran with comorbid psychosis and PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 841. KASHDAN, T.B., JULIAN, T., MERRITT, K. & USWATTE, G. (2006). Social anxiety and posttraumatic stress in combat veterans : Relations to well-being and character strengths. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 44, 561-583. [PDF]
ZATZICK, D.F., MARMAR, C.R., WEISS, D.S., BROWNER, W.S., METZLER, T.J., GOLDING, J.M., STEWART, A, SCHLENGER, W.E. & WELLS, K.B. (1997). Post-traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1690-1695. [PDF] KASHDAN, T.B., ELHAI, J.D. & FRUEH, B.C. (2007). Anhedonia, emotional numbing, and symptom overreporting in male veterans with PTSD. Personality & Individual Differences, 43, 725-735. [PDF]
FRUEH, C.B., GOLD, P.B. & De ARELLANO M.A. (1997). Symptom overreporting in combat veterans evaluated for PTSD : Differentiation on the basis of compensation seeking status. Journal of Personality Assessment, 68, 369-384. GALE, C.R., DEARY, I.J. BOYLE, S.H., BAREFOOT, J., MORTENSEN, H. & BATTY, G.D. (2008). Cognitive ability in early adulthood and risk of 5 specific psychiatric disorders in middle age: The Vietnam experience study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65 (12), 1410-1418. [PDF]
HAMNER, M.B., FRUEH, C., ULMER, H.G. & ARANA, G.W. (1999). Psychotic features and illness severity in combat veterans with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder. Biological Psychiatry, 45, 846-852. [PDF] SCHNURR, P.P., LUNNEY, C.A., BOIVIN, M.J. & MARX, B.P. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder and quality of life : Extension of findings to veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 727-735. [PDF]
NETTER, P., TOLL, C., ROHRMANN, S., HENNIG, J. & NYBORG, H. (2000). Configural frequency analysis of factors associated with testosterone levels in Vietnam veterans. Psychologische Beiträge, Band 42, 504-514. JAKUPCAK, M., WAGNER, A., PAULSON, A. VARRA, A. & McFALL, M. (2010). Behavioral activation as a primary care-based treatment for PTSD and depression among returning veterans. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23 (4), 491–495. [PDF]
KOONS, C.R., ROBINS, C.J., TWEED, J.L., LYNCH, T.R., GONZALEZ, A.M., MORSE, J.Q., BISHOP, C.K., BUTTERFIELD, M.I. & BASTIAN, L.A. (2001). Efficacy of dialectical behavior therapy in women veterans with borderline personality disorder. Behavior Therapy, 32, 371-390. [PDF] GEWIRTZ, A.H., POLUSNY, M.A., DEGARMO, D.S., KHALYS, A. & ERBES, C.R. (2010). Posttraumatic stress symptoms among National Guard soldiers deployed to Iraq : Associations with parenting behaviors and couple adjustment. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 78 (5), 599-610. [PDF]
FRUEH, C.B., TURNER, S.M., BEIDEL, D.C. & CAHILL, S.P. (2001). Assessment of social functioning in combat veterans with PTSD. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 6, 79-90. BEIDELA, D.C., FRUEH, C.B., UDHE, T.W., WONG, N. & MENTRIKOSKI, M.J. (2011). Multicomponent behavioral treatment for chronic combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder : A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 25 (2), 224-231. [PDF]
Voir aussi Guerre et Syndrome post-traumatique
VICTIME - VICTOIRE - VIDAL - VIDÉO - VIEILLISSEMENT - VIGILANCE - VILLE - VIOL - VIOLENCE - VISAGE - VISION - VITELES - VO
Viau Rolland ( ) : Spécialiste de l'éducation, notamment de la motivation scolaire. Collaborateur de Barbeau.
VIAU, R. (1994). La motivation en contexte scolaire. Montréal : Éditions du Renouveau Pédagogique.
VIAU, R. et LOUIS, R. (1997). Vers une meilleure compréhension de la dynamique motivationnelle des étudiants en contexte scolaire. Revue canadienne de l’éducation, 22, 144–157.
VIAU, R. (1999). La motivation dans l’apprentissage du français. St-Laurent : Éditions du Renouveau pédagogique.
VIAU, R. & BOUCHARD, J. (2000). Validation d’un modèle de dynamique motivationnelle auprès d’élèves du secondaire. Revue Canadienne de l'Éducation, 25 (1), 16–26. [PDF]
VIAU, R. (2007). La motivation dans la création scientifique. Éditions des Presses de l'Université du Québec.
Vicariant : Qualifie ce qui est acquis ou appris par observation, en regardant les autres agir. EX: apprentissage vicariant, motivation vicariante. Vicariant et apprentissage par observation. Vicarious, vicarious experience.

  LEWIS, D.J. & DUNCAN, C.P. (1958). Vicarious experience and partial reinforcement. Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology, 57, 321-326. BANDURA, A., GRUSEC, J.E. & MENLOVE, F.L. (1967). Vicarious extinction of avoidance behavior. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 5, 16-23.
 ROSENBAUM, M.E. & DERCHARMS, R. (1960). Direct and vicarious reduction of hostility. Journal of Abnormal Social Psychology, 60, 105-111. BANDURA, A. & MENLOVE, F.L. (1968). Factors determining vicarious extinction through symbolic modeling. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8, 99-108.
BANDURA, A. (1965). Vicarious processes : A case of no-trial learning. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1-55). New York : Academic Press. [PDF] BANDURA, A. (1971). Vicarious and self-reinforcement processes. In R. Glaser (Ed.), The nature of reinforcement (pp. 228-278). New York : Academic Press. [PDF]
BANDURA, A. & ROSENTHAL, T. (1966). Vicarious classical conditioning as a function of arousal level. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 63, 575-582. McCULLOCH, K.C., FITZSIMONS, G., CHUA, S.N. & ALBARRACIN, D. (2011). Vicarious goal satiation. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 685-688. [PDF]
Voir aussi Appris par observation
Vicary James McDonald (Détroit 1915-1977) : Spécialiste de l'étude de la perception subliminale. Il a admis avoir trafiqué les résultats d'une recherche qui montrait qu'une technique de vente - qu'il venait d'inventer - permettait d’influencer à leur insu les consommateurs (acheter du Coca-cola ou du pop-corn).
 
 
 
 
 
Vice : Attitude ou disposition que l'on souhaite éviter et que la plupart des gens considère comme un défaut. /vertu. Vice.

  WALKOWITZ, J.R. (1982). Male vice and feminist virtue : feminism and the politics of prostitution in nineteenthcentury Britain. History Workshop Journal, 13, 77–93.
Voir aussi Vertu
Vicq d’Azir Félix (Valognes Normandie 1748-1794 Paris) : Naturaliste, physiologiste et anatomiste français. Élu en 1788 à l'Académie française au fauteuil no 1. On lui doit la découverte de la tache bleue ou noyaux du locus coeruleus. = Vic d'Azyr. Étudiant de Petit.
 VICQ D'AZIR, F. (1774). Table pour servir à l'histoire anatomique et naturelle des corps vivants ou organiques. Paris : l'Académie Royale des Sciences.
 VICQ D'AZIR, F. (1779). Observations anatomiques. Paris : Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences.
 VICQ D'AZIR, F. (1784). Second mémoire contenant des observations sur plusieurs régions du cerveau disséqué par sa base, et sur l'origine des nerfs. Paris : Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences.
 VICQ D'AZIR, F. (1786). Suite des recherches sur la structure du cerveau. Sur la structure du cerveau des animaux comparé avec celui de l'homme. Paris : Mémoires de l'Académie royale des sciences.
 VICQ D'AZIR, F. (1786). Traité d'anatomie et de physiologie avec des planches coloriées représentant au naturel les divers organes de l'Homme et des Animaux / Vol I-II (planches). Paris : François Didot l'aîné.
 
