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P (Valeur de...) : Voir Valeur de P, Test statistique et Probabilité.
P300 (P3) : Désigne le potentiel évoqué (p) mesuré dans le cerveau d'un humain 300 ms après l'apparition d'un nouveau stimulus dans son champ visuel. Découverte par Chapman et Bragdon (1964). P300, N400 et nouveauté. = amplitude P3. P300.
CHAPMAN, R.M. & BRAGDON, H.R. (1964). Evoked responses to numerical and non-numerical visual stimuli while problem solving. Nature, 203, 1155-1157. OTTON, L.J. & DONCHIN, E. (2000). Relationship between P300 amplitude and subsequent recall for distinctive events : Dependence on type of distinctiveness attribute. Psychophysiology, 37, 644-661.
DUNCAN-JOHNSON, C.C. (1981). P300 latency : a new metric of information processing. Psychophysiology, 18, 207-215 MAGNIE, M., BERMON, S., MARTIN, F., MADANY-LOUNIS, M., SUISSE, G., MUHAMMAD, W. & DOLISI, C. (2000). P300, N400, aerobic fitness, and maximal aerobic exercise. Psychophysiology, 37, 369-377.
KARIS D., FABIANI, M. & DONCHIN, E. (1984). "P300" and memory : Individual differences in the von Restorff effect. Cognitive Psychology, 16 (2), 177-216. KOK, A. (2001). On the utility of P3 amplitude as a measure of processing capacity. Psychophysiology, 38 (3), 557-577.
FABIANI, M., KARIS, D. & DONCHIN, E. (1986). P300 and recall in an incidental memory paradigm. Psychophysiology, 23, 298-308. MYUNG-SUN, K., JAE-JIN, K. & JUN SOO, K. (2001). Frontal P300 decrement and executive dysfunction in adolescents with conduct problems. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 32 (2), 93-106.
 CARLSON, E.A., HOSTINAR, C.E., MILNER, S.B. & GUNNAR, M.R. (2014). The emergence of attachment following early social deprivation. Development & Psychopathology, 26 (2), 479-489. IACONO, W.G., CARLSON, S.R., MALONE, S.M. & McGUE, M. (2002). P3 event-related potential amplitude and the risk for disinhibitory disorders in adolescent boys. Archives General Psychiatry, 59, 750-757. [PDF]
  GONSALVEZ, C.J. & POLICH, J. (2002). P300 amplitude is determined by target-to-target interval. Psychophysiology, 39, 388-396. [PDF]
  MOELLER, F.G., BARRATT, E.S., FISHER, C.J., DOUGHERTY, D.M., REILLY, E.L., MATHIAS, C.W. & SWANN, A.C. (2004). P300 event-related potential amplitude and impulsivity in cocaine-dependent subjects. Neuropsychobiology, 50, 167-173.
DONCHIN, E. & COLES, M.G. (1988). Is the P300 component a manifestation of context updating ? Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 11, 355-372. HILL, H., OTT, F. & WEISBROD, M. (2005). Soa-dependent n400 and p300 semantic priming effects using pseudoword primes and a delayed lexical decision. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 56, 209-221.
JOHNSON, R. (1989). Developpemental evidence for modality-dependent P300 generators : A normative study. Psychophysiology, 26, 651-670. SATO, A., YASUDA, A., OHIRA, H., MIYAWAKI, K., NISHIKAWA, M., KUMANO, H. & KUBOKI, T. (2005). Effects of value and reward magnitude on feedback negativity and P300. Neuroreport, 16, 407-411. [PDF]
POLICH, J. LADISH, C. & BURNS, T. (1990). Normal variation of P300 in children : age, memory span, and head size. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 9, 237-248. PATRICK, C.J., BERNAT, E.M., MALONE, S.M., IACONO, W.G., KRUEGER, R.F. & McGUE, M. (2006). P300 amplitude as a marker of externalizing in adolescent males. Psychophysiology, 43 (1), 84-92.
  IACONO, W.G. & McGUE, M. (2006). Association between P3 event-related brain potential amplitude and adolescent problem behavior. Psychophysiology, 43, 465-469.
  YOON, H.H., IACONO, W.G., MALONE, S.M., BERNAT, E.M. & McGUE, M. (2006). The effects of childhood disruptive disorder comorbidity on P3 event-related brain potentials in preadolescents with ADHD. Biological Psychology, 79, 329-336. [PDF]
PICTON, T.W. (1992). The P300 wave of the human event-related potential. Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology, 9, 456-479. ROSENFELD, J.P. & SKOGSBERG, K.R. (2006). P300-based Stroop study with low probability and target Stroop oddballs : The evidence still favors the response selection hypothesis. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 60, 240-250.
POLICH, J. & MARTIN, S. (1992). P300, cognitive capability, and personality : a correlational study of university undergraduates. Personality & individual differences, 13, 533-543. YOON, H.H., IACONO, W.G., MALONE, S.M. & McGUE, M. (2006). Using the brain P300 response to identify novel phenotypes reflecting genetic vulnerability for adolescent substance misuse. Addictive Behaviors, 31, 1067-1087.
POLICH, J. & SQUIRE, L. (1993). P300 from amnesic patients with bilateral hippocampal lesions. Electroencephalography & Clinical Neurophysiology, 86, 408-417. POLICH, J. (2007). Updating P300 : an integrative theory of P3a and P3b. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118 (10), 2128-2148. [PDF]
  DE SOLA, S., TARANCON, T., PENA-CASANOVA, J., ESPADALER, J.M., LANGHOR, K., POUDEVIDA, S., FARRÉ, M., VERDEJO-GARCIA, A. & DE LA TORRE, R. (2012). Auditory event-related potentials (P3) and cognitive performance in recreational ecstasy polydrug users : evidence from a 12-month longitudinal study. Psychopharmacology, 200, 425-437. [PDF]
  IACONO, W.G. (2008). The forensic application of "Brain fingerprinting" : Why scientists should encourage the use of P300 memory detection methods. American Journal of Bioethics, 8, 30-32.
POLICH, J. & MARGALA, C. (1997). P300 and probability : comparison of oddball and single-stimulus paradigms. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 25, 169-176. IACONO, W.G. & MALONE, S.M. (2011). Developmental endophenotypes : Indexing genetic risk for substance abuse with the P300 brain event-related potential. Child Development Perspectives, 4, 239-247. [PDF]
HARMON-JONES, E., BARRATT, E.S. & WIGG, C. (1997). Impulsiveness, aggression, reading, and the P300 of the event-related potential. Personality & Individual Differences, 22, 439-445. [PDF] DELLE-VIGNE, D., CAMPANELLA, S., KAJOSCH, H., VERBANCK, P. & KORNREICH, C. (2011). Accroître la sensibilité de la P300 à l'aide d'un paradigme oddball émotionnel bimodal. Acta Psychiatica Belgica, 111 (1), 29-44.
POLICH, J. (1997). On the relationship between EEG and P300 : Individual differences, aging, and ultradian rhythms. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 26, 299–317. YOON, H.H., MALONE, S.M., BURWELL, S.J., BERNAT, E.M. & IACONO, W.G. (2013). Association between P3 event-related potential amplitude and externalizing disorders : A time domain and time frequency investigation of 29-year-old adults. Psychophysiology, 50 (7), 595-609. [PDF]
Voir aussi Potentiel évoqué et Nouveauté
Paas Fred ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, d'origine néerlandaise, et spécialiste de l'éducation et de la théorie de la charge cognitive. Collaborateur de Ayres, Kirschner et Sweller.
PAAS, F. (1992). Training strategies for attaining transfer of problem-solving skill in statistics : A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 84, 429-434.
PAAS, F. & VAN MERRIENBOER, J.J.G. (1994). Variability of worked examples and transfer of geometrical problem-solving skills : A cognitive-load approach. Journal of Educational Psychology, 86 (1), 122-133. [PDF]
PAAS, F., RENKL, A. & SWELLER, J. (2003). Cognitive load theory and instructional design : Recent developments. Educational Psychologist, 38, 1-4. [PDF]
PAAS, F., TUOVINEN, J., TABBERS, H. & VAN GERVEN, P.W.M. (2003). Cognitive load measurement as a means to advance cognitive load theory. Educational Psychologist, 38, 63-71. [PDF]
PAAS, F., RENKL, A. & SWELLER, J. (2004). Cognitive load theory : Instructional implications of the interaction between information structures and cognitive architecture. Instructional Science, 32, 1-8. [PDF]
Pace Gary M. (Chicago 1951-) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain, spécialiste des comportements inadaptés et de l'estompage. Collaborateur de Dorsey, Iwata, Lerman, Miltenberger, Shore, Smith, Vollmer, Vorndran et Zarcone.
PACE, G.M, IVANCIC, M.T., EDWARDS, G.L., IWATA, B. & PAGE, T.J. (1985). Assessment of stimulus preference and reinforcer value with profoundly retarded individuals. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18 (3), 249-255. [PDF]
PACE, G.M., IWATA, B.A., EDWARDS, G.L. & McCOSH, K.C. (1986). Stimulus fading and transfer in the treatment of self-restraint and self-injurious behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19 (4), 381-389. [PDF]
IWATA B.A., PACE, G.M., KALSHER, M.J., COWDERY, G.E. & CATALDO, M.F. (1990). Experimental analysis and extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23 (1), 11-27. [PDF]
PACE, G.M., IWATA, B.A., COWDERY, G.E., ANDREE, P.J. & McINTYRE, T. (1993). Stimulus (instructional) fading during extinction of self-injurious escape behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26 (2), 205-212. [PDF]
PACE, G.M, IVANCIC, M.T. & JEFFERSON, G. (1994). Stimulus fading as treatment for obscenity in a brain-injured adult. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 27 (2), 301-305. [PDF]
Pachalska Maria ( ) : Neuropsychologue polonaise. Collaboratrice de Brown.
PACHALSKA, M. (2002). The microgenetic revolution : reflections on a recent essay by Jason Brown. Journal of Neuropsychoanalysis, 4 (1), 109-117.
PACHALSKA, M. (2003). Neuropsychological rehabilitation for post-traumatic frontal syndrome in patients recovering from prolonged coma : A preliminary report. Acta Neuropsychologica, 1 (2), 194-227.
PACHALSKA, M., LUKOWICZ, M., KROPOTOV, J.D., HERMAN-SUCHARSKA, I. & TALAR, J. (2011). Evaluation of differentiated neurotherapy programs for a patient after severe TBI and long term coma using event-related potentials. Medical Science Monitor, 17 (10), 120-128. [PDF]
PACHALSKA, M., MacQUENN, B.D. & BROWN, J.W. (2012). Microgenetic theory : brain and mind in time. In R.W. Rieber (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the history of psychological theories, XXVI (pp. 675-708). Frankfurt : Springer.
PACHALSKA, M. & KROPOTOV, J.D. (2013). Functional neurophysiology : New approaches in neuropsychological assessment. Frankfurt/Paris/ Lancaster, New Brunswick : Ontos Verlag.
Pacifisme/Pacifiste : Doctrine qui milite en faveur de la paix (et considère que la guerre est généralement la solution la moins intéressante à un conflit, le dernier recours). /guerre, belliqueux, va-t-en-guerre, militarisme. Pacifism.
GLADYS, T. (1951). Further discussion on pacifists vs. psychologists. American Psychologist, 6 (8), 457-458.
 KELMAN, H.C. & GLADSTONE, A.I. (1952). Pacifism and psychology : Further comments. American Psychologist, 7, 159.
SCHELER, M. (1953). L'idée de paix et le pacifisme. Paris : Aubier-Montaigne.
LAKE, D.A. (1992). Powerful pacifists : Democratic states and war. American Political Science Review, 86 (1), 24-37.
Voir aussi Guerre et Paix
Packer Craig (Fort Worth 1950-) : Biologiste américain et spécialiste de l'étude des lions et plus généralement de l'écosystème africain (savane). Étudiant de Goodall.
PACKER, C. & PUSEY, A.E. (1982). Cooperation and competition within coalitions of male lions : Kin selection or gam theory ? Nature, 296 (5859), 740-742. [PDF]
PACKER, C. & PUSEY, A.E. (1983). Adaptations of female lions to infanticide by incoming males. The American Naturalist, 121 (5), 716-728. [PDF]
PACKER, C., GILBERT, D., PUSEY, A. & O’BRIEN, S. (1991). A molecular genetic analysis of kinship and cooperation in African lions. Nature, 351, 562-565.
PACKER, C., LEWIS, S. & PUSEY, A. (1992). A comparative analysis of non-offspring nursing. Animal Behaviour, 43, 265-281. [PDF]
PACKER, C., BRINK, B.M., KISSUI, H., MALITI, H., KUSHNI, H. & CARO, T. (2011). The effects of trophy hunting on lion and leopard populations in Tanzania. Ecology & Conservation Biology, 25, 142-153.
Pagani Linda S. ( ) : Psychologue québécoise et spécialiste de l'éducation. Elle s'intéresse notamment aux conditions psychologiques, sociales et politiques du décrochage scolaire, ainsi qu'aux conditions qui favorisent la persévérance et la réussite scolaire. Elle enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Collaboratrice de Brook-Gunn, Duncan, Huston, Janosz, Magnuson, Tremblay et Vitaro.
PAGANI, L.S., TREMBLAY, R.E., VITARO, F., KERR, A. & McDUFF, P. (1998). The impact of family transition on the development of delinquency in adolescent boys : a 9-year longitudinal study. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 39, 489-499.
PAGANI, L.S., TREMBLAY, R.E., VITARO, F., BOULERICE, B. & McDUFF, P. (2001). Effects of grade retention on academic performance and behavioral development. Development & Psychopathology, 13, 297-315.
PAGANI, L.S., FITZPATRICK, C., BARNETT, T.A. & DUBOW, E. (2010). Prospective associations between early childhood television exposure and academic, psychosocial, and physical well being by middle childhood. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164, 425-431.
PAGANI, L.S., FITZPATRICK, C. & PARENT, S. (2012). Relating kindergarten attention to subsequent developmental pathways of classroom engagement in elementary school. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 715-725. [PDF]
PAGANI, L.S., FITZPATRICK, C. & BARNETT, T.A. (2013). Early childhood television viewing and kindergarten entry readiness. Pediatric Research, 74, 350-355. [PDF]
Page : Dans la notice d'un article scientifique (1) ou d'un chapitre de livre (2), désigne les pages du texte concerné. Dans le modèle de référence de l'American Psychological Association, cette information est placée à la fin de la notice, dans le cas d'un article scientifique, et entre le titre du livre et le lieu de l'édition, dans le cas d'un chapitre de livre. À noter que dans le format de citation APA, il n'est pas nécessaire d'indiquer le nombre de page d'un livre (3). Page.
BÉLANGER, J. (1978). Images et réalités du béhaviorisme. Philosophiques, 5 (1), 3-110.
BEAUGRAND, J. (1988). Démarche scientifique et cycle de la recherche. Dans M. Robert (Dir.), Fondements et étapes de la recherche scientifique en psychologie (p. 1-34). St-Hyacinthe : Édisem.
SKINNER, B.F. (1971). L'analyse expérimentale du comportement. Paris : Seuil.
Page (En bas de...) : Voir Citer en bas de page.
Page blanche : L'expression a deux acceptions : a) On utilise cette expression pour décrire les difficultés ou les hésitations à commencer la rédaction d'un texte. = syndrome de la page blanche. b) L'expression renvoie également au principe de tabula rasa.
Paglia Camille Anna (Endicott États-Unis 1947-) : Féminisme et essayiste américaine.
PAGLIA, C.A. (1990). Sexual personae : Art and decadence from Nefertiti to Emily Dickinson. New Haven : Yale UP.
PAGLIA, C.A. (1992). Sex, art, and American culture : Essays. New York : Vintage.
PAGLIA, C.A. (1994). Vamps & tramps : New essays. New York : Vintage.
Pain : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la douleur. Éditeur : Elsevier.
GEIGER, G., TODD., D.D., CLARK, H.B., MILLER, R.P. & KORI, S.H. (1992). The effects of feedback and contingent reinforcement on the exercise behavior of chronic pain patients. Pain, 49 (2), 179-185.
Pairs : Individus qui possèdent le même statut social que l'individu qui fait l'objet d'une analyse, d'une évaluation, d'un traitement, et qui sont susceptibles d'influencer cet individu-cible. L'influence des pairs se fait sentir dans de nombreux domaines, notamment : les opinions, la sexualité, la consommation d'alcool et de drogues, la conduite automobile, la motivation scolaire, l'habillement et la mode, etc. Sartre a dit «Pas besoin de gril, l'enfer, c'est les Autres». = influence des amis, influence des autres. Peer influence. EX: Les pairs d'une anorexique sont ses ami-e-s, les autres adolescent-e-s de son âge. = semblable, les comme-moi. *ami. Pairs, tutorat et influence sociale. Peers, peer influence, peer status.
Aide par les pairs/Tutorat Enseignement de la lecture par les pairs Influence des pairs
Comité de lecture/Comité de pairs Enseignement par les pairs Exclusion sociale par les pairs
    Observation d'un enseignant par ses pairs
HOLLANDER, E.P. (1956). The friendship factor in peer nominations. Personnel Psychology, 9, 435-447. WITT, S.D. (2000). The influence of peers on children's socialization to gender roles. Early Child Development & Care, 162, 1-7.
KOHN, M. (1966). The child as a determinant of his peers approach to him. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 109, 91-100. BOBO, J.K. & HUSTEN, C. (2000). Sociocultural influences on smoking and drinking. Alcool Research & Health, 24 (4), 225-232. [PDF]
HARTUP, W.W., GLAZER, J. & CHARLESWORTH, R. (1967). Peer reinforcement and sociometric status. Child Development, 38, 1017-1024. MARTIN, C.L. & FABRS, R.A. (2001). The Stability and Consequences of Young Children's Same-Sex Peer Interactions. Developmental L Psychology, 37 (3), 431-446. [PDF]
SINGLETON, L.C. & ASHER, S.R. (1977). Peer preference and social interaction among third-grade children in an integrated school district. Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 330-336. HUBBARD, J.A. (2001). Emotion expression processes in children's peer interaction : The role of peer rejection, aggression, and gender. Child Development, 72, 1426-1438.
STRAIN, P.S., SHORES, R.E. & TIMM, M.A. (1977). Effects of peer social initiations on the behavior of withdrawn preschool children. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10 (2), 289-298. [PDF] GREGURAS, G.J., ROBIE, C. & BORN, M. (2001). Applying the social relations model to self and peer evaluations. Journal of Management Development, 20 (6), 508-525. [PDF]
LADD, G.W. & ODEN, S.L. (1979). The relationship between peer acceptance and children’s ideas about helpfulness. Child Development, 50, 402-408. COSTELLO, J., PATEMAN, B., PUSEY, H. & LONGSHAW, K. (2001). Peer review of classroom teaching : An interim report. Nurse Education Today, 21, 444-454.
STRAIN, P.S., KERR, M.M. & RAGLAND, E.U. (1979). Effects of peer-mediated social initiationsand prompt reinforcement procedures on the social behavior of autistic children. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 9, 41-54. LINDSLEY, E.W. (2002). Preschool children's friendships and peer acceptance : Links to social competence. Child Study Journal, 32 (3), 145-156.
STRAYER, R.R. (1980). Social ecology of the preschool peer group. In W.A. Collins (Dir.), Development of cognition, affect and social relations (Vol. 13, pp. 165-196). Hillsdale : Lawrence Erlbaum.  
SUDA, W. & FOUTS, G. (1980). Effect of peer presence on introverted and extroverted children. Child Development, 51, 1272-1275. SHERIDAN, S.M., BUHS, E.S. & WARNES, E.D. (2003). Childhood peer relationships in context. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 285-292. [PDF]
LOVE, K.G. (1981). Comparison of peer assessment methods : Reliability, validity, friendship bias, and user reaction. Journal of Applied Psychology, 66 (4), 451-457. GIFFORD-SMITH, M.E. & BROWNELL, C.A. (2003). Childhood peer relationships : social acceptance, friendships, and peer networks. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 235-284. [PDF]
WHEELER, V. & LADD, G.W. (1982). Assessment of children's self efficacy for social interactions with peers. Developmental Psychology, 18, 795-805. LADD, G.W. & TROOP-GORDON, W. (2003). The role of chronic peer adversity in the development of children's psychological adjustment problems. Child Development, 74, 1325-1348. [PDF]
DODGE, K.A., SCHLUNDT, D.C., SCHOCKEN, I. & DELUGACH, J.D. (1983). Social competence and children's sociometric status: The role of peer group entry strategies. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 29, 309-336. CHENG, T.O. (2004). Peer, parental, and commercial influences on cigarette smoking among Chinese youths. Journal of the National Medical Association, 96 (5), 691-692. [PDF]
WHALEN, C.K., HENKER, B., DOTEMOTO, S. & HINSHAW, S.P. (1983). Child and adolescent perceptions of normal and atypical peers.Child Development, 54, 1588-1598. HAY, D.F., PAYNE, A. & CHADWICK, A. (2004). Peer relations in childhood. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 45 (1), 84-108. [PDF]
ODOM, S.L. & STRAIN, P.S. (1984). Peer mediates approches to promoting chilfren interaction : A review. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 54, 544-557. CARRON, A.V. & BURKE, S.M. (2005). Context and physical activity : The influence of others. Sport & Exercise Psychology Review, 1 (2), 23-31. [PDF]
STREMMEL, A. & LADD, G.W. (1985). Children’s selective use of peer informants : Criteria for making information-seeking decisions. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 146, 541-550. McAULIFFE, M.D., HUBBARD, J.A. & ROMANO, L.J. (2005). The impact of teacher behavior on children's peer relations. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 665-677.
HYMEL, S. (1986). Interpretations of peer behavior : affective bias in childhood and adolescence. Child Development, 57, 431-445. TROOP-GORDON, W. & LADD, G.W. (2005). Trajectories of peer vctimization and perceptions of the self and schoolmates : Precursors to internalizing and externalizing problems. Child Development, 76 (5), 1072-1091. [PDF]
PARKER, J.G. & ASHER, S.R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment are low-accepted children at risk. Psychological Buletin, 102 (3), 57-89. SMITH, T.E. & LEAPER, C. (2006). Self-perceived gender typicality and the peer context during adolescence. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 16, 91-104.
PALINSCAR, A.S., BROWN, A.L. & MARTIN, S. (1987). Peer interaction in reading comprehension instruction. Educational Psychologist, 22 (3/4), 231-253. LUBBERS, M.J., VAN DER WERF, M.P.C., SNIJDERS, T.A.B., CREEMERS, B.P.M. & KUYPER, H. (2006). The impact of peer relations on academic progress in junior high. Journal of School Psychology, 44, 491-512.
ROOT, L.S. (1987). Faculty evaluation : Reliability of peer assessments of research, teaching, and service. Research in Higher Education, 26, 71-84. HEILBRON, N. & PRINSTEIN, M.J. (2008). Peer influence and adolescent nonsuicidal self-injury : A theoretical review of mechanisms and moderators. Applied & Preventive Psychology, 12, 169-177. [PDF]
WEINER, J. (1987). Peer status of children and adolescents : A review of the literature. Learning Disabilities Research, 2, 62-79. STEARNS, E., DODGE, K.A. & NICHOLSON, M. (2008). Peer contextual influences on the growth of authority-acceptance problems in early eementary school. Merrill Palmer Quarterly, 54 (2), 208-231. [PDF]
PERRI, M.G., McADOO, W.G., McALLISTER, D.A., JORDAN, R.C., LAUER, J.B., YANCY, D.Z. & NEZU, A.M. (1987). Effects of peer support and therapist contact on long-term weight loss. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 55, 615-617. CARRELL, S.E., MALMSTROM, F.V. & WEST, J.E. (2008). Peer effects in academic cheating. Journal Human Resources, 43 (1), 173-207. [PDF]
WHALEN, C.K., HENKER, B., BUHRMESTER, D., HINSHAW, S.P. HUBER, A. & LASKI, K. (1989). Does stimulant medication improve the peer status of hyperactive children ? Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 57, 545-549. MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., RUBIN, R.M. & McAULIFFE, M D. (2008). The relation between childhood aggression and depressive symptoms : The unique and joint mediating roles of peer rejection and peer victimization. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 54, 316-340.
DODGE, K.A., COIE, J.D., PETIT, G.S. & PRICE, J.M. (1990). Peer status and aggression in boys' groups : Developmental and contextual analyses. Child Development, 61, 1289-1309. BEAVER, K.M., SCHUTT, J.E., BOUTWELL, B.B., RATCHFORD, M., ROBERTS, K. & BARNES, J.C. (2009). Genetic and environmental influences on levels of self-control and delinquent peer affiliation : Results from a longitudinal sample of adolescent twins. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 36, 41-60. [PDF]
ASENDORPF, J. (1990). Beyond social withdrawal : Shyness, unsociability, and peer avoidance. Human Development, 33, 250-259. PORNARI, C.D. & WOOD, J. (2010). Peer and cyber aggression in secondary school students : The role of moral disengagement, hostile attribution bias, and outcome expectancies. Aggressive Behavior, 36, 81-94.
CHEN, X., RUBIN, K.H. & SUN, Y. (1992). Social reputation and peer relationships in Chinese and Canadian children : A cross-cultural study. Child Development, 63, 1336-1343. RUBIN, K.H., KENNEDY, A. & BOWKER, J. (2010). Parents, peers, and social withdrawal in childhood : A relationship perspective. New Directions for Child & Adolescent Development, 127, 79-94. [PDF]
KRANTZ, P.J. & McCLANNAHAN, L.E. (1993). Teaching children with autism to initiate to peers : Effects of a script fading procedure. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 26(1), 121-132. [PDF] VILLANTI, A., BOULAY, M. & JUON H. (2011). Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage. Addictive Behaviors, 36 (1-2), 133-136. [PDF]
MATTHYS, W., VAN LOO, P., PACHEN, V., DE VRIES, H.,VAN HOOFF, J.A.RA.M. & VAN ENGELAND, H. (1994). Behavior of conduct disordered children in interaction with each other and with normal peers. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 25, 183-195. HAUN, D.B.M. & TOMASELLO, M. (2011). Conformity to peer pressure in preschool children. Child Development, 82 (6), 1759-1767. [PDF]
SIMPSON, J.A. (1994). Pair bonding as an organizational model for integrating research on close relationships. Psychological Inquiry, 5, 58-61. VÉZINA, J., HÉBERT, M., POULIN F., LAVOIE, F., VITARO, F. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (2011). Risky lifestyle as a mediator between association with deviant peers and dating violence victimization among adolescent girls. Journal of Youth & Adolescence, 40, 814-824.
MATTHYS, W., DE VRIES, H., HECTORS, A., VEERBEEK, M., HEIDMANN, W., GOUD, M., VAN HOOFF, J.A.RA.M. & VAN ENGELAND, H. (1995). Differences between conduct disordered and normal control children in their tendencies to escalate or neutralize conilicts when interacting with nomial peers Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 26, 29-41. KOEGEL, L.K., KURIAKOSE, S., SINGH, A.K. & KOEGEL, R.L. (2012). Improving generalization of peer socialization in inclusive school settings using initiations training. Behavior Modification, 36 (3), 361-377. [PDF]
WENTZEL, K.R. & CALDWELL, K. (1997). Friendships, peer acceptance, and group membership : Relations to academic achievement in middle school. Child Development, 68, 1198-1209. MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., BARNIGHT, L.J. & THOMSON, A.K. (2012). Emotion expression processes in children's peer interaction: The role of peer rejection, aggression, and gender. Child Development, 72, 1426-1438.
LADD, G.W., KOCHENDERFER, B. & COLEMAN, C. (1997). Classroom peer acceptance, friendship, victimization: Distinct relational systems that contribute uniquely to children's school adjustment ? Child Development, 68 (6), 1081-1097. TROPP, L.R., O'BRIEN, T. & MIGACHEVA, K. (2014). How peer norms of inclusion and exclusion predict children's interest in cross-ethnic friendships. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 151-166.
RYS, G.S. & BEAR, G.C. (1997). Relational aggression and peer relations : Gender and developmental issues. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 43, 87-106. MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., BARNIGHT, L.J. & THOMSON, A.K (2014). Fifth-grade children's daily experiences of peer victimization and negative emotions: Moderating effects of sex and peer rejection. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 1089-1102.
TASSI, F. & SCHNEIDER, B.H. (1997). Task-oriented versus other-referenced competition : Differential implications for children's peer relations. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 27 (17), 1557-1580. BRENDGEN, M., GIRARD, A., VITARO, F., DIONNE, G. & BOIVIN, M. (2016). Personal and familial predictors of peer victimization trajectories from primary to secondary school. Developmental Psychology, 52 (7), 1103-1114.
LADD, G.W. (1999). Peer relationships and social competence during early and middle childhood. Annual Review of Psychology, 50, 333-359.  
WENTZEL, K.R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school : The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (2), 202-209. [PDF] MORROW, M.T., HUBBARD, J.A., SALLEE, M.L., BARNIGHT, L.J. LINES, M.D. & RUBIN, R.M. (2016). Dyadic accuracy and bias in preadolescents' perceived peer relations: Associations with aggression, depression, and peer victimization. Journal of Personal & Social Relationships, 33, 892-916.
TURNER, G. (1999). Peer support and young people's health. Journal of Adolescence, 22, 567-572.  
GERRARD, M., GIBBONS, F.X., ZHAO, L., RUSSELLl, D.W. & EIS-BERGAN, M. (1999). The effect of peers' alcohol consumption on parental influence : A cognitive mediational model. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 13, 32-44. GARCIA-BACETE, F.J., MARANDE-PERRIN, G., SCHNEIDER, B.H. & CILLESSEN, A.H.N. (2019). Children's awareness of peer rejection and teacher reports of aggressive behavior Psychosocial Intervention, 28 (1), 37-47. [PDF]
Voir aussi Tutorat et Individu rejeté
Pairs (Comité de...) : Voir Comité de lecture.
Pairs (Formation par les...) : Voir Formation (par les pairs).
Pairs (Influence des...) : Voir Pairs.
Pairs (Observation par les...) : Voir Observation par les pairs.
Pairs (Rejet des...) : Voir Exclusion sociale et Isolement social.
Paivio Allan Urho (Thunder Bay 1925-2016) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain d'origine canadienne. Il propose l'existence de deux systèmes de représentation (représentation verbale et images mentales) pour expliquer le fonctionnement de la pensée.
PAIVIO, A. (1963). Learning of adjective-noun paired associates as a function of adjective-noun word order and noun abstractedness. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 17, 370-379.
PAIVIO, A. (1965). Abstractness, imagery and meaningfulness in paired associate learning. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 4, 32-38.
PAIVIO, A. (1969). Mental imagery in associative learning and memory. Psychological Review, 76, 241-263.
PAIVIO, A. (1975). Imagery and synchronic thinking. Canadian Psychological Review, 16, 147-163.
PAIVIO, A. (1991). Dual coding theory : Retrospect and current status. Canadian Journal of psychology, 45 (3), 255-287.
Paix : Absence de guerre ou diminution de la tension et de violence au sein d'un groupe (ou entre des groupes), entre deux pays/sociétés ou plus, sur un territoire donné. Relations internationales, conflits et paix. Peace.
KEYNES, J.M. (1920). Economic consequences of the peace. London : Macmillan. NEURINGER, A. (1988). Personal paths to peace. Behavior Analysis & Social Action, 6, 51-56.
PIAGET, J. (1934). Une éducation pour la paix est-elle possible ? Bulletin de l'Enseignement de la Société des Nations, 1, 17-23. [PDF] KELMAN, H.C. (1991). A behavioral science perspective on the study of war and peace. In R. Jessor (Ed.), Perspectives on behavioral science : The Colorado lectures (pp. 245-275). Boulder, CO : Westview Press. [PDF]
  HAVARD, G. (1992). La Grande Paix de Montréal : les voies de la diplomatie franco-amérindienne. Recherches amérindiennes au Québec, Montréal.
KELMAN, H.C. (1954). A proposed framework for the study of war and peace. Bulletin of the Research Exchange on the Prevention of War, 2 (6), 3-13. DEUTSCH, M. (1993). Educating for a peaceful world. American Psychologist, 48, 510-517. [PDF]
RICH, A. PLATT, J.R. (1966). How to keep the peace. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, 14. BEER, F., SINCLAIR, G., HEALY, A. & BOURNE, L. (1995). Peace agreement, intractable conflict, escalation trajectory : A psychological laboratory experiment. International Studies Quarterly, 39 (3), 297-312.
TINBERGEN, N. (1968). On war and peace in animals and man : An ethologist's approach to the biology of aggression. Science, 160, 1411-1418. WEINE, S.M. (1999). Against evil. Peace and conflict. Journal of Peace Psychology, 5 (4), 357-364.
GALTUNG, J. (1969). Violence, peace, and peace research. Journal of Peace Research, 6, 167-191 CAIRNS, E. & HEWSTONE, M. (2002). The impact of peacemaking in Northern Ireland on intergroup behaviour. In G. Salomon & B. Nevo (Eds.), The nature and study of peace education (pp. 217-228). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum.
  JOHNSON, D.W. & JOHNSON, R.T. (2003). Controversy and peace education. Journal of Research in Education, 13 (1), 71-91.
ABELSON, R.P. & ZIMBARDO, P.G. (1970). Canvassing for peace : A manual for volunteers. Ann Arbor, MI : Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. NEPSTAD, S.E. (2004). Religion, violence, and peacemaking. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 43, 297-301.
  JOHNSON, D.W. & JOHNSON, R.T. (2005). Essential components of peace education. Theory Into Practice, 44 (4), 280-292.
  JOHNSON, D.W. & JOHNSON, R.T. (2006). Peace education for consensual peace : The essential role of conflict resolution. Journal of Peace Education, 3 (2), 147-174.
SUEDFELD, P. (1977). War, peace, and integrative complexity : Un speeches on the Middle East problem, 1947-1976. Journal of Conflict Resolution, 21 (3), 427-442. DIENER, E. & TOV, W. (2007). Subjective well-being and peace. Journal of Social Issues, 63, 421-440.
KELMAN, H.C. (1981). Reflections on the history and status of peace research. Conflict Management & Peace Science, 5 (2), 95-110. [PDF] TOV, W., DIENER, E., NG, W., KESEBIR, P. & HARTER, J. (2009). The social and economic context of peace and happiness. In R.S. Wyer, C.-Y. Chiu & Y.Y. Hong (Eds.), Understanding culture : Theory, research, and application. New York : Taylor & Francis Group. [PDF]
  LUTZ, C. & GONZALEZ, R. (2011). The anthropology of peace and war. American Anthropologist, 113 (3), 495.
ULMAN, J.D. (1986). Working class strategies for world peace. Behavior Analysis & Social Action, 5, 36-43. BLACK, S.E., DEVEREUX, P.J. & SALVANES, K.G. (2013). Under pressure ? The effect of peers on outcomes of young adults. Journal of Labor Economics, 31 (1), 119-153. [PDF]
Voir aussi Conflit, Pacifisme et Guerre
Pakistan : Pays.
SUEDFELD, P. & JHANGIANI, R. (2009). Cognitive management in an enduring international rivalry : The case of India and Pakistan. Political Psychology, 30, 937-951.
Voir aussi Pays
Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences : Revue scientifique de neurologie. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.