 SPILLMAN, R. (1941). Félix Vicq d’Azyr and Benjamin Franklin. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 94 (4), 428-44.
 GOLDBLATT, D. (1986). The key to the brain. Félix Vicq d'Azyr (1748-1794). Seminars in Neurology, 6, 231-237.
 FARRELL, P.S. & McHENRY, L.C. (1987). Fragments of neurologic history: Félix Vicq d'Azyr and neuroanatomy. Neurology, 37, 1349-1350.
 HANNAWAY, C. (1994). Vicq d'Azyr, anatomy and a vision of medicine. Clio Medica, 25, 280-295.
 PEUMERY, J.J. (2001). Vicq d’Azyr et la Revolution Francaise. Histoire des sciences médicales, 35, 263–270.
 PARENT, A. (2007). Félix Vicq d'Azyr : anatomy, medecine and revolution. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 34, 30-37. [PDF]
 VAN GIJN, J. (2009). Félix Vicq d’Azyr (1748–1794). Journal of Neurology, 256 (8), 1384-1385. [PDF]
PARENT, A. (2009). Histoire du cerveau. Québec : Presses de l'Univserité Laval.
Victime : Tout individu qui subit une agression ou tout autre forme de violence (voies de fait/agressiont, viol, vol, enlèvement, meurtre, accident, etc.). Certaines victimes développent un trouble de stress post-traumatique. Victime, viol et agression sexuelle. Victim.
  PILIAVIN, J.A. & PILIAVIN, I.M. (1972). Effect of blood on reaction to a victim. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 23 (3), 353-361. RESICK, P.A. (1987). Psychological effects of victimization : Implications for the criminal justice system. Crime & Delinquency, 33, 468-478.
KELMAN, H.C. (1973). Violence without moral restraint : Reflections on the dehumanization of victims and victimizers. Journal of Social Issues, 29 (4), 25-61. [PDF] WIRTZ, P.W. & HARRELL, A.V. (1987). Victim and crime characteristics, victimization. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 866-871.
PILIAVIN, I.M, PILIAVIN, J.A. & RODIN, J. (1975). Costs, diffusion, and the stigmatized victim. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 32 (3), 429-438. WIRTZ, P.W. & HARRELL, A.V. (1987). Police and victims of physical assault. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 14, 81-910.
WALLER, I. & OKIHIRO, N. (1978). Burglary : The victim and the public. Toronto : University of Toronto Press. WIRTZ, P.W. & HARRELL, A.V. (1987). Effects of postassault exposure to attack-similar stimuli on long-term recovery of victims. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 10-16.
BILES, D., BRAITHWAITE, J. & BRAITHWAITE, V. (1979). Mental health of the victims of crime. International Journal of Offender Therapy & Comparative Criminology, 23, 129-134. PERRY, D.G., KUSEL, S.J. & PERRY, L.C. (1988). Victims of peer aggression. Developmental Psychology, 24, 807-814.
THISSEN, D. (1983). Toward the measurement and prediction of victim proneness. Journal of Research in Crime & Delinquency, 20 (2), 243-261. WALLER, I. (1989). The needs of crime victims. In E.A. Fattah (Ed.), The plight of crime victims in modern society. New York : St. Martin's Press.
TAYLOR, S.E., WOOD, J.V. & LICHTMAN, R.R. (1983). It could be worse : Selective evaluation as a response to victimization. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 19-40. [PDF] BAUMEISTER, R.F., STILLWELL, A. & WOTMAN, S.R. (1990). Victim and perpetrator accounts of interpersonal conflict : Autobiographical narratives about anger. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 59, 994-1005.
MILLER, D.T. & PORTER, C.A. (1983). Self-blame in victims of violence. Journal of Social Issues, 39 (2), 139-152. COLLINS R.L., TAYLOR S.E. & SKOKAN, L.A. (1990). A better world or a shattered vision ? : Changes in perspectives following victimization. Social Cognition, 8, 263-285. [PDF]
SALES, E., BAUM, M. & SHORE, B. (1984). Victim readjustment following assault. Journal of Social Issues, 40, 117-136. SHEPHERD, J. (1990). Victims of personal violence : The relevance of Symond's model of psychological response and loss theory. British Journal of Social Work, 20, 309-332.
FALLER, K.C. (1984). Is the child victim of sexual abuse telling the truth? Child Abuse & Neglect, 8, 473-481. FRIEDRICH, W.N. (1993). Sexual victimization and sexual behavior in children : A review of recent literature. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 59-66.
ZIMRING, F.E. & ZEUL, J. (1986). Victim injury and death in urban robbery : A Chicago study. Journal of Legal Studies, 15, 1-40. TESTA, M. & PARKS, K.A. (1996). The role of women's alcohol consumption in sexual victimization. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 1 (3), 217-234.
  BRIÈRE, J., WOO, R., McRAE, B., FOLTZ, J. & SITZMAN R. (1997). Lifetime victimization history, demographics, and clinical status in female psychiatric emergency room patients. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 185, 95-101. [LIRE]
  BRIÈRE, J. & ELLIOTT, D.M. (1997). Psychological assessment of interpersonal victimization effects in adults and children. Psychotherapy : Theory, Research & Practice, 34, 353-364. [PDF]
BARD, M. & SANGREY, D. (1986). The crime victims book. New Jersey : Citadel Press. KINGMA, J. (1999). Repeat victimization of victims of violence : A retrospective study from a hospital emergency department for the Period 1971-1995. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 14 (1), 79-90.
  DIXON, T.L. & LINZ, D. (2000). Race and the misrepresentation of victimization on local television news. Communication Reseach, 27 (5), 547-573. [PDF]
  GRAHAM, S., BELLMORE, A.D. & MIZE, J. (2006). Peer victimization, aggression, and their co-occurrence in middle school : Pathways to adjustment problems. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 34 (3), 363-378. [PDF]
  BRIÈRE, J. & RICKARDS, S. (2007). Self-awareness, affect regulation, and relatedness : Differential sequels of childhood versus adult victimization experiences. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 195, 497-503. [PDF]
  SALMIVALLI, C. & PEETS, K. (2008). Bullies, victims, and bully–victim relationships. In K. Rubin, W. Bukowski & B. Laursen (Eds.), Handbook of peer interactions, relationships, and groups (pp. 322–340). New York : Guilford Press.
MILLER, D.T. & McFARLAND, C. (1986). Counterfactual thinking and victim compensation : A test of norm theory. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 12, 513-519. BARKER, E. D., BOIVIN, M., BRENDGEN, M., FONTAINE, N., ARSENAULT, L., VITARO, F., BISSONNETTE, C. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (2008). Predictive validity and early predictors of peer victimization trajectories in preschool. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65 (10), 1185-1192. [PDF]
WIRTZ, P.W. & HARRELL, A.V. (1987). Assaultive versus nonassaultive victimization : A profile analysis of psychological response. Journal of interpersonal violence, 2, 264-277. DIXON, T.L. (2008). Who is the victim here ? : The psychological effects of overrepresenting White victims and Black perpetrators on television news. Journalism : Theory, Practice & Criticism, 9, 582-605. [PDF]
Voir aussi Trouble de stress post-traumatique, Viol, Accident, Otage et Agression sexuelle
Victime de la route : Voir Accident de la route. Road victim.
Victimologie : Science au carrefour de la criminologie, de la psychologie et de la psychiatrie, qui étudie les comportements, les émotions et les cognitions des victimes d'agression. Victimology.
  DEUTSCH, M., HEILMAN, M.E. & SLOCHOWER, J. (1976). The effects of victimization on reactions to other victims. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 6, 193-205. PERLOFF, L.S. (1983). Perceptions of vulnerability to victimization. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 41-61.
SCHAFER, S. (1977). Victimology : The victim and his criminal. Reston, VA : Reston Publishing. WEISAETH, L. (1985). Psychiatric studies in victimology in Norway : Main findings and recent developments. Victimology, 10, 478-487.
ZLONTICK, J. (1979). Victimology and crisis intervention training with police. Crisis Intervention, 10, 2-17. LOPEZ, G. (1997). Victimologie. Dalloz : Paris.
WORTMAN, C.B. (1983). Coping with victimization : Conclusions and implications for future research. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 195-221. WEMMERS, J.A. (2003). Introduction à la victimologie. Montréal : Presses de l'Université de Montréal.
PETERSON, C. & SELIGMAN, M.P. (1983). Learned helplessness and victimization. Journal of Social Issues, 39, 103-116. KARMAN, A. (2003). Crime victims : An introduction to victimology. Wadsworth Publishing
Voir aussi Victime
Victimology : An International Journal : Revue scientifique.
BURGESS, R.L. (1986). Social incompetence as a precipitant to and consequence of child maltreatment. Victimology : An International Journal, 10, 72-86.

Victims & Offenders : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude des victimes et des agresseurs.
BURGESS, A.W. & STEVENS, S.L. (2006). Sexual abuse, trauma and dementia in the elderly : A retrospective study. Victims & Offenders, 1 (2), 193-204.
Victoire : Issue d'un duel, d'un conflit ou d'un combat qui procure au gagnant un avantage, un bénéfice, un gain. Victoire et sport. *réussite. /défaite. Win, winning, winner effect.

  BEAUGRAND, J.P., GOULET, C. & PAYETTE, D. (1991). Outcome of dyadic conflict in male green swordtail fish (Xiphophorus helleri) : Effects of body size and prior dominance. Animal Behaviour, 41, 187-194. HSU, Y. & WOLF, L.L. (2001). The winner and loser effect : what fighting behaviours are influenced ? Animal Behaviour, 61, 777-786. [PDF]
  DUGGAN, M. & LEVITT, S.D. (2002). Winning isn't everything : Corruption in Sumo wrestling. The American Economic Review, 92 (5), 1594-1605.
  DUGATKIN, L.A. & EARLY, R.L. (2004). Individual recognition, dominance hierarchies and winner and looser effect. Proceedings of the Royal Society B : Biological Sciences, 271, 1537-1540. [PDF]
  LARSEN, J.T., McGRAW, A.P., MELLERS, B A. & CACIOPPO, J. T. (2004). The agony of victory and the thrill of defeat : Mixed emotional reactions to disappointing wins and relieving losses. Psychological Science, 15, 325-330. [PDF]
BAXTER-JONES, A. & HELMS, P. (1994). Born too late to wi n ? Nature, 370, 186. CARRÉ, J.M. (2009). No place like home : testosterone responses to victory depend on game location. American Journal of Human Biology, 21, 392-394. [PDF]
 HSU, Y. & WOLF, L.L. (1999). The winner and loser effect : integrating multiple experiences. Animal Behaviour, 57, 903-910. [PDF] CARRÉ, J.M. & PUTNAM, S.K. (2010). Watching a previous victory produces an increase in testosterone among elite hockey players. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 35, 475-479. [PDF]
 MESTERTON-GIBBONS, M. (1999). On the evolution of pure winner and loser effects : a game-theoretic model. Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 61, 1151-1186. AMABILE, T.M. & KRAMER, S.J. (2011). The power of small wins. Harvard Business Review, 89 (5), 70-80.
   
Voir aussi Conflit, Combat et Gagnant
Victor d'Aveyron : Voir Enfant sauvage.
Vidal Catherine ( ) : Neurobiologiste et vulgarisatrice française. Elle étudie notamment la relation entre le cerveau, le milieu et l'identité sexuelle.
VIDAL, C. (1996). Le cerveau a-t-il un sexe? La Recherche, 290.
VIDAL, C. (2002). Le cerveau, le sexe et l'idéologie dans les neurosciences. L'Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 31 (4), 495-505.
VIDAL, C. et BENOIT-BROWAEYS, D. (2005). Cerveau, sexe et pouvoir. Paris : Belin.
VIDAL, C. (Dir.) (2006). Féminin, masculin : Mythes et idéologies. Paris : Belin.
Vidéo : Procédé d’enregistrement et de reproduction de l’image et du son utilisé à plusieurs fins : a) En recherche, on l'utilise notamment afin d'observer en détails le comportement. b) En thérapie, on l'utilise également pour fournir au patient un modèle à imiter, pour facilter l'apprentissage de règle ou corriger certains comportements (par rétroaction). c) Le vidéo est également un sujet d'étude, notamment dans le domaine de la psychologie de la musique. d) Finalement, le terme est utilisé pour désigner les jeux virtuels disponibles par ordinateur/console de jeux.

  a
  Voir Observation par vidéo-caméra
b
FICHTEN, C. & WRIGHT, J. (1983). Problem-solving skills in happy and distressed couples : Effects of videotape and verbal feedback. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 39, 340-352. [PDF]  
WESTER-STRATTON, C., KOLPACOFF, M. & HOLLINSWORTH, T. (1988). Self-administered videotape therapy for families with conduct-problem children : Comparison with two cost-effective treatments and a control group. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 56, 558-566. AYRES, K. & LANGONE, J. (2005). Intervention and instruction with video for students with autism : A review of the literature. Education & Training in Developmental Disabilities, 40, 183-196.
HAZEN, A., JOHNSTONE, C., MARTIN, G.L. & SRIKAMES- WARAN, S. (1990). A videotaping feedback package for improving skills of youth competitive swimmers. The Sport Psychologist, 4, 213-227. HITCHCOCK, C., PRATER, M. & DOWRICK, P. (2004). Reading comprehension and fluency: Examining the effects of tutoring and video self-modeling on first grade students with learning difficulties. Learning Disability Quarterly, 27, 89–103.
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  Voir aussi Thérapie
c
  Voir aussi Psychologie de la musique et Cinéma
d
ANAND, V. (2007). A study of time management: The correlation between video game usage and academic performance markers. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 10 (4), 552-559. HULL, J.G., BRUNELLE, A.T., PRESCOTT, A.T. & SARGENT, J.D. (2014). A longitudinal study of risk-glorifying video games and behavioral deviance.Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 107 (2), 300-325. [PDF] + [PDF]
  Voir aussi Ordinateur et Jeu vidéo
Vie/vivant : Tout objet qui possède les propriétés suivantes : 1) structure organique à base de carbone. 2) cette structure a la capacité de conserver son équilibre interne (homéostasie); 3) capacité de se réguler (équilibre avec le milieu); 4) capacité de se reproduire; 5) capacité de se transformer, d'évoluer. La capacité de se reproduire semble davantage s'appliquer à l'espèce ou au groupe qu'aux éléments du groupe/espèce puisqu'un organisme qui ne peut se reproduire disparaît après avoir vécu. Ces cinq propriétés semblent nécessaires et suffisantes à toute forme de vie. Life.

Types de vie
Vie après la mort Vie familiale Vie privée
 

  RUFFIE, J. (1986). Traité du vivant. Paris : Flammarion.
 JACQUARD, A. (1995). La matière et la vie. Paris : Les Essentiels, Milan.
ENGELHARDT, H.T. & ILTIS, A.S. (2005). End-of-life : the traditional Christian view. The Lancet, 366, 1045-1049.
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Voir Vie après la mort
Vie après la mort : Croyance. Life after death.

  SIEGAL, R.K. (1980). The psychology of life after death. American Psychologist, 35 (10), 911-931.
THALBOURNE, M.A. (1996). Belief in life after death: Psychological origins and in uences. Personality & Individual Differences, 21, 1043-104.
GREELEY, A.M. & HOUT, M. (1999). Americans’ increasing belief in life after death : Religious competition and acculturation. American Sociological Review, 64, 813–835.
FLANNELLY, K.J., ELLISON, C.G., GALEK, K. & SILTON, N.R. (2012). Belief in life-after-death, beliefs about the world, and psychiatric symptoms. Journal of Religion & Health, 51 (3), 651-662. [PDF]
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Voir aussi Religion et Croyance ésotérique
Vie familliale : Voir Famille.
Vie privée : Private life, private use.

  ARIES, P & DUBY, G. (1985/88). Histoire de la vie privé. Paris, Le Seuil / A history of private life. Cambridge, MA : Harvard University Press.
LARSON, R. (1995). Secrets in the bedroom : Adolescents' private use of media. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 24, 535-550.
CHAN, Y. (2000). Privacy in the family : Its hierarchical and asymmetrical nature. Journal of Comparative Family Studies 31(1), 1-23.
Vieillissement/Vieillir : Dégénérescence biologique, psychologique (Déclin cognitif) , économique, généralement progressive, d'un organisme (a) ou d'un groupe d'organisme (b), de ses facultés physiques et mentales. Le rythme de cette dégénérescence varie en fonction de nombreux facteurs (patrimoine génétique, qualité du système de santé, qualité de vie, maladie, richesse intellectuelle du milieu, handicap, déficience intellectuelle, condition physique, accident, commotion cérébrale, etc.). Vieillissement, déclin cognitif et âge. Aging, ageing, older adult.

  a
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CRAIK, F.I.M. & SALTHOUSE, T.A. (Eds.) (2000). The handbook of aging and cognition. Mahwah, NJ : Erlbaum. McKOON, G. & RATCLIFF, R. (2013). Aging and predicting inferences : A diffusion model analysis. Journal of Memory & Language, 68, 240-254. [PDF]
Voir aussi Différence d'âge, Vieux, Déclin cognitif et Âgisme
b
 INSTITUT DE LA STATISTIQUE DU QUÉBEC (2009). Perspectives démographiques du Québec et régions, 2006-2056. Québec.  RHEAULT, S. et POIRIER, J. (2012). Le vieillissement démographique : de nombreux enjeux à déchiffrer. Québec : Institut de la statistique du Québec. [PDF]
   
Voir aussi Démographie
Vieillissement cognitif : Voir Cognition (Déclin).