THOMAS, P., BRACKEN, P. & YASMENN, S. (2007). Explanatory models for mental illness : Limitations and dangers in a global context. Pakistan Journal of Neurological Sciences, 176, 176-181. [PDF]
Palfrey Thomas R. ( ) : Politologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la décision et de l'intérêt public. Collaborateur deMcKelvey.
PALFREY, T.R. & ROSENTHAL, H. (1983). A strategic calculus of voting. Public Choice, 41 (1), 7-53.
PALFREY, T.R. & ROSENTHAL, H. (1984). Participation and the provision of discrete public goods : A stategic analysis. Journal of Publics Economics, 24, 171-193.
PALFREY, T.R. (1984). Spatial equilibrium with entry. Review of Economic Studies, 51 (1), 139-156.
PALFREY, T.R. & PRISBREY, J.E. (1997). Altruism, reputation, and noise in linear public goods experiments. Journal of Public Economics, 61, 409-427.
PALFREY, T.R. & PRISBREY, J.E. (1997). Anomalous behavior in linear public goods experiments : How much and why ? American Economic Review, 87, 829-846.
Paléontologie/Paléontologue : Science qui étudie les fossiles des espèces disparues. ( ): Coppens, Cuvier,> Eldredge, Gould, Larson, Leakey, Legros,Picq, Simpson, Teilhard de Chardin, Waddington. Paleantology.
AGER, D.V. (1963). Principles of paleoecology : An introduction to the study of how and where animals and plants lived in the past. New York : McGraw-Hil.
SHIMADA, K., CURRIE, P.J., SCOTT, E. & SUMIDA, S.S. (2014). The greatest challenge to 21st century paleontology : When commercialization of fossils threatens the science. Palaeontologia Electronica, 17 (1), 1-4. [PDF]
Palestine : État et Conflit Israélo-Plaestinnien. Palestine, Palestinian.
KELMAN, H.C. (1978). Israelis and Palestinians : Psychological prerequisites for mutual acceptance. International Security, 3 (1), 162-186. [PDF)
KELMAN, H.C. (1983). Conversations with Arafat : A social-pscyhological assessment of the propects for Israeli-Palestinian peace. American Psychologist, 38, 203-216. [PDF)
KELMAN, H.C. (1987). The political psychology of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict : How can we overcome the barriers to a negotiated solution ? Political Psychology, 8 (3), 347-363. [PDF]
AOUN, S. (2002). La problématique de l'état-nation au Moyen Orient : le cas de l'État palestinien. Dans H. Hassan-Yari (Dir.), Le processus de paix au Moyen Orient. Montréal : L'Harmattan.
SAJID, A. (2005). Islamophobia : A new word for an old fear. Palestine - Israel. Journal of Politics, Economics & Culture, 12 (2), 31-40.
KELMAN, H.C. (2011). A one-country / two-state solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Middle East Policy Journal, 18 (1), 27-41. [PDF]
Voir aussi État et Conflit Israélo-Plaestinnien.
Paley William (Peterborough 1743-1805 Bishopwearmouth) : Théologien anglais. Il a développé un argument créationiste (the watchmaker analogy), que Jacobrésume ainsi : [...] la principale preuve de l'existence de Dieu a longtemps été l'argument d'intention. Développé notamment par Paley dans sa théologie naturelle, publiée plusieurs années avant L'Origine des espèces, cet argument est le suivant. Si vous trouvez une montre, vous ne doutez pas qu'elle a été fabriquée par un horloger. De même, si vous considérez un organisme un peu complexe, avec l'évidente finalité de tous ses organes, comment ne pas conclure qu'il a été produit par la volonté d'un être supérieur, d'un Créateur ? Car il serait simplement absurde, dit Paley, de supposer que l'oeil d'un mammifère, par exemple, avec la précision deson optique et sa géométrie, aurait pu se former par un pur hasard.
PALEY, W. (1803). Théologie naturelle.
Palfrey Thomas R. ( ) : Politologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la décision et de l'intérêt public. Collaborateur de McKelvey.
PALFREY, T.R. & ROSENTHAL, H. (1983). A strategic calculus of voting. Public Choice, 41 (1), 7-53.
PALFREY, T.R. & ROSENTHAL, H. (1984). Participation and the provision of discrete public goods : A stategic analysis. Journal of Publics Economics, 24, 171-193.
PALFREY, T.R. & POOLE, K.T. (1987). The relationship between information, ideology, and voting behavior. American Journal of Political Science, 31 (3), 511-530.
PALFREY, T.R. & PRISBREY, J.E. (1997). Altruism, reputation, and noise in linear public goods experiments. Journal of Public Economics, 61, 409-427.
PALFREY, T.R. & PRISBREY, J.E. (1997). Anomalous behavior in linear public goods experiments : How much and why ? American Economic Review, 87, 829-846.
Palincsar Annemarie Sullivan ( ) : Socioconstructiviste américaine, spécialisée en éducation, en apprentissage scolaire et en métacognition. Collaboratrice de Brown et Campione.
PALINCSAR, A.S., OGLE, D.S., JONES, B.B. & CARR, E.G. (1986). Teaching reading as thinking. Alexandria, VA : Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
PALINCSAR, A.S., RANSOM, K. & DERBER, S. (1989). Collaborative research and development of reciprocal teaching. Educational Leadership, 46 (4), 37-40.
PALINCSAR, A.S. & KLENK, L. (1992). Fostering literacy learning in supportive contexts. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25 (4), 211-229.
PALINCSAR, A.S., BROWN, L.A. & CAMPIONE, J.C. (1993). First-grade dialogues for knowledge acquisition and use. In E.A. Forman, N. Minick & C. Addison Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning (pp. 45-51). New York : Oxford University Press.
PALINCSAR, A.S. (1998). Social constructivist perspectives on teaching and learning. Annual Review of Psychology, 49, 345-375. [PDF]
Palinopsie : Trouble de la perception visuelle caractérisé par la persistance anormale des images après la disparition du stimulus à l'origine de ces images. Palinopsia.
BENDER, M.B., FELDMAN, M. & SOBIN, A.J. (1968). Palinopsia. Brain, 91 (2), 321-338.
KAWASAKI, A. & PURVIN, V. (1996). Persistant palinopsia following ingestion of LSD. Archives of Ophtalmology, 114 (1), 47-50.
POMERANZ, H.D. & LESSELL, S. (2000). Palinopsia and polyopia in the absence of drugs or cerebral disease. Neurology, 54, 855-859.
EVANS, R.W. (2006). Reversible palinopsia and the Alice in Wonderland syndrome associated with topiramate use in migraineurs. Headache : The Journal of Head & Face Pain, 46 (5), 815-818.
GERSZTENKORN, D. & LEE, A.G. (2014). Palinopsia revamped : A systematic review of the literature. Survey of Ophthalmology, 60, 1-35.
Pallidum : Voir Globus pallidus.
Caroline Palmer David C. Palmer
Palmer Caroline ( ) : Psychologue canadienne et spécialiste de l'étude de la musique. Elle enseigne à l'Université Mcgill.
PALMER, C. (1989). Mapping musical thought to musical performance. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception and Performance, 15, 331-346.
PALMER, C. & KELLEY, M.H. (1992). Linguistic prosody and musical meter in song. Journal of Memory & Language, 31, 525-542.
PALMER, C. (1996). Anatomy of a performance : sources of musical expression. Music Perception, 13, 433-454.
PALMER, C. (1997). Music performance. Annual Review of Psychology, 48, 115-138. [PDF]
PALMER, C., SPIDLE, F., KOOPMANS, E. & SCHUBERT, P. (2019). Ears, head and eyes : When singers synchronize. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 72 (9), 2272-2287.
Palmer David C. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américain qui s'intéresse à l'apprentissage, et plus particuliè;rement au renforcement automatique et aux comportements verbaux. Collaborateur de Burgos, Donahoe, Michael et Sundberg.
PALMER, D.C., DONAHOE, J.W. & CROWLEY, M.A. (1985). Discriminated inter-response times : Role of autoshaped responses. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 44 (3), 301-313. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. & DONAHOE, J.W. (1992). Essentialism and selectionism in cognitive science and behavior analysis. American Psychologist, 47, 1344-1358. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. (1998). On Skinner's rejection of S-R psychology. The Behavior Analyst, 21 (1), 93-96. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. (1999). A call for tutorials on alternative approaches to the study of verbal behavior. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 16, 45-58. [PDF]
PALMER, D.C. (2010). Behavior under the microscope : Increasing the resolution of our experimental procedures. Behavior Analysis, 33 (1), 37-45. [PDF]
Palo Alto : Voir École de Palo Alto.
Palpitations : Palpitations et trouble panique. Palpitation.
BILGI, C. & CAMPBELL, R. (1979). Cardiovascular effects of tricyclic and tetracyclic antidepressants. Canadian Family Physician, 25, 619-620, 622, 624-625. [PDF]
 MAYOU, R., SPRIGINGS, D., BIRKHEAD, J. & PRICE, J. (2002). Arandomized controlled trial of a brief educational and psychological intervention for patients presenting to a cardiac clinic with palpitation. Psychological Medicine, 32, 699-706.
Panaccio Claude ( ) : Philosophe, épistémologue québécois et spécialiste d'Ockham. Il enseigne à l'Université du Québec à Montréal.
 PANACCIO, C. (1991). Les mots, les concepts et les choses. Paris/Montréal : Vrin/Bellarmin.
 PANACCIO, C. (1992). Les mots, les concepts et les choses. La sémantique de Guillaume d'Occam et le nominalisme d'aujourd'hui. Montréal/Paris : Bellarmin/Vrin.
 PANACCIO, C. (1999). Le discours intérieur. De Platon à Guillaume d'Ockham. Paris : Seuil
 PANACCIO, C. (2007). Mental language and tradition encounters in medieval philosophy : Anselm, Albert and Ockham. Vivarium, 45, 269-282.
 PANACCIO, C. (2009). Le savoir selon Guillaume d'Okcham . Dans R. Nadeau (Dir.), Philosophies de la connaissance (p. 91-109). PUL/Vrin.
Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) : Mammifère de la famille des ursidés. Panda.
 MAPLE, T.L. (2000). Saving the giant panda. Atlanta : Longstreet Press.
 MAPLE, T.L. (2003). Behavioral and developmental consequences of early rearing experience for captive giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Journal of Comparative Psychology, 117, 235-245.
 KELLING, A.S., SNYDER, R.J., GARDNER, W., MARR, M.J., BLOOMSMITH, M.A. & MAPLE, T.L. (2006). Color vision in the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Learning & Behavior, 34 (2), 154-161.
BURNIE, D. (Dir.) (2001). Animal. Londres : Dorling Kindersley / Le règne animal. Saint-Laurent : Erpi.
Panel d'experts/Juges : En méthodologie,individus choisis par le chercheur pour juger de certains aspects de sa recherche avant sa réalisation (déroulement, outil de collecte, etc.). EX : On demande au panel de juger du degré de beauté d'individus photographiés, photos qui seront ensuite présentées aux participants lors de la recherche afin de mesurer ou de neutraliser l'influence de cette variable. = comité d'experts, juges, jury. Panel.
ARKES, H.R., HACKETT, C. & BOEHM, L. (1989). The generality of the relation between familiarity and judged validity. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 2, 81-94.
ARKES, H.R., BOEHM, L.E. & XU, G. (1991). The determinants of judged validity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 27, 576-605
LEVINE, E.L. & BAKER, D.P. (1992). Panel appraisals as a criterion in test validation : A demonstration in a law enforcement occupation. Journal of Business & Psychology, 7, 173-188.
Panique : Peur vive et soudaine, qui paralyse ou empêche d'agir effficacement. EX: À la vue d'un accident de voiture avec blessés, certaines personnes paniquent et omettent d'appeler des secours. Parfois le peur est non fondée (aucun danger réel, aucun objet menaçant), on utilise alors le mot trouble panique pour désigner ce problème psychologique. Panic.
BARLOW, D.H., VERMILYEA, J., BLANCHARD, E., VERMILYEA, B., DINARDO, P. & CERNY, J.A. (1985). The phenomenon of panic. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 94, 320-328. CRASKE, M.G. & BARLOW, D.H. (1988). A review of the relationship between panic and avoidance. Clinical Psychology Review, 8, 667-685.
AGRAS, W.S. (1985). Panic : Facing fears, phobias, and anxiety. N.Y. : W.H. Freeman & Co. CRASKE, M.G., RAPEE, R.M. & BARLOW, D.H. (1988). The significance of panic- expectancy for individual patterns of avoidance. Behavior Therapy, 19, 577-592
ADLER, C., CRASKE, M.G. & BARLOW, D.H. (1987). Relaxation induced panic : When resting isn't peaceful. Journal of Integrative Psychiatry, 5 (2), 94-112. CRASKE, M.G. (1988). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of panic. In A.J. Frances & R.E. Hales (Eds.), Review of psychiatry (Vol. 7, pp. 121-137). Washington, D.C. : American Psychiatric Press, Inc.
CRASKE, M.G., SANDERSON, W. & BARLOW, D.H. (1987). The relationships among panic, fear and avoidance. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 1, 153-160. ADLER, C., CRASKE, M.G., KIRSHENBAUM S. & BARLOW, D.H. (1989). "Fear of panic" : An investigation of its role in panic occurrence, phobic avoidance, and treatment outcome. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 27, 391-396.
BARLOW, D.H. & CRASKE, M.G. (1988). The phenomenology of panic. In S.J. Rachman & J.D. Maser (Eds.), Panic : Psychological perspectives (pp. 11-36). Hillsdale, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. CRASKE, M.G. & BARLOW, D.H. (1989). Nocturnal panic. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 177, 160-167.
  HOFMANN, S.G. (1999). Relationship between panic and schizophrenia. Depression & Anxiety, 9, 101-106.
  HOFMANN, S.G. (2004). The cognitive model of panic. In M.A. Reinecke and D.A. Clark (Eds.), Cognitive therapy across the lifespan : Evidence and practice (pp. 117-136). Cambridge, U.K. : Cambridge University Press.
Voir aussi Peur et Trouble panique
Pankratz Loren (Portland 1940-) : Psychologue américain et membre du Comittee for the Scientific Investigation of Claims of the Paranormal. Il s'intéresse notamment au trouble de stress post-traumatique et au syndrome de Munchaussen par procuration.
PANKRATZ, L. (1979). Procedures for the assessment and treatment of functional sensory deficits. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 47 (2), 409–410.
PANKRATZ, L. (1983). A new technique for the assessment and modification of feigned memory deficit. Perceptual and motor skills. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 57, 367–372
PANKRATZ, L. & KOFOED, L. (1988). The assessment and treatment of Geezers. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259 (8), 1228–1229.
PANKRATZ, L. (2006). Persistent problems with the Munchausen syndrome by proxy label. Journal of American Academic Psychiatry & the Law, 34 (1), 90-95. [PDF]
PANKRATZ, L. ( 2010). Persistent problems with the "separation test" in Munchausen syndrome by proxy. The Journal of Psychiatry & Law, 38 (3), 307-323. [PDF]
Panksepp Jaak (Tartu Estonie 1943-) : Neuropsychologue et éthologiste américain d'origine estonienne, spécialisé dans l'étude des déterminants biogénétiques - notamment l'hypothlamus - des émotions et de l'hyperactivité. Collaborateur de Knutson, Montag et Solms.
PANKSEPP, J. (1981). The ontogeny of play in rats. Developmental Psychobiology, 14 (4), 327-332.
PANKSEPP, J., SIVIY, S. & NORMANSHELL, L. (1984). The psychobiology of play : theoretical and methodological perspectives. Neuroscience & Behavioral Reviews, 8, 465-492.
PANKSEPP, J., KNUTSON, B. & BURGDORF, J. (2002). The role of brain emotional systems in addictions : A neuro-evolutionary perspective and new "self-report" animal model. Addiction, 97, 459-469. [PDF]
PANKSEPP, J. (2005). Affective consciousness : Core emotional feelings in animals and humans. Consciousness & Cognition, 14 (1), 30-80. [PDF]
PANKSEPP, J. & PANKSEPP, J.P. (2006). The seven sins of evolutionary psychology. Evolution & Cognition, 6 (2), 108-131. [PDF]
TRACY, J.L. & RANDLES, D. (2011). Four models of basic emotions : A review of Ekman and Cordaro, Izard, Levenson, and Panksepp and Watt. Emotion Review, 3 (4), 397-405. [PDF]
Pansexualité/Pansexualisme : Attirance physique ou attraction interpersonnelle envers une personne sans considération pour son sexe (biologique).
Pap Arthur (Zurich 1921-1959) : Philosophe et logicien suisse
PAP, A. (1943). On the meaning of necessity. Journal of Philosophy 40 (17), 449-458.
PAP, A. (1944). The different kinds of A priori. Philosophical Review 53 (5), 465-484.
PAP, A. (1949). Are all necessary propositions analytic ? Philosophical Review, 58, 299-320.
PAP, A. (1950). Logic and the concept of entailment. Journal of Philosophy, 47, 378-387.
PAP, A. (1957). Once more : Colors and the synthetic a priori. Philosophical Review, 56, 94-99.
PUTNAM, H. (1957). Red and green all over again : A rejoinder to Arthur Pap. Philosophical Review, 56, 100-103.
BLANSCHARD, B. (1962). Epilogue: A Memoir'. In Arthur Pap, an Introduction to the Philosophy of Science (pp. 427-431).
STUMP, D.J. (2011). Arthur Pap’s functional theory of the a priori. HOPOS: The Journal of the International Society for the History of Philosophy of Science 1 (2), 273-290.
STUMP, D.J. (2020). The Kantian elements in Arthur Pap's philosophy. Journal of Transcendental Philosophy, 2 (1),
Papert Seymour (Pretoria 1928-) : Mathématicien sudafricain et chef de file de perspective cognitive européenne et de intelligence artificielle. Il a développé un langage informatique destiné aux enfants : le logo. Il s'est également intéressé à l'utilisation des ordinateurs en milieu scolaire. Il a dit : « Cybernetics is based on a serious study of ways the best use of limited knowledge ». Étudiant de Piaget. Collaborateur de Cellérier et Minsky.
PAPERT, S. (1973). Uses of technology to enhance education. Logo Memo 8. Cambridge : Artificial Intelligence Laboratory : Massachusetts Institute of Technology .
PAPERT, S. (1980/81). Mindstorms : children, computers and powerful ideas / Jaillissement de l'esprit : ordinateurs et apprentissage. New York/Paris : Basic Books/Flammarion.
PAPERT, S. (1991). Situating constructivism. In I. Harel & S. Papert (Eds.), Constructionism : Research reports and essays, 1985-1990 (pp. 1-11). Norwood, NJ : Ablex.
PAPERT, S. (1993). The children's machine : Rethinking school in the age of the computer/L'enfant et la machine à connaître. Repenser l'école à l'ère de l'ordinateur. New York : Basic Books/Paris : Dunod.
PAPERT, S. (1998). Does easy do it ? Children, games and learning. Game Developer, 87-88. [LIRE]
Papez James Wenceslas (Morovia 1883-1958 Glencoe) : Médecin américain d'origine tchèque et spécialiste des déterminants neurobiolgiques des émotions.
PAPEZ, J.W. (1937). A proposed mechanism of emotion. Archives of Neurology & Psychiatry, 38, 725- 743. [PDF]
 MacCLEAN, P.D. (1949). Psychosomatic disease and the visceral brain : Recent developments bearing on the Papez theory of emotion. Psychosomatic Medicine, 11,338-353.
BHATTACHARYY, K.B. (2017). James Wenceslaus Papez, his circuit, and emotion. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology 20 (3), 207-210. [LIRE]
Papier-crayon : Voir Test papier-crayon.
Papillon : Insecte. Butterfly.
BROWER, L. (1988). Avian predation on the monarch butterfly and its implication for mimicry theory. The American Naturalist, 131 (S), 4-6.
NAIR, A.V., MITRA, P. & ADITYA, S. (2014). Studies on the diversity and abundance of butterfly (Lepidoptera : Rhopalocera) fauna in and around Sarojini Naidu college campus, Kolkata, West Bengal, India. Journal of Entomology & Zoology Studies, 2 (4), 129-134. [PDF]
THOMAS, J.A. (2016). Butterfly communities under threat. Science, 353 (6296), 216-218.
Pappenheim Bertha (1856-1936) : Mieux connu en psychologie sous le nom d'Anna O., l'une des plus célèbres patientes de Breuer. Elle dirigea un orphelinat à Frankfort et fonda la Ligue des femmes juives. Elle s'intéressa également à la prostitution.
Paquette Daniel ( ) : Psychologue québécois et spécialiste de l'étude de l'agression et de l'attachement, notamment la relation entre les pères et leur enfants. Il enseigne à l'Université de Montréal. Collaborateur de Tremblay et Vitaro.
PAQUETTE, D. (1994). Fighting and playfighting in captive adolescent chimpanzees. Aggressive Behavior, 20, 49-65.
PAQUETTE, D., CHARBONNEAU, R., DUBEAU, D., BIGRAS, M. & TREMBLAY, R.E. (2003). Prevalence of father-child rough-and-tumble play and physical aggression in preschool children. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 18 (2), 171-189. [PDF]
PAQUETTE, D. (2004). La relation père-enfant et l'ouverture au monde. Enfance, 2, 205-225. [PDF]
PAQUETTE, D. (2004). Theorizing the father-child relationship : mechamisms and developmental outcomes. Human Development, 47 (4), 193-219. [PDF]
PAQUETTE, D. & DUMONT, C. (2013). The father-child activation relationship, sex differences, and attachment disorganization in toddlerhood. Child Development Research, 2013, 1-9. [PDF]
Para : Préfixe qui signifie à côté, non-officiel.
Paralangage Paranormal Paraprofessionel
Paramètre d'une réponse Paraphilie Parapsychologie
Paramètre statistique Paraphrase/Paraphraser Parasomnie
Parallèle Paraphrénie Parasuicide
Parachutage politique : Stratégie mise de l'avant par certains partis politiques qui consiste, à la veille d'une élection, à larguer un candidat et son équipe en sol étranger (d'où le mot parachute), c-à-d dans un comté ou une circonscription que le candidat connaît peu ou pas, ni d'Adam ni d'Eve.
MASSICOTTE, L. et BLAIS, A. (2003). Me voilà : trouvez-moi un comté. Expériences canadiennes en matière de parachutage politique. Dans B. Dolez et M. Hastings (Dirs.), Le parachutage politique. Paris : L'Harmattan.
Parade (sexuelle) : Rituel comportemental servant de prélude à l’accouplement chez de nombreuses espèces animales.
Parade d'identifcation des suspects : Voir Identification (des suspects).
Paradigme : Au sens large, paradigme signifie nouvelle perspective, façon différente de voir les choses. De manière plus précise, ce concept, développé par Kuhn, désigne la théorie dominante qui règne dans une science à une époque donnée. Le paradigme est un ensemble de concepts, de méthodes et de procédés scientifiques, bref de façons de faire nouvelles qui permettent de résoudre des problèmes que les paradigmes antérieurs n'étaient par parvenus à résoudre de manière satisfaisante (anomalie). EX: la théorie de la relativité d'Einstein est un paradigme qui explique des phénomènes que la théorie de Newton était incapable d'expliquer ou même d'envisager; idem pour la théorie de Darwin qui a remplacé le paradigme créationniste. N.D.L.R. Sauf dans certains états américains ! Certains historiens et épistémologues des sciences considèrent qu'il n'existe pas de paradigme en psychologie; d'autres prétendent que le cognitivisme serait devenu le nouveau paradigme de cette science, en succédant au béhaviorisme à la fin des années 60. Il y a donc là matière à débat. Au sens large, on utilise également ce terme comme synonyme de nouvelle perspective. = nouvelle perspective, nouvelle vision des choses, révolution scientifique. Paradigm, scientific revolution, mode of thought, scientific trend.
LEWIN, K. (1931). The conflict between Aristotelian and Galileian modes of thought in contemporary psychology. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 5, 141-177. VARGAS, E.A. (1991). Behaviorology : Its paradigm. In W. Ishaq (Ed.). Human behavior in today's world (pp. 139-147). New York : Praeger.
BRUNER, J.S. & POSTMAN, L. (1949). On the perception of incongruity : A paradigm. Journal of Personality, 18, 206-223 ULMAN, J.D. (1992). Behaviorology and psychology are incommensurable paradigms : A rejoinder to Staats. Behaviorological Commentaries, 2, 23-28.
OVERTON, W.F. & REESE, H.W. (1972). On paradigm shifts. American Psychologist, 27, 1197-1199  
KUHN, T.S. (1962/1983). The structure of scientific revolutions / La structure des révolutions scientifiques. Chicago : University of Chicago/Paris : Flammarion. FRIMAN, P.C., ALLEN, K.D., KERWIN, M.L.E. & LARZELERE, R. (1993). A citation analysis of the Kuhnian displacement thesis. American Psychologist, 48 (6), 658-664.
WARREN, N. (1971). Is a scientific revolution taking place in psychology ? Doubts and reservations. Science Studies, 4, 407-413. ROBINS, R.W. & CRAIK, K.H. (1994). A more appropriate test of the Kuhnian displacement thesis. American Psychologist, 49 (9), 815-816. [PDF]
WEIMER, W.B. & PALERMO, D.S. (1973). Paradigms and normal science in psychology. Science Studies, 3, 211-244. LANTÉRI-LAURA, G. (1998). Essai sur les paradigmes de la psychiatrie moderne. Paris : Éditions du Temps.
MASTERMAN, M. (1974). The nature of a paradigm. In I. Lakatos & A. Musgrave. (Eds.), Criticism and the growth of knowledge (pp. 59-89). Cambridge, UK : University Press. ROBINSON, D.N. (2000). Paradigms and "the myth of framework" : how science progresses. Theory & Psychology, 10, 39-47.
PERRY, N. (1977). A comparative analysis of "Paradigm" proliferation. British Journal of Sociology, 28, 38-50. PEPLAU, L.A. & GARNETS, L.D. (2000). A new paradigm for understanding women's sexuality and sexual orientation. Journal of Social Issues, 56 (2), 329-350. [PDF]
  BLASS, T. & SCHMITT, C. (2001). The nature of perceived authority in the Milgram paradigm : Two replications. Current Psychology, 20, 115-121.
KUHN, T.S. (1977/90). The essential tension /La tension essentielle : Tradition et changement dans les Sciences. Chicago : University of Chicago Press. KENRICK, D.T., MANER, J.K., BUTNER, J., LI, N.P, BECKER, D.V. & SCHALLER, M. (2002). Dynamical evolutionary pychology : Mapping the domains of the new interactionist paradigm. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 6 (4), 347-356. [PDF]
  MILLER, G.A. (2003). The cognitive revolution : A historical perspective. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 7 (3), 141. [PDF]
TRYON, W.W. (1977). Another example of a paradigm clash : A reply to Bixenstein's "criticisms". American Psychologist, 32, 575-576. TRACY, J.L., ROBINS, R.W. & GOSLING, S.D. (2004). Tracking trends in psychological science : An empirical analysis of the history of psychology. In T.C. Dalton & R.B. Evans (Eds.), The life cycle of psychological ideas. (pp. 105-130). New York : Kluwer Academic. [PDF]
BANDURA, A. (1978). On paradigms and recycled ideologies. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 2, 79-103. [PDF] NICHOLSON, N. & WHITE, R. (2006). Darwinism : A new paradigm for organizational behavior. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 111-119. [PDF]
GUTTING, G. (1980). Paradigms and revolutions. Notre Dame : University of Notre Dame Press. VAN HAAFTEN, W. (2007). Conceptual change and paradigm change : What's the difference ? Theory Psychology 17, 59-85.
HENLEY, T.B. (1989). Meehl revisited : A look at paradigms in psychology. Theoretical & Philosophical Psychology, 9 (1), 30-36. MORGAN, D.L. (2007). Paradigms lost and pragmatism regained : Methodological implications of combining qualitative and quantitative methods. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1, 48-76.
  HASLAM, S.A., REICHER, S. & BIRNEY, M.E. (2014). Nothing by mere authority : Evidence that in an experimental analogue of the Milgram paradigm participants are motivated not by orders but by appeals to science. Journal of Social Issues, 70, 473-488. [PDF]
Voir aussi Kuhn
Paradies Yin C. (1934-) : Philosophe australien
PARADIES, Y.C. (2006) A systematic review of empirical research on self-reported racism and health. International Journal of Epidemiology, 35 (4), 888-901.
PARADIES, Y.C. (2006). Defining, conceptualizing and characterizing racism in health research. Critical Public Health, 16 (2), 143-157.
PARADIES, Y.C., MONTOYA, M.J. & FULLERTON, S.M. (2007) Racialized genetics and the study of complex diseases : The thrifty genotype revisited. Perspectives in Biology & Medicine, 50 (2), 203-227.
PARADIES, Y.C. & CUNNINGHAM, J. (2012). The DRUID study : Exploring mediating pathways between racism and depressive symptoms among Indigenous Australians. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology, 47, 165-173.
PARADIES, Y.C., TRUONG, M. & PRIEST, N. (2014). A systematic review of the extent and measurement of healthcare provider racism. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 29 (2), 364-387.
Paradis fiscal : Pays ou territoire dont les niveaux d'imposition pour les particuliers et les entreprises sont nulles ou faibles.
DENEAULT, A. (2014). Paradis fiscaux : La fillière canadienne : Barbade, Caïmans, Bahamas, Nouvelle-Écosse, Ontario... Montréal : Écosociété.
DENEAULT, A. (2016). Une escroquerie légalisée : Précis sur les "paradis fiscaux". Montréal : Écosociété.
Paradoxe : Du grec para, qui signifie «contre» et doxa, qui veut dire «opinion». En logique, raisonnement ou problème sans solution. EX: Paradoxe du barbier. De façon générale, le paradoxe désigne deux propositions contradictoires en apparence incompatibles. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Paradox.
Paradoxe auditif Paradoxe de l'âne de Buridan Paradoxe du menteur
Paradoxe de condorcet Paradoxe de la valeur C Paradoxe de Yule-Simpson
Paradoxe de Ellsberg Paradoxe du barbier Pari de Pascal
MEEHL, P.E. (1950). A most peculiar paradox. Philosophical Studies, 1, 47-48. [PDF] ABELSON, R.P. (1985). A variance explanation paradox : When a little is a Lot. Psychological Bulletin, 97 (1), 129-133. [PDF]
  RICHARD, D.L. (1987). Les facteurs de risque coronarien : Le paradoxe francais. Archives des Maladies du Coeur et des Vaisseaux, 80, 17-21.
QUINE, W.V.O (1966). The ways of paradox. Harvard UP. JACKENDOFF, R. (1991). The paradox of language acquisition. Teaching Thinking & Problem Solving, 13 (5), 1-6.
MACKIE, J.L. (1973). Truth, probability and paradox. Oxford : Clarendon Press. YABLO, S. (1997). Paradox without self-reference. Analysis, 53, 251-252. [PDF]
WATLAWICK, P., WEAKLAND, J. & FISH, R. (1975/81). Changements, paradoxes et psychothérapies. Paris : Éditions du Seuil/Collection Points. DEUTSCH, D. (2002). A musical paradox. Music Perception, 3 (3), 275-280. [PDF]
  ROZIN, P., KABNICK, K., PETE, E., FISCHLER, C. & SHIELDS, C. (2003). The ecology of eating : Part of the French paradox results from lower food intake in French than Americans, because of smaller portion sizes. Psychological Science, 14 (3), 450-454. [PDF]
GUPTA, A. (1982). Truth and Paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 11, 1-60. BIRNBAUM, M.H. (2008). New paradoxes of risky decision making. Psychological Review, 115 (2), 463-501. [PDF]
YABLO, S. (1982). Grounding, dependence, and paradox. Journal of Philosophical Logic, 11, 117-137. FLYNN, J.R. (1984).The "Flynn Effect" and Flynn's paradox. Intelligence, 41 (6), 851-857.
Voir aussi Raisonnement
Paradoxe auditif : Paradoxe découvert par Condorcet.
DEUTSCH, D. (2002). A musical paradox. Music Perception, 3 (3), 275-280. [PDF]
Paradoxe d'Allais : Paradoxe découvert par Allais.
ALLAIS, M. (1953). Le comportement de l'homme rationnel devant le risque, critique des postulats et axiomes de l'école américaine. Econometrica, 21, 503-546.
BIRNBAUM, M.H. (2007). Tests of branch splitting and branch-splitting independence in Allais paradoxes with positive and mixed consequences. Organizational Behavior & Human Decision Processes, 102, 154-173. [PDF]
Paradoxe de Condorcet : Paradoxe découvert par Condorcet. Condorcet jury theorem.
GROFMAN, B. & OWEN, G. (1986). Condorcet models, avenues for future research. In B. Grofman & G. Owen (Eds.), Information pooling and group decision making (pp. 93-102). Greenwich, CT : JAI Press.
BOLAND, P.J. (1989). Majority systems and the Condorcet jury theorem. The Statistician, 38, 181-189.
AUSTEN-SMITH, D. & BANKS, J.S. (1996). Information aggregation, rationality, and the Condorcet jury theorem. American Political Science Review, 90 (1), 34-45.
McLENNAN, A. (1998). Consequences of the Condorcet jury theorem for benecial information aggregation by rational agents. American Political Science Review, 92, 413-418.
LASLIER, J.F. & WEIBULL, J. (2013). An incentive-compatible Condorcet jury theorem. Scandinavian Journal of Economics, 115, 84-108.
Paradoxe de Ellsberg : Paradoxe découvert par Ellsberg. Ellsberg paradox.
SEGAL, U. (1987). The Ellsberg paradox and risk aversion : An anticipated utility approach. International Economic Review, 28 (1), 175–202.
Paradoxe de l'âne de Buridan : Allégorie sur l'hésitation, la rationalité et l'absurdité de la vie. Un âne, à équidistance entre deux bottes de foin identiques (A et B), ne trouve aucune raison de choisir la botte A plutôt que la B et finira en raison de son hésitation par mourir de faim; s'il avait choisi la botte de foin au hasard, où s'il avait été moins rationnel, il aurait survécu à cette épreuve. Ce dilemme oppose parfois une botte de foin (ou picotin d'avoine) et un sceau d'eau et (donc deux besoins d'importance égale). Contrairement à ce que l'on pourrait croire, ce dilemme n'a pas été formulé par Buridan.
RESCHER, N. (1960). Choice without preference : A study of the logic and of the history of the problem of "Buridan's as". Kantstudien, 51, 142-175.
RESCHER, N. (1960). The paradox of Buridan's ass: A fundamental problem in the theory of reasoned choice. Bucknell Review, 9, 106-122.
HUBIEN, H. (1975). John Buridan on the Fourth Figure of the Syllogism,' Revue Internationale de Philosophie, 29, 271-285.
Paradoxe de la valeur C : C pour codant. Désigne l'absence ou la faible corrélation entre la complexité apparente des êtres vivants et la taille de leur génome. Paradoxe de la valeur C et gène non-codant.
 OHNO, S. (1972). So much "junk DNA" in our genome. Evolution of Genetic Systems, 23, 366-370.
Paradoxe de Yule-Simpson :Tendance observé entre deux échantillons de données nominales qui disparaît ou même s'inverse lorsque les résultats de ces deux échantillons sont combinés. Autrement dit, l'analyse des deux échantillons combinés semble contredire ce qu'on a observé dans chacun des échantillons. Ce paradoxe peut être éviter en neutralisant les covariables de la recherche ou en comparant des échantillons de tailles équivalentes. = Yule-Simpson effect.