  RENAUD, M. et BHERER, L. (2005). L’impact de la condition physique sur le vieillissement cognitif. Psychologie et NeuroPsychiatrie du Vieillissement, 3 (3), 199-206. [PDF]
Voir aussi Déclin cognitif
Vietnam : Pays.

  HERMAN, E.S. (1966). America's vietnam policy : The strategy of deception. Washington : Public Affairs Press. PARK, C. (2000). Learning style preferences of secondary english learners: Armenian, Hmong, Korean, Mexican, and Vietnamese. The CATESOL Journal, 12 (1), 21-35. [PDF]
ELLSBERG, D. (1968). Papers on the war. New York : Simon & Schuster.  
KEANE, T.M., ZIMERING, R.T & CADDELL, J.M. (1985). A behavioral formulation of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. The Behavior Therapist, 8, 9-12. VASTERLING, J.J. , DUKE, L.M., BRAILEY, K., CONSTANS, J.I., ALLAIN, N. & SUTKER, P.B. (2002). Attention, learning, and memory performances and intellectual resources in Vietnam veterans : PTSD and no disorder comparisons. Neuropsychology, 16 (1), 5-14. [PDF]
URSANO, R.J., WHEATHLEY, R., SLEDGE, W., RAHE, E. & CARLSON, E. (1986). Coping and recovery styles in Vietnam era prisoners of war. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 174, 707-714. ELLSBERG, D. (2002). Secrets : A memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon papers. New York : Viking Press.
KAYLOR, J.A., KING, D.W. & KING, L.A. (1987). Psychological effects of military service in Vietnam : A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 257-271. WARREN, W., MEMORY D. & BOLINGER, K. (2004). Improving critical thinking skills in the United States survey course: An activity for teaching the Vietnam war. History Teacher, 37 (2), 193-209.
VINOKUR, A., CAPLAN. R.D. & WILLIAMS, C.C. (1987). Effects of recent and past stress on mental health : Coping with unemployment among Vietnam veterans and non-veterans. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 708-728. SHIN, L.M., ORR, S.P., CARSON, M.A., RAUCH, S.L., MACKLIN, M.L., LASKO, N.B., MARZOL PETERS, P., METZGER, L.J., DOUGHERTY, D.D., CANNISTRARO, P.A., ALPERT, N.M., FISCHMAN, A.J. & PITMAN, R.K. (2004). Regional cerebral blood flow in amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 168-176. [PDF]
KEANE, T.M., FAIRBANK, J.A., CADDELL, J.M. & ZIMERING, R.T. (1989). Implosive (flooding) therapy reduces symptoms of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. Behavior Therapy, 20 (2), 245-260. KASHDAN, T.B., FRUEH, B.C., KNAPP, R.G., HEBERT, R. & MAGRUDER, K.M. (2006). Social anxiety disorder in veterans affairs primary care clinics. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 44, 233-247 [PDF]
GRAFMAN, J., JONES, B. & SALAZAR, A. (1990). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance based on location and size of neuroanatomical lesion in Vietnam veterans with penetrating head injury. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 71, 1120-1122. BATTY, G.D., , GALE, C.R., MORTENSEN, L.H., LANGENBERG, C., SHIPLEY M.J. & DEARY, I.J. (2008). Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality : the Vietnam Experience Study. Diabetologia, 51, 436-443.
KULKA, R.A., SCHLENGER, W.E., FAIRBANK, J.A., HOUGH, R.L., JORDAN, B.K., MAMAR, C.R. & WEISS, D.S. (1990). Trauma and the Vietnam war generation. New York : Brunner/Mazel. GALE, C.R., DEARY, I.J. BOYLE, S.H., BAREFOOT, J., MORTENSEN, H. & BATTY, G.D. (2008). Cognitive ability in early adulthood and risk of 5 specific psychiatric disorders in middle age: The Vietnam experience study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65 (12), 1410-1418. [PDF]
ROBINS, N.L. (1993). Vietnam veterans rapid recovery from heroin addiction: A fluke or normal expectation ? Addiction 88, 1041–1054.  
McNALLY, R.J. & SHIN, L.M. (1995). Association of intelligence with severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Vietnam combat veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 936-938. NGUYEN, M.H. & KRUSE, A. (2012). A randomized controlled trial of Tai chi for balance, sleep quality and cognitive performance in elderly Vietnamese. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 7, 185-190.
ZATZICK, D.F., MARMAR, C.R., WEISS, D.S., BROWNER, W.S., METZLER, T.J., GOLDING, J.M., STEWART, A, SCHLENGER, W.E. & WELLS, K.B. (1997). Post-traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1690-1695. [PDF] WEISS, A. GALE, C.R., BATTY, G.D. & DEARY, I. (2013). A questionnaire-wide association study of personality and mortality: The Vietnam Experience Study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 74, (6), 523-529. [PDF]
KING, D.W., KING, L.A., FOY, D.W., KEANE, T.M. & FAIRBANK, J.A. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of female and male Vietnam veterans : Risk factors, war-zone stressors, and resilience- recovery variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 164-170.  
  Voir aussi Pays et Guerre du Vietnam
Vietnam (Guerre du...) : Guerre qui s'est déroulée au Vietnam de 1955 à 1975. Vietnam, trouble panique et trouble de stress post-traumatique.