YULE, G.U. (1903). Notes on the theory of association of attributes of statistics. Biometrika, 2 (2), 121-134. REINTJES R, DE BOER A, VAN PELT W, DE GROOT JM: Simpson's paradox : An example from hospital epidemiology. Epidemiology, 11, 81-83.
SIMPSON, E.H. (1951). The interpretation of interaction in contingency tables. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, 13 (2), 238-241. BAKER, S.G. & KRAMER, B.S. (2001). Good for women, good for men, bad for people: Simpson's paradox and the importance of sex-specific analysis in observational studies. Journal of Women's Health and Gender-Based Medicine, 10 (9), 867-872.
BLYTH, C. R. (1972). On Simpson's paradox and the sure-thing principle. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 67 (338), 364-366. ALTMAN, D.G. & DEEKS, J.J. (2002). Meta-analysis, Simpson's paradox, and the number needed to treat. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 2 [3], 1-5. [PDF]
WAGNER, C.H. (1982). Simpson's paradox Aand randomization. The American Statistician, 36 (1), 46-48. CATES, C. (2002). Simpson's paradox and calculation of number needed to treat from meta-analysis. BMC Medical Research Mathodology, 2 [1], 1-4. [PDF]
PAIK, M.J. (1985). A graphic representation of a three-way contingency tables : Simpson's paradox and correlation. The American Statistician, 36, 43-46.  
HUH, M.H. (1987). Chances of Simpson's paradox. Journal of the Korean Statistical Society, 16 (2), 113-116. ALLISON, V.J. & GOLDBERG, D.E. (2002). Species-level versus community-level patterns of mycorrhizal dependence on phosphorus: an example of Simpson's paradox. Functional Ecology, 16 (3), 346-352.
JEON, J.-W-, CHUNG, H.-Y. & BAE, J.S. (1987). Chances of Simpson's paradox. Journal of the Korean Statistical Society, 16 (2), 117-125. [PDF] BIGELOW, J. (2004). Simpson's paradox. In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
MITTAL, Y. (1991). Homogeneity of subpopulations and Simpson's paradox. Journal of the American Statistical Association, 86 (413), 167-172. RÜCKER, G. & SCHUMAKER, M. (2008). Simpson's paradox visualized : The example of the Rosiglitazone meta-analysis. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 8 [34], 1-8. [PDF]
JULIOUS, S.A. & MULLEE, M.A. (1994). Confounding and Simpson's paradox. British Medical Journal, 309 (6967), 1480-1481. RAMANANA-RAHARY, S., ZITT, M., & ROUSSEAU, R. (2009). Aggregation properties of relative impact and other classical indicators: convexity issues and the Yule-Simpson paradox. Scientometrics, 9 (2), 311-327.
APPLETON, D., FRENCH, J. & VANDERPUMP, M. (1996). Ignoring a covariate : An example of Simpson's paradox. The American Statistician, 50 (4), 340-341. WANG, Z. & ROUSSEAU, R. (2021). COVID-19, the Yule-Simpson paradox and research evaluation. Scientometrics, 26, 3501-3511. [PDF]
Voir aussi Erreur écologique
Paradoxe du barbier : Paradoxe découvert par Russel.
Paradoxe du menteur : Koyré a proposé une solution à ce paradoxe.
Paragraphe : Paragraph.
 HYODO, M., LE NY, J.F. & ACHOUR, L. (1994). The course of representation in memory during the comprehension of paragraphs. International Journal of Psychology, 29, 565-590.
Paralangage : Voir Langage (Para).
Parallaxe de mouvement : Indice monoculaire de profondeur qui relève du fait que lorsqu'un individu est en mouvement, les objets rapprochés semblent se déplacer plus rapidement que les objets éloignés. La vitesse apparente de déplacement d'un objet nous informe donc sur la distance de cet objet.
TOZAWA, J., TORII, S. & MOCHIZUKI, T. (2006). Effects of motion parallax and perspective cues on perceived size and distance. Perception, 10, 89-93.
Parallèle : Le terme a deux acceptions : a) Opération mentale qui consiste à comparer deux objets, semblables à certains égards, afin que les propriétés de l'un d'entre eux puissent servir à mieux décrire et expliquer les propriétés de l'autre. EX : Plusieurs psychologues tracent un parallèle entre un ordinateur (objet 1) et un cerveau (objet 2), notamment sur le plan de la mémoire (propriété de 1 et 2). En science, on appelle ces parallèles des modèles. Parallel. b) Le terme est également utilisé pour désigner le fonctionnement de deux choses, physiquement proches, qui ne rencontrent jamais mais se déroulent au même endroit souvent au même moment (simultanément). EX : Plusieurs psychologues croient que le cerveau est capable de traiter indépendamment deux informations distinctes on dira alors en parallèle ).
PRINGLE, J.W.S. (1951). On the parallel between learning and evolution. Behaviour, 3, 174-215.
Voir aussi Traitement parallèle de l'information
Paralysie (comportementale) : Incapacité d'agir, d'émettre le bon comportement, alors qu'il le faudrait, que la situation le commande. EX: Incapacité de fuir à la vue d'un ours.
Paralysie du sommeil : Voir Sommeil (Paralysie).
Paramécie (Paramecium Caudatum) : Protozoaire.
ARMUS, H.L. & MONTGOMERY, A.R. (2001). Aversive and attractive properties of electrical stimulation for Paramecium Caudatum. Psychological Reports, 89, 342-344.
ARMUS, H.L., MONTGOMERY, A.R. & GURNEY, R.L. (2006). Discrimination learning and extinction in paramecia (P. caudatum). Psychological Reports, 98, 705-711.
ARMUS, H.L., MONTGOMERY, A.R. & JELLISON, J.L. (2006). Discrimination learning in pramecia (P. caudatum). The Psychological Record, 56, 489-498. [PDF]
MINGEE, C.M. & ARMUS, H.L. (2009). Unsuccessful reinforcement of a discrete action in paramecia (P. caudatum). Psychological Reports, 105, 533-538.
Voir aussi Paramécie
Paramètre (d'une réponse) : Les paramètres sont les aspects ou les dimensions mesurables d'un indicateur (un comportement, une réponse physiologique, etc.). EX: Mesurer le nombre de fois (fréquence) qu'un enfant pleure (comportement) en une journée (intervalle de temps). ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Parameter.
Exemples Indicateurs Paramètres
Pleurer Fréquence
Comportement d'aide Durée
Paramètres d'une réponse
Absence/présence Intensité Latence
Amplitude Intervalle de temps Précision
Fréquence Durée Séquence ou ordre
LYON, D.O. (1963). Frequency of reinforcement as a parameter of conditioned suppression. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 12 (5), 723-730. [PDF]
FAGEN, R.M. & YOUNG, D.Y. (1978). Temporal patterns of behaviour : Durations, intervals, latencies and sequences. In P.W. Colgan (Ed.), Quantitative ethology (pp. 79-114). New York : Wiley.
Paramètre statistique : Ce sont les aspects ou les dimensions mesurables d'une distribution. EX: La moyenne est un paramètre de la distribution normale.
Paranoïa/Paranoïaque : Du grec para qui signifie «coté» et nous qui signifie «esprit». Délire fondé sur une perception erronée de la réalité; et qui se caractérise par les sympômes suivants : méfiance extrême à l'égard des autres et sentiment de persécution (Ils sont là, derrière la porte, sous ma peau...), une surestimation démesurée et pathologique de soi-même (Je suis le plus beau, le meilleur, etc.), une susceptibilité à fleur de peau (Une petite erreur, moi... Impossible !), un jugement erroné. (Le Québec ne sera jamais un pays, tout le monde sait ça). Paranoïa, Personnalité paranoïaque et schizophrénie paranoïaque. Paranoïd, paranoïd ideation.
Délire paranoïque Personnalité paranoïaque Schizophrénie paranoïaque
ROSENFELD, H. (1949). Remarks on the relation of male homosexuality to paranoia, paranoid anxiety and narcissism. International Journal of Psycho-Analysis, 30, 36-47. CHADWICK, P.D.J., BIRCHWOOD, M.J. & TROWER, P. (1996). Cognitive therapy for delusions, voices and paranoia. Chichester, UK : Wiley.
LEMERT, E. (1962). Paranoia and the dynamics of exclusion. Sociometry, 25 (1), 2-20 FREEMAN, D., GARETY, P.A., BEBBINGTON, P. E., SMITH, B., ROLLINSON, R., FOWLER, D., KUIPERS, E., RAY, K. & DUNN, G. (2005). Psychological investigation of the structure of paranoia in a non-clinical population. British Journal of Psychiatry, 186, 427-435.
KENDLER, K.S. (1980). The nosologic validity of paranoia (simple delusional disorder) : A review. Archives of General Psychiatry, 37, 699-706. GILBERT, P., BOXALL, M., CHEUNG, M. & IRONS, C. (2005). The relation of paranoid ideation and social anxiety in a mixed clinical population. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 12, 124-133.
CARSTENSEN, L.L. & FREMOUW, W.J. (1981). The demonstration of a behavioral intervention for late life paranoia. The Gerontologist, 21, 329-333. COMBS, D.R., TIEGREEN, J. & NELSON, A. (2007). The use of behavioral experiments to modify delusion and paranoia : Clinical guidelines and Recommendations. International Journal of Behavioral Consultation & Therapy, 3 (1), 30-37. [PDF]
FENIGSTEIN, A. & VANABLE, P.A. . (1992). Paranoia and self-consciousness. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 62, 129-138. CHADWICK, P.D.J., HUGHES, S., RUSSELL, D., RUSSELL, I. & DAGNA, D. (2009). Mindfulness groups for distressing voices and paranoia : a replication and feasibility trial. Behavioural & Cognitive Psychotherapy, 37, 403-412.
Voir Personnalité paranoïaque, Exclusion et Délire
Paranormal : Voir Phénomène paranormal ou Parapsychologie.
Paraphilie : Terme proposé en 1980 (DSM-III) pour remplacer l'expression déviance sexuelle. Il désigne l'ensemble de comportements sexuels caractérisé par le choix préférentiel et répétitif, parfois exclusif, d'objets, de rituels ou de situations atypiques comme moyen d'excitation et d'obtention d'un plaisir sexuel. = déviance sexuelle, perversion, plaisir sexuel atypique. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Paraphilia, paraphilic disorder, sexual deviance, sexual aberration.
Types de paraphilie
Coprophalie Frotteurisme Pictophilie
Éonisme Mésomorphilie Somnophilie
    Trouble hypersexuel
Exhibitionnisme Mysophilie Urophilie
Coprophalie Nécrophilie Voyeurisme
Fétichisme Pédophilie Zoophilie
KRAFFT-EBING, R.F. (1886/32). Psychopathia sexualis. Physicians and Surgeons Book Company. ABEL, G.G. & OSBORN, C.A. (2000). The paraphilias. In M.G. Gelder, J.J. Lopez-Ibor & N. Andreasen (Eds.), New Oxford textbook of psychiatry (pp. 897-913). New York : Oxford.
STEKEL, W. (1930). Sexual aberrations : The phenomenon of fetishism in relation to sex. Liveright Publishing. MOSER, C.A. (2001). Paraphilia : Another confused sexological concept In P.J. Kleinplatz (Ed.), New directions in sex therapy-innovations and alternatives. Brunner-Routledge.
ELLIS, A. (1952). Perversions and neurosis. International Journal of Sexology, 55, 135-138. SPITZER, R.L. & WAKEFIELD, J.C. (2002). Why pedophilia is a disorder of sexual attraction at least sometimes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 499-500.
STOLLER, R.J. (1978). La perversion forme érotique de la haine. Paris : Payot. WEIDERMAN, M. (2003). Paraphilia and fetishism. The Family Journal, 11 (3), 315-321. [PDF]
MONEY, J. (1986). Lovemaps: Clinical concepts of sexual/erotic health and pathology, paraphilia, and gender transposition in childhood, adolescence, and maturity. New York : Irvington. MOSER, C.A. & KLEINPLATZ, P.J. (2005). DSM-IV-TR and the paraphilias : An argument for removal. Journal of Psychology & Human Sexuality, 17 (3/4), 91-109.
  FIRST, M.B. & FRANCES, A. (2008). Issues for DSM-5 : Unintended consequences of small changes: The case of paraphilias [Editorial]. American Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 1240-1241.
  DECLUE, G. (2009). Paraphilia NOS and sexual disorder NOS. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 1, 1-29.
GABBARD, G.O. (1990). Dynamic approaches to the paraphilias. Directions in Psychiatry, 10 (6), 1-8. HINDERLITER, A.C. (2010). Defining paraphilia : excluding exclusion. Open Access Journal of Forensic Psychology, 2, 241-271. [PDF]
FEDOROFF, J.P. (1992). Buspirone hydrochloride in the treatment of an atypical paraphilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 21, 403-408. THORNTON, D. (2010). Evidence regarding the need for a diagnostic category for a coercive paraphilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 411-418.
BRADFORD, J.M.W., BOULET, J. & PAWLAK, A. (1992). The paraphilias : A multiplicity of deviant behaviours. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 104-108. QUINSEY, V.L. (2010). Coercive paraphilic disorder. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 405-410. [PDF]
LAWS, D.L. & O'DONOHUE, W. (Eds.) (1997). Sexual deviance : Theory, assessment, and treatment. Guilford Press. MARSH, B.L., ODLAUG, B.A.,THOMARIOS, N., DAVIS, A.A., BUCHANAN, B.S., MEYER, C.S. & GRANT, J.E. (2010). Paraphilias in adult psychiatric inpatients. Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 22 (2), 129-134. [PDF]
TRUDEL, G. (1988). Les dysfonctions sexuelles. Montréal. Les Presses de l'Université du Québec. Voir aussi Déviance sexuelle et Plaisir sexuel
Paraphrase/Paraphraser : Consiste à transformer la structure d'une phrase (syntaxe) ou d'un texte, sans en modifier le sens, donc en préservant l'idée à l'origine de cette phrase et, en science, en citant la source de cette idée. Paraphraser, écrire et plagier. = reformuler, dire dans ses mots. Paraphrasing.
GLEITMAN, L. & GLEITMAN, H. (1970). Phrase and paraphrase. New York : W.W. Norton.
 LE NY, J.F. (1988). L’ambiguïté et la paraphrase en psychologie cognitive. In C. Fuchs (Dir.), L’ambiguïté et la paraphrase (p. 21-27). Caen : Publications de l’Université de Caen.
ROIG, M. (1999). When college students' attempts at paraphrasing become instances of potential plagiarism. Psychological Reports, 84 (3), 973-982.
ROIG, M. (2001). Plagiarism and paraphrasing criteria of college and university professors. Ethics & Behavior, 11 (3), 307-324.
SHIRLEY, S. (2004). The art of paraphrase. Teaching English in the two-year college 22 (2), 186-189.
BARRY, E.S. (2006). Can paraphrasing practice help students define plagiarism ? College Student Journal, 4 (2), 377-384.
Voir aussi Tricherie et Écrire
Paraphrénie : Type de psychose chronique non-dissociative qui se caractérise par des délires concentrés dans certaines sphères d'activités de la vie quotidienne. Paraphrenia.
KAY, D.W.K. & ROTH, M. (1961). Environmental and hereditary factors in schizophrenias of old-age (late paraphrenia) and their bearing on general problem of causation in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Science, 107, 649.
HERBERT, M.E. & JACOBSON, S. (1967). Late paraphrenia. British Journal of Psychiatry, 113, 461-469.
IMEIDA, O.P., HOWARD, R.J. & LEVY, R. (1992). Late paraphrenia : a review. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 7, 543-548.
IMEIDA, O.P., HOWARD, R.J., LEVY, R. & DAVID, A S. (1995). Psychotic states arising in late life (late paraphrenia) : The role of risk factors. British Journal of Psychiatry, 166, 215-228.
ROTH, M. & KAY, D.W.K. (1998). Late paraphrenia : A variant of schizophrenia manifest in late life or an organic clinical syndrome ? A review of recent evidence. International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 13, 775-784.
RAVINDRAN, A.V., YATHAM, L.N. & MUNRO, A. (1999). Paraphrenia redefined. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry/ Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 44, 133-137.
CASANOVA, M.F. (2010). The pathology of paraphrenia. Current Psychiatry Reports, 12 (3), 196-20.
Voir aussi Psychose et Délire
Paraprofessionnel : Voir Professionnel (Para).
Parapsychologie : Voir Psychologie (Para). ESP.
Parasite/Parasitisme : Relation entre deux organismes (ou plus) d'espèces différentes qui est bénéfique pour l'un d'eux (le parasite) et désavantageuse pour l'autre (l'hôte). Parasitisme et commensalisme. Parasitism.
WINFREE, R. (1999). Cuckoos, cowbirds and the persistence of brood parasitism. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 14, 338-343.
Voir aussi Commensalisme
Paraskevidékatriaphobie : Phobie du chiffre 13.
Parasomnie : Ensemble de comportements involontaires qui se manifestent lors du sommeil, et qui peuvent parfois être ou devenir pathologiques. ( ): Voir tableau ci-dessous. Parasomnia.
Bruxisme Énurésie Somniloquie
Cauchemar Somnambulisme Terreur nocturne
LABERGE, L., TREMBLAY, R.E., VITARO, F & MONTPLAISIR, J. (2000). Development of parasomnias from childhood to early adolescence. Pediatrics, 106 (1), 67-74.
HUBLIN, C. & KAPRIO, J. (2003). Genetic aspects and genetic epidemiology of parasomnias. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 7 (5), 413-421.
Voir aussi Sommeil
Parasuicide : Voir Suicide (Para).
Parcelle (de nourriture) : Lieu où se concentrent les ressources d'un milieu. Ces parcelles peuvent être fixes (EX : un point d'eau) ou mobiles (EX : un troupeau de caribous pour une meute de loups). Les parcelles sont convoités par des organosmes qui mettent en oeuvre des stratégies pour se les approprier. = source pontuel. Patch.
GALEF, B.G. & WIGMORE, S.W. (1983). Transfer of information concerning distant food : a test of the "information centre" hypothesis. Animal Behaviour, 31, 748-758.
KACELNIK, A. (1984). Central place foraging in starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) I : Patch residence time. Journal of Animal Ecology, 53, 283-299.
FAHRIG, L. & MERRIAM, G. (1985). Habitat patch connectivity and population survival. Ecology, 66, 1762-1768.
FAHRIG, L. & PALOHEIMO, J.E. (1988). Determinants of local population size in patchy habitats. Theoretical Population Biology, 34,194-213.
BOWERS, M.A., GREGARIO, K., BRAME, C.J., MATTER, S.F. & DOOLEY, J.L. (1966). Use of space and habitats by meadow voles at home range, patch and landscape scales. Oecologia, 105, 107-115.
BENDER, D.J. CONTRERAS, A.T. & FAHRIG, L. (1998). Habitat loss and population decline : a meta-analysis of the patch size effect. Ecology, 79, 517-533.
BOWMAN, J., CAPPUCINNO, N. & FAHRIG, L. (2002). Patch size and population density : the effect of immigration behavior. Conservation Ecology, 6 (1). [LIRE]
Voir Ressource et Approvisionnement alimentaire
Parcimonie : Voir Principe de parcimonie.
Pardon/Pardonner : Renoncer à punir ou à se venger d'un individu qui nous a fait du tort ou du mal (ou dont est convaincu qu'il l'a fait). Forgiveness.
WORTHINGTON, E.L. & DIBLASIO, F. (1990) Promoting mutual forgiveness within the fractured relationship. Psychotherapy : Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 27, 219-223. McCULLOUGH, M.E. & ROOT L.M. (2005). Forgiveness as change. In E. L. Worthington (Ed.), Handbook of forgiveness (pp. 91-107). New York : Routledge.
GORSUCH, R.L. & HAO, J.Y. (1993). Forgiveness : An exploratory factor analysis and its relationships to religious variables. Review of Religious Research, 34, 333-347. LAWLER, K.A., YOUNGER, J.W., PIFERI, R.L., JOBE, R.L., EDMONDSON, K.A. & JONES, W.H. (2005). The unique effects of forgiveness on health : An exploration of pathways. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 28, 157-167.
McCULLOUGH, M.E. & WORTHINGTON., E.L. (1995). Promoting forgiveness : A comparison of two brief psycho-educational interventions with a waiting-list control. Counseling & Values, 40 (1), 55-68. [PDF] YSSELDYK, R., MATHESON, K. & ANISMAN, H. (2007). Rumination : Bridging a gap between forgivingness, vengefulness, and psychological health. Personality & Individual Differences, 42, 1573-1584.
McCULLOUGH, M.E., WORTHINGTON, E.L. & RACHAL, K.C. (1997). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 73, 321-336. [PDF] +[PDF]  
MINOW, M. (1998). Between vengeance and forgiveness : Facing history after genocide and mass violence. Boston : Beacon Press. WORTHINGTON., E.L., WITVLIET, C.V.O., PIETRINI, P. & MILLER, A.J. (2007). Forgiveness, health, and well-being : A review of evidence for emotional versus decisional forgiveness, dispositional forgivingness, and reduced unforgiveness. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 30, 291-302.
McCULLOUGH, M.E., RACHAL, K.C., SANDAGE, S.J., WORTHINGTON, E.L., BROWN, S.W. & HIGHT, T.L. (1998). Interpersonal forgiving in close relationships : II. Theoretical elaboration and measurement. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 75, 1586-1603. [PDF] WILLIAMSON, I. & GONZALEZ, M.H. (2007). The subjective experience of forgiveness : Positive construals of the forgiveness experience. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 26, 407-446.
BRADFIELD, M. & AQUINO, K. (1999). Effects of blame attributions and offender likeableness on forgiveness and revenge in the workplace. Journal of Management, 25, 607-631. MALTBY, J., WOOD, A.M., DAY, L., KON, T.W.H., COLLEY, A. & LINLEY, P.A. (2008). Personality predictors of levels of forgiveness two and a half years after the transgression. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 1088-1094.
CANZONERI, N., GEVA, N. & VEDLITZ, A. (1999). The role of forgiveness in intergroup conflict resolution. Journal of Intergroup Relations, 26 (3), 26-47. BONO, G., MCCULLOUGH, M.E. & ROOT, L. M. (2008). Forgiveness, feeling connected to others, and well-being : Two longitudinal studies. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 34 (2), 182-195. [PDF]
McCULLOUGH, M.E. (2000). Forgiveness as human strength : Theory, measurement, and links to well-being. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 19 (1), 43-55. [PDF] TOUSSAINT, L.L., OWEN, A.D. & CHEADLE, A.C.D. (2011). Forgive to Live : Forgiveness, health, and longevity. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35 (4), 375-386.
TOUSSAINT, L.L., WILLIAMS, D.R., MUSICK, M.A. & EVERSON, S.A. (2001). Forgiveness and health : Age differences in a US probability sample. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 249-257. TABAK. B.A., McCULLOUGH, M.E., ROOT, L.M., BONO, G. & BERRY, J.W. (2012). Conciliatory gestures facilitate forgiveness and feelings of friendship by making transgressors appear more agreeable. Journal of Personality, 80 (2), 503-536.
ZECHMEISTER, J.S. & ROMERO, C. (2002). Victim and offender accounts of interpersonal conflict : Autobiographical narratives of forgiveness and unforgiveness. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 82 (4), 675-686. BURNETTE, J.L., McCULLOUGH, M.E., VAN TONGEREN, D.R. & Davis, D. E. (2012). Forgiveness results from integrating information about relationship value and exploitation risk. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 38 (3), 345-356. [PDF]
McCULLOUGH, M.E., FINCHAM, F.D. & TSANG, J. (2003). Forgiveness, forbearance, and time: The temporal unfolding of transgression-related interpersonal motivations. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 84 (3), 540-557. [PDF] STEINER, M., ALLEMAND, M. & McCULLOUGH, M.E. (2012). Do agreeableness and neuroticism explain age differences in the tendency to forgive others ? Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 441-453.
WORTHINGTON., E.L. & SCHERER, M. (2004). Forgiveness is an emotion-focused coping strategy that can reduce health risks and promote health resilience: Theory, review, and hypotheses. Psychology & Health, 19, 385-405.  
BROWN. R.P. (2004). Vengeance is mine : Narcissism, vengeance, and the tendency to forgive. Journal of Research in Personality, 38, 576-584. McCULLOUGH, M.E., KURZBAN R. & TABAK. B.A. (2013). Cognitive systems for revenge and forgiveness. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 36, 1-58. [PDF]
ZECHMEISTER, J.S., GARCIA, S., ROMERO, C. & VAS, S.N. (2004). Don't apologize unless you mean it : A laboratory investigation of forgiveness and retaliation. Journal of Social & Clinical Psychology, 23, 532-564. DAVIS, D.E., WORTHINGTON., E.L., HOOK, J.N. & HILL, P.C. (2013). Research on religion/Spirituality and forgiveness : A meta-analytic review. Psychology of Religion & Spirituality, 5 (4), [PDF]
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Voir aussi Vengeance, Guerre, Stratégie d'adaptation au stress et Punir
Paréidolie : Du grec para qui signifie «à côté de», et eidôlon ou eidos qui veut dire «apparence, forme». Type d’illusion qui consiste à reconnaître des formes familières dans des objets (ou des ensembles d'objets) qui ne possèdent pas réellement ces formes. EX: Voir une ourse (forme famillière) en regardant les étoiles (constellation d'objets). Pareidolia, illusory face perception.
FONTENELLE, L.F. (2008). Pareidolias in obsessive-compulsive disorder : neglected symptoms that may respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Neurocase, 14 (5), 414-418.
RIEKKI, T., LINDEMAN, M., ALENEFF, M., HALME, A. & NUORTIMO, A. (2013). Paranormal and religious believers are more prone to illusory face perception than skeptics and non-believers. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27 (2), 150-155.
Parent = Fonction sociale OU Parent = Nom propre
Parent : Père et/ou mère qui s'occupe de ses enfants, leur prodigue des soins, au sein ou non d'une famille. Cette personne est souvent le géniteur et est habituellement un adulte (sinon voir fille-mère), qui vit en couple (sinon voir divorce). Parent et habileté parentale. Parent, parenthood.
Types de parent
Parent adoptif Parent habile Parent thérapeute
Parent biologique Parent homosexuel Parent violent
Parent divorcé ou séparé Parent seul Soins des parents
Rôles et fonctions du parent
Encadrement et discipline parentale Sollicitude parentale Soins des parents
Contribution et soutien des parents Style parental Soutien aux parents
  Tolérance parentale
ZUCKERMAN, M., BARRETT, B.H. & BRAGIEL, R.M. (1960). The parental attitudes of parents of child guidance cases : I. Comparisons with normals, investigations of socioeconomic and family constellation factors, and relations to parents' reactions to the clinics. Child Development, 31, 401-417. NATHANSON, A.I. (1999). Identifying and explaining the relationship between parental mediation and children's aggression. Communication Research, 26, 124-143.
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JOHNSTON, C. & FREEMAN, W. (1997). Attributions for child behavior in parents of children without behavior disorders and children with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 65 (4), 636-645. GRIFFITHS, M.D. & KUSS, D.J. (2010). Adolescent social networking : Should parents and teachers be worried ? Education & Health, 29 (2), 23-25. [PDF]
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LYKKEN, D.T. (1997). Incompetent parenting : Its causes and cures. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 27, 129-137. GLASCOE, F.P. & LEEW, S. (2010). Parenting behaviors, perceptions and psychosocial risk : Impact on child development. Pediatrics, 125, 313-319. [PDF]
JACOB, T. & JOHNSON, S. (1997). Parenting influences on the development of alcohol abuse and dependence. Alcohol Health & Research World, 21 (3), 205-209. [PDF] O'ROURKE, D., SMITH, R.E., SMOLL, F.L. & CUMMMING, S.P. (2011). Trait anxiety in young athletes as a function of parental pressure and motivational climate: Is parental pressure always harmful ? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 4 (23), 398-412.
COTE, L. & AZAR, S. (1997). Child age, parent and child gender and domain differences in parents' attributions and responses to children's outcomes. Sex Roles, 36, 23-50. VILLANTI, A., BOULAY, M. & JUON H. (2011). Peer, parent and media influences on adolescent smoking by developmental stage. Addictive Behaviors, 36 (1-2), 133-136. [PDF]
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ANDREW J.A., HOPS, H. & DUNCAN, S.C. (1997). Adolescent modeling of parent substance use : The moderating effect of the relationship with the parent. Journal of Family Psychology, 11 (3), 259-270. BESNARD, T., VERLAAN, P., CAPUANO, F., POULIN, F. et VITARO, F. (2011). Les pratiques parentales des parents d'enfants en difficultés de comportement : Effets de la dyade parent-enfant. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 43, 254-266. [PDF]
WENTZEL, K.R. (1998). Social relationships and motivation in middle school : The role of parents, teachers, and peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 (2), 202-209. [PDF] NELSON, S.K., KUSHLEV, K., ENGLISH, T., DUNN, E.W. & LYUBOMIRSKY, S. (2013). In defense of parenthood : Children are associated with more joy than misery. Psychological Science, 24 (1), 3-10. [PDF]
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JENSON, C., GREEN, R., SINGH, N., BEST, A. & ELLIS, C. (1998). Parental attributions of the causes of their children's behavior. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 7 (2), 205-215. NELSON, S.K., KUSHLEV, K. & LYUBOMIRSKY, S. (2014). The pains and pleasures of parenting : When, why, and how is parenthood associated with more or less well-being ? Psychological Bulletin, 140, 846-895. [PDF]
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GAVIN, K.M. & GREENFIELD, D.B. (1998). A comparison of levels of involvement for parents with at-risk African American kindergarten children in classrooms with high versus low teacher encouragement. Journal of Black Psychology, 24 (4), 403-417.  PONSETI, F.J., SESE, A. & MAS-GARCIA, A. (2016). The impact of competitive anxiety and parental influence on the performance of young swimmers. Revista Iberoamericana de Psicología del Ejercicio y el Deporte, 11, 229-237. [PDF]
GELMAN, S.A., COLEY, J.D., ROSENGREN, K.R., HARTMANN, E.E. & PAPPAS, A.S. (1998). Beyond labeling : The role of parental input in the acquisition of richly-structured categories. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 63 (1), 1-148. MENDI, E. & ELDELEKLIOGLU, J. (2016). Parental conditional regard, subjective well-being and self-esteem: The mediating role of perfectionism. Psychology, 7 (10) 1276-1295. [PDF]
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JENSON, C., GREEN, R., SINGH, N., BEST, A. & ELLIS, C. (1998). Parental attributions of the causes of their children's behavior. Journal of Child & Family Studies, 7 (2), 205-215. AZNAR, N. & TENENBAUM, H.R. (2016). Parent' child positive touch : Gender, age, and task differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 40 (4), 317-333. [PDF]
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Voir aussi Relation parents-enfants, Père et Mère
Parent (Discipline, autorité, encadrement et contrôle du...) : Ensemble de règles mis en oeuvre par les parents afin d'inculquer, maintenir, surveiller et corriger les comportements de leurs enfants. = éducation parentale, supervison parentale, pratique parentale. Parental discipline, control parents, parenting, parent tutoring, parent monitoring, parent surveillance, parent management.
BAUMRIND, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37 (4), 887-907. [PDF] GLASCOE, F.P. & DWORKIN, P.H. (1995). The role of parents in the detection of developmental and behavioral problems. Pediatrics, 95 (6), 829-836.
BAUMRIND, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4, 1-102. O'LEARY, S.G. (1995). Parental discipline mistakes. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 4 (1), 11-13.
TEDIN, K.L. (1974). The influence of parents on the political attitudes of adolescents. American Political Science Review 68, 1579-1592. HART, B. & RISLEY, T.R. (1995). Meaningful differences in everyday parenting and intellectual development in young American children. Baltimore : Brookes.
WELLER, L. & BERKOVITZ, E. (1975). Parental discipline and delayed gratification. Social Behavior & Personality, 3, 1229-232. WHITEBECK, L.B., HOYT, D.R. & ACKLEY, K.A. (1997). Families of homeless and runaway adolescents : A comparison of parent/caretaker and adolescent perspectives on parenting, family violence, and adolescent conduct. Child Abuse & Neglect, 21 (6), 517-528.
BAUMRIND, D. (1978). Parental disciplinary patterns and social competence in children. Youth & Society, 9 (3), 239-276. DEATER-DECKARD, K. & DODGE, K.A. (1997). Externalizing behavior problems and discipline revisited : Nonlinear effects and variation by culture, context, and gender. Psychological Inquiry, 8 (3), 161-175.
KANANAGH, K., YOUNGBLADE, L.M., REID, J.B. & FAGOT, B.I. (1988). Interactions between children and abusive versus control parents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 137-142. RANDOLPH, J.J. & DYKMAN, B.M. (1998). Perceptions of parenting and depression-proneness in the offspring : Dysfunctional attitudes as a mediating mechanism. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 22, 377-400.
STEINBERG, L., ELMEN, J.D. & MOUNTS, N.S. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 1424-1436. GLASCOE, F.P. (1999). Toward a model for an evidenced-based approach to developmental/behavioral surveillance, promotion and patient education. Ambulatory Child Health, 5, 197-208.
GLASCOE, F.P., MacLEAN, W.E. & STONE, W.L. (1991). The importance of parents' concerns about their child's behavior. Clinical Pediatrics, 30, 8-11. HOOK, C.L. & DUPAUL, G.J. (1999). Parent tutoring for students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder : Effects on reading performance and mother-child interactions. School Psychology Review, 28, 60-75.
BISHOP, S.J. & ROTHBAUM, F. (1992). Parents' acceptance of control needs and preschoolers' social behaviour : A longitudinal sudy. Canadian Journal of Behaviour Science, 24 (2), 171-185. GLASCOE, F.P. (2000). Evidence-based approach to developmental and behavioural surveillance using parents' concerns. Child : Care, Health & Development, 26 (2), 137-149.
ECCLES, J.S. & HAROLD, R.D. (1991). Parental-school involvement during the early adolescent years. Teachers College Record, 94, 568-587. GROTE D. (2001). Discipline without punishment. Across the Board, 38, 52-58.
ARNOLD, D.S., O'LEARY, S.G., WOLFF, L.S. & ACKER, M.M. (1993). The Parenting Scale : A measure of dysfunctional parenting in discipline situations. Psychological Assessment, 5 (2), 137-144. LOPEZ, N.L., SCHNEIDER, H.G. & DULA, C.S. (2002). Parent discipline scale : Discipline choice as a function of transgression type. North American Journal of Psychology, 4, 381-393.
GRUSEC, J.E. & GOODNOW, J.J. (1994). Impact of parental discipline methods on the child's internalization of values: A reconceptualization of current points of view. Developmental Psychology, 30 (1),1-19. SORBRING, E., RODHOLM-FUNNEMARK, M. & PALMERUS, K. (2003). "Boys" and "girls" perceptions of parental discipline in transgression situations. Infant & Child Development, 12 (1), 53-69.
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  GROLNICK, W.S. (2003). The psychology of parental control : How well-meant parenting backfires. Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
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  O'ROURKE, D., SMITH, R.E., SMOLL, F.L. & CUMMMING, S.P. (2011). Trait anxiety in young athletes as a function of parental pressure and motivational climate : Is parental pressure always harmful ? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 4 (23), 398-412.