  CONVERSE, E., KELMAN, H.C. & VANDERBERG, E.L. (Eds.) (1966). Alternative perspectives on Vietnam. Ithaca, N.Y. : Inter- University Committee for Debate on Foreign Policy.  
HERMAN, E.S. (1966). America's vietnam policy : The strategy of deception. Washington : Public Affairs Press. ELLSBERG, D. (2002). Secrets : A memoir of Vietnam and the Pentagon papers. New York : Viking Press.
ELLSBERG, D. (1968). Papers on the war. New York : Simon & Schuster.  
KEANE, T.M., ZIMERING, R.T & CADDELL, J.M. (1985). A behavioral formulation of posttraumatic stress disorder in Vietnam veterans. The Behavior Therapist, 8, 9-12. VASTERLING, J.J. , DUKE, L.M., BRAILEY, K., CONSTANS, J.I., ALLAIN, N. & SUTKER, P.B. (2002). Attention, learning, and memory performances and intellectual resources in Vietnam veterans : PTSD and no disorder comparisons. Neuropsychology, 16 (1), 5-14. [PDF]
URSANO, R.J., WHEATHLEY, R., SLEDGE, W., RAHE, E. & CARLSON, E. (1986). Coping and recovery styles in Vietnam era prisoners of war. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 174, 707-714.  
KAYLOR, J.A., KING, D.W. & KING, L.A. (1987). Psychological effects of military service in Vietnam : A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 102, 257-271.  
VINOKUR, A., CAPLAN. R.D. & WILLIAMS, C.C. (1987). Effects of recent and past stress on mental health : Coping with unemployment among Vietnam veterans and non-veterans. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 17, 708-728.  
KEANE, T.M., FAIRBANK, J.A., CADDELL, J.M. & ZIMERING, R.T. (1989). Implosive (flooding) therapy reduces symptoms of PTSD in Vietnam combat veterans. Behavior Therapy, 20 (2), 245-260. HOFMANN, S.G. LITZ, B.T. & WEATHERS, F.W. (2003). Social anxiety, depression, and PTSD in Vietnam veterans. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 17, 573-582.
GRAFMAN, J., JONES, B. & SALAZAR, A. (1990). Wisconsin Card Sorting Test performance based on location and size of neuroanatomical lesion in Vietnam veterans with penetrating head injury. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 71, 1120-1122.  
DAVIDSON, P. (1990). Secrets of the Vietnam war. Novato, CA : Presidio. WARREN, W., MEMORY D. & BOLINGER, K. (2004). Improving critical thinking skills in the United States survey course: An activity for teaching the Vietnam war. History Teacher, 37 (2), 193-209.
KULKA, R.A., SCHLENGER, W.E., FAIRBANK, J.A., HOUGH, R.L., JORDAN, B.K., MAMAR, C.R. & WEISS, D.S. (1990). Trauma and the Vietnam war generation. New York : Brunner/Mazel. SHIN, L.M., ORR, S.P., CARSON, M.A., RAUCH, S.L., MACKLIN, M.L., LASKO, N.B., MARZOL PETERS, P., METZGER, L.J., DOUGHERTY, D.D., CANNISTRARO, P.A., ALPERT, N.M., FISCHMAN, A.J. & PITMAN, R.K. (2004). Regional cerebral blood flow in amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex during traumatic imagery in male and female Vietnam veterans with PTSD. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61, 168-176. [PDF]
ROBINS, N.L. (1993). Vietnam veterans rapid recovery from heroin addiction: A fluke or normal expectation ? Addiction 88, 1041–1054. KASHDAN, T.B., FRUEH, B.C., KNAPP, R.G., HEBERT, R. & MAGRUDER, K.M. (2006). Social anxiety disorder in veterans affairs primary care clinics. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 44, 233-247 [PDF]
McNALLY, R.J. & SHIN, L.M. (1995). Association of intelligence with severity of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in Vietnam combat veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 936-938.  
FREDERICKSON, L.G., CHAMBERLSIN, K. & LONG, N. (1996). Unacknowledged casualties of the Vietnam war; experiences of partners of New Zealand veterans. Qualitative Health Research, 6 (1), 49-70. BATTY, G.D., , GALE, C.R., MORTENSEN, L.H., LANGENBERG, C., SHIPLEY M.J. & DEARY, I.J. (2008). Pre-morbid intelligence, the metabolic syndrome and mortality : the Vietnam Experience Study. Diabetologia, 51, 436-443.
ZATZICK, D.F., MARMAR, C.R., WEISS, D.S., BROWNER, W.S., METZLER, T.J., GOLDING, J.M., STEWART, A, SCHLENGER, W.E. & WELLS, K.B. (1997). Post-traumatic stress disorder and functioning and quality of life outcomes in a nationally representative sample of male Vietnam veterans. American Journal of Psychiatry, 154, 1690-1695. [PDF] GALE, C.R., DEARY, I.J. BOYLE, S.H., BAREFOOT, J., MORTENSEN, H. & BATTY, G.D. (2008). Cognitive ability in early adulthood and risk of 5 specific psychiatric disorders in middle age: The Vietnam experience study. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65 (12), 1410-1418. [PDF]
KING, D.W., KING, L.A., FOY, D.W., KEANE, T.M. & FAIRBANK, J.A. (1999). Posttraumatic stress disorder in a national sample of female and male Vietnam veterans : Risk factors, war-zone stressors, and resilience- recovery variables. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 164-170. WEISS, A. GALE, C.R., BATTY, G.D. & DEARY, I. (2013). A questionnaire-wide association study of personality and mortality: The Vietnam Experience Study. Journal of Psychosomatic Research. 74, (6), 523-529. [PDF]
Voir aussi Vietnam, Guerre, Trouble de stress post-traumatique, Vétéran et Trouble panique
Vieux (Adulte) : Adulte âgé de 65 ans et plus. Ce critère - fixé par les pays riches et occidentaux - est arbitraire et ne semble correspondre à aucun changement biologique, psychologique ou social, si ce n'est, peut-être, l'âge de la retraite qui est de moins en moins prise à 65 ans. Vieux et vieillissement. = personne agée, l'âge d'or, personne d'un âge certain, personne qui insiste sur le fait qu'elle n'est pas aussi vieille que l'on croit, personne qui a l'âge de ses artères. /jeune. Elderly, older adult, older person, later life, aged patient, older people.

Naissance Enfance Adolescence Adulte Mort
Nouveau-né Nourrisson Enfant Pré-adolescent Adolescent jeune adulte Adulte Vieux

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BURCKHARDT, C.S. (1987). The effect of therapy on the mental health of the elderly. Research in Nursing & Health, 10, 277-285. LAIDLAW, K., THOMPSON, L.W., DICK-SISKIN, L. & GALLAGHER-THOMPSON, D. (2003). Cognitive behaviour therapy with older adults. Chichester : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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GREENBERG, J.S., SELTZER, M.M. & GREENLEY, J.R. (1993). Aging parents of adults with disabilities: The gratifications and frustrations of later-life caregiving. The Gerontologist, 33, 542-550 SECKER, D.L., KAZANTSIS, N. & PACHANA, N.A. (2004). Cognitive behavior therapy for older adults : practical guidelines for adapting therapy structure. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 22 (2), 93-109.
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CAMMER-PARIS, C.E. (1996). Violence against elderly people. Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 63 (2), 97-100. Cammer Paris BE1. BUSCHKUEHL, M., JAEGGI, S.M., HUTCHISON, S., PERRIG-CHIELLO, P., DÄPP, C., MÜLLER, M., BREIL, F., HOPPELER, H. & PERRIG, W.J. (2008). Impact of working memory training on memory performance in old-old adults. Psychology & Aging, 23 (4), 743-753. [PDF]
HÉBERT, R. BRAYNE, C. & SPIEGELHALTER, D. (1997). Incidence of functional decline and improvement in a community dwelling very elderly population. American Journal of Epidemiology, 145, 935-944. BRYANT, C., JACKSON, H. & AMES, D. (2008). The prevalence of anxiety in older adults : methodological issues and a review of the literature. Journal of Affective Disorders, 109, 233-250.
ARDELT, M. (1997). Wisdom and life satisfaction in old age. Journals of Gerontology, 52B (1), 15-27. HÉBERT, R., DUBOIS, M.-F., DUBUC, N., TOUSIGNANT, M., RAÎCHE, M., VEIL, A. (2008). Evaluation of the implementation of PRISMA, a coordination-type integrated service delivery system for frail older people in Quebec. Journal of Integrated Care, 16, (6), 4-14.
FLOYD, M. & SCOGIN, F. (1998). Cognitive-behavior therapy for older adults : how does it work ? Psychotherapy, 35 (4), 459-463. DAILLY, E. & BOURIN, E. (2008). The use of benzodiazepines in the aged patient : clinical and pharmacological considerations. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 21 (2), 144-150. [PDF]
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CUIJPERS, P. (1998). Psychological outreach programmes for the depressed elderly : a meta-analysis of effects and dropout. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13 (1), 41-48. VLACHOPOULOS, S.P., LETSIOU, M., PALAIOLOGOU, A., LEPTOKARIDOU, E.T. & GIGOUDI, M.A. (2010). Assessing Multidimensional Exercise Amotivation among adults and older individuals. The Amotivation Toward Exercise Scale-2. European Journal of Psychological, 26 (4), 248-255. [PDF]
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KNIGHT, B.G. & SATRE, D.D. (1999). Cognitive behavioral psychotherapy with older adults. Clinical Psychology : Science & Practice, 6 (2), 188-203. LANDRY, G.J., BEST, J.R. & LIU-AMBROSE, T. (2015). Measuring sleep quality in older adults: a comparison using subjective and objective methods. Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, 7 [166], 1-10. [PDF]
Voir aussi Adulte, Vieillisement et Âgisme
Vigil Jacob Miguel ( ) : Psychologue évolutionniste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude des émotions, de la douleur et des différences sexuelles. Étudiant de Geary.
VIGIL, J.M. (2008). Sex differences in affect behaviors, desired social responses, and accuracy at understanding the social desires of other people. Evolutionary Psychology, 6 (3), 506-522. [PDF]
VIGIL, J.M. (2009). A socio-relational framework of sex differences in the expression of emotion. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 32 (5), 375-407. [PDF]
VIGIL, J.M. (2009). The socio-relational framework of expressive behaviors as an integrative psychological paradigm. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 32 (5), 408-428.
VIGIL, J.M., GEARY, D.C., GRANGER, D.A. & FLINN, M V. (2010). Sex differences in salivary cortisol, alpha-amylase, and psychological functioning following Hurricane Katrina. Child Development, 81 (4), 1228-1240. [PDF]
VIGIL, J.M. & STRENTH, C. (2014). No pain, no social gains : A social-signaling perspective of human pain behaviors. World Journal of Anesthesiology, 3 (1), 18-30. [PDF]
Vigilance : Attention soutenue en l'absence de stimulation. Vigilance et concentration. Vigilance.
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BAKER, C.H. (1960). Observing behavior in a vigilance task. Science, 132, 674-675. FREEMAN, D., GARETY, P.A. & PHILLIPS, M.L. (2000). An examination of hypervigilance for external threat in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder and individuals with persecutory delusions using visual scan paths. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A, 549-567.
SURWILLO, W.W. & QUITTER, R.E. (1964). Vigilance, age and response time. American Journal of Psychology, 77, 540-620.  
COLQUHOUN, W.P. & BADDELEY, A.D. (1967). Influence of signal probability during pretraining on vigilance decrement. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 11, 153-155. OLSON, J.M. & JANES, L.J. (2002). Asymmetrical impact : Vigilance for differences and self-relevant stimuli. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32, 383-393.
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POULTON, E.C. (1977) Arousing stresses increase vigilance. In R.R. Mackie (Ed.), Vigilance : theory, operational performance, and physiologicalcorrelates (pp. 423-459). New York : Plenum Press.  
RHODEWALT, F. & O'KEEFFE, J. (1986) Type A behavior, field dependence and hypervigilance: toward increased Type A. Motivation & Emotion, 10, 105-114.  
PRATTO, F. & JOHN, O.P. (1991). Automatic vigilance : The attention-grabbing power of negative social information. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 61, 380-391. HELTON, W.S., MATTHEWS, G. & WARM, J.S. (2009). Stress state mediation between environmental variables and performance : The case of noise and vigilance. Acta Psychologica, 130 (3), 204-213.
PENETAR, D H., McCANN, U. & THORNE, D. (1993). Caffeine reversal of sleepdeprivation effects on alertness and mood. Psychopharmacology, 112, 359-365. SPERBER, D., CLÉMENT, F., HEINTZ, C., MASCARO, O., MERCIER, H., ORIGGI, G. & WILSON, D. (2010). Epistemic vigilance. Mind & Language, 25, (4), 359-393. [PDF]
ALBERTS, S.C. (1994). Vigilance in young baboons : effects of habitat, age, sex and maternal rank on glance rate. Animal Behaviour, 47, 749-755. EVERS, E., DE VRIES, H., SPRUITJ, B.M. & STERCK, E.H.M. (2012). Look before you leap - individual variation in social vigilance shapes socio-spatial group properties in an agent-based model. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology, 66 (6), 931-945. [PDF]
WHALEN, P.J. (1998). Fear, vigilance, and ambiguity : Initial neuroimaging studies of the human amygdala. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 7 (6), 177-188.  
FINE, B.J., KOBRICK, J.L., LIEBERMAN H.R., MARLOWE, B. RILEY, R.H. & THARION, W.J. (1994). Effects of caffeine or diphenhydramine on visual vigilance. Psychopharmacology, 114, 233-238.  
Voir aussi Attention et Concentration
Vigilance (Hyper) : Vigilance inutile, qui nuit aux autres activités
  FREEMAN, D., GARETY, P.A. & PHILLIPS, M.L. (2000). An examination of hypervigilance for external threat in individuals with generalised anxiety disorder and individuals with persecutory delusions using visual scan paths. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 53A, 549-567.
 
VIH : Voir Virus immunodéficience humaine.
Viki : Chimpanzé, dressé et étudié par Hayes et Hayes, à qui l'on a tenté d'apprendre le langage humain.
  HAYES, J.K. & HAYES, C. (1951). The intellectual development of a home-raised chimpanzee. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 95 (2), 105-109.
HAYES, C. (1953). Viki et nous. Paris : Hachette.
Villatte Matthieu : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste français et spécialiste de la thérapie d'acceptation et d'engagement. Collaborateur de Hayes et Monestès.
VILLATTE, M., SCHOLIERS, D. & FREIXA i BAQUÉ, E. (2004). Learning optimal behavior in the Monty Hall dilemma through exposure to contingencies. Acta Comportamentalia, 12, 5-24.
VILLATTE, M., MONESTES, J.L., McHUGH, L., FREIXA i BAQUÉ, E. & LOAS, G. (2008). Assessing deictic relational responding in social anhedonia : A functional aproach to the development of theory of mind impairments. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, 4 (4), 360-373.
VILLATTE, M., MONESTES, J.L., McHUGH, L. & FREIXA i BAQUÉ, E. (2009). Studying Theory of Mind through Relational Frame Theory : A review of the literature on deictic relational responding. Acta Comportamentalia, 17, 117-136.
VILLATTE, M. & MONESTES, J.L. (2010). La théorie des cadres relationnels : La place du langage dans la thérapie d'acceptation et d'engagement/ Relational frame theory : The place of language in acceptance and commitment therapy. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 31 (3), 85-104.
VILLATTE, M., MONESTES, J.L., McHUGH, L., FREIXA i BAQUÉ, E. & LOAS, G. (2010). Adopting the perspective of another in belief attribution : Contribution of relational frame theory to the understanding of impairments in schizophrenia. Journal of Behavior Therapy & Experimental Psychiatry, 41, 125-134.
Ville : Chez les humains, peuplement dense et organisé d'un lieu. Ville et densité de la population. = cité. /campagne. City, urban environment, urbanization.

  ULLMAN, E.L. (1941). A theory of location for cities. American Journal of Sociology, 853-864. KORTE, C. (1980). Urban-nonurban differences in social behavior and social psychological models of urban impact. Journal of Social Issues, 36 (3), 29-51.
HARRIS, C.D. & ULLMAN, EL. (1945). The nature of cities. Annals of the American Academy of Political & Social Science, 242, 7-17. AMATO, P.R. (1983). Helping behavior in urban and rural environments. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 45, 571-586.
ULLMAN, E.L. & DACEY, M.F. (1954). The minimum requirements approach to the urban economic base. Regional Science Association, 6, 175-194. AMATO, P.R. (1983). The helpfulness of urbanites and small town dwellers : A test between two broad theoretical positions. Australian Journal of Psychology, 35, 233-243.
WIRTH, L. (1969). Human Ecology. In In R. Sennett. (Ed.), Classic essays on the cultures of cities. New York : Appleton-Century- Crofts. AMATO, P.R. (1983). The effects of urbanization on interpersonal behavior. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 14 (3), 353-367.
MILGRAM, S. (1970). The experience of living in cities. Science, 167, 1461-1468. AMATO, P.R. (1993). Urban-rural differences in helping friends and family members. Social Psychology Quarterly, 56, 249-262.
GLASS, D.C. & SINGER, J.E. (1972). Urban stress. Experiments on noise and social stressors. New York : Academic Press. GOTTDIENER, M. (1994). The new urban sociology. New York : McGraw-Hill.
KORTE C. & KERR, N. (1975). Response to altruistic opportunities in urban and nonurban settings. Journal of Social Psychology, 95, 183-184. BEGGS, J.J., HAINES, V.A. & HULBERT, J.S. (1996). Revisiting the rural-urban contrast : Personal networks in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan settings. Rural Sociology, 61, 306-325.
HOCH, I. (1976). City size effects, trends and policies. Science, 193, 856-863. ESPOSITO, C. (1999). Learning in urban blight: School climate and its effect on the school performance of urban, minority, low-income children. School Psychology Review, 28(3), 365-377.
BOE, R.B. (1977). Economical procedures for the reduction of aggression in a residential setting. Mental Retardation, 15, 25-28. SING, G.K. & SIAHPSUH, M. (2002). Increasing rural-urban gradients in US suicide mortality, 1970-1997. American Journal of Public Health, 92, 1161-1167. [PDF]
RUSHTON, J.P. (1978). Urban density and altruism : Helping strangers in a Canadian city, suburb, and small town. Psychological Reports, 43, 987-990. KUNTZ, K.M. & GUNDERSON, S.K. (2002). Non-normative and pro-social conformity : A study of rural and urban differences. Journal of Undergraduate Research, 5, 233-239. [PDF]
KRUPAT, E. & GUILD, W. (1980). Defining the city: The use of objective and subjective measures for community description. Journal of Social Issues, 36 (3), 9-28.  SING, K. & AGRAWAL, P. (2007). Masculinity and femininity among working women in Indian urban culture. Journal of Human Ecology, 21 (2), 135-138. [PDF]
JUVONEN, J., NISHINA, A. & GRAHAM, S. (2006). Ethnic diversity and perceptions of safety in urban middle schools. Psychological Science, 17, 393-400. [PDF]
  WOLFINGER, N. & WILCOX, W. (2008). Happily ever after ? Religion, marital status, gender and relationship quality in urban families. Social Forces, 86, 1311-1337. [PDF]
Voir aussi Organiser Quartier et Campagne
Villedieu Yannick (1947-) : Journaliste et communicateur scientifique québécois. Il animait jusqu'à tout récemment (2017) les Années lumière, une émission de vulgarisation scientifique de la première chaîne de Radio-Canada. Collaborateur de Gingras.
VILLEDIEU, Y. (1976). Demain la santé. Québec : Québec-Science Éditeur.
VILLEDIEU, Y. (2002). Un jour la santé. Montréal : Les Éditions du Boréal.
 