  BESNARD, T., VERLAAN, P., CAPUANO, F., POULIN, F. et VITARO, F. (2011). Les pratiques parentales des parents d'enfants en difficultés de comportement : Effets de la dyade parent-enfant. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement, 43, 254-266. [PDF]
GLASCOE, F.P. (1994). It's not what it seems : The relationship between parents' concerns and children's cognitive status. Clinical Pediatrics, 33, 292-298. TAM, C.-L., LEE, T.-H., KUMARASURIAR, V. & HAR, W.-M. (2012). Parental authority, parent-child relationship and gender differences : A study of college students in the Malaysian context. Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences, 6 (2), 182-189. [PDF]
LATHAM, G.I. (1994). The power of positive parenting.North Logan, UT : P & I Ink. SLESNICK, N., REED, S., LETCHER, A., KATAFIASZ, H., JONES, T. & BUETTNER, C. (2012). Predictors of parental monitoring among families with a runaway adolescent. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 82 (1), 10-18. [PDF]
  WOODMAN, A.C. (2014). Trajectories of stress among parents of children with disabilities : A dyadic analysis. Family Relations, 63, 39–54.
  LANDRY, S.H. (2014). Le rôle des parents dans l’apprentissage des jeunes enfants. Dans Encyclopédie sur de développement des jeunes enfants (pp 1-6) [PDF]
  MENDI, E. & ELDELEKLIOGLU, J. (2016). Parental conditional regard, subjective well-being and self-esteem : The mediating role of perfectionism. Psychology, 7 (10) 1276-1295. [PDF]
Voir aussi Parent, Soins parentaux, Sollicitude parentale et Implication parentale
Parent (Participation/Engagement/Contribution/Soutien du...) : Temps et efforts consacrés par les parents à l'éducation - notamment sur le plan scolaire - de leurs enfants. Ces efforts peuvent être plus ou moins soutenus, autoritaires et systématiques (Voir encadrement parental). Implication des parens, prépartion à l'école et influence familliale. = participation parentale, suivi parental, influence de la famille. Parent involvement, Parental contribution, parent engagement, parent support, parental time, family engagement.
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MAGNUS, P., BERG, K., BJERKEDAL, T. & NANCE, W.E. (1984). Parental determinants of birth weight. Clinical Genetics, 26, 397-405.  
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KEITH, T.Z., REIMERS, T.M., FEHRMANN, P.G., POTTEBAUM, S.M. & AUBEY, L.W. (1986). Parental involvement, homework, and TV time : Direct and indirect effects on high school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 78, 373-380. HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. BATTIATO, A.C., WALKER, J.M.T., REED, R.P., DEJONG, J.M. & JONES, K.P. (2001). Parental involvement in homework. Educational Psychologist, 36, 195-210.
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KEITH, Z.T., KEITH, P.B., TROUTMAN, G.C., BICKLEY, P.G., TRIVETTE, P.S. & SINGH, K. (1993). Does parental involvement affect eighth-grade student achievement ? Structural analysis of national data. School Psychology Review, 22, 474-496. DESLANDES, R. et BERTRAND, R. (2004). Motivation des parents à participer au suivi scolaire de leur enfant au primaire. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 3 (2), 411-433. [PDF]
HENDERSON, A.T. & BERLA, N. (Ed.) (1994). A new generation of evidence : The family is critical to student achievement. Washington, DC : Center for Law and Education. DESLANDES, R. & BERTRAND, R. (2004). Motivation of parent involvement in secondary-level schooling. The Journal of Educational Research, 98, 164-175.
SINGH, K., BICKLEY, P.G., TRIVETTE, P.S., KEITH, T.Z., KEITH, P.B. & ANDERSON, E. (1995). The effects of four components of parental involvement on eighth grade student achievement : Structural analysis of NELS-88 data. School Psychology Review, 24, 99-317. EPSTEIN, J.L. (2004). How middle schools can meet NCLB requirements for family involvement. Middle Ground (NMSA), 8 (1), 14-17.
GROLNICK, W.S. & SLOWACZEK, M.L. (1994). Parents’ involvement in children’s schooling : A multidimensional conceptualization and motivational model. Child Development, 65, 237-252. BRETHERTON, I., LAMBERT, J.D. & GOLBY, B. (2005). Involved fathers of preschool children as seen by themselves and their wives : Accounts of attachment, socialization, and companionship. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 229-251.
FORTIN, L. & MERCIER, H. (1994). Liens entre la participation des parents à l'école et les comportements de leur enfant en classe du primaire. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 20 (3), 513-527. [PDF] SHELDON, S.B. (2005). Testing a structural equations model of partnership program implementation and parent involvement. The Elementary School Journal, 106 (2), 171-187.
HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V., BASSLER, O.C. & BUROW, R. (1995). Parents' reported involvement in students' homework : Parameters of reported strategy and practice. Elementary School Journal, 95, 435-450. HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V., WALKER, J.M.T., SANDLER, H.M., WHETSEL, D., GREEN, C.L., WILKINS, A.S. & CLOSSON, K. (2005). Why do parents become involved ? Research findings and implications. The Elementary School Journal, 106 (2), 105-130.
RASINSKI, T.V. (1995). Fast Start : A parental involvement reading program for primary grade students. In W. Linek & E. Sturtevant (Eds.), Generations of literacy : 17th Yearbook of the College Reading Association (pp. 301-312). Harrisonburg, VA : College Reading Association. BARBER, B.K., STOLZ, H.E. & OLSEN, J.A. (2005). Parental support, psychological control, and behavioral control : Assessing relevance across time, method, and culture. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 70 (4).
HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. & SANDLER, H.M. (1995). Parental involvement in children's education : Why does it make a difference ? Teachers College Record, 97 (2), 311-331. HUEBNER, C.E. & MELTZOFF, A.N. (2005). Intervention to change parent-child reading style : A comparison of instructional methods. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 26, 296-313.
HO, S-C.E. & WILLMS, J.D. (1996). Effects of parental involvement on eighth-grade achievement. Sociology of Education, 69 (2), 126-141. DECASTRO-AMBROSSETTI, D. & CHO, G. (2005). Do parents value education ? Teachers' perceptions of minority parents. Multicultural Education, 13, 44-46. [PDF]
  HONG, S. & HO, H.Z. (2005). Direct and indirect longitudinal effects of parental involvement on student achievement : Second-order latent growth modeling across ethnic groups. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 32-42.
WILLIAMS, E., RADIN, N. & COGGINS, K. (1996). Paternal involvement in childrearing and the school performance of Ojibwa children : An exploratory study. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 42, 578-595. DRIESSEN, G., SMIT, F. & SLEEGERS, P. (2005). Parental involvement and educational achievement. British Educational Research Journal, 31, 509-532.
YOUNG, A. R., BOWERS, P.G. & MACKINNON, G.E. (1996). Effects of prosodic modeling and repeated reading on poor readers' fluency and comprehension. Applied Psycholinguistics, 17 (1), 59-84. OVERSTREET, S., DEVINE, J., BEVANS, K. & EFREOM, Y. (2005). Predicting parental involvement in children's schooling within an economically disadvantaged African American sample. Psychology in the Schools, 42, 101-111.
  JEYNES, W.H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school children's academic achievement. Urban education, 40, 237-269. [PDF]
HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. & SANDLER, H.M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Review of Educational Research, 67 (1), 3-42. [PDF] MCBRIDE, B.A., BROWN, G.L., BOST, K.K., SHIN, N., VAUGHN, B. & KORTH, B. (2005). Paternal identity, maternal gatekeeping, and father involvement. Family Relations, 54, 360-372.
OTTO, L.B. & ATKINSON, M.P. (1997). Parental involvement and adolescent development. Journal of Adolescent Research, 12 (1), 68-89. SHELDON, S. B. (2005). Testing a structural equation model of partnership program implementation and parent involvement. The Elementary School Journal, 106 (2), 171-187.
  SMITH, J.G. (2006). Parental involvement in education among low-income families : A case study. School Community Journal, 16 (1), 43-56. [PDF]
  EPSTEIN, J.L. (2006). Parent involvement grows up. Threshold, 4 (2), 9-12.
  SEGINER, R. (2006). Parents' educational involvement : A developmental ecology perspective. Parenting, Science & Practice, 6 (1), 1-48.
  ANDERSON, K.J. & MINKE, K.M. (2007). Parent involvement in education : Toward an understanding of parents’ decision-making. Journal of Educational Research, 100 (5), 313-323.
  JEYNES, W.H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school academic achievement : A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42 (1), 82-110. [PDF]
  GURYAN, J., HURST, E. & KEARNY, M. (2008). Parental Education and parental time with children. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 22 (3), 23-46. [PDF]
LYYTINEN, P., LAASKO, M.-L., POIKKEUS, A.-M. (1998). Parental contribution to child's early language and interest in books. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 13, 297-308. SANDERS, M.G. (2008). How parent liaisons can help bridge home and school. Journal of Educational Research, 101, 287-297. [PDF]
BALLI, S.J., DEMO, D.H. & WEDMAN, J.F. (1998). Family involvement with children's homework : An intervention in the middle grades. Family Relations, 47, 149-57. PATALL, E.A., COOPER, H. & CIVEY, R.J. (2008). Parent involvement in homework : A research synthesis. Review of Educational Research, 78 (4), 1039-1101. [PDF]
  GUTIÉRREZ-DOMÈNECH, M (2010). Parental employment and time with children in Spain. Review of Economics of the Household, 8 (3), 371-391.
CALLAHAN, K., RADEMACHER, J.A. & HILDRETH, B.L. (1998). The effect of parent participation in strategies to improve the homework performance of students who are at risk. Remedial & Special Education, 19 (3), 131-141. MENHEERE, A. & HOOGE, E.H. (2010). Parental involvement in children's education : A review study about the effect of parental involvement on children's school education with a focus on the position of illiterate parents. Journal of the European Teacher Education Network, 6, 145-157. [PDF]
SALOMON, A. & COMEAU, J. (1998). La participation des parents à l'école primaire trente ans après : un objectif encore à atteindre. Revue Internationale de Pédagogie, 44 (2-3), 251-267. VAN VOORHIS, F.L. (2011). Costs and benefits of family involvement in homework : Lessons learned from students and families. Journal of Advanced Academics, 22, 220-249.
GAVIN, K.M. & GREENFIELD, D.B. (1998). A comparison of levels of involvement for parents with at-risk African American kindergarten children in classrooms with high versus low teacher encouragement. Journal of Black Psychology, 24 (4), 403-417. JEYNES, W.H. (2011). Parental Involvement & Academic Success. New York : Taylor & Francis/Routledge.
WAGGONER, K. & GRIFFITH, A. (1998). Parent involvement in education : Ideology and experience. Journal for a Just & Caring Education, 4 (1), 65-77. LILLY, C.L. & HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. (2011). Linking parental motivations for involvement and student proximal achievement outcomes in homeschooling and public shooling settings. Education & Urban Society, 43 (3) 339–369. [PDF]
LYYTINEN, P., LAASKO, M. & POKKEUS, A. (1998). Parental contributions to child's early language and interest in books. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 13, 297-308. LARIVÉE, S.J. (2011). Regards croisés sur l'implication parentale et les performances scolaires. Service Social, 57 (2), 5-19. [PDF]
   Baker, T., WISE, J., KELLEY, G. & SKIBA, R.J.. (2106). Identifying barriers : Creating solutions to improve family engagement. School Community Journal, 26, 161-18
  McDOWALL, P.S. & SCHAUGHENCY, E. (2017). Elementary school parent engagement efforts : Relations with educator perceptions and school characteristics. Journal of Educational Research, 110 (4), 348-365.
BECK, L. & MURPHY, J. (1999). Parental involvement in site-based management : Lessons from one site. International Journal of Leadership in Education, 2 (2), 81-102. McDOWALL, P.S., TAUMOEPEAU, M. & SCHAUGHENCY, E. (2017). Parent involvement in beginning primary school: Correlates and changes in involvement across the first two years of school in a New Zealand sample. Journal of School Psychology, 62, 11-31.
  KIRKORIAN, H., CHOI, K. & ANDERSON, D.R. (2019). American parents' active involvement mediates the impact of background television on toddlers' play. Journal of Children & Media, 13 (4), 377-394.
Voir Influence de la famille, Parent, Réussite scolaire, Encadrement parental, Tâche domestique et Soins parentaux
Parent (Soins prodigués par le...) : Soins de base prodigué par un parent à son enfant, dès sa naissance, avec plus ou moins d'habileté, et dont l'objectif et de satisfaire les besoins immédiats (besoins physiologiques, de sécurité et d'affection et d'amour). La qualité de ces soins, ainsi que le temps et les efforts consacrés par les parents à l'éducation de leurs enfants ont une influnce sur le développement des enfants. Soins, technique du kangourou et relation mère-enfant. = soins parentaux, soins de base. Child care, mother care, competent parenting, infant care, parental care, spend time with children, spend time in child care.
AINSWORTH, M.D.S. & BOWLBY, J. (1965). Child care and the growth of love. London : Penguin Books.  
BAUMRIND, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75 (1), 43-88. MEANEY, M.J. (2001). Maternal care, gene expression, and the transmission of individual differences in stress reactivity across generations. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 24, 1161-1192.
AINSWORTH, M.D.S. (1967). Infancy in Uganda : Infant care and the growth of love. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press. MELHUISH, E.C. (2001). The quest for quality in early day care preschool experience continues. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 25 (1), 1-6.
WILLNER, A.G., BRAUKMANN, C.J., KIRGEN, K.A., FIXSEN, D.L., PHILLIPS, E.L. & WOLF, M.M. (1977). The training and validation of youth-preferred social behaviors with child-care personnel. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 10 (2), 219-230. [PDF] BELSKY, J. (2001). Developmental risks (still) associated with early child care. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 42 (7), 845-859. [PDF]
SCARR, S.W. (1984). Mother care other care. New York : Basic Books, Inc. TRASK, P.C., SCHWARTZ, S.M., DEANER, S.L., PATERSON, A.G., JOHNSON, T., RUBENFIRE, M. & POMERLEAU, O.F. (2002). Behavioral medicine : The challenge of integrating psychological and behavioral approaches into primary care. Effective Clinical Practice, 5 (2), 75-83. [PDF]
BELSKY, J. & ROVINE, M.J. (1988). Non-maternal care in the first year of life and the security of infant-parent attachment. Child Development, 59, 5-19. PARENT, C., ZHANG, T.Y., CALDJI, C., BAGOT, R. & CHAMPAGNE, F.A., PRUESSNER, J. & MEANEY, M.J. (2005). Maternal care and individual differences in defensive responses. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14 (5), 229-233. [PDF]
THOMPSON, R. (1988). The effects of infant day care through the prism of attachment theory. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 3, 273-282.  
ZASLOW, M., PEDERSEN, F., SUWALSKY, J. & RABINOVICH, R. (1989). Maternal employment and parent-infant interaction at one year. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 4, 459-478. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. SULOVA, L. & ESPIAU, G. (2005). Day care nurses' perceptions of their educational practice in France and in the Czech Republic. International Journal of Child & Family Welfare, 8 (2-3), 88-98.
VANDELL, D. & CORASANTI, H. (1990). Child care and the family : Complex contributors to child development. New Directions for Child Development, 49, 23-37. GRAIG, L. (2006). Does father care mean fathers share ? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender & Society, 20 (2), 259-281. [PDF]
BELSKY, J. (1990). Parental and nonparental child care and children's socioemotional development : A decade in review. Journal of Marriage & Family, 52, 885-903. CHAMPAGNE, F.A. & MEANEY, M.J. (2006). Stress during gestation alters postpartum maternal care and the development of the offspring in a rodent model. Biological Psychiatry, 59, 1227-1235. [PDF]
CLUTTON-BROCK, T.H. (1991). The evolution of parental care. Cambridge : Cambrige University Press. LAYZER, J.I. & GOODSON, B.D. (2006). The "quality " of early care and education settings : definitional and measurement issues. Evaluation Review, 30 (5), 556-576. [PDF]
ZASLOW, M.J. (1991). Variations in child care quality and its implications for children. Journal of Social Issues, 47 (2), 125-138. CHAMPAGNE, F.A. & MEANEY, M.J. (2007). Transgenerational effects of social environment on variations in maternal care and behavioral response to novelty. Behavioral Neuroscience, 121, 1353-1363. [PDF]
BELSKY, J. (1992). Consequences of child care for children's development : A deconstructionist view. In A. Booth (Ed.), Child care in the 1990s : Trends and consequences (pp. 83-94). Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. CHAMPAGNE, F.A. (2008). Epigenetic mechanisms and the transgenerational effects of maternal care. Frontiers of Neuroendocrinology, 29, 386-397. [PDF]
STARRELS. M. (1994). Gender differences in parent-child relations. Journal of Family Issues 15, 148-165.  
ZICK, C.D. & BRYANT, W.K. (1996). A new look at parents' time spent in child care : Primary and secondary time use. Social Science Research, 25, 260-280.  
LYKKEN, D.T. (1997). Incompetent parenting : Its causes and cures. Child Psychiatry & Human Development, 27, 129-137. STEIN, M.T., BERGMAN, D.A. & COKER, T.R. (2010). Rethinking well-child care. Pediatric Update, 30 (12), 1-10.
Voir aussi Parent, Implication parentale, Influence familiale, Encadrement/Disicpline parental
Parent (Sollicitude du...) : Capacité des parents à répondre rapidement et adéquatement aux besoins - et non aux désirs - de leurs bébés/enfants. Sollicitude parentale, soins et attachement. = sollicitude parentale. Maternel sensitivity.
AINSWORTH, M.D.S. (1969). Maternal Sensitivity Scales : The Baltimore Longitudinal Project. [PDF]
GROSSMANN, K., GROSSMANN, K.E., SPANGLER, G., SUESS, G. & UNZNER, L. (1985). Maternal sensitivity and newborns' orientation responses as related to quality of attachment in northern Germany. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 50 (209), 233-256.
 PEDERSON, D.V., MORAN, G., SITKO, C., CAMPBELL, K., GHESQUIREK. & ACTON, H. (1990). Maternal sensitivity and the security of infant-mother attachment : A Q-sort study. Child Development, 61 (6), 1974-1983.
 BELSKY, J. & PASCO FEARON, R.M. (2002). Early attachment security, subsequent maternal sensitivity, and later child development : Does continuity in development depend upon continuity of caregiving ? Attachment & Human Development, 4 (3), 361-387.
 FELDMAN, R., EIDELMAN, A.I. & ROTENBERG, N. (2004). Parenting stress, infant emotion regulation, maternal sensitivity, and the cognitive development of triplets : a model for parent and child influences in a unique ecology. Child Development, 75 (6), 1774-1791.
 FUERTES, M., LOPES DOS SANTOS, P., BEEGHLY, M. & TRONICK, E. (2006). More than maternal sensitivity shapes attachment. Annals of the New York Academy of Science, 1094, 292-296.
 LINDHIEM, O, C. BERNARD, K. & DOZIER, M. (2011). Maternal sensitivity : Within-person variability and the utility of multiple assessments. Child Maltreatment, 16 (1), 41-50. [PDF]
Voir aussi Soins prodigués par les parents, Implication parentale et Parent
Parent (Soutien à un..) : Soutien social et conseils offerts, par des professionnels et des non-professionels de la santé, aux parents fatigués ou épuisés en raison des difficultés qu'ils éprouvent avec leurs enfants.Soutien au parent et enfant handicapé. Parent support.
 KANOY, K.W. & SCHROEDER, C.S. (1985). Suggestions to parents about common behavior problems in a pediatric primary care office : Five years of follow-up. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 10, 15-30.
 DUMAS, J.E. & LAFRENIÈRE, P.J. (1993). Mother-child relationships as sources of support or stress : A comparison of competent, normative, aggressive, and anxious dyads. Child Development, 64, 1732-1754.
Voir aussi Enfant handicapé et Parent
Parent (Style de...) : Façon particulière - et plus ou moins efficace - de jouer son rôle de parent. = style parental. Parenting styles.
ADAMS, P.L., APONTE, J.F. & SCHWAB, J.J. (1965). Authoritarian parents and disturbed children. American Journal of Psychology, 121, 1162-1167. BARDI, M. & HUFFMAN, M.A. (2002). Effects of maternal style on infant behavior in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata). Developmental Psychobiology, 41, 364-372.
BAUMRIND, D. (1966). Effects of authoritative parental control on child behavior. Child Development, 37 (4), 887-907. [PDF]  
ARRINDELL, W.A., EMMELKAMP, P.M.G., MONSMA, A. & BRILMAN, E. (1983). The role of perceived parental rearing practices in the aetiology of phobic disorders : A controlled study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 143, 183-187. WOLFRADT, U., HEMPEL, S. & MILES, J.N.V. (2003). Perceived parenting styles, depersonalisation, anxiety and coping behaviour in adolescents. Personality & Individual Differences, 34, 521-532.
ARRINDELL, W.A., KWEE, M.G.T, METHORST, G.J., VANDER ENDE, J., POL, E. & MORITZ, M.J.M. (1989). Perceived parental rearing styles of agoraphobic and socially phobic inpatients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 155, 526-535.  
GROLNICK, W.S. & RYAN, R.M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children's self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143-154. [PDF] WYNN-LAUER, C. (2004). A study of the differences in parenting styles between substance abusing and non substance abusing mothers (pp. 1-89) : Yeshiva University.
BAUMRIND, D. (1991 The influence of parenting style on adolescent competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11 (1), 56-95. AUNOLA, K. & NURMI, J.E. (2005). The role of parenting styles in children's problem behavior. Child Development, 76 (6), 1144-1159. [PDF]
BAUMRIND, D. (1991). Parenting styles and adolescent development. In J. Brooks-Gunn, R. Lerner & A.C. Petersen (Eds.), The encyclopedia on adolescence (pp. 746-758). New York : Garland. SPERA, A (2005). Review of the relationship among parenting practices, parenting styles, and adolescent school achievement. Educational Psychology Review, 17 (2), 125-146. [PDF]
STEINBERG, L., LAMBORN, S.D., DORNBUSCH, S.N. & DARLING, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement : Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281. BONELL, C., ALLEN, E., STRANGE, V., OAKLEY, A., CAPAS, A., JOHNSON, A. & STEPHENSON, J. (2006). Influence of family type and parenting behaviours on teenage sexual behaviour and conceptions. Journal of Epidemiology & Community Health, 60 (6), 502-506. [PDF]
DARLING, N. & STEINBERG, L. (1993). Parenting style as context : An integrative model. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 487-496. PELAEZ, M., FIELD, T., PICKENS, J.N. & HART, S. (2008). Disengaged and authoritarian parenting behavior of depressed mothers with their toddlers. Infant Behavior & Development, 31, 145-148. [PDF]
PAULSON, S.E. (1994). Relations of parenting style and parental involvement with ninth-Grade students' achievement. The Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 250-267. KESHAVARZ, S. & BAHARUDIN, R. (2009). Parenting style in a collectivist culture of Malaysia. European Journal of Social Sciences, 10 (1), 66-73. [PDF]
Voir aussi Parent
Parent (Tolérance du...) :
BRESTAN, E.V., EYBERG, S.M., ALGINA, J., JOHNSON, S.B. & BOGGS, S.R. (2003). How annoying is it ? Defining parental tolerance for child misbehavior. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 25, 1-15. [PDF]
WRIGHT, A.W., PARENT, J., FOREHARD, R., EDWARDS, M.C., CONNERS-BURROW,N.A. & LONG, N. (2013). The relation of parent and child gender to parental tolerance of child disruptive behaviors. Journal of Child & Family Studie, 2 (6), 779-785.
Voir aussi Tolérance et Parent
Parent adoptif : Tout individu qui joue le rôle de parent auprès d'un enfant adopté. = substitut parental.
Voir aussi Parent et Enfant adopté
Parent autoritaire : Parent qui use de son autorité en punissant - parfois physiquement - davantage qu'il ne récompense/renforce le comportement de ses enfants. Authoritarian parent.
ADAMS, P.L., APONTE, J.F. & SCHWAB, J.J. (1965). Authoritarian parents and disturbed children. American Journal of Psychology, 121, 1162-1167.
STEINBERG, L., ELMEN, J.D. & MOUNTS, NS. (1989). Authoritative parenting, psychosocial maturity, and academic success among adolescents. Child Development, 60, 1424-1436.
STEINBERG, L., LAMBORN, S.D., DORNBUSCH, S.N. & DARLING, N. (1992). Impact of parenting practices on adolescent achievement : Authoritative parenting, school involvement, and encouragement to succeed. Child Development, 63, 1266-1281.
CHEN, X., DONG, Q. & ZHOU, H. (1997). Authoritative and authoritarian parenting practices and social and school adjustment. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 20, 855-873.
Voir aussi Autorité, Parent et Punir
Parent biologique : Géniteur qui s'occupe ou non de ses enfants, au sein d'une famille ou non.
LYKKEN, D.T. (1995). Want to have a baby ? Not until you get your license ! Law & Politics, 17-19.
Voir aussi Parent et Géniteur
Parent séparé ou divorcé : Voir Divorce ou Famille monoparenale.
Parent habile : Voir Habileté parentale.
Parent homosexuel : Géniteur homosexuel, seul ou en couple, qui s'occupe du développement et de l'éducation de ses enfants. Lesbian or gay parent.
GOLOMBOK, S., SPENCER, A. & RUTTER, M. (1983). Children in lesbian and single parent households : Psychosexual and psychiatric appraisal. Journal of Child Psychology & Psychiatry, 24 (4), 551-572. WAINRIGHT, J.L. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2006). Delinquency, victimization, and substance use among adolescents with female same-sex parents. Journal of Family Psychology, 20, 526–530.
PATTERSON, C.J. (1992). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development, 63, 1025-1042. PATTERSON, C.J. (2006). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (5), 241-244. [PDF]
JULIEN, D., DUBÉ, M. et GAGNON, I. (1994). Le développement des enfants de parents homosexuels comparé au développement des enfants de parents hétérosexuels. Revue Québécoise de Psychologie, 15, 135-153. TELINGATOR, C. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2008). Children and adolescents of lesbian and gay parents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 47, 1364-1368.
PATTERSON, C.J. (1995). Families of the lesbian baby boom : Parents' division of labor and children's adjustment. Developmental Psychology, 31, 115 - 123. PALLOTTA-CHIAROLLI, M. (2006). Polyparents having children, raising children, schooling children. Lesbian & Gay Psychology Review, 7, 48-53.
CHAN, R.W., BROOKS, R. C., RABOY, B. & PATTERSON, C.J. (1998). Division of labor among lesbian and heterosexual parents : Associations with children's adjustment. Journal of Family Psychology, 12, 402-419. RIGGS, D.W. (2007). Becoming parent : Lesbians, gay men, and family. QLD : Post Pressed.
PARKS, C.A. (1998). Lesbian parenthood : A review of the literature. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 68, 376-389. FAIRLOUGH, A. (2008). Growing up with a lesbian or gay parent : Young people's perspectives. Health & Social Care in the Community, 16 (5), 521-528.
FITZGERALD, B. (1999). Children of lesbian and gay parents : A review of the literature. Marriage & Family Review, 29 (1), 57-75. PATTERSON, C.J. (2009). Children of lesbian and gay parents : Psychology, law, and policy. American Psychologist, 64, 727-736.
CLARKE, V. (2000). Stereotype, attack and stigmatize those who disagree : Employing scientific rhetoric in debates about lesbian and gay parenting. Feminism & Psychology, 10, 152-159. PATTERSON, C.J. (2009). Lesbian and gay parents and their children : A social science perspective. In D. A. Hope (Ed.), Contemporary perspectives on lesbian, gay and bisexual identities : The Nebraska symposium on motivation (Vol. 54, pp. 141-182). New York : Springer.
CLARKE, V. (2000). Lesbian mothers: Sameness and difference. Feminism & Psychology, 10, 273-278. GOLDBERG, A.E. (2010). Lesbian and gay parents and their children: Research on the family life cycle. Washington, DC : American Psychological Association.
RAY, V. & GREGORY, R. (2001). School experiences of the children of lesbian and gay parents. Family Matters, 59 (7), 28-34. [PDF] PATTERSON, C.J. & RISKIND, R.G. (2010). To be a parent : Issues in family formation among gay and lesbian adults. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6, 326-340.
CLARKE, V. (2001). What about the children ? Arguments against lesbian and gay parenting. Women's Studies International Forum, 24, 555-570.  
ANDERSSEN, N., AMLIE, C. & YTTER, E.A. (2002). Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents. A review of studies from 1978 to 2000. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 43 (4), 335-351. FARR, R.H., FORSSELL, S.L. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2010). Lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents : Couple and relationship issues. Journal of GLBT Family Studies, 6, 199-213.
CLARKE, V. (2002). Sameness and difference in research on lesbian parenting. Journal of Community & Applied Psychology, 12, 210-222.  
PATTERSON, C.J., FULCHER, M. & WAINRIGHT, J.L. (2002). Children of lesbian and gay parents : Research, law, and policy. In B.L. Bottoms, M.B. Kovera, & B.D. McAuliff (Eds.), Children, social science and the law (pp. 176–199). New York: Cambridge University Press. TORNELLO, S. L., FARR, R. H. & PATTERSON, C.J. (2011). Predictors of parenting stress among gay fathers. Journal of Family Psychology, 25, 591-600.
WAINRIGHT, J.L., RUSSELL, S.T. & PATTERSON, C.J (2004). Psychosocial adjustment and school outcomes of adolescents with same-sex parents. Child Development, 75, 1886-1898. PATTERSON, C.J. (2013). Family lives of lesbian and gay adults. In G.W. Peterson & K.R Bush (Eds.), Handbook of marriage and family (pp. 659–681). New York, NY : Springer.
CLARKE, V., KITZINGER, C. & POTTER, J. (2004). Kids are just cruel anyway : Lesbian and gay parents' talk about homophobic bullying. British Journal of Social Psychology, 43 (4), 531-550. [PDF] PATTERSON, C.J. & GOLDBERG, A.E. (2016). Lesbian and gay parents and their children. Policy Brief, 1 (1), 1-4. [PDF]
Voir aussi Homosexualité, Parent et Famille homosexuelle
Parent et professeur-enseignant (Relation entre...) : Relation entre un parent et les enseignants/professeurs de ses enfants. = relation école-famille. Parent-teacher partnership.
GALINSKY, E. (1988). Parents and teacher-caregivers : Sources of tension, sources of support. Young Children, 43 (3), 4-12. FRENCH, M.K. (1996). Connecting teachers and families : Using the family as the lab. Journal of Teacher Education, 47 (5), 335-346.
GREENBERG, P. (1989). Ideas that work with young children. Parents as partners in young children's development and education. A new American fad : Why does it matter ? Young Children, 44 (4), 61-75. HENRY, M.E. (1996). Parent-school collaboration. Feminist organizational structures and school leadership. Albany : State University of New York.
EPSTEIN, J.L. (1989). Building parent-teacher partnerships in inner city schools. Family Resource Coalition Report, 2, 7. DE ACOSTA, M. (1996). A foundational approach to preparing teachers for family and community involvement in children's education. Journal of Teacher Education, 47 (1), 9-15.
GALINSKY, E. (1990). Why are some parent teacher partner ships clouded with difficulties ? Young Children, 45 (5), 38- 39. KOERNER, J. & HULSELBOSCH, P. (1996). Preparing teachers to work with children of gay and lesbian parents. Journal of Teacher Education, 47 (5), 347-354.
GREENWODD G.E. & HIKCMAN, C.W. (1991). Research and practice in parent involvement : Implications for teacher education. Elementary School Journal, 91 (3), 280-288. HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V. & SANDLER, H.M. (1997). Why do parents become involved in their children's education? Review of Educational Research, 67 (1), 3-42.
COMER, J.P. & HAYNES, N.M. (1991). Parent involvement in schools : An ecological approach. Elementary School Journal, 91 (3), 271-277. STURM, C. (1997). Creating parent-teacher dialogue : Intercultural communication in child care. Young Children, 52 (5), 34-38.
HOOVER-DEMPSEY, K.V., BASSLER, O.C. & BRISSIE, J.S. (1992). Explorations in parent-school relations. Journal of Educational Research, 85, 287-294. RICH, D. (1998). What parents want from teachers. Educational Leadership, 55 (8), 37-39.
MORRIS V. G., TAYLOR, S.I., KNIGHT, J. & WASSON, R. (1996). Preparing teachers to reach out to families and communities. Action in Teacher Education, 18 (1), 10-22. BURKE, R. (1999). Diverse family structures : Implications for p-3 teachers. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 20 (3), 245-251.
  JEYNES, W.H. (2003). A meta-analysis : The effects of parental involvement on minority children's academic achievement. Education & Urban Society, 35, 202-218.
  JEYNES, W.H. (2005). A meta-analysis of the relation of parental involvement to urban elementary school children's academic achievement. Urban Education, 40, 237-269. [PDF]
  JEYNES, W.H. (2007). The relationship between parental involvement and urban secondary school student academic achievement : A meta-analysis. Urban Education, 42, 82-110.
Voir aussi Parent, Implication parentale, Enseignant et Enfant
Parent seul : Voir Famille monoparentale.
Parent thérapeute : Parent formé par un thérapeute pour encadrer plus efficacement ses enfants ou réaliser certaines parties d'un plan de traitement. Souvent utilisé avec les parents d'autiste, d'enfant handicapé physiquement ou intellectuelement déficient. Parents as therapist, parent training.
HAWKINS, R.P., PETERSON, R.F., SCHWEID, E. & BIJOU, S.W. (1966). Behavior therapy in the home : amelioration of problem parent-child relations with the parent in a therapeutic role. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 4 (1), 99-107. LASKI, K.E. CHARLOP, M.H. & SCHREIBMAN, L. (1988). Training parents to use the Natural Language Paradigm to increase their autistic children’s speech. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 21 (4), 391-400. [PDF]
ZEILBERGER, J., SAMPEN, S.E. & SLOANE, H.N. (1968). Modification of a child's problem behaviors in the home with the mother as therapist. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1 (1), 47-53. [PDF] COOPER, L.J., WACKER, D.P., SASSO, G.M. & DONN, L.K. (1990). Using parents as therapists to evaluate appropriate behavior of their children : application to a tertiary diagnostic clinic. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23 (3), 285-296. [PDF]
SCHOPLER, E. & REICHLER, R.J. (1971). Parents as cotherapists in the treatment of psychotic children. Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 87–102.  
HERBERT, E.W. & BAER, D.M. (1972). Training parents as behavior modifiers : self-recording of contingent attention. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (3), 139-149. [PDF] POWERS, L.E., SINGER, G.H., STEVENS, T. & SOWERS, J.-A. (1992). Behavioral parent training in home and community generalization settings. Education & Training in Mental Retardation, 27 (1), 13-27.
O'DELL, S. (1974). Training parents in behavior modification : A review. Psychological Bulletin, 81, 418-433.
MILLER, S.J. & SLOANE, H.N. (1976). The generalization efects of parent training across stimulus setings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 9 (3), 355-370. [PDF] RINGDAHL, J.E. & SELLERS, J.A. (2000). The effects of different adults as therapists during functional analyses. Journal of Applied Behavioral Analysis, 33 (2), 247-250. [PDF]
KELLEY, M.L., EMBRY, L.H. & BAER, D.M. (1979). Skils for child management and family support : Training parents for maintenance. Behavior Modification, 3, 373-396. MARCUS, B.A., SWANSON, V. & VOLLMER, T.R. (2001). Effects of parent training on parent and child behavior using procedures based on functional analysis. Behavioral Interventions, 16, 87-104.