 
 
 
Vin : Wine.

  LEHRER, A. (1975). Talking about wine. Language, 51, 901-923. CHOLLET, S. & VALENTIN, D. (2000). Le degré d’expertise a-t-il une influence sur la perception olfactive? Quelques éléments de réponse dans le domaine du vin. L'Année Psychologique, 100, 11-36.
LAWLESS, H.T. (1984). Flavor description of white wine by "expert" and nonexpert wine consumers. Journal of Food Science, 49, 120-123. VALENTIN, D. CHOLLET, S. et AADI, H. (2003). Les mots du vin : Experts et novices diffrent-ils quand ils décrivent des vins ? Corpus, 2, pp. 183-200. The Science of Food & Agriculture, 35, 558–568.
MELCHER, J. & SCHOOLER, J.W. (1996). The misremembrance of wines past : Verbal and perceptual expertise differentially mediate verbal overshadowing of taste. The Journal of Memory & Language, 35, 231-245. [PDF] PARR, W.V., HEATHERBELL, D.A. & WHITE, K.G. (2002). Demystifying wine expertise : olfactory threshold, perceptual skill, and semantic memory in expert and novice wine judges. Chemical Senses, 27, 747-755.
SOLOMON, G.E.A. (1997). Conceptual change and wine expertise. The Journal of the Learning Sciences, 6 (1), 41-60. PARR, W.V., WHITE, K.G. & HEATHERBELL, D.A. (2004). Exploring the nature of wine expertise : what underlies wine experts’ olfactory recognition memory advantage ? Food Quality & Preference, 15 (5), 411–420.
GAWELL, R. (1997). The use of language by trained and untrained experienced wine testers. Journal of Sensory Studies, 12, 267-284. DILWORTH, J. (2008). Imaginative versus analytical experiences of wines. In F. Allhoff (Ed.), Wine and Philosophy (pp. 81-94). New York : Blackwell. [PDF]
Voir aussi Boire et Bière
Vinokur Amiram D. ( ) : Psychologie organisationnel américain, spécialisé dans l'étude du stress et du cancer. Collaborateur de Caplan.
VINOKUR, A.D., THREATT, B.A, VINOKUR-KAPLAN, D. & SATARIANO, W.A. (1990). The process of recovery from breast cancer for younger and older patients : changes during the first year. Cancer, 65, 1242-1254.
VINOKUR, A.D., VAN RYN, M. (1993). Social support and undermining in close relationships : Their independent effects on the mental health of unemployed persons. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 65, 350-359.
BOLGER N. FOSTER, M., VINOKUR, A.D. & NG, R. (1996). Close relations and adjustment to breast cancer. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 70, 283-294.
WESTMAN, M. & VINOKUR, A.D. (1998). Unraveling the relationship of distress levels within couples : Common stressors, empathic reactions, or crossovers via social interaction ? Human Relations, 51 (2), 137-156.
VINOKUR, A.D. & SCHUL, Y. (2002). The web of coping resources and pathways to reemployment following a job loss. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7 (1), 68-83. [PDF]
Vingt et un grammes : Hypothèse formulée par MacDougal en 1907 pour défendre la thèse de l'existence matériel de l'esprit, selon laquelle l'être humain perdrait 21 grammes au moment de sa mort, perte qui suggère que l'esprit, qui quitte le corps, aurait un poids équivalent. Pour MacDougal, cette perte montre clairement que l'esprit est matériel (et donc qu'il existe). De nos jours, on explique cette perte par le relâchement des gaz contenus dans les intestins. Vingt et un grammes et esprit. 21 grams.
  MacDOUGAL, D. (1907). The soul : Hypothesis concerning soul substance together with experimental evidence of the existence of such substance. American Medicine. April.
MacDOUGAL, D. (1907). Soul has weight, physician thinks. The New York Times, 11 March, 5.
Voir aussi Croyance et Esprit
Viol/Violeur : Agression sexuelle qui consiste à utiliser la force ou la menace pour pénétrer ou tenter de pénétrer (sans consentement) sa victime. Plusieurs victimes de viol souffrent du trouble de stress post-traumatique. Viol, victime et agression sexuelle. Rape, sexual abuse, rape experience.
Viol
Viol entre partenaires sexuels Fantasme de viol Culture du viol
 