EYBERG, S.M. & MATARZZO, R.G. (1980). Training parents as therapists : A comparison between individual parent-child interaction training and parent group didactic training. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 492-499. KUHN, S.A.C., LERMAN, D.C. & VORNDRAN, C.M. (2003). Pyramidal training for families of children with problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36 (1), 77-88. [PDF]
SANDERS, M.R. & GLYNN, T. (1981). Training parents in behavioral self-management : An analysis of generalization and management. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14(3), 223-237. [PDF]  
ADUBATO, S.A., ADAMS, M.K. & BUDD, K.S. (1981). Teaching a parent to train a spouse in child ma agement techniques. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 14 (2), 193-205. [PDF] BAGNER, D. & EYBERG, S.M. (2003). Father involvement in parent training : When does it matter ? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 599-605. [PDF]
ROLIDER, A. & VAN HOUTEN, R. (1984). Training parents to use extinction to eliminate night-time crying by gradually increasing the criteria for ignoring crying. Education & Treatment of Children, 7, 110-124. GALE, G.M., EIKESETH, S.J. & RUDRUD, E. (2011). Functional assessment and behavioural intervention for eating difficulties in children with autism : a study conducted in the natural environment using parents and ABA tutors as therapists. Autism & Developmental Disorders, 41 (10), 1383-1396. [PDF]
Voir aussi Thérapeuteet Parent
Parent violent : Voir Violence familiale.
André Parent Les parents
Jack M. Parent
Parent André (Montréal 1944-) : Biologiste québécois et historien des sciences, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'anatomie du cerveau, notamment des ganglions de la base. Il enseigne à l'Université Laval.
 PARENT, A. (1986). Comparative neurobiology of the basal ganglia. New York : John Wiley.
 BÉDARD, A. & PARENT, A. (2004). Evidence of newly generated neurons in the human olfactory bulb. Developmental Brain Research, 151, 159-168.
 PARENT, A. (2005). Duchenne de Boulogne : A pioneer in neurology and medical photography. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 32, 369-377.
 PARENT, A. (2007). Félix Vicq d'Azyr : anatomy, medecine and revolution. Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences, 34, 30-37. [PDF]
 PARENT, A. (2009). Histoire du cerveau : De l'antiquité aux neurosciences. Laval : Les presses de l'Université Laval.
Parent Jack M. ( ) : Neurobiologiste américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la neurogénèse.
PARENT, J.M., VEXLER, Z.S., GONG, C., DERUGIN, N. & FERRIERO, D.M. (2002). Rat forebrain neurogenesis and striatal neuron replacement after focal stroke. Annals of Neurology, 52, 802-813
PARENT, J.M., VON DEM BUSSCHE, N. & LOWENSTEIN, D.H. (2002). Seizure-induced neurogenesis : are more new neurons good for an adult brain ? Progress in Brain Research, 135, 121-1321.
PARENT, J.M. (2003). Injury-induced neurogenesis in the adult mammalian brain. Neuroscientist, 9, 261-272.
PARENT, J.M., VON DEM BUSSCHE, N. & LOWENSTEIN, D.H. (2006). Prolonged seizures recruit caudal subventricular zone glial progenitors into the injured hippocampus. Hippocampus, 16, 321-328.
PARENT, J.M. (2007). Adult neurogenesis in the intact and epileptic dentate gyrus. Progress in Brain Research, 163, 529-540.
Parentalité (des espèces) : Relation phylogénétique plus ou moins étroite entre les espèces. EX : Bonobo et chimpanzé ont une forte parentalité.
Parenté (des individus) : Le terme a deux acceptions très voisines : a) En psychologie, relation ontogénétique plus ou moins étroite entre les individus d'une même famille, d'un même groupe. L'attachement est le principal déterminant de la parenté sociale. Parenté, développement et attachement. b) En biologie et en primatologie, relation phylogénétique plus ou moins étroite entre les membres d'une même espèce, d'un même groupe, d'une même famille. Lorsque cette relation est très étroite, on utilise le mot consanguinité. = lien de sang. Kinship.
PLATEK, S.M., CRITTON, S.R., BURCH, R. L., FREDERICK, D.A., MYERS, T.E. & GALLUP, G.G. (2003). How much paternal resemblance is enough ? Sex differences in hypothetical investment decisions but not in the detection of resemblance. Evolution & Human Behavior, 24, 81-87.
Parentèle : Ensemble d'individus qui ont un lien de parenté. Parentèle et reconnaissances des membres de la parentèle. Kin.
SILK, J.B. (2002). Kin selection in primate groups. International Journal of Primatology, 23, 849-875.
WEISFELD, G.E., CZILLI, T., PHILLIPS, K.A., GALL, J.A. & LICHTMAN, C.M. (2003). Possible olfaction-based mechanisms in human kin recognition and inbreeding avoidance. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 85, 279-295.
Parenthèse(s) : Utiliser lors de la citation des sources scientifiques pour isoler dans la notice l'année de parution d'une publication ou le numéro dans le cas des articles scientifique.
Parenting, Science & Practice : Revue scientifique qui consacre ses pages au rôle parental et à l'éducation. Éditeur : Routledge.
SEGINER, R. (2006). Parents' educational involvement : A developmental ecology perspective. Parenting, Science & Practice, 6 (1), 1-48.
Paresse : Incapacité à fournir les efforts nécessaires à l'accomplissement d'une tâche, d'une activité.
LAFARGUE, P. (1880). Le droit à la paresse (Réfutation du « Droit au travail » de 1848). [LIRE]
Paresse sociale : Voir Flânerie sociale. Social loafing.
Pareto Vilfredo Fritz (Paris 1848-1923 Celigny) : Économiste et sociologue italien. Il a décrit une situation sociale particulière qui porte son nom (optimum de Pareto).
 f PARETO, W. (1968). Traité de sociologie générale. Genève : Droz./The mind and society. New York : Harcourt, Brace & Co.
FARIS, E. (1936). An estimate of Pareto. American Journal of Sociology, 41, 657-668. [LIRE]
ZUCKERMAN, A. (1977). The concept of political elite : lessons from Mosca and Pareto. Journal of Politics 39, 324-344.
Parfum : odeur naturelle ou artificiel du corps. Fragrance, pleasant scent.
BARON, R.A. (1981). The role of olfaction in human social behavior : Effects of a pleasant scent on attraction and social perception. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 7, 611-617.
 DEBONO, K.G. (1992). Pleasant scents and persuasion : An information processing approach. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22, 910-919.
BARON, R.A. & THOMLEY, J. (1994). A whiff of reality : Positive affect as a potential mediator of the effects of pleasant fragrances on task performance and helping. Environment Behavior, 26, 766-784.
BARON, R.A. & BRONNFEN, M.I. (1994). A whiff of reality : Empirical evidence concerning the effects of pleasant fragrances on work related behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 24, 1179-1205.
BARON, R.A. (1997). The sweet smell of... helping : Effects of pleasant ambient fragrance on prosocial behavior in shopping malls. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 23 (5), 498-503. [PDF]
WINMAN, A. (2004). Do perfume additives termed human pheromones warrant being termed pheromones ? Physiology & Behavior, 82, 697-701.
MILLER, S.L. & MANER, J.K. (2010). Scent of a woman : Men's testosterone responses to olfactory ovulation cues. Psychological Science, 21, 276-283. [PDF]
Voir aussi Attraction et Attirance physique
Pari de Pascal : Raisonnement formulé par Pascal dont la conclusion affirme que, devant l'impossibilité de montrer l'existence de Dieu, il vaut mieux y croire que de nier son existence. Ce pari - on est pas sûr du résultat - est l'exemple même d'un raisonnement qui vise à maximiser ses gains personnels.
Hypothèse En réalité, Dieu existe En réalité, Dieu n'existe pas
Vous pariez que Dieu existe Vous avez raison alors à votre mort vous irez au paradis. Vous avez tort alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.
Vous pariez que Dieu n'existe pas Vous avez tort alors à votre mort vous n'irez pas au paradis. Vous avez raison alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.
Pariétal : Voir Lobe pariétal et Cortex pariétal.
Paris Scott ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'éducation, notamment de l'étude de l'apprentissage de la lecture.
PARIS, S.G. & LINDAUEUR, B.K. (1976). The role of inference in children's comprehension and memory for sentences. Cognitive Psycology, 8 (2), 217-227.
PARIS, S.G., LIPSON, M.Y. & WIXSON, K. (1983). Becoming a strategic reader. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 8, 293–316.
PARIS, S.G. & NEWMAN, R. (1990). Developmental aspects of self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 25, 87-102.
PARIS, S.G. & PARIS, A.H. (2001). Classroom applications of research on self-regulated learning. Educational Psychologist, 36 (2), 89–101. [PDF]
PARIS, S.G. (2005). Reinterpreting the development of reading skills. Reading Research Quarterly, 40 (2), 184-202. [PDF]
Parizeau Jacques (Montréal 1930-2015 Montréal) : Économiste, homme d'état et politicien québécois.
PARIZEAU, J. (2009). La souveraineté du Québec, hier, aujourd'hui et demain. Éditions Michel Brûlé.
RICHARD, L. (1992). Jacques Parizeau, un bâtisseur. Montréal : Éditions de l'Homme.
DUSCHESNE, P. (2001). Jacques Parizeau : Le Croisé - 1930-1970. Montréal : Éditions Québec Amérique.
DUSCHESNE, P. (2002). Jacques Parizeau : Le Baron - 1970-1985. Montréal : Éditions Québec Amérique.
DUSCHESNE, P. (2004). Jacques Parizeau : Le Régent - 1985-1995. Montréal : Éditions Québec Amérique.
Bernadette Park Robert Ezra Park Craig D. Parks
Park Bernadette ( ) : Psychosociologue américaine et spécialiste de l'étude et de l'évaluation des stéréotypes. Collaboratrice de Correll, Judd et Wittenbrink.
PARK, B. (1986). A method for studying the development of impressions of real people. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 51, 907-917.
PARK, B., RYAN, C.S. & JUDD, C.M. (1992). The role of meaningful subgroups in explaining differences in perceived variability for in-groups and out-groups. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 63, 553-567.
PARK, B., DEKAY, M.L. & KRAUS, S. (1994). Aggregating social behavior into person models : Perceiver-induced consistency. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 437-459.
PARK, B., KRAUS, S. & RYAN, C.S. (1997). Longitudinal changes in consensus as a function of acquaintance and agreement in liking. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 72, 604-616.
PARK, B. & JUDD, C.M. (2005). Rethinking the link between categorization and prejudice within the social cognition perspective. Personality & Social Psychology Review, 9, 108-130. [PDF]
Park Robert Ezra (Comté de Luzerne 1864-1944 Nashville) : Sociologue américain et co-fondateur de l'École de Chicago (avec Thomas). Il s'est notamment intéressé aux minorités ethniques et aux villes qui concentrent ces minorités. Selon lui, le phénomène de l'intégation des immigrants traverse quatre étapes ou cycles: prise de contact entre les groupes (les immigrants et la société d'accueil), la compétition entre les individus de souches et nouvellement arrivés, l'ajustement ou l'accommodation des uns aux autres, et finalement l'assimilation de la minorité à la majorité. Étudiant de James et Simmel. Professeur de Becker.
PARK, R.E. (1915). The principles of human behavior. Chicago, Ill. : Zalaz Corporation.
PARK, R.E. & MILLER H.A. (1921). Old world traits transplanted. New York, N.Y.-London : Harper.
PARK, R.E. (1922). The immigrant press and its control. New York, N.Y.-London : Harper.
PARK, R.E. (1925). Suggestion for the investigation for human behavior in an urban environment. In R.E. Park, E.W. Burgess & R.D. Mckenzie (Eds.), The city. Chicago : University of Chigago Press.
PARK, R.E., BURGESS, E.W. & McKENZIE, R.D. (1925). The city. Chicago : University of Chigago Press.
GUTH, S. (2008). De Strasbourg à Chicago : Robert E. Park et l'assimilation des noirs américains. Revue des Sciences Sociales, 4, 62-73.
Geoffrey Alan Parker Gordon Barraclough Parker
Parker Geoffrey Alan (1944-) : Éthologiste anglais, spécialisé dans l'étude des stratégies évolutives. Collaborateur de Clutton-Brock et Maynard Smith.
PARKER, G.A. (1970). Sperm competition and its evolutionary consequences in the insects. Biological Reviews, 45, 525-567.
MAYNARD SMITH, J. & PARKER, G.A. (1976). The logic of asymmetric contests. Animal Behaviour, 24, 159-175.
PARKER, G.A. & MACNAIR, M.R. (1979). Models of parent-offspring conflict. IV. Suppression : evolutionary retaliation by the parent. Animal Behaviour, 27, 1210-1235.
PARKER, G.A. (1984). Evolutionary stable strategies. In J.R. Krebs & Davies N.B. (Eds.), Behavioural ecology : an evolutionary approach (pp. 30-61). Oxford : Blackwell.
PARKER, G.A. & MILINSKI, M. (1997). Cooperation under predation risk : a data-based ESS analysis. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, 264 (1785), 1239-1247.
Parker Gordon Barraclough ( ) : Psychiatre américain et spécialiste de l'étude et du traitement de la dépression. Video
PARKER, G. (2002). Olanzapine augmentation in the treatment of melancholia : the trajectory of improvement in rapid responders. International Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 87-89.
PARKER, G., ANDERSON, I.M. & HADDAD, P. (2003). Clinical trials of anti-depressant medications are producing meaningless results. British Medical Journal, 183, 102-104.
PARKER, G., BROTCHIE, H. & PARKER, K. (2005). Is combination Olanzapine and antidepressant medication associated with a more rapid response trajectory than antidepressant alone ? American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 796-798. [PDF]
PARKER, G. & FLETCHER, K. (2007). Treating depression with the evidence-based psychotherapies : a critique of the evidence. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 115, 352-359. [PDF]
PARKER, G. & BROTCHIE, H. (2010). Gender differences in depression. International Review of Psychiatry, 22 (5), 429-436.
Parkinson (Maladie de...) : Maladie dégénérative découverte par Parkinson en 1817. L'une des causes de cette maladie serait la dégénérescence de la voie nigrostiée. = syndrome parkinsonien, le parkinson. Parkinson's disease.
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SANO, M., STERN Y., WILLIAMS, J., COTÉ, L., ROSENSTEIN, R. & MAYEUX, R. (1989). Coexisting dementia and depression in parkinson's disease. Archives of Neurology, 46 (1), 284-1286. HAREL, B.T., CANNIZZARO, M.S., COHEN, H., REILLY, N. & SNYDER, P.J. (2004). Acoustic characteristics of Parkinsonian speech : a potential biomarker of early disease progression and treatment. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 17, 439-453.
STARKSTEIN, S.E., BOLDUC, P.L., MAYBERG, H.E., PREZIOSI,T.J. & ROBINSON, R.G. (1990). Parkinson's disease : a follow up study. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 53, 597-602. [PDF] FRAK, V., COHEN, H. & POURCHER, E. (2004). A dissociation betweenreal and simulated movements in Parkinson’as disease. Neuroreport, 15, 1489-1492.
BEATTY, W.W. & MONSON, N. (1990.) Problem solving in Parkinson’s disease : Comparison of performance on the Wisconsin and California Card Sorting Tests. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry & Neurology, 3, 163-171. BHERER, L., BELLEVILLE, S. et HUDON, C. (2004). Le déclin des fonctions exécutives au cours du vieillissement normal, dans la maladie d’Alzheimer et dans la démence frontotemporale. Psychologie et NeuroPsychiatrie du Vieillissement, 2 (3), 181-189.
OWEN, A.M., JAMES, M., LEIGH, P.N., SUMMERS, B.A., MARSDEN, C.D., QUINN, N.P., LANGE, K.W. & ROBBINS, T.W. (1992). Fronto-striatal cognitive deficits at different stages of Parkinson's disease. Brain, 115, 1727-1751. BRAND, M., LABUDDA, K., KALBE, E., HILKER, R., EMMANS, D., FUCHS, G., KESSLER, J. & MARKOWITSCH, H.J. (2004). Decision-making impairments in patients with Parkinson's disease. Behavioural Neurology, 15, 77-85. [PDF]
OWEN, A.M., ROBERTS, A.C., HODGES, J.R., SUMMERS, B.A., POLKEY, C.E. & ROBBINS, T.W. (1993) Contrasting mechanisms of impaired attentional set-shifting in patients with frontal lobe damage or Parkinson's disease. Brain, 116, 159-1179.  
RING, H.A., BENCH, C.J. & TRIMBLE, M.R., BROOKS, D.J., FRACKOWIAK, R.S. & DOLAN, R.J. (1994). Depression in Parkinson’s disease : a positron emission study. British Journal of Psychiatry, 165, 333-339.  
OWEN, A.M., SAHAKIAN, B.J., HODGES, J.R., SUMMERS, B.A., POLKEY, C.E. & ROBBINS, T.W. (1995). Dopamine-dependent fronto- striatal planning deficits in early Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychology, 9, 126-140.  
MADDOX, W.T., FILOTEO, J.V., DELIS, D.C. & SALMON, D.P. (1996). Visual selective attention deficits in patients with Parkinson's disease : A quantitative model-based approach. Neuropsychology, 10, 197-218. CHEANG, H.S. & PELL, M.D. (2007). An acoustic investigation of Parkinsonian speech in linguistic and emotional contexts. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 20, 221-241. [PDF]
MURRAY, J.B. (1996). Depression in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Psychology, 130, 659-667. POEWE, W. (2007). Depression in Parkinson's disease. Journal of Neurology, 254 (S5), 49-55.
TANDBERG, E., LARSEN, J.P., AARSLAND, D. & CUMMINGS, J.L. (1996). The occurrence of depression in Parkinson’s disease : a community-based study. Archives of Neurology, 53, 175-179. REIJNDERS, S.A.M.J., EHRT, U., WEBER, W.E.J., AARSLAND, D. & LEENTJENS, A.F.G. (2007). A systematic review of prevalence studies of depression in Parkinson's disease. Movement Disorders, 23 (2), 183-189. [PDF]
AARSLAND, D., LARSEN, J.P., WAAGE, O. & LANEVELD, J.H. (1997). . Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy for Parkinson's disease. Convulsive Therapy, 13 (4), 274-247. COOLS, R., LEWIS, S.J.G., CLARK, L., BARKER, R.A. & ROBBINS, T.W. (2007). L-dopa disrupts activity in the nucleus accumbens during reversal learning in Parkinson's disease. Neuropsychopharmacology, 32, 180-189. [PDF]
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CUMMINGS, J.L. & MASTERMAN, D.L. (1999). Depression in patients with Parkinson’s disease. International Journal of Geriatrical Psychiatry, 14, 711-718. VEAZEY, C., COOK, K., STANLEY, M., LAI, E.C. & KUNIK, M.E. (2009). Telephone administered cognitive behavioral therapy : A case study of anxiety and depression in Parkinson’s disease. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16, 243-253. [PDF]
HSIEH, S. & LEE, C.Y. (1999). Source memory in Parkinson’s disease. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 89, 355-367. BOLLER, J.K., BARBE, M.T., PAULS, K.A.M., RECK, C., BRAND, M., MAIER, F., FINK, G.R., TIMMERMANN, L., KALBE, E. (2014). Decision-making under risk is improved by both dopaminergic medication and subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease. Experimental Neurology, 254, 70-77.
Voir aussi Voie nigrostriée
Parks Craig D. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la coopération au sein des groupes et des dilemmes sociaux. Collaborateur de Davis, Joireman, Sanna, Van Dijk et Van Lange.
PARKS, C.D. (1994). The predictive ability of social values in resource dilemmas and public goods games. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 20, 431-438.
PARKS, C.D., SANNA, L.J. & BEREL, S.R. (2001). Actions of similar others as inducements to cooperate in social dilemmas. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 345-354.
PARKS, C.D., RUMBLE, A.C. & POSEY, D. C. (2002). The effects of envy on reciprocation in social dilemmas. Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin, 28, 522-534.
PARKS, C.D. & STONE, A.B. (2010). The desire to expel unselfish members from the group. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 99 (2), 303-310. [PDF]
PARKS, C.D., JOIREMAN, J. & VAN LANGE, P.A.M. (2013). Cooperation, trust, and antagonism : How publicly beneficial goods are promoted. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 14, 119-165.
Parlement/Parlementaire/Parlementarisme : = Système parlementaire..
TREMBLAY, M., M.R., PELLETIER, M.R. et. PELLETIER, R. (Dirs.) (2000). Le système parlementaire canadien. Québec : Presses de l'Université Laval.
TREMBLAY, M. PELLETIER, R. et PELLETIER, M.R. (Dirs.) (2008). Le parlementarisme canadien. Québec : Université Laval.
PELLETIER, R. et TREMBLAY, M. (Dirs.) (2017). Le parlementarisme canadien. Québec : Université Laval.
Parler en public : Voir Oral/orateur. Talk.
Parler/Parole : Parler consiste à produire des sons au moyen du larynx. Ces sons forment des phonèmes dont les diverses combinaisons (mots, phrases) permettent de nommer les objets et de communiquer avec autrui. Parole, langage et comportement verbal. = langage oral. Speaking, speech, orality, talking.
COOPER, F.S., LIBERMAN, A.M. & BORST, J.M. (1951). The interconversion of audible and visible patterns as a basis for research in the perception of speech. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 37, 318-325.  
ELIASBERG, W.G. (1954). Speaking and thinking. Acta Psychologica, 10, 93-110. KWIATKOWSKI, J. & SHRIBERG, L. (1993). Speech normalization in developmental phonological disorders : A retrospective study of capability-focus theory. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in Schools, 24, 10-18.
BUYSSENS, E. (1954). Speaking and thinking from the linguistic standpoint. Acta Psychologica, 10, 136-164. TRAXLER, M.J. & GERNSBACHER, M. A. (1993). Improving written communication through perspective taking. Language & Cognitive Processes, 8, 311-334.
DELATTRE, P.C (1958). Les indices acoustiques de la parole: premier rapport. Phonetica, 2, 108-118. FERRAND, L. (1994). Accès au lexique et production de la parole : un survol. L'Année Psychologique, 94, 295-312.
HOCKETT, C.F. (1960). The origin of speech. Scientific American, 203, 88-96. KUHL, P.K. (1994). Learning and representation in speech and language. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 4, 812-822.
SIEGEL, G.M. & MARTIN, R.R. (1967). Verbal punishment of disfluencies during spontaneous speech. Language & Speech, 10 (4), 244-251. JUSCZYK, P.W. (1997). The discovery of spoken language. Cambridge, MA : MIT Press.
REYNOLDS, N.J. & RISLEY, T.R. (1968). The role of social and material reinforcers in increasing talking of a disadvantaged preschool child. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 1, 253-262. [PDF] LAMBON RALPH, M.A., SAGE, K. & ROBERTS, J. (2000). Classical anomia : A neuropsychological perspective on speech production. Neuropsychologia, 38, 186-202. [PDF]
SIEGEL, G.M. LENSKE, J. & BROEN, P (1969). Suppression of normal speech disfluencies through response cost. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 2 (4), 265-276. [PDF]  
MATTINGLY, I.G., LIBERMAN, A.M. SYRDAL, A.K. & HALWES, T. (1971). Discrimination in speech and nonspeech modes. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 131-157. SHRIBERG, L., PAUL, R., MCSWEENY, J., KLIN, A., COHEN, D.J. & VOLKMAR, F.R. (2001). Speech and prosody characteristics of adolescents and adults with high-functioning autism and Asperger syndrome. Journal of Speech, Language, & Hearing Research, 44, 1097-1115.
WOLFRAM, W. (1971). Black-White speech differences revisited. In W. Wolfram & N.H. Clarke (Eds.), Black-White speech relationships (pp. 139-161). Washington, DC : Center for Applied Linguistics. MIYAKE, A., EMERSON, M.J., PADILLA, F. & AHN, J.C. (2004). Inner speech as a retrieval aid for task goals : The effects of cue type and articulatory suppression in the random task cuing paradigm. Acta Psychologica, 115 (2-3), 123-142.
MATTINGLY, I.G. (1972). Speech cues and sign stimuli. American Scientist, 60, 327-337. KUHL, P.K. (2004). Early language acquisition : Cracking the speech code. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 831-843. [PDF]
BUTTERWORTH, B. (1975). Hesitation and semantic planning in speech. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 4 (1), 75-87. [PDF] SAMUEL, A.G. (2011). Speech perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 62 (1), 49-72. [PDF]
ADES, A.E. (1977). Theoretical notes. Vowels, consonants, speech, and nonspeech. Psychological Review, 84 (6), 524-530.  
DEROUENE, J., BEAUVOIS, M.F. et RANTY, C. (1977). Deux composantes dans l'articulation du langage oral : Preuve experimentale de leur independance. Neuropsychologia, 15, (1), 143-153  
OLSON, D.R. (1977). From utterance to text : The bias of language in speech and writing. Harvard Educational Review, 47, 257-281. LUPYAN, G. & SWINGLEY, D. (2012). Self-directed speech affects visual search performance. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65 (6), 1068-1085. [PDF]
MOTLEY, M.T., CAMDEN, C.T. & BAARS, B.J. (1982). Covert formulation and editing of anomalies in speech production : Evidence from experimentally elicited slips of the tongue. Journal of Verbal Learning & Verbal Behavior, 21, 578-594. MODY, M., MANOACH, D.S., GUENTHER, F.H., KENET, T., BRUNO, K.A., McDOUGLAS, C.J. & STIGLER, K.A. (2013). Speech and language in autism spectrum disorder : a view through the lens of behavior and brain imaging. Neuropsychiatry, 3 (2), 223-232. [PDF]
ONG, W.J. (1982). Orality and literacy. London : Methuen. CHENAUSKY, K.V. (2015). Speech in autism : Spectrum disorder. Acoustics Today, 11 (4), 18-24. [PDF]
LIBERMAN, A.M. & MATTINGLY, I.G. (1985). The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition, 21 (1) 1-36. GERNSBACHER, M.A., MORSON, E.M. & GRACE, E.J. (2015). Language development in autism. In G. Hichkok & S. Small (Eds.), Neurobiology of language (pp. 879-886). Elsevier. [PDF]
BOHANNON, J.N. & STANOVICZ, L.B. (1988). The issue of negative evidence : Adult responses to children's language errors. Developmental Psychology, 24 (5), 684-689. GERNSBACHER, M.A. MORSON, E.M. & GRACE, E.J. (2016). Language and speech in autism. Annual Review of Linguistics, 2, 413-425.
Voir aussi Anomie, Langage intérieur, Langage, Autisme, Nommer, Aphasie, Aire de Broca et Comportement verbal
 Parole/Parler (Compréhension de la...) : Capacité de saisir la signification d'un langage parlé, d'une langue = perception du langage. Speech perception.
COOPER, F.S., LIBERMAN, A.M. & BORST, J.M. (1951). The interconversion of audible and visible patterns as a basis for research in the perception of speech. Poceedings of the National Academy of Science, 37, 318-325. LIBERMAN, A.M. & MATTINGLY, I.G. (1985). The motor theory of speech perception revised. Cognition, 21 (1) 1-36.
KIMURA, D. (1961). Cerebral dominance and the perception of verbal stimuli. Canadian Journal of Psychology, 15, 166-171.  
LANE, H. (1965). The motor theory of speech perception : A critical review. Psychological Review, 72 (4), 275-309. JOANISSE, M.F., MANIS, F.R., KEATING, P. & SEIDENBERG, M.S. (2000). Language deficits in dyslexic children : Speech perception, phonology and morphology. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 71, 30-60. [PDF]
LIBERMAN, A.M., COOPER, F.S., SHANKWEILER, D.P. & STUDDERT-KENNEDY, M. (1967). Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review, 74. 431-461. POEPPEL, D., IDSARDI, W.J. & VAN WASSENHOVE, V. (2008). Speech perception at the interface of neurobiology and linguistics. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B. 363 (1493), 1071-1086.
STUDDERT-KENNEDY, M. & SHANKWEILER, D.P. (1970). Hemispheric specialization for speech perception. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 48 (2), 579-594. [PDF] LOTTO, A.J., HICKOK, G. & HOLT, L.L. (2009). Reflections on mirror neurons and speech perception. Trends in Cognition Sciences, 13 (3), 110-114. [PDF]
MATTINGLY, I.G., LIBERMAN, A.M., SYRDAL, A.K. & HALWES, T. (1971). Discrimination in speech and nonspeech modes. Cognitive Psychology, 2, 131-157. SAMUEL, A.G. (2011). Speech perception. Annual Review of Psychology, 62 (1), 49-72. [PDF]
PISONI, D.B. & LAZARUS, J.H. (1974). Categorical and noncategorical modes of speech perception along the voicing continuum. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 55, 328-333.  
STUDDERT-KENNEDY, M. (1980). Speech perception. Language & Speech, 23, 45-66.  
Voir aussi Langage, Autisme, Perception, Parole, Compréhension, Aire de Wenicke et Comportement verbal
 Paroxétine : Antidépresseur inhibiteur sélectif de la recapture de la sérotonine. Paroxetine et Paxil.
KELLER, M.B., RYAN, N.D., STROBER, M., KLEIN, R.G., KUTCHER, S.P., BIRMAHER, B., HAGINO, O.R., KOPLEWICZ, H., CARLSON, G., CLARKE, G.N., EMSLIE, G.J., FEINBERG, D., GELLER, B., KUSUMAKAR, V., PAPATHEODOROU, G., SACK, W.H., SWEENEY, M., WAGNER, K.D., WELLER, E.B., WINTERS, N.C., OAKES, R. & MCCAFFERTY, J.P. (2001). Efficacy of paroxetine in the treatment of adolescent major depression : a randomized, controlled trial. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 40, 762-772.
SAXENA, S., BRODY, A.L., MAIDMENT, K.M. & BAXTER, LR. (2007). Paroxetine treatment of compulsive hoarding. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 41, 481-487.
Voir aussi Paxil
Parrish Celestia Susannah (Pittsylvania County, 1853-1918) : Psychologue américaine. Étudiante de Titchener.
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PARRISH, C.S. (1895). The cutaneous estimation of open and filled space. American Journal of Psychology, 6, 514-522.
PARRISH, C.S. (1896-97). Localisation of cutaneous impressions by arm movement without pressure upon the skin. American Journal of Psychology, 8, 250-267.
PEAK, H. (1939). The Parrish laboratories of psychology as Randolph-Macon Woman's College. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 24, 551-553.
GLASS, M. (1941). Tribute to a pioneer teacher : Celeste Parrish. Danville, Virginia : The Delta Kappa Gamma Society, Iota State Organization.
STRICKLAND, C. (1971). Celestia Susannah Parrish. In E.T. James, J.W . James, & P.S. Boyer (Eds.). Notable American women 1607-1950 : A biographical dictionary. Cambridge, MA : Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
JAMES, E.T. (1971). Parrish, Celestia Susannah. In E.T. James, J.W . James, & P.S. Boyer (Eds.). Notable American Women, 1607-1950 (Vol 3, pp. 18-20). Cambridge, MA : Belknap Press.
THOMAS, R.K. (2006). Celestina Susannah Parrish (1853-1918). Pioneering psychologist, native Virginian, and "Georgia's Greatest Woman" Heritage Column. The Feminist Psychologist, 16-28.[PDF]
THOMAS, R.K. (2012). Parrish, C.S. In R.W. Rieber (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the history of psychological theories (pp. 765-767). New York : Springer-Verlag.
Parsons Talcott (1902-1979) : Sociologue fonctionnaliste américain. Professeur de Luhmann. Collaborateur de Weber.
PARSONS, T. (1937/1967). Structure of social action. Glencoe, IL : Free Press.
PARSONS, T. (1951). The social system. Glencoe, IL : Free Press.
PARSONS, T. (1960). Structure and process in modern societies. Glencoe, IL : Free Press.
PARSONS, T. (1966). Societies : Evolutionary and comparative perspectives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall.
GIDDENS, A. (1968)."Power" in the recent writings of Talcott Parsons. Sociology, 2, 257-272.
Partage/Partager : Comportement prosocial qui consiste à réduire ses ressources (ou leur valeurs) afin d'augmenter celles d'autrui, souvent dans le but d'éviter un conflit. Sharing.
BARTON, E.J. (1981). Developing sharing : An analysis of modeling and other behavioral techniques. Behavior Modification, 5, 396-398.
FOSS, N.J., MINBAEVA, D.B, PEDERSEN, T. & REINHOLT, M. (2009). Encouraging knowledge sharing among employees : how job design matters. Human Resource Management, 48 (6), 871-893. [PDF]
Voir aussi Coopération et Altruisme
Partage alimentaire : Partage des aliments entre les congénères d'une esèce, surtout au sein du clan ou de la famille. Food sharing.
JAEGGI, A.V., STEVENS,J.M.G. & VAN SCHAIK, C.P. (2010). Tolerant food sharing and reciprocity is precluded by despotism in bonobos but not chimpanzees. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 143, 41-51.
JAEGGI, A.V. & VAN SCHAIK, C.P. (2011). The evolution of food sharing in primates. Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology 65, 2125-2140.
JAEGGI, A.V. & GURVEN, M. (2013). Natural cooperators : Food sharing in humans and other primates. Evolutionary Anthropology, 22, 186-195.
Voir aussi Coopération et Altruisme
Partage des tâches domestiques : Voir Division des tâches domestiques. Allocation of household labor, division of household labor, houseworks.
Partenaire sexuel : Voir Choix du partenaire. Mate/Mate selection.
Parthénogénèse : Du grec parthenos, qui signifie «vierge» et genesis, qui veut dire «naissance ou origine». Il s'agit d'une forme de reproduction sexuée à partir d'un gamète femelle non fécondé (par un gamète mâle, donc sans spermatozoïde). On observe ce phénomène chez les végétaux et certains reptiles. Parthénogenèse et hermaphrodite. = reproduction monoparental, autoreproduction. Parthenogenesis.
OWEN, R. (1849). On parthenogenesis, or the successive production of procreating individuals from a single ovum. London : Johnvan Voorst.
MITTWOCH, U. (1978). Parthenogenesis. Journal of Medical Genetics, 165-181. [PDF]
BOOTH, W., SMITH, C.F., ESKRIDGE, P.H., HOSS, S.K., MENDELSON, J.R. & SCHUETT, G.W. (2012). Facultative parthenogenesis discovered in wild vertebrates. Biology Letters, 8 (6), 983-985.
Voir aussi Reptile, Gamète et Reproduction
Parti politique : Groupe fortement organisé dont l'objectif est de prendre le pouvoir, par les élections ou la force (coup d'état), et de gouverner un pays ou l'une de ses parties (état, province, canton, comté, etc). À défaut d'exercer le pouvoir, les partis jouent un rôle de contre-pouvoir en critiquant le gouvernement et ses politiques (opposition). Parti politique, pouvoir et psychologie politique. Party.
HADLEY, C.D. & LADD, E.C. (1973). Political parties and political issues : Patterns in differentiation since the New Deal. Beverly Hills : SAGE . RAHN, W.M. (1993). The role of partisan stereotypes in information processing about political candidates. American Journal of Political Science, 37, 472-496.
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HADLEY, C.D. & LADD, E.C. (1975). Transformations of the American party system : Political coalitions from the New Deal to the 1970s. New York : W.W. Norton & Company. KATZ, R.S. (1993). The evolution of party organizations in Europe : The three faces of party organization. American Review of Politics, 14, 593-618.
WITTMAN, D. (1977). Candidates with policy preferences : A dynamic model. Journal of Economic Theory, 15, 86-103. INGBERMAN, D.E. & VILLANI, J. (1993). An institutional theory of divided government and party polarization. American Journal of Political Science, 37, 429-471.
HIBBS, D.A. (1977). Political parties and macroeconomic policy. American Political Science Review 71 (4), 1467-1487. WIELHOUWER, P.W. & LOCHERBIE, B. (1994). Party contacting and political participation, 1952-90. American Journal of Political Science, 38 (1), 211-229.
SIDANIUS, J. & EKEMAMMAR, B. (1983). Sex, political party preference, and higher-order dimensions of sociopolitical ideology. Journal of Psychology, 115, 233-239. KATZ, R.S. (1995). Changing models of party organization and party democracy : The emergence of the cartel party. Party Politics, 1 (1), 5-28.
OFFE, C. (1983). Competitive party democracy and the keynesian welfare state: Factors of stability and disorganization. Policy Sciences, 15, 225-246. ALDRICH, J.H. (1995). Why parties ? The origin and transformation of political parties in America. Chicago : University of Chicago Press.
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DALTON, R.J. (1984). Cognitive mobilization and party dealignment in advanced industrial democracies. Journal of Politics, 46, 264-284. SEYD, P. (1999). New parties/new politics ? A case study of the British Labour Part. Party Politics, 5 (3), 383-405.
KATZ, R.S. (1986). Visions and realities of party government. F.G. Castles & R. Wildenmann (Ed.), Party government : A rationalistic conception. Berlin : De Gruyter. SNYDER, J.M. & TING, M.M. (2002). An informational rationale for political parties. American Journal of Political Science 46 (1), 90-110. [PDF]
  GREEN, D.P., PALMQUIST, B. & SCHICKLER, E. (2002). Partisan hearts and minds : Political parties and the social identities of voters. New Haven : Yale University Press.
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WATTENBERG, M. P. (1991). The Republican presidential advantage in the age of party disunity. In G.W. Cox & S. Kernell (Eds.), The politics of divided government (pp. 39-56). Boulder : Westview Press. BURDEN, B.C. & KLOFSTAD, C.A. (2005). Affect and Cognition in Party Identification. Political Psychology, 26 (6), 869-886. [PDF]
MAYHEW, D.R. (1991). Divided we govern : Party control, lawmaking, and investigations, 1946-1990. New Haven: Yale University Press. ASHWORTH, S. & BUENO DE MESQUITA, E. (2008). Informative party labels with institutional and electoral variation. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 20 (3), 251-273. [PDF]
HUCKFELDT, R. & SPRAGUE, J. (1992). Political parties and electoral mobilization : Political structure, social structure, and the party canvass. The American Political Science Review, 86 (1), 70-86. KATZ, R.S. & MAIR, P. (2009). The cartel party thesis : A restatement. Perspectives on Politics, 7 (4), 753-766. [PDF]
HARRINGTON, J.E. (1992). The role of party reputation in the formation of policy. Journal of Public Economics, 49, 107-121. CROSS, W. & BLAIS, A. (2012). Who selects party leaders ? Party Politics, 18, 127-150. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pouvoir, Élection, Campagne politique, Candidat-e, Prosélytisme, Ligne de parti et Engagement politique
Parti politique (Ligne d'un...) : Point de vue dominant au sein d'un parti politique, souvent explicite (mais pas nécessairement), rarement partagé par tous les membres, mais généralement accepté par tous, sous peine de rétrogradation ou d'exclusion du groupe. La ligne de parti est un élément qui participe à cohésion des groupes politques, mais si elle imposée maladroitement à trop de membres, elle peut l'affaiblir ou en menacer l'existence.
  Voir aussi Parti politique et Cohésion de groupe
Participant : Sujet humain d'une recherche. La participation d'un sujet à une recherche peut être involontaire, donc faite à l'insu du sujet lui-même, ou volontaire, à la suite d'une sollication en ce sens de la part du chercheur. Le consentement du participant est donc donné avant le début de cette recherche (consentement éclairé) ou à la fin de celle-ci (tromperie). Souvent, afin d'encourager la participation, les chercheurs versent une compensation financière aux sujets. Les animaux ne sont pas des participants; ce sont des sujets. Par extension, le mot sert également à désiger la première partie de la méthode d'un article empirique qui décrit au lecteur les caractéristiques des participants de sa recherche, ainsi que la procédure d'échantillonnage choisie pour les sélectionner. Participant, code de déontologiee et droits des participants. = sujet, sujet humain, répondant, volontaire. *cobaye. Subject, Human subject research.
Parties de la méthode d'un article
Plan de recherche
ROSEN, E. (1951). Differences between volunteers and non-volunteers for psychological studies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 35, 185-193. GOLDIAMOND, I. (1976). Protection of human subjects and patients : a social contingency analysis of distinctions between research and practice, and its implications. Behaviorism, 4 (1), 1-41.
CARR, J.E. & WHITTENBAUGH, J.A. (1968). Volunteer and nonvolunteer characteristics in an outpatient population. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 73 (1), 16-17. [PDF] KELMAN, H.C. (1977). Privacy and research with human beings. Journal of Social Issues, 33 (3), 169-195. [PDF]
KELMAN, H.C. (1967). Human use of human subjects : The problem of deception in social psychological experiments. Psychological Bulletin, 67, 1-11. [PDF] BARON, A. & PERONE, M. (1982). The place of the human subject in the operant laboratory. The Behavior Analyst, 5 (2), 143-158. [PDF]
O'BRIEN, F. (1968). Sequential contrast effects with human subjects. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 11, 537-542. [PDF] HINELINE, P.N. (1986). The relationships between subject and experimenter. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 45, 123-127. [PDF]
ROSNOW, R.L. & ROSENTHAL, R. (1969). volunteer subject. In R. Rosenthal & R.L. Rosnow (Eds.), Artifact in behavioral research (pp. 59-118). Academic Press. KRAEMER, H.C. & THIEMANN, S. (1987). How many subjects ? Statistical power analysis in research. Newbury Park, CA : Sage Publications.
HOROWITZ, I.A. (1969). Effects of the volunteer subject, choice, and fear arousal on attitude change. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 11, 34-37. HACKING, I. (1988). The participant irrealist at large in the laboratory. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 39, 277-294.
ROSNOW, R.L., ROSENTHAL, R., MCCONOCHIE, R.W. & ARMS, R.L. (1969). Volunteer effects on experimental outcomes. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 29, 825-846. JACKSON, J.M., PROCIDANO, M. E. & COHEN, C.J. (1989). Subject pool sign-up procedures : A threat to external validity. Social Behavior and Personality, 17, 29-43.
RUBIN, Z. & MOORE, J.C. (1971). Assessment of subjects' suspicions. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 17, 163-170. KORN, J.H. & HOGAN, K. (1992). Effect of incentives and aversiveness of treatment on willingness to participate in research. Teaching of Psychology, 19 (1), 21-24.
WEBER, S.J. & COOK, T.D. (1972). Subject effects in laboratory research : An examination of subject roles, demand characteristics, and valid inference. Psychological Bulletin, 77, 273-295. BRITISH PSYCHOLOGICAL SOCIETY (1993). Ethical principles for conducting research with human participants. The Psychologist : Bulletin of the British Psychological Society, 6, 33-36.
KELMAN, H.C. (1972). The rights of the subject in social research : An analysis in terms of relative power and legitimacy. American Psychologist, 27 (11), 989-1016. [PDF] MALAVIYA, P. (2001). Human participants respondents and researchers. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 10 (1-2), 115-121. [PDF]
SULLIVAN, D.S. & DEITER, T.E. (1973). Subject-experimenter prceptions of ethical issues in human research. American Psychologist, 28, 587-591. GUYLL, M., SPOTH, R. & REDMOND, C. (2003). The effects of incentives and research requirements on participation rates for a community-based preventive intervention research study. Journal of Primary Prevention, 24 (1), 25- 41.
EVANS, R. & DONNERSTEIN, E. (1974). Some implications for psychological research of early versus late term participation by college subjects. Journal of Research in Personality, 8, 102-109. SHARPS, E.C., PELLETIER, L.G. & LÉVESQUE, C. (2006). Double-edged sword of rewards for participation in pychology experiments. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 38 (3), 269-277. [PDF]
Voir aussi Échantillonnage, Compensation financière et Consentement
Participants (Sélection des...) : Voir Échantillonnage. Sampling.
Participants (Rémunération des...) : En recherche, il faut parfois rémunérer les sujets sélectionnés pour les convaincre de participer à la recherche, de la terminer si elle dure longtemps (certaines recherches longitudinales) ou pour compenser ceux et celles qui ont subi des effets secondaires indésirables.
Participer : Consiste à contribuer à une activité, plutôt que de refuser d'y prendre part ou de se contenter d'être seulement présent lors du déroulement (assister). Participer, partisan et pésentéisme.
Type de participation
Participer à une recherche Participer en classe Participer à la politique
PORTER, S.R. (2007). A closer look at faculty service: What affects participation on committees ? Journal of Higher Education, 78 (5), 523-541.
CHALABAEV, A., SARRAZIN, P., FONTAYNE, P., BOICHÉ, J. & CLÉMENT-GUILLOTIN, C. (2013). The influence of sex stereotypes and gender roles on participation and performance in sport and exercise : Review and future directions. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 14 (2), 136-144. [PDF]
Participer/Participation en classe : Voir Classe (Participation).
Participer à un parti/Participation politique : Voir Voter et Engagement politique. Political participation.
Participer à une recherche : Voir Biais de non-réponse/non-participation et Taux de réponse. Enrollment.
Partisan : Tout individu qui soutient et défend une idée, une autre personne, un groupe. Partisan, organisation et équipe. Supporter.
WOLFSON, S., WAKELIN, D. & LEWIS M. (2005). Football supporters' perceptions of their role in the home advantage. Journal of Sport Sciences, 23 (4), 365-374.
Voir auss Audience, Effet d'audience et Avantage du terrain
Partridge Ty ( ) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de la psychologie comparée. Collaborateur de Greenberg et Schneirla.

PARTRIDGE, T., WEISS, E. & GREENBERG, G. (1996). Individual development and evolution : The genesis of novel behavior. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 9 (2), 99-103.
PARTRIDGE, T. & GREENBERG, G. (1998). Integrative levels. In G. Greenberg & M.H. Haraway (Eds.), Comparative psychology : A handbook (pp. 150-155). New York : Garland.
PARTRIDGE, T. (2003). Biological and caregiver correlates of behavioral inhibition. Infant & Child Development, 12 (1), 71-87.
PARTRIDGE, T. (2007). A latent growth-curve approach to difficult temperament. Infant & Child Development, 16 (3), 255-265.
PARTRIDGE, T. & GREENBERG, G. (2010). Contemporay ideas in physics an biology in Gottlieb’s psychology. In K.E. Hood, C. Tucker Halpern, G. Greenberg, and R.M. Lerner (Eds.), Handbook of developmental Science, Behavior, and Genetics. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. [PDF]
Pascal Blaise (1623-1662) : Mathématicien, physicien, méthodologiste et philosophe français. Il a formulé un pari, devenu célèbre, sur l'existence de Dieu.
PASCAL, B. (1670). Les pensées.
CHEVALLEY, C. (1995). Pascal : contingence et probabilité. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.
Le pari de Pascal
Hypothèse En réalité, Dieu existe En réalité, Dieu n'existe pas
Vous pariez que Dieu existe Vous avez raison, alors à votre mort vous irez au paradis. Vous avez tort, alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.
Vous pariez que Dieu n'existe pas Vous avez tort, alors à votre mort vous n'irez pas au paradis. Vous avez raiso,n alors à votre mort vous retournerez au néant.
Pascalis Olivier ( ) : Neurocognitiviste d'origine française et spécialiste de l'étude de la reconnaissance du visage. Collaborateur de Bachevalier, Lee, Shankardass et Tanaka.
PASCALIS, O., DE SCHONEN, S., MORTON, J., DERUELLE, C. & FABRE-GRENET, M. (1995). Mother’s face recognition by neonates : a replication and an extension. Infant Behavior & Development, 18 (1), 79-85. [PDF]
PASCALIS, O., DEMONT, E., DE HAAN, M. & CAMPBELL, R. (2001). Recognition of faces of different species : a developmental study between 5-8 years of age. Infant & Child Development, 10 (S), 39-45.
PASCALIS, O., DE HAAN, M. & NELSON, C.A. (2002). Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life ? Science, 296, 1321-1323.
PASCALIS, O., SCOTT, L.S., KELLY, D.J., SHANNON, R.W., NICHOLSON, E., COLEMAN M. & NELSON C.A. (2005). Plasticity of Face Processing in Infancy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science, 102, 5297-5300.
PASCALIS, O., DE MARTIN DE VIVIÉS, X., ANZURES, G., QUINN, P.C., SLATER, A.M., TANAKA, J.W. & LEE, K. (2011). Development of face pprocessing. WIREs Cognitive Science, 2, 666-675. [PDF]
Pascual-Leone Juan (1933-) : Psychiatre et psychologue cognitiviste européen d'origine espagnole. Étudiant de Piaget. Collaborateur de Baillargeon et De Ribaupierre.
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. (1970). A mathematical model for the transition rule in Piaget's development stages. Acta Psychologica, 32, 302-345.
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. & GOODMAN, D. (1979). Intelligence and experience : A neo-Piagetian approach. Instructional Science, 8, 301-367.
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. (1983). Growing into human maturity : Toward a meta subjective theory of adulthood stages. Life-Span Development & Behavior, 5, 117-155.
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. & BAILLARGEON, R. (1994). Developmental measurement of mental attention. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 17, 161-200.
PASCUAL-LEONE, J. (2019). Growing minds have a maturing mental attention : A review of Demetriou and Spanoudis (2018). Intelligence, 72, 59-66.
TODOR, J.I. (1979). Developmental differences in motor task integration : A test of Pascual-Leone’s theory of constructive operators. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 28, 314-322. [PDF]
Pasek Josh ( ) : Politologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude de la communication. Il s'intéresse également à la psychologie politique et aux élections. Collaborateur de Krosnick.
PASEK, J., MORE, E. & ROMER, D. (2009). Realizing the social internet ? Online social networking meets offline civic engagement. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 6 (3/4), 197-215.
PASEK, J., TAHK, A., LELKES, Y., KROSNICK, J.A., PAYNE, B.K., AKHTAR, O. & TOMPSON, T. (2009). Determinants of turnout and candidate choice in the 2008 U.S. Presidential election : Illuminating the impact of racial prejudice and oher considerations. Public Opinion Quarterly, 73 (5), 943-994.
PASEK, J., STARK, T., KROSNICK, J.A., TOMPSON, T. & PAYNE B. (2014). Attitude toward Blacks in the Obama era : Changing distributions and impacts on job approval and electoral choice 2008-2012. Public Opinion Quarterly, 78 (S1), 276-302.
PASEK, J., STARK, T.H., KROSNICK, J.A. & TOMPSON, T. (2015). What motivates a conspiracy theory ? Birther beliefs, partisanship, liberal-conservative ideology, and anti-Black attitudes. Electoral Studies, 40, 482-489. [PDF]
PASEK, J. (2016). When will nonprobability surveys mirror probability surveys ? Considering types of inference and weighting strategies as criteria for correspondence. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 28, 269-291.
Pashler Harold E. ( ) : Psychologue cognitif américain et spécialiste de l'étude de l'attention. Collaborateur de Bjork, Carpenter, Gazzaniga, Rohrer et Wixted.
PASHLER, H. (1984). Evidence against late selection : Stimulus quality effects in previewed displays. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 10, 429-448. [PDF]
PASHLER, H. & BADGIO, P. (1985). Visual attention and stimulus identification. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Human Perception & Performance, 11 (2), 105-121. [PDF]
PASHLER, H. (1992). Attentional limitations in doing two tasks at the same time. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 1 (2), 44-50. [PDF]
PASHLER, H. (1994). Dual-task interference in simple tasks : Data and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 116, 220-244. [PDF]
PASHLER, H., ROHRER, D. & HARRIS, C. (2013). Can the goal of honesty be primed ? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 49, 959-964. [PDF]
Passage à l'acte : En psychanalyse, pulsion, refoulée ou non, qui engendre une conduite. Acting out.
PROULX, J. (2004). Passage à l’acte criminel. Dans G. Lopez & S. Tzitzis (Eds.), Dictionnaire critique des sciences criminelles (pp. 684-686). Paris : Éditions Dalloz.
Voir aussi Psychanalyse et Pulsion
Passant : Tout organisme présent au moment où l'on observe le sujet d'une recherche, et dont la seule présence est susceptible d'influencer les comportements ou les opinions de ce sujet. Passant et effet du passant. *témoin. Bystander.
LATANÉ, B. & DARLEY, J. (1968). Group inhibition of bystander intervention in emergencies. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 10, 215-221.
DARLEY, J. & LATANÉ, B. (1968). Bystander intervention in emergencies : Diffusion of responsibility. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 8, 377-383.
DARLEY, J. & LATANÉ, B. (1969). Bystander "Apathy". American Scientist, 57, 244-268.
LATANÉ, B. & RODIN, J. (1969). A lady in distress : Inhibiting effects of friends and strangers on bystander intervention. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 5, 189-202.
Voir aussi Effet du passant
Passation : Le terme a deux significations voisines : a) En méthodologie/métrologie, ensemble des conditions mises en place par un chercheur pour permettre aux répondants de sa recherche de "bien" répondre à un test, à un questionnaire, à une épreuve/tâche, à une entrevue. Ici le mot "bien" ne désigne la "bonne réponse" du point de vue du participant ou du chercheur, mais bien les conditions qui permettent de s'assurer que les variables parasites qui menacent la validité et la fidélité de la mesure/évaluation de la variable dépendante (Y) seront neutralisées. EX: Un interviewer qui coupe la parole aux répondants. = administration d'un test. Test administration, test conditions. b) En éducation, on utilise également ce terme pour désigner les conditions mises en place dans une classe par un-e enseignant-e/professeur-e pour permettre à ses étudiants/élèves de répondre aux questions d'un examen. EX: Une classe bruyante et chaude nuit à la passation d'un test de lecture. = faire.
GORETTI, M. (1961). L'épreuve individuelle d'intelligence générale de Barbeau et Pinard : étude sur l'administration collective de quatre-sous-tests verbaux. Québec : Université Laval.
SUBKOVIAK, M.J. (1976). Estimating reliability from a single administration of a mastery test. JEM, 13, 265-276.
DILLMAN, D.A. (1991). The design and administration of mail surveys. Annual Review of Sociology, 17, 225-249. [PDF]
BANDILLA, W., BOSNJAK, M. & ALTDORFER, P. (2003). Survey administration effects ? A comparison of Web-based and traditional written self-administered surveys using the ISSP environment module. Social Science Computer Review, 21, 235-243.
WILLIAMS, R.J. & VOLBERG, R. (2009). Impact of survey description, administration format, and exclusionary criteria on population prevalence rates of problem gambling. International Gambling Studies, 9 (2), 101-117.
CHEN, J., WHITE, S., McCLOSKEY, M., SOROUI, J. & CHUN, Y. (2011). Effects of computer versus paper administration of an adult functional writing assessment. Assessing Writing, 16, 49-71.
GRIEVE R. & de GROOT, H.T. (2011). Does online psychological test administration facilitate faking ? Computers in Human Behavior, 27 (6), 2386-2391.
Voir aussi Validité, Fidélité, Test, Questionnaire, Épreuve/tâche et Entrevue
Voir aussi Classe et Examen


Passé : Objet d'étude de l'histoire. En fait, l'histoire étudie certains événements passés, généralement ceux qui concernent notre espèce. Il va de soi que ce n'est pas le temps en soi qui intéresse les historiens, mais les événements qui s'y déroulent. Le passé se définit donc comme tout chose qui a eu lieu. Il exclut ce qui est en train de se produire (présent) ou ce qui se déroulera (futur). N.D.L.R. Pour une raison que j'ignore, les historiens sont très réticents à étudier le passé immédiat. Passé, histoire et fait historique.
Voir aussi Fait historique
Passif : Accumulation d'une chose négative dont l'influence ne se fait pas forcément sentir immédiatement. Il peut s'agir d'argent (dette), de CO2 (effet de serre), d'expériences personnelles traumatisantes (guerre, viol, famine, désastre natuel, etc). /Actif.
Voir aussi Fait historique
Passion : Ce que l'on aime faire par dessus tout et dont on se prive, en partie ou totalement, que si l'on y est contraint. Contrairement à la dépendance, l'activité animée par une passion comporte plus d'avantages pour l'individu que de désavantages (mais pas nécessairement pour son entourage...). Passion.
HUME, D. (1759/1990). Réflexions sur les passions. Paris : Le Livre de Poche. VALLERAND, R.J., PAQUET Y, PHILIPPE, F.L. & CHAREST, J (2010). On the role of passion in burnout : A process model. Journal of Personality, 78, 289-312.
SOLOMON, R. (1976). The passions. New York : Anchor.  
FRIDJA, N.H., MESQUITA, B., SONEMANS, & VAN GOOZEN, S. (1991). The duration of affective phenomena or emotions, sentiments and passions. In K.T. Strongman (Ed.), International review of studies on emotion (Vol. 1, pp. 187-225). New York, NY : Wiley.  
GABBARD, G.O. (2001). Cyberpassion : E-Erotic transference on the Internet. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 70, 719-739. [PDF]  
VALLERAND, R.J., BLANCHARD, C.M., MAGEAU, G.A., KOESTNER, R., RATELLE, C., LÉONARD, M. et GAGNÉ, M. (2003). Les passions de l'âme : On obsessive and harmonious passion. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 85, 756-767.  
RATELLE, C., VALLERAND, R.J., MAGEAU, G., ROUSSEAU, F.L. & PROVENCHER, P.J. (2004). When passion leads to problematic outcomes : A look at gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies 20, 105-119. [PDF] LAFRENIÈRE, M-A.K., BÉLANGER, J.J., SEDIKIDES, C. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2011). Self-esteem and passion for activities. Personality & Individual Differences, 51, 541-544. [PDF]
MAGEAU, G.A., VALLERAND, R.J., ROUSSEAU, F.L., RATELLE, C.F. & PROVENCHER, P.J. (2005). Passion and gambling: Investigating the divergent affective and cognitive consequences of gambling. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 100-118. VALLERAND, R.J. (2012). From motivation to passion : In search of the motivational processes involved in a meaningful life. Canadian Psychology, 53, 42-52. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J., ROUSSEAU, F.L., GROUZET, F.M.E., DUMAIS, A. & GRENIER, S. (2006). Passion in sport : A look at determinants and affective Page 20 of 21 experiences. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 28, 454-478.  
AVERILL, J.R. & SUNDARARAJAN, L. (2006). Passion and qing: Intellectual histories of emotion, West and East. In K. Pawlik & G. d'Ydewalle (Eds.), Psychological concepts : An international historical perspective (pp. 101-139). Hove, UK : Psychology Press. MAGEAU, G. & VALLERAND, R.J., CHAREST, J., SALVY, S.J., LACAILLE, N., BOUFFARD, T. & KOESTNER, R. (2012). On the development of harmonious and obsessive passion : The role of autonomy support, activity specialization, and identification with the activity. Journal of Personality, 77 (3), 601-646. [PDF]
SHIELDS, S.A. (2007). Passionate men, emotional women : Psychology constructs gender difference in the late 19th century. History of Psychology, 10, 92-110. [PDF]  
VALLERAND, R.J., SALVY, S.J., MAGEAU, G.A., ELLIOT, A.J., DENIS, P., GROUZET, F.M.E. & BLANCHARD, C.B. (2007). On the role of passion in performance. Journal of Personality, 75, 505-534. THOMAES, S., BUSHMAN, B.J., OROBIO DE CASTRO, B. & REIJEIJTES, A. (2012). Arousing "gentle passions" in young adolescents : Sustained experimental effects of value-affirmations on prosocial feelings andbehaviors. Developmental Psychology, 48, 103-110.
REDISH, A.V., JENSEN, S., JOHNSON, A. & KURT-NELSON, Z. (2007). Reconciling reinforcement learning models with behavioral extinction and renewal : Implications for addiction, relapse, and problem gambling. Psychological Review, 114 (3), 784-805. [PDF] VALLERAND, R.J. (2012). The role of passion in sustainable psychological well-being. Psychology of Well-Being : Theory, Research & Practice, 2 (1), 1-21. [PDF]
PHILLIPE, F. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2007). Prevalence rates of gambling problems in Montreal, Canada : A look at old adults and the role of passion. Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 275-283. [PDF] RIP, B., VALLERAND, R.J. & LAFRENIÈRE, M.-A. K. (2012). Passion for a cause, passion for a creed : On ideological passion, identity threat, and radicalization. Journal of Personality, 80, 573-602. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (2008). The psychology of passion : In search of what makes people's lives most worth living. Canadian Psychology/Psychologie Canadienne, 49 (1), 1-13. [PDF] CARPENTIER, J., MAGEAU, G. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2012). Ruminations and flow : Why do people with a more harmonious passion experience higher well-being ? Journal of Happiness Studies, 13, 501-518. [PDF]
VALLERAND, R.J. (2008). On the psychology of passion: In search of what makes people's lives most worth living. Canadian Psychology, 49, 1-13.  
VALLERAND, R.J., MAGEAU, G.A., ELLIOT, A., DUMAIS, A, DEMERS, M-A, ROUSEAU, F.L. (2008). Passion and performance attainment in sport. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 9, 373-392.  
MAGEAU, G.A., VALLERAND, R.J. CHAREST, J., SALVY, S., LACAILLE, N., BOUFFARD, T. & KOESTNER, R. (2009). On the development of harmonious and obsessive passion : The role of autonomy support, activity specialization, and identification with the activity. Journal of Personality, 77, 601-646.  
LAFRENIèRE, M-A.K., VALLERAND, R.J., DONAHUE, E.G. & LAVIGNE, G.L. (2009). On the costs and benefits of gaming : The role of passion. CyberPsychology, 12, 285-290. [PDF] HOUFFORT, N., FERNET, C., VALLERAND, R.J., LAFRAMBOISE, A., GUAY, F. & KOESTNER, R. (2015). The role of passion for work and need satisfaction in psychological adjustment to retirement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 88, 84-94.
DONAHUE, E.G., RIP, B. & VALLERAND, R.J. (2009). When winning is everything : On passion and aggression in sport. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 10, 526-534. [PDF] CURRAN, T. & HILL, A.P., APPLETON, P.R., VALLERAND, R.J. & STANDAGE, M. (2015). The psychology of passion : A meta-analytical review of a decade of research on intrapersonal outcomes. Motivation & Emotion, 39, 631-655.
Voir aussi Dépendance, Motivation, Affect, Humeur, Impression et émotion
Passivité : Incapacité à prendre des intitiatives ou à réagir à une situation désagréable ou aversive. Passivité et résignation acquise. Passivity.
GOOD, T.L, SLAVINGS, R., HAREL, K. & EMERSON, H. (1987). Student passivity : A study of student question-asking in K-12 classrooms. Sociology of Education, 60 (3), 181-199.
Voir aussi Résignation acquise
Pastötter Bernhard ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, d'origine allemande, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire, notamment de l'effet test.Collaborateur de Bäuml.
PASTÖTTER, B. & BÄUML, K.-H.T. (2007). The crucial role of postcue encoding in directed forgetting and context-dependent forgetting. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 33, 977-982.
PASTÖTTER, B. & BÄUML, K.-H.T. (2016). Reversing the testing effect by feedback : Behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. Cognitive, Affective, & Behavioral Neuroscience, 16, 473-488.
PASTÖTTER, B., TEMPEL, T. & BÄUML, K.-H.T. (2017). Long-term memory updating : The reset-of-encoding hypothesis in list-method directed forgetting. Frontiers in Psychology, 8 [2076], 1-6. [PDF]
PASTÖTTER, B. ENGEL, M. & FRINGS, C. (2018). The forward effect of testing : Behavioral evidence for the reset-of-encoding hypothesis using serial position analysis. Frontiers in Psychology, 9 [1197], 1-5. [PDF]
PASTÖTTER, B. & FRINGS, C. (2019). The forward testing effect is reliable and independent of learners' working memory capacity. Cognition, 2 (1), 1-15. [PDF]
Pate-Bain Helen (1926-2015) : Spécialiste de l'éducation. Elle s'intéresse notamment à l'effet de la taille des classes sur l'apprentissage et à la réussite scolaire. Collaboratrice de Achilles et Finn. = Bain, H.P.
PATE-BAIN, H. (1983). A teacher's point of view on the Tennessee Master Teacher Plan. Phi Delta Kappan,
PATE-BAIN, H. & ACHILLES, C.M. (1986). Interesting developments on class size. Phi Delta Kappan, 67, 662-665.
PATE-BAIN, H., ACHILLES, C.M., BOYD-ZAHARIAS, J. & McKENNA, B. (1992). Class size does make a difference. Phi Delta Kappan, 74, 253-253. [PDF]
PATE-BAIN, H., CAIN, V., WORD, E. & BOYD-ZAHARIAS, J. (1997). STAR Follow-Up Studies, 1996-1997: The Student/Teacher Achievement Ratio (STAR) Project.
ACHILLES, C.M., FINN, J.D. & PATE-BAIN, H. (2002). Measuring class size : Let me count the ways. Educational Leadership, 59 (5), 24-26.
Patel Meeta R. ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude des troubles alimentaires et de l'autisme. Étudiante de Bijou, Carr, Ghezzi et Piazza. Collaboratrice de Fisher, Leblanc, Rapp et Shore.
PATEL, M.R., CARR, J.E. & DOZIER, C.L. (1998). On the role of stimulus preference assessment in the evaluation of contingent access to stimuli associated with stereotypy during behavioral acquisition. Behavioral Interventions, 13, 269-274.
PATEL, M.R., PIAZZA, C.C., KELLY, M.L., OSCHNER, C.A. & SANTANA, C.M. (2001). Using a fading procedure to increase liquid consumption in a child with feeding problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34 (3), 357-360. [PDF]
PATEL, M.R., PIAZZA, C.C., MARTINEZ, C.J., VOLKERT, V.M. & SANTANA, C.M. (2002). An evaluation of two differential reinforcement procedures and escape extinction to treat food refusal. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 363-374. [PDF]
PATEL, D.R., GREYDANUS, D.E., PRATT, H.D. & PHILLIPS, E.L. (2003). Eating disorders in adolescent athletes. Journal of Adolescent Research, 18 (3), 280-296.
PATEL, M.R., PIAZZA, C.C., LAYER, S.A., XOLEMAN, R. & SWARTZWEIDLDER, D.M. (2005). A Systematic evaluation of food textures To decrease packing and increase oral intake in children with pediatric feeding disorders. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 38 (1), 89-100. [PDF]
Paternalisme : Consiste à utiliser son autorité pour traiter autrui comme des enfants. Paternalism.
JACKMAN, M.R. (1994). The velvet glove : Paternalism and conflict in gender, class, and race relations. Berkeley, CA : University of California Press.
Voir aussi Autorité
Paternité/Père : Rôle parental qui consiste à soigner et éduquer un ou plusieurs enfants, au sein d'une famille ou non. Enfance, maternité et paternité. = rôle du père, paternant. Father-child relations, paternal effects.
MISCHEL, W. (1961). Father absence and delay of gratification : Cross-cultural comparisons". Journal of Abnormal & Social Psychology 63,116-124. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. (Ed.) (2001). La problématique paternelle. Ramonville : St-Agne : Erès.
D'ANDRADE, R.G. (1973). Father absence, identification and identity. Ethos, 1, 440-445. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. (2001). Contribution à l'analyse de l'implication paternelle. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée, 51 (1-2), 69-75.
LAMB, M.E. (1975). Fathers : Forgotten contributors to child development. Human Development, 18, 245-266. WHITE, L. & GILBRETH, J.G. (2001). When children have two fathers : Effects of relationships with stepfathers and noncustodial fathers on adolescent outcomes. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 63, 155-167.
GROSSMANN, K.E. & VOLKMER, J.J. (1984). Fathers' presence during birth of their infants and paternal involvement. International Journal of Behavioral Develpoment, 7, 157-165. MARKERT, J.A., DANLEY, P.D. & ARNEGARD, M.E. (2001). Maternal effects, paternal effects and sexual selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 16 (2), 95-100. [PDF]
DIAMOND, J.C. (1986). Becoming a father : A psychoanalytic perspective on the forgotten parent. Psychoanalytic Review, 73 (4), 41-64. BERG, S.J. & WYNNE-EDWARDS, K.E. (2001). Changes in testosterone, cortisol, and estradiol levels in men becoming fathers. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 76 (6), 582-592.
BARNETT, R.C. & BARUCH, G.K. (1987). Determinants of fathers' participation in family work. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 49, 29-40. YEUNG, W.J., SANDBERG, J.F., DAVIS-KEAN, P.E. & HOFFERTH, S.L. (2001). Children's time with fathers in intact families. Journal of Marriage & Family, 63 (1), 136-154.
CHAMBERLAND, C. et CÔTÉ, M. (1988). Participation des pères aux tâches familiales et perception des rôles sexuels chez leur garçon d'âge préscolaire. Apprentissage et Socialisation, 11 (3), 167-172. ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. et ROUYER, V. (2002). Le père dans la construction de l'identité sexuée de l'enfant. Confrontation des modèles théoriques. L'Orientation Scolaire et Professionnelle, 31 (4), 523-533.
McBRIDE, B. (1989). Stress and fathers' parental cornpetence: Implications for family life and parent educators. Family Relations, 38, 385-389. YEUNG, W.J., SANDBERG, J.F., DAVIS-KEAN, P.E. & HOFFERTH, S.L. (2001). Children's time with fathers in intact families. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 63, 136-154.
CHAMBERLAND, C. (1991). Contribution des pères au rôle domestique et identité sexuelle de leur garçon d'âge préscolaire. Revue Canadienne des Sciences du Comportement/Canadian Journal of Behavior Science, 23 (2), 214-227. SILVERSTEIN, L.B. (2002). Fathers and families. In J.P. McHale & W.S. Grolnick (Eds.), Retrospect and prospect in the study of families. Mahwah, New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
AMATO, P.R. (1994). Father-child relations, mother-child relations, and offspring psychological well-being in early adulthood. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 56, 1031-1042. BAGNER, D. & EYBERG, S.M. (2003). Father involvement in parent training : When does it matter ? Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 32, 599-605. [PDF]
COLTRANE, S. & ALLAN, K. (1994). "New" fathers and old stereotypes : Representations of mas culinity in 1980s television. Masculinities, 2, 43-66. BAGNER, D. & EYBERG, S.M. (2003). Father involvement in treatment. In T.H. Ollendick and C.S. Schroeder (Eds.), Encyclopedia of clinical child and pediatric psychology. New York : Plenum. [PDF]
  PERLESZ, A (2004). Deconstructing the fear of father absence. Journal of Feminist Family Therapy, 16 (3), 1-29. [PDF]
  BULANDA, R.E. A. (2004). Paternal involvement with children : The influence of gender ideologies. Journal of Marriage & Family, 66, 40-45.
BAKER, D.B. (1994). Parenting stress and ADHD : A cornpaison of mothers and fathers. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 2, 46-50. CONDON, J.T., BOYCE, P. & CORKINDALE, C.J. (2004). The first-time fathers study : a prospective study of the mental health and wellbeing of men during the transition to parenthood. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 56-64.