  AMIR, M. (1971). Patterns in forcible rape. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. RUSSELL, D. (1990). Rape in marriage. New York : Macmillan.
JONES, C. & ARONSON, E. (1973). Attribution of fault to a rape victim as a function of respectability of the victim. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 26, 415-419. JENNY, C., HOOTON, T.M., BOWER, A, COPASS, M.K., KRIEGER, J.N., HILLIER, S.L., KIVIAT, N. COREY, L., STAMM, W.E. & HOLMES, K.K. (1990). Sexually transmitted diseases in victims of rape. The New England Journal of Medicine, 322 (11), 713-716.
WEIS, K., & BORGES, S. (1973). Victimology and rape: The case of the legitimate victim. Issues in Criminology, 8, 71-115. BROADHURST, R. (1990). Counting rapes : reporting and recording practices in Western Australia. Criminology Australia, 2 (1), 8-10.
BARD, M. & ELLISON, C. (1974). Crisis intervention and the investigation of forcible rape. The Police Chief, 5, 68-74. ESTREICH, S., FORSTER, G.E. & ROBINSON, A. (1990). Sexually transmitted diseases in rape victims. Archives of Genitourinary Medicine, 66 (6), 433-438.
BROWNMILLER, S. (1975). Against our will : Men, women, and rape. New York : Simon and Schuster. McMULLEN, R.J. (1990). Male rape : Breaking the silence on the last taboo. London : GMP Publishers Ltd.
ABEL, G.G., BARLOW, D.H., BLANCHARD, E.B. & GUILD, D. (1977). The components of rapists’ sexual arousal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 895-903. FOA, E.B., ROTHBAUM, B.O. & RIGGS, D. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims : A comparison between cognitive - behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 59, 715-723.
GROTH, A.N., BURGESS, A.W. & HOLMSTROM, L.L. (1977). Rape : power, anger, and sexuality. American Journal of Psychiatry, 134, 1239-1243. GENTRY, C.S. (1991). Pornography and rape : An empirical analysis. Deviant Behavior, 12, 277-288.
  BOWNES, I.T., O'GORMAN, E.C. & SAYERS, A. (1991). Rape: a comparison of stranger and acquaintance assaults.Medical Science Law, 31 (2), 102-109.
ABEL, G.G., BLANCHARD, E.B. & BECKER, J.V. (1978). An integrated treatment program for rapists. In R.T. Rada (Ed.), Clinical aspects of the rapist. (pp. 161- 214). New York : Grune et Stratton. KUTCHINSKY, B. (1991). Pornography and rape : theory and practice ? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily accessible. International Journal of Law & Psychiatry, 14, 47-64.
BURGESS, A.W. & HOLMSTROM, L.L. (1978). Recovery from rape and prior life stress. Research in Nursing & Health, 1, 165-174. FOA, E.B., ROTHBAUM, B.O., RIGGS, D. & MURDOCK, T.B. (1991). Treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in rape victims : A comparison between cognitive-behavioral procedures and counseling. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 59, 715-723.
  CARTER, M. & WILSON, B. (1992). Rape : good and bad women and judges. Alternative Law Journal, 17 (1), 6-9.
BURGESS, A.W. & HOLMSTROM, L.L. (1979). Rape : Sexual disruption and recovery. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 49, 648-657. DONAT, P. & D'EMILIO, J. (1992). A feminist redefinition of rape and sexual assault : Historical foundations and change. Journal of Social Issues, 48, (1), 9-22.
GROTH, A.N. & BIRNBAUM, B.A. (1979). Men who pape : The psychology of the offender. New York : Plenum. CORNE, S., BRIÈRE, J. & ESSES, L. (1992). Women's attitudes and fantasies about rape as a function of early exposure to pornography. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 4, 454-461.
ELLIS, E.M., ALHOUN, K.S. & ATKENSON, B.M. (1980). Sexual dysfunction in victims of rape. Women & Health, 5, 39-47. FOA, E.B., ROTHBAUM, B.O. & STEKETEE, G. (1993). Treatment of rape victims. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 256-276.
  FOA, E.B. & RIGGS, D. (1993). Post-traumatic stress disorder in rape victims. In J. Oldham, M.B. Riba & A. Tasman, (Eds.), Annual review of psychiatry (Vol. 12, pp. 273-303). Washington, DC : American Psychiatric Association.
MORGAN, R. (1980). Theory and practice : Pornography and rape. In L.J. Lederer (Ed.), Take back the night (pp. 134-140). New York : William Morrow. SCOTT, C.S., LEFLEY, H.P. & HICKS, D. (1993). Potential risk factors for rape in three ethnic groups. Community Mental Health Journal, 29, 133-141.
  ALLISON, J. & WRIGHTMAN, L. (1993). Rape : The misunderstood crime. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
GROTH, A.N. & BURGESS, A.W. (1980). Male rape : Offenders and victims. American Journal of Psychiatry, 13 (7), 80-810. JENSEN, G.F. & KAPROS, M.M. (1993). Managing rape : Exploratory research on the behavior of rape statistics. Criminology, 31, 363-385.
KAUFMAN, A., DIVASTO, P., JACKSON, R., VOORHEES, D. & CHRISTY, J. (1980). Male rape victims : Noninstitutional assault. American Journal of Psychiatry, 137, 221-223. RICE, M.E., CHAPLIN, T.C., HARRIS, G.T. & COUTTS, J. (1994). Empathy for the victim and sexual arousal among rapists and nonrapists. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 435-449.
BURT, M.R. (1980). Cultural myths and support for rape. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 38, 217-230. PERSE, L.M. (1994). Uses of erotica and acceptance of rape myths. Communication Research, 21, 488-515.
MALAMUTH, N. (1981). Rape fantasies as a function of repeated exposure to sexual violence. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 10, 33-47. SIROIS, F. (1995). Le fantasme de viol. Canadian Journal of Psychanalysis, 3, 223-253.
KILPATRICK, D.G., RESICK, P.A. & VERONEN, J.L. (1981). Effects of a rape experience : A longitudinal study. Journal of Social Issues, 37 (4), 105-122. COWAN, G. & CAMPBELL, R. (1995). Rape causal attitudes among adolescents. The Journal of Sex Research, 32 (2), 145-153.
NORRIS, J. & FELDMAN-SUMMERS, S. (1981). Factors related to the psychological impact of rape on the victim. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 90, 562-567. WEISZ, M.G. & EARLS, C.M. (1995). The effects of exposure to filmed sexual violence on attitudes toward rape. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 71-84.
SCHWARTZ, J., WILLIAMS, H. & PEPITONE-ROCKWELL, F. (1981). Construction of a rape awareness scale. Victimology, 6 (1-4), 110-119. MICHELL, J. (1997). Quantitative science and the definition of measurement in psychology. British Journal of Psychology, 88, 355-383. [PDF]
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ATKESON, B.M., CALHOUN, K.S., RESICK, P.A. & ELLIS, E.M. (1982). Victims of rape : Repeated assessment of depressive symptoms. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 50, 96-102. BRYDEN, D. & LENGNICK, S. (1997). Criminal law: Rape in the criminal justice system. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 87, 1194-1384.
BOWKER, L.H. (1983). Marital rape : a distinct syndrome ? Social Casework, 64 (6), 347-352. FOA, E.B. & ROTHBAUM, B.O. (1998). Treating the trauma of rape : Cognitive-behavioral therapy for PTSD. New York : Guilford Press.
SHOTLAND, R.L. & GOODSTEIN, L. (1983). «Just because she doesn't want to doesn't mean it's rape : an experimentally based causal model of the perception of rape in a dating situation». Social Psychology Quarterly, 46 (3), 220-232. RUSSELL, D.E.H. (1998). Dangerous relationships : Pornography, misogyny, and rape. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage.
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FELDMAN-SUMMERS, S. & NORRIS, J. (1984). Differences between rape victims who report and those who do not report to a public agency. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 14 (6), 562-573. EIGENBERG, H.M. (2000). Correctional officers and their perceptions of homosexuality, rape, and prostitution in male prisoners. The Prison Journal, 80 (4), 415-433.
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FRANK, E. & STEWART, B.D. (1984). Depressive symptoms in rape victims : A revisit. Journal of Affective Disorders, 7, 77-85. ROUSSEL, D.E. & BOLEN, R. (2000). The epidemic of rape and child sexual abuse in the United States. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications.
CARMODY, M. (1984). The fear of rape. Social Alternatives, 4 (3), 21-22. SHAVER, K.G. (2002). Attribution of rape blame as a function of victim gender and sexuality, and perceived similarity to the victim. Journal of Homosexuality, 43 (2).
WILLIAMS, L.S. (1984). The classic rape : When do victims report ? Social Problems, 31, 459-467. LISAK, D. & MILLER, P.M. (2002). Repeat rape and mul- tiple offending among undetected rapists. Violence & Victims, 17, 73-84.
RUSSELL, D.E.H. (1984). Sexual Exploitation : Rape, childsexua labuse and workplace harassment. Thousand Oaks, CA : Sage Publications.  
CHECK, J. & MALAMUTH, N. (1985). Sex role stereotyping and reactions to depictions of stranger versus acquintance rape. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 45 (2), 344-356. [PDF]  
BRIERE, J., MALAMUTH, N. & CHECK, J. (1985). Sexuality and rape-supportive beliefs. International Journal of Women's Studies, 8, 398-403. COTTON, A., FARLEY, M. & BARON, R. (2002). Attitudes toward prostitution and acceptance of rape myths. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32 (9), 1790-1796.
QUINSEY, V.L. & UPFOLD, D. (1985). Rape completion and victim injury as a function of female resistance strategy. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 17, 40-50.  
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BODENHAUSEN, G.V. (1984). Cognitive mediators of reactions to rape. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 48 (2), 324-338.  
SEGAL, Z.V. & MARSHALL, W.L. (1985). Heterosexual social skills in a population of rapists and child molesters. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 53, 55-63. LALUMIÈRE, M.L., HARRIS, G.T., QUINSEY, V.L. & RICE, M.E. (2005). The causes of rape : Understanding individual differences in male propensity for sexual aggression. American Psychological Association.
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YEGIDIS, B.L. (1986). Date rape and other forced sexual encounters among college students. Journal of Sex Education & Therapy, 12, 51-54.  
STERMAC, L.E. & QUINSEY, V.L. (1986). Social competence among rapists. Behavioral Assessment, 8, 171-185. ULLMAN, S.E. (2007). A 10-year update on "Review and critique of empirical studies of rape avoidance". Criminal Justice & Behavior, 34, 411-429.
GREENDLINGER, V. & BYRNE, D. (1987). Coercive sexual fantasies of college men as predictors of self-reported likelihood to rape and overt sexual aggression. Journal of Sex Research, 23, 1-11. MARTIN, E.K., TAFT, C.T. & RESICK, P.A. (2007). A review of marital rape. Aggression & Violent Behavior, 12 (3).
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WIRTZ, P.W. & HARRELL, A.V. (1987). The effects of threatening versus nonthreatening previous life events on levels of fear in rape victims. Violence & Victims, 2 (2), 89-98. MCKIBBIN, W.F., SHACKELFORD, T.K., GOETZ, A.T. & STARRATT, V.G. (2008). Why do men rape ? An evolutionary psychological perspective. Review of General Psychology, 12, 86-97.
KOSS, M.P. (1988). Hidden rape : Sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of students