  BRETHERTON, I., LAMBERT, J.D. & GOLBY, B. (2005). Involved fathers of preschool children as seen by themselves and their wives : Accounts of attachment, socialization, and companionship. Attachment & Human Development, 7, 229-251.
DIAMOND, J.C. (1995). Someone to watch over me: The father as the original protector of the mother-infant dyad. Psychoanalysis & Psychotherapy, 12, 89-102. ANDERSON D. A. & HAMILTON M. (2005). Gender role sterotyping of parents in children's picture books : the invisible father. Sex Roles, 52, 145-151.
  GRAIG, L. (2006). Does father care mean fathers share ? A comparison of how mothers and fathers in intact families spend time with children. Gender & Society, 20 (2), 259-281. [PDF]
  PATTERSON, C.J. (2004). Gay fathers. In M.E. Lamb (Ed.), The role of the father in child development (pp. 397–416). New York : Wiley.
PARKE, R.D. (1996). Fatherhood. Cambridge : Harvard University Press. WHITE, J.M., GODFREY, J. & MOCASSIN, B.I. (2006). American Indian fathering in the Dakota Nation : Use of Akicita as a fatherhood standard. Fathering, 4 (1), 49-69.
DE SINGLY, F. (1996). Le temps, maternel et paternel, consacré à l'enfant. Dans R.B. Dandurand et R. Hurtubise et C. Le Bourdais (Dirs.), Enfances. Perspectives sociales et pluriculturelles (p. 203-217). Institut québécois de recherche sur la culture. Québec : Les Presses de l'Université Laval.  GEARY, D.C. (2007). Evolution of fatherhood. In C. Salmon & T. Shackelford (Eds.), Family relationships : An evolutionary perspective (pp. 115-144). New York : Oxford University Press.
ZAOUCHE-GAUDRON, C. (1997). Influence de la différenciation paternelle sur la construction de l'identité sexuée de l'enfant de 20 mois. Enfance, 50 (3), 425-434. [PDF] PAQUETTE, D., EUGÈNE, M.M., DUBEAU, D. et GAGNON, M.-N. (2009). Les pères ont-ils une influence spécifique sur le développement des enfants ? In D. Dubeau, A. Devault & G. Forget (Eds.), La paternité au 21e siècle (pp. 99-122). PUL.
DIAMOND, J.C. (1998). Fathers with sons : Psychoanalytic perspectives on "good enough" fathering throughout the life cycle. Gender & Psychoanalysis, 3, 243-299. CAMERON, P. (2009). Gay fathers' effects on children : a review. Psychological Reports, 104 (2), 649–659.
  PAULSON, J.F. & BAZEMORE, S.D. (2010). Prenatal and postpartum depression in fathers and its association with maternal depression. Journal of American Medical Association, 303 (19), 1961-1969. [LIRE]
AMATO, P.R. & GILBRETH, J.G. (1999). Nonresident fathers and children's well-being : A meta-analysis. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 61, 557-573. LAMB, M.E. (Ed.) (2010). The role of the father in child development. Hoboken NJ : Wiley.
  GLAUBER, R, GOZJOLKO, K.L. (2011). Do traditional fathers always work more ? Gender ideology, race, and parenthood. Journal of Marriage & Family, 73, 1133-1148.
AMATO, P.R. & RIVERA, F. (1999). Paternal involvement and children's behavior problems. Journal of Marriage & the Family, 61, 375-84. SHEARS, J., BUBAR, R. & HALL, R.C. (2011). Understanding Fathering among Urban Native American Men. Advances in Social Work, 12 (2), 201-217. [PDF]
SILVERSTEIN, L.B. & AUERBACH, C.F. (1999). De- constructing the essential father. American Psychologist, 54,397-407. MASHOODH, R., FRANKS, B., CURLEY, J.P. & CHAMPAGNE, F.A. (2012). Paternal social enrichment effects on maternal behavior and offspring growth. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 109 (S2), 17232-17238. [PDF]
  DAVIES, N. & EAGLE, G. (2013). Conceptualizing the paternal function : Maleness, masculinity, or thirdness ? Contemporary Psychoanalysis, 49 (4), 559-585.
  BERMAN, S. (2021). Beyond remembering the forgotten parent : The conception of the father. Psychoanalytic Social Work, 28 (1), 43-63.
Voir aussi Rôle parental et Maternité
Pathogène : Comme adjectif, caractérise un état maladif ou pathologique, qui requiert des soins, ou qui est susceptible d'engendrer un tel état. = maladif, toxique, nocif, délétère. Comme substantif, le terme désigne également toutes choses qui engendrent cet état. = poison, substance toxique, facteur pathogène.
Pathologie : Le contraire de la santé ou de la normalité. Terme d'origine médicale utilisé plus récemment pour désigner les troubles mentaux. Les symptômes de la maladie mentale sont souvent plus variés et diffus que ceux de la plupart des maladies biologiques. En psychologie, suivant la perspective, la pathologie peut naître d'une maladie mentale (psychanalyse et cognitivisme) ou de contingences sociales particulières et dysfonctionnelles (behaviorisme et écologisme). Pathologie et comportement pathologique. = maladie, affection, anormalité, désordre, déviance, problème grave, trouble important, cas lourd. /normalité, sain, santé. ( ): maladie biologique, maladie mentale, maladie psychosomatique. Disorders, pathology.
Pathologie Pathologie ou maladie biologique On dit aussi trouble ou maladie organique
Pathologie ou maladie psychologique On dit aussi maladie ou trouble mental
KANTOR, J.R. (1919). Human personality and its pathology. Journal of Philosophy, Psychology, Scientific Method, 16, 236-246. BARLOW, D.H. (Ed.) (1981). Behavioral assessment of adult disorders. New York : Guilford Press.
CANGUILHEM, G. (1943/66). Le normal et le pathologique. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France. GAGNON, J.H. (1987). Science and the politics of pathology. Journal of Sex Research, 23 (1), 120-123.
SIDMAN, M. (1960). Normal sources of pathological behavior. Science, 132, 61-68. OLTMANNS, T.F., TURKHEIMER, E. & STRAUSS, M.E. (1998). Peer assessment of personality traits and pathology. Assessment, 5, 53-65.
WITKIN, H.A. (1965). Psychological differentiation and forms of pathology. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 70, 317-36 FEE, D. (Ed.) (2000). Pathology and the postmodern : Mental illness as discourse and experience. London : Sage Publications.
  RUSINEK, S. (2004/2014). Les émotions : Du normal au pathologique. Paris : Dunod.
Pathomimie : Voir Trouble factice et Syndrome de Munchausen.
Patience : Capacité d'attendre avant de faire quelque chose ou d'obtenir ce que l'on souhaite, sans manifester aucune frustration ou agressivité. Patience, délai de renforcement et délai de gratification. = impulsivité, contrôle de soi. Patience.
KACELNIK, A. (2003). The evolution of patience. In G. Loewenstein, D. Read & R. Baumeister (Eds.), Time and decision : Economic and psychological perspectives on intertemporal choice (pp. 115-138). New York : Russell Sage Foundation.
 STEVENS, J.R., HALLINAN, E.V. & HAUSER, M.D. (2005). The ecology and evolution of patience in two new world monkeys. Biology Letters, 1 (2), 223-226. [PDF]
 ROSATI, A., STEVENS, J., HARE, B. & HAUSER, M.D. (2007). The evolutionary origins of human patienc : Temporal preferences in chimpanzees, bonobos, and human adults. Current Biology, 17 (19), 1-6. [PDF]
JIMURA, K., MYERSON, J., HILGARD, J., BRAVER, T.S. & GREEN, L. (2009). Are people really more patient than other animals ? Evidence from human discounting of real liquid rewards. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16 (6), 1071-1075. [PDF]
Voir aussi Délai de renforcement et Gratification
Patient : Désigne, dans le modèle médico-psychiatrique, celui qui consulte un professionnel de la santé (mais qui, contrairement au malade,ne requiert pas nécessairement de soins). Par extension, le terme désigne aussi le malade, celui qui souffre. (mais pas nécessairement pour les raisons qu'il invoque). Certains pyschologues, notamment les humanistes, lui préfèrent le le terme client, plus neutre. Au Québec, dans notre système de santé, le terme désigne également «celui qui attend, attend, attend, en silence...». = malade. *client. Patient.
Type de patient
Patients célèbres de Freud Patient satisfait Patient zéro
FERENCZI, S. (1914/1970). Quand le patient s'endort pendant la séance d'analyse. Dans Psychanalyse II, Oeuvres complètes - Tome II : 1913-1919 (p. 134). Paris : Payot. MARVEL, M.K., EPSTEIN, R.M., FLOWERS, K. & BECKMAN, H.B. (1999). Soliciting the patient's agenda : have we improved ? Journal of American Medicine Assoication, 281 (3), 283-287.
AYLLON, T. & AZRIN, N.H. Reinforcement and instructions with mental patients. (1964). Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 7, 327-331. [PDF] HOENCAMP, E., STEVENS, A. & HAFFMANS, J. (2002). Patients' attitudes toward antidepressants. Psychiatric Services, 53 (9), 1180-1181.
GOLDIAMOND, I. (1976). Protection of human subjects and patients : a social contingency analysis of distinctions between research and practice, and its implications. Behaviorism, 4 (1), 1-41. LAUBER, C., NORDT, C. & RÖSSLER, W. (2003). Patients' attitudes toward antidepressants. Psychiatric Services, 54 (5), 746-747.
DiMATTEO, M.R., FRIEDMAN, H.S. & TARNANTA, A. (1979). Sensitivity to bodily nonverbal communication as a factor in physician-patient rapport. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 4, 18-26. WYNNE, L. (2004). The missing theory : Why behavior analysis has little impact on voluntary adult outpatient services. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 6 (2), 135-146. [PDF]
GABBARD, G.O. & COYNE, L. (1987). Predictors of response of antisocial patients to hospital treatment. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 38 (11), 1181-1185. KIHLSTROM, J.F. (2005). "Patients" and "clients". APS Observer, 18 (9), 6.
COLSON, D.B., HORWITZ, L., ALLEN, J.G., FRIESWYK, S.H., GABBARD, G.O., NEWSOM, G.E. & COYNE, L. (1988). Patient collaboration as a criterion for the therapeutic alliance. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 5 (3), 259-268. KRAVITZ, R.L., EPSTEIN, R.M., FELDMAN, M.D., FRANZ, C.E., AZARI, R., WILKS, M.S., HINTON, L. & FRANKS, P. (2005). Influence of patients' requests for direct-to-consumer advertised antidepressants. Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 1995-2002.
GABBARD, G.O. (1989). Patients who hate. Psychiatry, 52 (1), 96-106. LAUBER, C., NORDT, C., BRAUNSCHWEIG, C. & RÖSSLER, W. (2006). Do mental health professionals stigmatize their patients ? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 113 (S429), 51-59. [PDF]+ [PDF]
KLERMAN, G.L. (1990). The psychiatric patient's right to effective treatment : implications of Osheroff v. Chestnut Lodge. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 409-418. AKER, S., AKER, A.A., BOKE, O., DUNDAR, C., SAHIN, A.R. & PEKSEN, Y. (2007). Attitude of medical students to psychiatric patients and their disorders and the influence of psychiatric study placements in bringing about changes in attitude. The Israel Journal of Psychiatry & Related Sciences, 44 (3), 204-212. [PDF]
GABBARD, G.O. (1992). Once a patient, always a patient : Therapist-patient sex after termination. The American Psychoanalyst, 26 (4), 6-7. FAVA, G.A. & GUIDI, J. (2007). Information overload, the patient, and the clinician. Psychotherapy & Psychosomatic, 76, 1-3.
MORTENSEN, B. & JUEL, K. (1993). Mortality and causes of death in first admitted schizophrenic patients. British Journal of Psychiatry, 163, 183-189. AKDENIZ, F. (2010). Female-specific health problems in mental patients. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 23 (4), 378-382.
JOHNSON, M. & WEBB, C. (1995). Rediscovering unpopular patients : the concept of social judgement. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 21 (3), 466-475. KIKUCHI, T., UCHIDA, H., SUZUKI, T., WATANABE, K. & KASHIMA, H. (2011). Patients' attitudes toward side effects of antidepressants : an Internet survey. European Archives of Psychiatry & Clinical Neuroscience, 261 (2), 103-109.
RÖSSLER, W., SALIZE, H.J., TRUNK, V. & VOGES, B. (1996). The attitude of medical students to psychiatric patients. German. Nervenarzt, 67, 757-764. BARTLETT-ELLIS, R.J., CARMON, A.F. & PIKE, C. (2016). A review of immediacy and implications for provider-patient relationships to support medication management. Patient Preference & Adherence, 10, 9-18. [PDF]
Voir aussi Client et Satisfaction du patient
Patient célèbre de Freud : Voir Freud.
Patient satisfait : Satisfaction du patient.
Patient zéro : Expression qui désigne le premier individu chez qui une maladie/infection (transmissible ou non) est détectée (variole, grippe, SIDA, etc.). Il ne s'agit pas forcément de la première personne malade.
Patinage (artistique et de vitesse) : Sport.
VEALEY, R.S. & CAMPBELL, J.L. (1988). Achievement goals of adolescent figure skaters : Impact on self-confidence, anxiety, and performance. Journal of Adolescent Research, 3, 227-243.
SELTZER, R. & GLASS, W. (1991). International politics and judging in Olympic skating events : 1968-1988. Journal of Sport Behavior, 14, 189-200.
WHISSELL, R., LYONS, S., WILKINSON, D. & WHISSELL, C. (1993). National bias in judgements of Olympic-level skating. Perceptual & Motor Skills, 77, 355-358.
GOULD, D., JACKSON, S. & FINCH, L. (1993). Sources of stress in national champion figure skaters. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 15, 134-159.
KONING, R. H. (2005). Home advantage in speed skating : Evidence from individual data. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23, 417-427.
BACHNER-MILMAN, R., ZOHAR, A.H., EBSTEIN, R.P., ELIZUR, Y. & CONSTANTINI, N. (2006). How anorexic-like are the symptom and personality profiles of aesthetic athletes ? Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 38 (4), 628-636. [PDF]
Voir aussi Sport
Patriarcat/Patriache : Forme d'organisation de la société qui repose davantage sur le pouvoir des hommes que sur le pouvoir des femmes. Dans ce type de société, l'homme - le patriarche - est la figure d'autorité de la plupart des institutions (famille, entreprise, gouvernement, armée, religion, etc.). Cette asymétrie engendre une oppression et une discrimination presque systématique des femmes (viol, pornographie, asservissement sexuelle des femmes, publicité sexiste, inégalité des rôles, salaire moindre, langage sexiste, faible valorisation de la maternité, statut juridique inférieur, etc.). La vaste majorité des sociétés est patriarcale. N.D.L.R. Non, le Québec n'est pas une société matriarcale ! /matriarcat. Patriarch, patriarchy, patriarchal culture, patriarchal society.
GOLDBERG, S. (1974/93). The inevitability of patriarch. Peru, Illinois : Open Court . BRYSON, V. (1999). "Patriarchy" : A concept too useful to lose. Contemporary Politics, 5 (4), 311-324.
GOLDBERG, S. (1977). The inevitability of patriarchy. London : Temple Smith. EAGLY, A.H. & WOOD, W. (2005). Universal sex differences across patriarchal cultures ≠ evolved psychological dispositions. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 28, 281-283.
BARKER, J. & DOWNING, H. (1980). Word processing and the transformation of patriarchal relations of control in the office. Capital & Class, 10, 64-99. [PDF]  
BARTKY, S. L. (1988). Foucault, femininity, and the modernization of patriarchal power. In I. Diamond & L. Quinby (Eds.), Feminism & Foucault: Reflections on resistance (pp. 61-86). Boston : Northeastern University Press.  
WITZ, A. (1992). Professions and patriarchy. New York: Routledge.  
STEPHAN, W.G. (1992). Sexual motivation, patriarchy, and compatibility. Behavioral & Brain Sciences, 15, 111-112. MACLEOD, C. (2007). The risk of phallocentrism in masculinities studies : how a revision of the concept of patriarchy may help. Psychology in Society, 35, 4-14. [PDF]
RENATO, R. (1993) Notes toward a critique of patriarchy from a male position. Anthropological Quarterly, 66 (4), 81-87.  
ALBEE, G.W. (1996). The psychological origins of the white male patriarchy. Journal of Primary Prevention, 17 (1), 75-97.  
POLLERT, A. (1996). Gender and class revisited; or, the poverty of "patriarchy". Sociology, 30 (4), 639-660. GNEEZY, U., LEONARD, K.L. & LIST, J.A. (2009). Gender differences in competition : evidence from a matrilineal and a patriarchal society. Econometrica, 77 (5), 1637-1664. [PDF]
TABET, P. (1998). La construction sociale de l’inégalité des sexes. Des outils et des corps. Paris : L’Harmattan/Bibliothèque du féminisme. HASSEL, H., REDDINGER, A. & VAN SLOOTN, J. (2011). Surfacing the structures of patriarchy : Teaching and learning threshold concepts in women’s studies. International Journal for the Scholarship of Teaching & Learning, 5 (2), 1-19. [PDF]
Voir aussi Homme et Pouvoir
Patrick George Thomas White (1857-1949) : Philosophe américain.

PATRICK, G.T.W. (1914). The psychology of play. The Pedagogical Seminary, 21 (3), 469-484.
PATRICK, G.T.W. (1916). The psychology of relaxation. Boston & New York : Hougthon Mifflin Company. [PDF]
BODE, B.H. (1917). "The psychology of relaxation. by G. T.W. Patrick" : Review by B.H. Bode American Journal of Sociology, 22 (5), 691-692
Patrimoine génétique : Voir Génotype.
Patriotisme : Patriotism.
KELMAN, H.C. (1997). Nationalism, patriotism, and national identity : Social-psychological dimensions. In D. Bar-Tal & E. Staub (Eds.), Patriotism in the life of individuals and nations (pp. 165-189). Chicago : Nelson-Hall. [PDF]
SKITKA, L.J. (2005). Patriotism or nationalism ? Understanding post- September 11, 2001, flag-display behavior. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 35, 1995-2011. [PDF]
SAHAR, G. (2008). Patriotism, attributions for the 9/11 attacks, and support for war : Then and now. Basic & Applied Social Psychology, 30, 189-197.
Voir aussi Nationalisme et Drapeau
Patten Scott B. ( ) : Épidémiologiste social canadien et spécialiste de la dépression, notamment de la dépression majeure.
PATTEN, S.B. (1999). Psychosocial stress, depressive symptoms and depressive disorders, an integrative hypothesis. Medical Hypotheses, 53, 210-216.
PATTEN, S.B. (2002). Progress against major depression in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47 (8), 775-780.
PATTEN, S.B., C.A. BECK. C.A. WILLIAMS, C. BARBUI, C. & METZ, M.L. (2003). Major depression in multiple sclerosis : A population-based study. Neurology, 61 (11), 1524-1527.
PATTEN, S.B. (2004). The impapattenpct of antidepressant treatment on population health : synthesis of data from two national data sources in Canada. Population Health Metrics, 2 (9), 1-7. [PDF]
PATTEN, S.B., WANG, J.L., WILLIAM, J.V.A., CURRIE, S., BECK. C.A., MAXWELL, C.J. & El-GUEBALY, N. (2006). Descriptive epidemiology of major depression in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 51 (2), 84-90. [PDF]
Pattern : Anglicisme. N.D.L.R. Remplacer selon le contexte par : agencement, chaîne de comportements, modèle, topographie, type, schéma, situation, cas de figure, patron moteur ou patron d'activité. Pattern.
SMITH, P.K. & CONNOLLY, K. (1972). Patterns of play and social interactionin preschool children. In N. Blurton-Jones (Ed.) Ethological studies of child behaviour. Cambridge University Press.
VOGEL, R. & ANNAU, Z. (1973). An operant discrimination task allowing variability of reinforced response patterning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (1), 1-6. [PDF]
SHIMP, C.P. (1982). Choice and behavioral patterning. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 37 (2), 157-169. [PDF]
SNYDER, J. & PATTERSON, G.R. (1986). The effects of consequences on patterns of social interaction : A quasi-experimental approach to reinforcement in natural interaction. Child Development, 57, 1257-1268.
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Francine G. Patterson Francine G. Patterson Karalyn Patterson
  Gerald R. Patterson Petterson
Patterson Charlotte J. ( ) : Psychologue américaine et spécialiste de l'étude des parents gays et lesbiens et des familles homosexuelles. Collaboratrice de Bolger, Lepper et Mischel.
PATTERSON, C.J. & MISCHEL, W. (1975). Plans to resist distraction. Developmental Psychology, 11, 369-378.
PATTERSON, C.J., VADEN, N.A., GRIESLER, P.C. & KUPERSMIDT, J.B. (1991). Income level, gender, ethnicity, and household composition as predictors of children's peer companionship outside of school. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 12, 447-465.
PATTERSON, C.J. (1992). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Child Development, 63, 1025-1042.
PATTERSON, C.J. (2006). Children of lesbian and gay parents. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (5), 241-244. [PDF]
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Patterson Francine G. (Chicago 1947-) : Primatologue américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude des gorilles. Patterson et Koko. Collaboratrice de Linden.
PATTERSON, F.G. (1978). The gestures of a gorilla : language acquisition in another pongid. Brain & Language, 5, 72-97.
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Patterson Gerald R. (1926-2016) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'hyperactivité et des comportements anti-sociaux. Collaborateur de Fagot, Margolin, Snyder et Weiss.
PATTERSON, G.R., JONES, R., WHITTIER, J. & WRIGHT, M.A. (1965). A behavior modification technique for the hyperactive child. Behavior Research & Therapy, 2, 217-226.
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PATTERSON, G.R. (1982). Coercive family process. Eugene, Ore : Castalia.
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Patterson Karalyn E. (1943-) : Neurocognitivste anglaise et spécialiste de l'étude du langage. Collaboratrice de Graham, Hodges, Lambon Ralph, McClelland, Nestor et Rogers.
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James Russell Patton Jim H. Patton
Patton James Russell (St-Louis 1949-) : Spécialiste américain de l'éducation spécialisée. Collaborateur de Cronin.
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Patton Jim H. (Amarillo 1948-2018) : Neuropsychologue américain, spécialisé dans l'étude et de la mesure de l'impulsivité.Collaborateur de Barratt et Stanford.
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Paulhus Delroy L. ( ) : Psycholosociologue et méthodologiste canadien, spécialisé dans l'étude de la désirabilité sociale et du rapport verbal. Il s'intéresse aussi aux effets psychologiques de l'ordre de naissance. Collaborateur de Bond, John et Vazire.
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Pauling Linus Carl (Portland 1901-1994 Big Sur) : Chimiste et physicien américain. Il s'est notamment intéressé à la schizophrénie et au rôle de la vitamine dans la prévention de l'artériosclérose. Il est également l'un des rares double-récipiendaires du Nobel (avec Marie Curie).
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Paulsen Michael B. ( ) : Économiste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la scolarisation des sociétés.
FATIMA, N. & PAULSEN, M.B. (2004). Higher education and state workforce productivity in the 1990s. Thought & action : NEA. Higher Education Journal, 20 (1), 75-94.
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PAULSEN, M.B. & TOUTKOUSHIAN, R.K. (2006). Overview of economic concepts, models and methods for institutional research. In R.K. Toutkoushian & M.B. Paulsen (Eds.), Applying economics to institutional research. New directions for institutional research (Vol. 132, pp. 5-24). San Francisco : Jossey-Bass.
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Pause (Prendre une...) : Interruption volontaire d'une activité, souvent dans le but de se reposer, de réduire la fatigue. Break.
BHERER, L., DESJARDINS, S. & FORTIN, C. (2007). Age-related differences in timing with breaks. Psychology & Aging, 22 (2), 398-403. [PDF]
Voir aussi Travail
Pause post-renforcement : Voir Renforcement.
Pauvreté/Pauvre : État d'un individu dont les ressources - économiques, sociales, psychologiques - sont insuffisantes pour lui permettre de se développer normalemnt (enfant) ou, chez l'adulte, de combler ses besoins.
Pauvreté économique Pauvreté sociale
Pauvreté (économique) : On distingue habituellement la pauvreté absolue de la pauvreté relative. La pauvreté absolue désigne un état d'indigence telle que l'individu est incapable de subvenir à ses besoins essentiels (respirer, manger, boire, dormir, etc.). La pauvreté relative, elle, renvoie à l'écart maximal qu'une société tolère ou considère acceptable entre ses citoyens les plus riches et les plus pauvres. Il va de soi que cet écart varie d'une société à l'autre. De nombreux auteurs proposent également de distinguer la pauvreté économique de la pauvreté sociale, cette dernière forme décrivant l'absence ou la quasi-absence de ressources sociales. Pauvreté, résilience et milieu défavorisé. = misère, indigence, défavorisation. /richesse. Poverty, poor, low family income, economically disadvantaged population, low-income individual, economic deprivation.
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Voir aussi Richesse, Revenu, Déterminant socio-économique, Itinérance, Classe sociale et Milieu défavorisé
Pauvreté (sociale) : Absence ou accès limité aux ressources sociales, qui se traduit par un isolement. Pauvreté, solitude et milieu défavorisé. Poverty.
WILSON, G. (1996). Toward a revised framework for examining beliefs about the causes of poverty. Social Science Quarterly, 37, 413-428. O'CONNOR, S. (2001). Voices of parents and teachers in a poor white urban school. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 6 (3), 175-198.
BROOKS-GUNN, J. & DUNCAN, G.J. (1997). The effects of poverty on children. Children & Poverty, 7 (2), 55-71. [PDF] BERLINER, D.C. (2006). Our impoverished view of educational research. Teachers College Record, 108 (6), 949-995. [PDF]
CHAFEL, J.A. (1997). Societal images of poverty : child and adults beliefs. Youth & Society, 28, 432-463. DRUZIC-LJUBOTINA, O. & LJUBOTINA, D. (2007). Attributions of poverty among social work and non-social work students in Croatia. Croatian Medical Journal, 48 (5), 741-749. [LIRE]
DUNCAN, G.J. BROOKS-GUNN, J. (2000). Family poverty, welfare reform, and child development. Child Development, 71 (1), 188-196. BOBO, L.D. (2009). Crime, urban poverty, and social science. Du Bois Review 6 (2), 273-278. [PDF]
Voir aussi Ressource sociale et Isolement
Pavlov Ivan Petrovich (Riazan Russie 1849-1936 Saint-Pétersbourg/Leningrad Union Soviétique) : Physiologiste russe et précurseur du béhaviorisme. Il a notamment étudié le réflexe salivaire, le conditionnement répondant et l'inhibition. Lauréat du prix Nobel de physiologie et de médecine en 1904 pour ses travaux sur le réflexe salivaire chez le chien. Étudiant de Ludwig. Professeur de Gantt.

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PAVLOV, I.P. (1903). Experimental psychology and the psycho-pathology of animals. Bulletin of the Imperial Medical Academy, 7.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1904). Sur la sécrétion psychique des glandes salivaires. Archives internationales de physiologie, 1.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1906). Scientific study of so-called psychical processes of higher animals. Science, 24, 613-619.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1927). Conditioned reflexes : An investigation of the physiological activity of the cerebral cortex. London : Oxford University Press.
PAVLOV, I.P. (1963). Réflexes conditionnels et inhibition. Paris : Gonthier.
  YERKES, R.M. & MORGULIS, S. (1909). The method of Pavlov in animal psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 6, 257-273. CUNNINGHAM, A. (2001). Ivan Pavlov and the conditioning of physiological responses. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 17, 7-8.
KONORSKI, J. (1970). Pavlov and contemporary physiological psychology. Conditional Reflex, 5 (4), 241-248. FUREDY, J.J. (2003). Pavlov, Ivan (1849-1936). In J. Byrne (Ed.), Learning & memory : The MacMillan Psychology reference series (pp. 516-520). New York : MacMillan.
GANTT, W.H. (1973). Reminiscences of Pavlov. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (1), 131-136. [PDF] BOAKES, R.A. (2003). The impact of Pavlov on the psychology of learning in english-speaking countries. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6 (2), 93-98. [PDF]
SKINNER, B.F. (1981). Pavlov's influence on psychology in America. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 17, 242-245. MACKINTOSH, N.J. (2003). Pavlov and associationism. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6, 177-184. [PDF]
THOMAS, R.K. (1994). Pavlov was "mugged." History of Psychology newsletter, 26, 86-91. AKINS, C.K. (2004). The role of Pavlovian conditioning in sexual behavior : A comparative analysis of human and nonhuman animals. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 241-262. [PDF]
 LE NY, J.F. (1994). Ce qu'était "n'être pas psychique" en 1906 : Pavlov revisité. In P. Fraisse & J. Segui (Dirs.), Les origines de la psychologie scientifique: Centième anniversaire de "L'Année Psychologique" (1894- 1994) (p. 123-143). Paris : PUF. TIMBERLAKE, W. (2004). Trends in the study of pavlovian conditioning. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17 (2), 119-130. [PDF]
WOLPE, J. & PLAUD, J.J. (1997). Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy : The obvious and the not so obvious. American Psychologist, 52 (9), 966-972. [PDF] COLEMAN, S.R. (2007). Pavlov and the equivalence of associability in classical conditioning. The Journal of Mind & Behavior, 28 (2), 115-134. [PDF]
CATANIA, A.C. & LATIES, V.G. (1999). Pavlov and Skinner : Two lives in science (An introduction to B.F. Skinner some response to the stimulus "Pavlov. Journal of the Exprerimental Analysis of Behavior, 72 (3), 455-461. [PDF] KILLEEN, P.R. (2014). Pavlov + Skinner = Premack. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 27, 544-568.
Voir aussi Pavlovisme
Pavlovienne (Societé...) : Société fondée en 1955 par Gantt en l'honneur de Pavlov. Pavlovian Society.
FUREDY, J.J. (2001). An epistemologically arrogant community ofcontending scholars : A pre-Socratic perspective on the past, present, and future of the Pavlovian society. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 36, 5-14.
Pavlovisme :
YERKES, R.M. & MORGULIS, S. (1909). The method of Pavlov in animal psychology. Psychological Bulletin, 6, 257-273. KOPALDZE, R. (2000). Ivan P Pavlov's view on vivisection. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 4, 266-271
KONORSKI, J. (1970). Pavlov and contemporary physiological psychology. Conditional Reflex, 5 (4), 241-248. CUNNINGHAM, A. (2001). Ivan Pavlov and the conditioning of physiological responses. Advances in Mind-Body Medicine, 17, 7-8.
GANTT, W.H. (1973). Reminiscences of Pavlov. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 20 (1), 131-136. [PDF] FUREDY, J.J. (2001). An epistemologically arrogant community of contending scholars : A pre-Socratic perspective on the past, present, and future of the Pavlovian society. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 36, 5-14.
PEARCE, J.M. & HALL, G. (1980). A model for Pavlovian learning: Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not of unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532- 552.  
SKINNER, B.F. (1981). Pavlov’s influence on psychology in America. Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences, 17, 242-245. TODES, D.P. (2002). Pavlov's physiologyfactory : Experiment, interpretation, laboratory enterprise. Baltimore : Johns Hopkins University Press.
LUDWIG, A.M. (1986). Pavlov's bells and alcohol craving. Addictive Behaviors, 11 (2), 87-91.  
PEARCE, J.M. (1987). A model for stimulus generalization in Pavlovian conditioning. Psychological Review, 94 (1), 61-75.  
FUREDY, J.J. (1992). Reflections on human Pavlovian decelerative heart-rate conditioning with negative tilt as US : Alternative approaches. Integrative Physiological & Behavioral Science, 27, 347-355. FUREDY, J.J. (2003). Pavlov, Ivan (1849-1936). In J. Byrne (Ed.), Learning & memory : The MacMillan Psychology reference series (pp. 516-520). New York : MacMillan.
THOMAS, R.K. (1994). Pavlov was "mugged." History of Psychology newsletter, 26, 86-91. BOAKES, R.A. (2003). The impact of Pavlov on the psychology of learning in english-speaking countries. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6 (2), 93-98. [PDF]
WOLPE, J. & PLAUD, J.J. (1997). Pavlov's contributions to behavior therapy : The obvious and the not so obvious. American Psychologist, 52 (9), 966-972. [PDF] MACKINTOSH, N.J. (2003). Pavlov and associationism. The Spanish Journal of Psychology, 6, 177-184.
THOMAS, R.K. (1997). Correcting some Pavloviana regarding "Pavlov's Bell" and Pavlov's "mugging." American Journal of Psychology, 110, 115-125. AKINS, C.K. (2004). The role of Pavlovian conditioning in sexual behavior : A comparative analysis of human and nonhuman animals. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17, 241-262. [PDF]
CATANIA, A.C. & LATIES, V.G. (1999). Pavlov and Skinner : Two lives in science (An introduction to B.F. Skinner some response to the stimulus "Pavlov". Journal of the Exprerimental Analysis of Behavior, 72 (3), 455-461. [PDF] TIMBERLAKE, W. (2004). Trends in the study of pavlovian conditioning. International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 17 (2), 119-130. [PDF]
  COLEMAN, S.R. (2007). Pavlov and the equivalence of associability in classical conditioning. The Journal of Mind & Behavior, 28 (2), 115-134. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pavlov
Paxil : L'une des marques déposées du paroxétine, un antidépresseur de la classe des inhibiteurs sélectifs de la recapture de la sérotonine.
GLENMULLEN, J. (2002). Prozac backlash : Overcoming the dangers of Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil and other antidepressants with safe, effective alternatives. New York : Simon & Schuster.
BREGGIN, P.R. (2006). Paxil special report I : Court filing makes public my previously suppressed analysis of Paxil's effects. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 77-84. [PDF]
BREGGIN, P.R. (2006). Paxil special report II : How GlaxoSmithKline suppressed data on Paxil-induced akathisia : Implications for suicidality and violence. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 91-100. [PDF]
BREGGIN, P.R. (2006). Paxil special report III : Drug company suppressed data on paroxetine-induced stimulation : Implications for violence and suicide. Ethical Human Psychology & Psychiatry, 8, 255-263. [PDF]
Voir aussi Antidépresseur
Paxton Pamela ( ) : Sociologue et méthodologiste américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude de la démocratie. Collaboratrice de Bollen.
 PAXTON, P. (1999). Is social capital declining in the United States ? A multiple indicator assessment. American Journal of Sociology, 105, 88-127.
 PAXTON, P. (2000). Women's suffrage in the mea-surement of democracy : Problems of operationalization. Studies in Comparative International Development 35(3), 92-110.
 PAXTON, P. & KUNOVICH, S. (2003). Women's political representation : The importance of Ideology. Social Forces, 82, 87-114.
 PAXTON, P., KUNOVICH, S. & HUGHES, M. (2007). Gender in politics. Annual Review of Sociology 33, 263-284.
 PAXTON, P. & GLANVILLE, J. (2015). Is trust rigid or malleable ? A laboratory experiment. Social Psychology Quarterly, 78, 194-204.
Payette Serge ( ) : Biologiste québécois et spécialiste du caribou. Il enseigne à l'Université Laval. Collaborateur de Boudreau et de Couturier.
PAYETTE, S. (1987). Recent porcupine expansion at tree line : a dendroecological analys. Canadian Journal Zoology, 65, 551-557.
PAYETTE, S., FORTIN, M.-J. & GAMACHE, I. (2001). The subarcticforest-tundra : the structure of a biome in a changing climate. BioScience, 51, 709-718. [PDF]
PAYETTE, S. & DELWAIDE, A. (2004). Dynamics of subarctic wetland forests over the past 1500 years. Ecological Monographs, 74, 373-391. [PDF]
PAYETTE, S., FILION, L. & DELWAIDE, A. (2008). Spatially explicit fire-climate history of the boreal forest-tundra (Eastern Canada) over the last 2000 years. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B., 363, 2301-2316. [PDF]
PAYETTE, S., DELWAIDE, A., SCHAUFFHAUSER, A. & MAGNAN, G. (2012). Calculating long-term fire frequency at the stand scale from charcoal data. Ecosphere, 3 (7), 1-16. [PDF]
David G. Payne B. Keith Payne
Payne David G. ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américain, spécialisé dans l'étude de la mémoire, et plus particulièrement des faux-souvenir et de l'hyperamnésie. Collaborateur de Anastasi et Roediger.
PAYNE, D.G. (1986). Hypermnesia for pictures and words : Testing the recall level hypothesis. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory & Cognition, 12, 16-29.
PAYNE, D.G. (1987). Hypermnesia and reminiscence in recall : A historical and empirical review. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 5-27.
PAYNE, D.G. & ROEDIGER, H.L. (1987). Hypermnesia occurs in recall but not in recognition. American Journal of Psychology, 100, 145-165. [PDF]
PAYNE, D.G., TOGLIA, M.P. & ANASTASI, J.S. (1994). Recognition performance level and the magnitude of the misinformation effect in eyewitness memory. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 1(3), 376-382.
PAYNE, D.G., NEUSCHATZ, J.S, LAMPINEN, J.M. & LYNN, S. (1997). Compelling memory illusions : The qualitative characteristics of false memories. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 6, 56-60.
Payne B. Keith ( ) : Psychologue sociale américain et spécialiste de la cognition sociale, plus particulièrement des préjugés. Il s'intéresse également à la perception des armes. Collaborateur de Gawronski et Jacoby.
PAYNE, B.K. (2001). Prejudice and perception: The role of automatic and controlled processes in misperceiving a weapon. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 81 (2), 181-192.
PAYNE, B.K., JACOBY, L.L. & LAMBERT, A.J. (2004). Memory monitoring and the control of stereotype distortion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40, 52-64.
PAYNE, B.K., SHIMIZU, Y. & JACOBY, L.L. (2005). Mental controland visual illusions : Toward explaining race-biased weapon identifications. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41, 36-47. [PDF]
PAYNE, B.K. (2005). Conceptualizing control in social cognition : How executive control modulates the expression of automatic stereotyping. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 89, 488-503. [PDF]
PAYNE, B.K., KROSNICK, J.A., PASEK, J., LELKES, Y., AKHTAR, O. & TOMPSON, T. (2010). Implicit and explicit prejudice in the 2008 American presidential election. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 367-374. [PDF]
Pays : Ensemble d'individus qui occupent un territoire géré par un état et dont l'existence est reconnue officiellement par les autres (pays). Le pays est une entité juridique, alors que la nation ou le peuple sont des entités sociales/politiques. Pays, territoire et État.
Afrique (pays) Finlande Mexique
Afrique du sud France Nigeria
Allemagne Haïti Norvège
Angleterre (Royaume-uni) Hong-Kong (Chine) Nouvelle-Zélande
Australie Hongrie Pakistan
Belgique Indes Pays-Bas
Brésil Irak Portugal
Canada Iran Royaume-Uni
Chine Irlande Russie
Corée Islande Suède
Cuba Israël Suisse
Danemark Italie Taiwan
Égypte Japon Turquie
Espagne Liban Union Européenne
États-Unis Philippines Ukraine
  Québec/Canada Vénezuela
  Madagascar Vietnam
Pays bas : Pays. Netherlands.
BECONA, E. (1996). The problem and pathological in Europe : The cases of Germany, Holland and Spain. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12 (2), 179-192.
 JOSHI, S.P. (2012). Adolescent sexual Ssocialization and teen magazines : A cross-national study between the United States and the Netherlands. Boca Raton, Florida : Universal-Publishers. [PDF]
GOUDRIAAN, A.E. (2014). Gambling and problem gambling in the Netherlands. Addiction, 109, 1066-1071.
Voir aussi Pays
PDF : Format de lecture de nombreux documents numériques. Plusieurs articles scientifiques sont disponibles dans ce lexique en format PDF. Pour les obtenir, il suffit de cliquer sur le [PDF] qui se trouve à la fin d'une notice, comme dans l'exemple suivant :
BÉLANGER, J. (1978). Images et réalités du béhaviorisme. Philosophiques, 5 (1), 3-110. [PDF]
PDG : Voir Président-directeur-général.
Peace & Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology : Revue scientifique de psychologie qui consacre ses pages à l'étude de la paix, des conflits et de la guerre. Éditeur : Taylor & Francis.

KELMAN, H.C. ( 2010). Interactive problem solving : Changing political culture in the pursuit of conflict resolution. Peace & Conflict : Journal of Peace Psychology, 16 (4), 389-413. [PDF]

Peano Giuseppe (1858-1932) : Logicien italien et fondateur de la logique symbolique.

Craig L. Pearce John M. Pearce
Pearce Craig L. ( ) : Spécialiste américain des organisations. Il s'intéresse notamment au leadership. Collaborateur de Conger, Manz et Sims.
PEARCE, C.L. & SIMS, H.P. (2000). Shared leadership : Toward a multi-level theory of leadership. Advances in the Interdisciplinary Studies of Work Teams, 7, 115-139.
PEARCE, C.L. & SIMS, H.P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams : An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics : Theory, Research & Practice, 6 (2), 172-197. [PDF]
PEARCE, C.L. (2004). The future of leadership: Combining vertical and shared leadership to transform knowledge work. Academy of Management Executive, 18 (1), 47-57.
PEARCE, C.L. & ENSLEY, M.D. (2004). A reciprocal and longitudinal investigation of the innovation process: the central role of shared vision in product and process innovation teams (PPITs). Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25 (2), 259-278.
PEARCE, C.L. & MANZ, C. C. (2005). The new silver bullets of leadership : The importance of self and shared leadership in knowledge work. Organizational Dynamics, 34 (2), 130-140.
PEARCE, C.L., CONGER, J.A. & LOCKE, E.A. (2007). Shared leadership theory. The Leadership Quarterly, 18 (3), 281-288. [PDF]
Pearce John M. ( ) : Psychologue connexionisme anglais, spécialisé dans l'étude de l'intelligence et du conditionnement répondant. Collaborateur de Horne et Mackintosh.
PEARCE, J.M. & HALL, G. (1980). A model of Pavlovian learning : Variations in the effectiveness of conditioned but not unconditioned stimuli. Psychological Review, 87, 532-552.
PEARCE, J.M. (1987). A model for stimulus generalization in Pavlovian conditioning. Psychological Review, 94, 61-75. [PDF]
PEARCE, J.M. (1994). Similarity and discrimination : A selective review and a connectionist model. Psychological Review, 101, 587-607. [PDF]
PEARCE, J.M. (2002). Evaluation and development of a connectionist theory of configural learning. Animal Learning & Behavior, 30, 73-95. [PDF]
PEARCE, J.M., ESBERG. R., GEORGE, D.N. & HASELGROVE, M. (2008). The nature of discrimination learning in pigeons. Learning & Behavior, 36, 188-199. [PDF]
Pearl Judea (1936-) : Informaticien, statisticien et méthodologiste américain, d'origine israélienne, spécialisé dans l'analyse bayesienne, l'intelligence artificielle et la notion d'inférence causale et statistique. Collaborateur de Robins.
PEARL, J. (1995). Causal diagrams for empirical research. Biometrika, 82, 669-710.
PEARL, J. (1998). Graphs, causality, and structural equation models. Sociological Methods and Research, 27 (2), 226-284.
PEARL, J. (2003). Statistics and causal inference : A review. Test Journal, 12 (2), 281-345.
PEARL, J. (2009). Causal inference in statistics : An overview. Statistics Surveys, 3, 96-146. [PDF]
PEARL, J. (2009). The foundations of causal inference. Sociological Methodology, 40 (1), 75-149, 2010.
Egon Sharpe Pearson Karl Pearson P David Pearson
Pearson Egon Sharpe (Londres 1895-1980 Midhurst Angleterre) : Statisticien anglais. En collaboration avec Neyman, il a développé la notion de test d'hypothèse. Fils de Karl Pearson. Professeur de Bartlett. Collaborateur de Kendall et Neyman.
PEARSON, E.S. & NEYMAN, J. (1928). On the use and interpretation of certain test criteria for the purposes of statistical inference. Biometrika, 20 (1/2), 175-240.
NEYMAN, J. & PEARSON, S.E. (1933). On the problem of the most efficient tests of statistical hypotheses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 289-337.
PEARSON, E.S. (1955). Statistical concepts in their relation to reality. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, B, 17 (2), 288-294.
PEARSON, E.S. (1962). Some thoughts on statistical inference. Annals of Mathematical Statistics, 33 (2), 394-403.
PEARSON, E.S. & KENDALL, M.G. (1969). Studies in the history of statistics and probability.
Pearson Karl (Londres 1857-1936 Coldharbour Angleterre) : Statisticien anglais. Il a eu une très grande influence sur la recherche en sciences humaines. On lui doit notamment le Khi-carré et le test de corrélation. qui permet de mesurer la corrélation entre deux phénomène. Étudiant de Galton. Professeur de Gosset, Weschler et Yule.
PEARSON, K. (1892). The grammar of science. London : J.M. Dent and Company.
PEARSON, K. (1896). Mathematical contributions to the theory of evolution : III. Regression, heredity, and panmixia. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, 187, 253-318.
PEARSON, K. (1897). The chances of death and other studies in evolution. New York : Edward Arnold.
PEARSON, K. (1900). On the criterion that a given system of deviations from the probable in the case of a correlated system of variables is such that it can be reasonably supposed to have arisen from random sampling. Philosophical Magazine Series 5, 50 (302), 157-175. [PDF] + [PDF]
PEARSON, K. & LEE, A. (1903). Inheritance of physical characters. Biometrika, 2, 357-462.
 YULE, G.U. (1938). Notes of Karl Pearson's lectures on the theory of statistics, 1894-96. Biometrika, 30, 198-203. INMAN, H.F. (1994). Karl Pearson and R.A. Fisher on statistical tests : A 1935 exchange from nature. The American Statistician, 48 (1), 2-11. [PDF]
HACKING, I. (1981). Karl Pearson's history of statistics. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science, 32, 177-84. SCHWWEDER, T. (1988). A significance version of the basic Neyman-Pearson theory for scientific hypothesis testing. Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, 15, 225-242.
PLACKETT, R.L. (1983). Karl Pearson and the chi-squared test. International Statistical Review, 51(1), 59-72. STIGLER, S. (2008). Karl Pearson's theoretical errors and the advances they inspired. Statistical Science, 23, 261-271.
Pearson P. David ( ) : Spécialiste de la lecture, de la compréhension de texte et de la littéracie. Collaborateur de Paris.
PEARSON, P.D. (1971). Developing language skills and self-concept : Which content areas seem most promising ? Elementary English, 48, 17-21.
PEARSON, P.D. (1976). A psycholinguistic model of reading. Language Arts, 53, 309-314.
PEARSON, P.D. & SPIRO, R. (1980). Toward a theory of reading comprehension instruction. Topics in Language Disorders, 1, 71-88.
PEARSON, P.D. (2004). The reading wars. Educational Policy, 18, 216-252.
PEARSON, P.D. MOJE, E.B. & GREENLEAF, C. (2010). Literacy and science : Each in the service of the other. Science, 328 (5977), 459-463.
Peau : Enveloppe du corps. Il s'agit du plus gros organe du corps humain (15 % à 16 % du poids corporel). La peau est formée de deux tissus, l’épiderme et le derme, qui assure cinq fonctions : 1) Elle protège les autres organes; 2) Elle joue un rôle sur le plan de l’excrétion des déchets; 3) Elle permet la régulation de la température corporelle; 4) Elle permet aussi la perception tactile (haptique); 5) Finalement, elle est un important réservoir sanguin. Skin.
NATSOULAS, T. & DUBANOSKI, R.A. (1964). Inferring the locus and orientation of the perceiver from responses to stimulation of the skin. American Journal of Psychology, 77 (2), 281-285.
Peau (Couleur de la...) : Variation de ton et de couleur de la peau l'humain qui fait partie de l'apparence. Skin color.
WAGATSUMA, H. (1967). The social perception of skin color in Japan. Daedalus, 92 (2), 407-443.  
WILLIAMS, J.E., BOSWELL, D.A. & BEST, D.L. (1975). Evaluative responses of preschool children to the colors white and black. Child Development, 46 (2), 501-508. RUSSELL, K.Y., WILSON, M. & HALL, R.E. (1992). The color complex : The politics of skin color among African Americans. New York : Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
  VRIJ, A. & WINKEL, F.W. (1994). Perceptual distortions in cross-cultural interrogations : The impact of skin color, accent, speech style, and spoken fluency on impression formation. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 25 (2), 284-295.
CORCOS, A.F. (1983). Biology of skin color. The American Biology Teacher, 45 (2), 90-95. UHLMANN, E., DASGUPTA, N., ELGUETA, A., GREENWALD, A.G. & SWANSON, J. (2002). Subgroup prejudice based on skin color among Hispanics in the United States and Latin America. Social Cognition, 20 (3), 198-226.
VAN DEN BERGHE, P.L. & FROST, P. (1986). Skin color preference, sexual dimorphism and sexual selection : A case of gene-culture co-evolution ? Ethnic & Racial Studies, 9, 87-113. FINK, B., GRAMMER, K. & MATTS, P.J. (2006). Visual skin color distribution plays a role in the perception of age, attractiveness, and health of female faces. Evolution & Human Behavior, 27 (6), 433-442.
OKAZAWA-REY, M., ROBINSON, T. & WARD, J.V. (1987). Black women and the politics of skin color and hair. Women & Therapy, 6 C (1-2), 89-102. STEPANOVA, E.V. & STRUBE, M.J. (2012). The role of skin color and facial physiognomy in racial categorization : Moderation by implicit racial attitudes. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48 (4), 867-878.
  TELLES, E. & PASCHEL, T. (2014). Who is Black, White, or mixed race ? How skin color, status, and nation shape racial classification in Latin America. American Journal of Sociology, 120, 864-907.
Voir aussi Apparence, Race et Couleur
Pecher Diane ( ) : Psychologue cognitiviste américaine d'origine néerlandaise et spécialiste de l'étude des concepts, de la catégorisation et de la repésentation. Collaboratrice de Barsalou, Raaijmakers, Shiffrin, Wagenmakers, Winkielman, Wixted, Zeelenberg et Zwaan.
PECHER, D., ZEELENBERG, R. & RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. (1998). Does pizza prime coin ? Perceptual priming in lexical decision and pronunciation. Journal of Memory & Language, 38, 401-418. [PDF]
PECHER, D. (2001). Perception is a two-way junction : Feedback semantics in word recognition. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8 (3), 545-551. [PDF]
PECHER, D., ZEELENBERG, R. & RAAIJMAKERS, J.G.W. (2005). Enemies and friends in the neighborhood : Orthographic similarity effects in semantic categorization. Journal of Experimental Psychology : Learning, Memory, & Cognition, 31, 121-128. [PDF]
PECHER, D., VAN DANTZIG, S., ZWAAN, R.A. & ZEELENBERG, R. (2009). Language comprehenders retain implied shape and orientation of objects. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 62 (6), 1108-1114. [PDF]
PECHER, D., VAN DANTZIG, S. & SCHIFFERSTEIN, H.N.J. (2009). Concepts are not represented by imagery. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 16, 914-919. [PDF]
Pédagogie/Pédagogue : Technologie fondée sur la psychologie (psychopédagogie), l'éducation, la sociologie et la philosophie, qui consiste à développer et tester l'efficacité des méthodes pédagogiques, ainsi qu'à aménager le milieu scolaire (aménagement des classes, nature et taille des groupes, homogénéité, mixité, etc.) dans le but d'améliorer l'enseignement des enseignants/professeurs et l'apprentissages des élèves/étudiants. ( ): Basedow, Borman, Gauthier, Keller, Meirieu, Melanchthon, Perrenoud, Pestalozzi, Piaget, Tardif, Tardif. Pedagogy.
Types de pédagogie
Pédagogie de la découverte Pédagogie interculturelle Pédagogie par projet
Pédagogie de la maîtrise   Pédagogie universelle et différenciée
PIAGET, J. (1969). Psychologie et Pédagogie. Paris : Denoël. DUNCAN, K. & STASIO, M. (2001). Surveying feminist pedagogy : A measurement, an evaluation, and an affirmation. Feminist Teacher, 13 (3), 225-239.
  SALOMON, G. (2002). Technology and pedagogy : Why don't we see the promised revolution ? Educational Technology, 42 (2), 71-75.
KELLER, F.S. (1982). Pedagogue's progress. Lawrence, KA : TRI Publications. GENOVESE, J.E. (2003). Piaget, pedagogy, and evolutionary psychology. Evolutionary Psychology, 1, 127-137. [PDF]
  STERN, E. (2005). Pedagogy meets neuroscience. Science, 310, 745. [PDF]
CRAHAY, M. (1982). Piaget et la pédagogie : une confrontation difficile, mais prometteuse. Éducation, Tribune Libre, 188, 27-39. MARKOWITZ, L. (2005). Unmasking moral dichotomies : Can feminist pedagogy overcome student resistance ? Gender & Education, 17 (1), 39-55.
  GERGELY, G. & CSIBRA, G. (2005). The social construction of the cultural mind : Imitative learning as a mechanism of human pedagogy. Interaction Studies, 6 (3), 463-481.
MAHER, F. (1987). Toward a richer theory of feminist pedagogy. Journal of Education, 169 (3), 91-100. GAUTHIER, C., MELLOUKI, M., SIMARD, D., BISSONNETTE, S. et RICHARD, M. (2005). Quelles sont les pédagogies efficaces ? Un état de la recherche. Paris : Fondation pour l'innovation politique.
BOYER, C. (1991). Bégaiement de la pédagogie au québec. Vie pédagogique, 70, 42-45. GERGELY, G., KIRALY, I. & EGYED, K. (2007). On pedagody. Developmental Science, 10 (1), 139-146.
KAMEENUI, E.J. (1991). Toward a scientific pedagogy : A sameness in the message. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 24 (6), 364-372. HOUDÉ, O. (2008). Pedagogy, not (only) anatomy of reasoning. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 12, 173-174.
SHREWBURY, C. (1993). What is feminist pedagogy ? Women’s Studies Quarterly, 3-4, 8-16. CRAWLEY, S. (2008). Introduction : Feminist pedagogies in action : Teaching beyond disciplines. Feminist Teacher, 19 (1), 1-12.
  CSIBRA, G. & GERGELY, G. (2009). Natural pedagogy. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 13 (4), 148-153. [PDF]
  SKERRY, A.E. (2013). The origins of pedagogy : Developmental and evolutionary perspectives. Evolutionary Psychology, 11 (3), 550-572. [PDF]
Voir aussi Éducation et Méthodes d'enseignement
Pédagogie de la découverte : Forme d'enseignement non-structuré. Learning by discovery.
KERSH, B.Y. (1958). The adequacy of "meaning" as an explanation for the superiority of learning by independent discovery. Journal of Educational Psychology, 49, 282-292  
BRUNER, J.S. (1961). The act of discovery. Harvard Educational Review, 31 (1), 21-32. TUOVINEN, J.E. & SWELLER, J. (1999). A comparison of cognitive load associated with discovery learning and worked examples. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91 (2), 334-341.
AUSUBEL, D.P. (1964). Some psychological and educational limitations of learning by discovery. The Arithmetic Teacher, 11, 290-302. HODGES, N.J. & LEE, T.D. (1999). The role of augmented information prior to learning a bimanual visual-motor coordination task : Do instructions of the movement pattern facilitate learning relative to discovery learning ? British Journal of Psychology, 90, 389-403.
CRAIG, R.C. (1965). Discovery, task completion, and the assignment as factors in motivation. American Educational Research Journal, 2, 217-222.  
KENDLER, H.H. (1966). Reflections on the conference. In L.S. Shulman& E.R. Keislar (Eds.), Learning by discovery : A critical appraisal (pp.171-176). Chicago, IL : Rand McNally.  
SHULMAN, L. & KEISLER, E. (Eds.) (1966). Learning by discovery : A critical appraisal. Chicago : Rand McNally. MAYER, R.E. (2004). Should there be a three-strikes rule against pure discovery learning ? The case for guided methods of instruction. American Psychologist, 59 (1), 14-19.
KAGAN, J. (1966). Learning, attention, and the issue of discovery. In L.S. Shulman and E.R. Keislar (Eds.), Learning by discovery : A critical appraisal (pp. 151-161). Chicago, IL : Rand McNally.  
GUTHRIE, J.T. (1967). Expository instruction versus a discovery method. Journal of Educational Psychology, 58, 45-49.  
ANASTASIOW, N.J., SIBLEY, S.A., LEONHARDT, T.M. & BORICH G.D. (1970). A comparison of guided discovery, discovery and didactic teaching of math to kindergarten poverty children. American Educational Research Journal, 7, 493-510.  
ANTHONY, W.S. (1973). Learning to discover rules by discovery. Journal of Educational Psychology, 64, 325-328. KIRSCHNER, P.A., SWELLER, J. & CLARK, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work : an analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41 (2), 75-86. [PDF]
HIRSCH, C.R. (1977). The effects of guided discovery and individualized instructional packages on initial learning, transfer, and retention in second-year algebra. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 8, 359-368.  
CANTOR, G.N., DUNLAP, L.L. & RETTIE, C.S. (1982). Effects of reception and discovery instruction on kindergarteners’ performance on probability tasks. American Educational Research Journal, 19, 453-463.  
ANDREWS, J.D.W. (1984). Discovery and expository learning compared : Their effects on independent and dependent students. Journal of Educational Research, 78, 80-89.  
Voir aussi Enseignement non-structuré
Pédagogie Collégiale : Revue qui consacrent ses pages à l'étude de la pédagogie au collégial.
TARDIF, J. (2003). Développer un programme par compétences : de l'intention à la mise en oeuvre. Pédagogie Collégiale, 16 (3), 36-45.
Pédagogie de la maîtrise : Miles et Huberman.
Pédagogie interculturelle : Pédagogie adaptée aux classes dans lesquelles étudient des élèves/étudiants de diverses cultures.
GAUDET, É. et POTVIN, C. (1997). Pour une pédagogie interculturelle : des stratégies d'enseignement. Saint-Laurent : ERPI.
GAUDET, É. et LAFORTUNE, L. (1997). La pédagogie interculturelle dans le réseau collégial : présentation d'une recherche-action-formation sur des stratégies d'enseignement. Dans R. Féger (Dir.), L'éducation face aux nouveaux défis. Montréal : Éditions Nouvelles.
 LAFORTUNE, L. et GAUDET, É. (2000). Une pédagogie interculturelle pour une éducation à la citoyenneté. Montréal : ERPI.
Pédagogie ouverte:
BROUILLET, Y. et PAQUETTTE, C. (1976). Plans d'étude, curriculum et la pédagogie ouverte. Laval : Cahiers du GREI, n°2, les Éditions NHP.
PAQUETTTE, C. (1976). Vers une pratique de la pédagogie ouverte. Victoria-ville, les Éditions NHP.
PARÉ, A. (1977). Créativité et pédagogie ouverte. Victoriaville, Les Éditions NHP.
PAQUETTTE, C. (1979). Quelques fondements d'une pédagogie ouverte. Québec Français, 36, 20-21. [PDF]
Pédagogie par projet :
DUMAS, B. et M. LEBLOND (2002). Les rôles de l’enseignant en pédagogie de projet. Pédagogie, 126, 64-66.
 Pédagogie universelle et différenciée : Nouvelle mouture post-moderne des travaux de Gardner sur l'intelligence multiple appliquée à l'enseignement qui s'appuie sur l'idée que les individus n'apprennent pas tous de la même façon (styles d'apprentissage) et qu'il faut, en conséquence, adapter les méthodes d'enseignement/pédagogiques pour tenir compte des différences individuelles et du caractère distinctif des élèves/étudiants (inclusion scolaire). = enseignement universel et différencié. UD, Universal Design, Universal Instructional Design, Universal Design for Instruction.
SILVER, P., BOURKE, A. & SYREHORN, K.C. (1998). Universal instructional design in higher education: An approach for inclusion. Equity & Excellence in Education, 31(2), 47-51. McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2006). Universal design for instruction : Extending the universal design paradigm to college instruction. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 19, 124-134.
BOWE, F.G. (2000). Universal design in education : Teaching non traditional students. Westport, CT : Bergin and Garvey. KURTTS, S.A. (2006). Universal design for learning in inclusive classrooms. Electronic Journal of Inclusive Education, 1 (10), 1-16. [PDF]
MEYER, A. & ROSE, D (2000). Universal design for individual di erences. Educational Leadership, 58 (3), 39-43. McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2006). An approach to inclusive college instruction : Universal design for instruction. Learning Disabilities : A Multidisciplinary Journal, 14, 21-31.
PIHSA, B. & COYNE, P. (2001). Smart from the start : The promise of universal design for learning. Remedial & Special Education, 22 (4), 197-203. ROSE, D.H., HARBOUR, W.S., JOHNSTON, C.S., DALEY, S.G. & ABARBANELL, L. (2006). Universal design for learning in postsecondary education : Reflections on principles and their application. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 19 (2), 17-27. [PDF]
McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2002). Universal instructional design : A promising new paradigm for higher education. Perspectives, 28 (2), 27-29. MCGUIRE, J.M., SCOTT, S.S. & SHAW, S.F. (2006). Universal design and its application in educational environments. Remedial & Special Education, 27 (3), 166-175. [PDF]
HITCHCOCK, C., MEYER, A., ROSE, D. & JACKSON, R. (2002). Providing new access to the general curriculum: Universal design for learning. Teaching Exceptional Children, 35 (2), 8-17. ABELL, M. (2006). Individualizing learning using intelligent technology and universally designed curriculum. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 5 (3), 4-19. [PDF]
HOWARD, J.B. (2003). Universal design for learning : An essential concept for teacher education. Journal of Computing in Teacher Education, 19 (4), 113- 118. CURRY, C., COHEN, L. & LIGHTBODY, N. (2006). Universal design in science learning. Science Teacher, 73 (3), 32-37.
SCOTT, S., McGUIRE, J. & FOLEY, T.E. (2003). Universal design for instruction : A framework for anticipating and responding to disability and other diverse learning needs in the college classroom. Equity & Excellence in Education, 36, 40-49. SPOONER, F., BAKER, J.N., HARRIS, A.A., AHLGRIM-DELZELL, L. & BROWDER, D.M. (2007). Effects of training in universal design for learning on lesson plan development. Remedial & Special Education, 28, 108-116.
MCGUIRE, J.M., SCOTT, S.S. & SHAW, S.F. (2003). Universal design for instruction : The paradigm, its principles, and products for enhancing instructional access. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 17, 11-21. BERNACCHIO, C. & MULLEN, M. (2007). Universal design for learning. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal, 31 (2), 167-169.
SCOTT, S., McGUIRE, J. & SHAW, S. (2003). Universal design for instruction : A new paradigm for adult instruction in postsecondary education. Remedial & Special Education, 24 (6), 369-379. [PDF] MCGUIRE-SCHWARTZ, M. & ARDNT, J. (2007). Transforming universal design for learning in early childhood teacher education from college classroom to early childhood classroom. Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education, 28 (2), 127-139.
SCOTT, S. & McGUIRE, J (2004). Universal design for instruction orientation materials. Storrs, CT : Center on Postsecondary Education and Disability. JIMÉNEZ, T.C., GRAF, V.L. & ROSE, E. (2007). Gaining access to general education : The promise of universal design for learning. Issues in Teacher Education, 16 (2), 41-54.
PLINER, S. & JOHNSON, J. (2004). Historical, theoretical, and foundational principles of universal design in higher education. Equity of Excellence in Education, 37, 105-113. [PDF] KORTERING, L.J., MCCLANNON, T. & BRAZIEL, P. (2008). Universal Design for Learning : A look at what algebra and biology students with and without high incidence conditions is saying. Remedial & Special Education, 29 (6), 352-363.
  BOUCK, E.C., COURTAD, C.A., HEUTSCHE, A., OKOLO, C.M. & ENGLERT, C.S. (2009). The virtual history museum : A universally designed approach to social studies instruction. Teaching Exceptional Children, 42 (2), 14-20.
ROSE, D.H., MEYER, A. & HITCHCOCK, C. (2005). The universally designed classroom : Accessible curriculum and digital technologies. Cambridge, MA : Harvard Education Press. EDYBURN, D. (2010). Would you recognize universal design for learning if you saw it ? Ten propositions for new directions for the second decade of UDL. Learning Disability Quarterly, 33, 33-41.
ROSE, D.H., HASSELBRING, T.S., STAHL, S. & ZABALA, J. (2005). Assistive technologie and universal design for learning : Two sides of the same coin. Dans D. Edyburn, K. Higgins and R. Boone (Eds.), Handbook of special education Technology Research and Practice (pp. 507-518). Wisconsin : Knowledge by Design. BERGERON, L., ROUSSEAU, N. et LECLERC, M. (2011). La pédagogie universelle : au coeur de la planification de l'inclusion scolaire. Éducation et Francophonie, 39 (2), 87-104. [PDF]
WEHMEYER, M.L., SMITH, S.J. & DAVIES, D.K. (2005). Technology use and students with intellectual disability : Universal design for all students. In D. Edyburn, K. Higgins & R. Boone (Eds.), Handbook of spsecial education technology research and practice (pp. 309-323). Wisconsin : Knowledge by Design. BARILE, M., NGUYEN, M., HAVEL, A. & FECHTEN, C. (2012). L'accessibilité universelle en pédagogie : des avantages pour toutes et tous ! Revue Pédagogie Collégiale, 25, (4), 20-22.
EMBRY, P., PARKER, D., McGUIRE, J. & SCOTT, S. (2005). Postsecondary disability service providers’ perceptions about implementing Universal design for instruction. Journal of Postsecondary Education & Disability, 18 (1), 34-48. COUREY, S.J., TAPPE, P., SIKER, J. & LEPAGE, P. (2012). Improved lesson planning with universal design for learning (UDL). Teacher Education & Special Education, 36 (1), 7-27.
Voir aussi Enseignement et Inclusion scolaire
Anne Pedersen William C. Pedersen
Pedersen Anne ( ) : Psychosociologue australienne et spécialiste de l'étude des aborigènes et de l'anti-racisme. Collaboratrice de Aly et McGarty.
PEDERSEN, A., BEVEN, J., WALKER, I. & RIFFITHS, B. (2004). Attitudes toward Indigenous- Australians : The role of empathy and guilt. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology, 14, 233-249
PEDERSEN, A., WALKER, I. & WISE, M. (2005). "Talk does not cook rice" : Beyond anti-racism rhetoric to strategies for social action. The Australian Psychologist, 40, 20-30.
PEDERSEN, A. & BARLOW, F. (2008). Theory to social action: A university based strategy targeting prejudice against Aboriginal Australians. The Australian Psychologist, 43, 148-159.
PEDERSEN, A., ALY, A., HARTLEY, L. & McGARTY, C. (2009). An intervention to increase positive attitudes and address misconceptions about Australian Muslims : A call for education and open mindedness. The Australian Community Psychologist, 21 (2), 81-93. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, A., WALKER, I., PARADIES, Y. & GUERIN, B. (2011). How to cook rice : A review of ingredients for teaching anti-prejudice. Australian Psychologist, 46, 55-63. [PDF]
Pedersen William C. ( ) : Psychosociologue américain. Collaborateur de Bartholow, Bushman, Denson et Miller.
PEDERSEN, W.C., GONZALES, C. & MILLER, N. (2000). The moderating effect of trivial triggering provocation on displaced aggression. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 78, 913-927. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C., MILLER, L.C., PUTCHA, A.D. & YANG, Y. (2002). Evolved sex differences in the number of partners desired ? The long and the short of it. Psychological Science, 13, 157-161. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C. (2006). The impact of attributional processes on triggered displaced aggression. Motivation & Emotion, 30, 75-87. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C., DENSON, T.F., GOSS, R.J., VASQUEZ, E.A., KELLEY, N.J. & MILLER, N. (2011). The impact of rumination on aggressive thoughts, feelings, arousal, and behavior. British Journal of Social Psychology, 50, 281-301. [PDF]
PEDERSEN, W.C., PUTCHA-BHAGAVATULA, A. & MILLER, L.C. (2011). Are men and women really that different ? Examining some of Sexual Strategies Theory (SST)’s key assumptions about sex-distinct mating mechanisms. Sex Roles, 64, 629-643. [PDF]
Pediatric Case Review (2000-2004) : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie.
YOUNGBLADE, L.M. & NACKASHI, J. (2003). Evaluation of children's spontaneous reports of social difficulties : "I don't have any friends". Pediatric Case Review, 3, 157-167.
Pediatric Clinics of North America : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
WERRY, J.S. (1968). Developmental hyperactivity. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 15 (3), 581-599.
Pediatric Neurology : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie et de neurologie. Éditeur : Elsevier.
SHALEV, R.S. & GROSS-TSUR, V. (2001). Developmental dyscalculia. Pediatric Neurology, 24 (5), 337-342.
Pediatrics : Revue scientifique de pédiatrie. Éditeur : American Academy of Pediatrics.
BRAZELTON, T.B. (1962). A child-oriented approach to toilet training. Pediatrics, 29 (1), 121-127.
SHALEV, R.S. & GROSS-TSUR, V. (2001). Developmental dyscalculia. Pediatric Neurology, 24 (5), 337-342.
Pédiatrie/Pédiatre : Branche de la médecine qui a pour objet l'étude le diagnostic, le traitement, la prévention des maladies des enfants et des adolescents. ( ): Asperger, Brazelton, Moreno, Needlam, Rett, Wilkins et Zwaigenbaum. Pediatry.
Pédiatrie psychologique : Branche de la pédiatrie fondée par Wright. Pediatric psychology.
WRIGHT, L. (1967). The pediatric psychologist : A role model. American Psychologist, 22, 323-325.
WRIGHT, L. (1969). Pediatric psychology : Prospect and retrospect. Pediatric Psychology, 1, 1-3
WRIGHT, L. (1984). Pediatric psychology : Time capsule, 1984. News Letter of SPP, 1-2.
Pédoncules cérébraux : Partie du mésencéphale formée des crus cerebri et du tegmentum.
Pédoncules cérébelleux :
Pédophilie : Déviance sexuelle ou paraphilie. Les trois conditions nécessaires et suffisantes pour établir un diagnostic de pédophilie selon le DSM-IV sont : 1) Présence de fantaisies imaginatives sexuellement excitantes, d'impulsions sexuelles, ou de comportements, survenant avec intensité et de façon répétée, pendant une période d'au moins 6 mois, impliquant une activité sexuelle avec un enfant ou des enfants prépubères (généralement âgés de 12-13 ans et moins). 2) La personne a cédé à ses impulsions sexuelles, ou les impulsions sexuelles ou les fantaisies imaginatives sont à l'origine d'un désarroi prononcé ou de difficultés interpersonnelles. 3) Le sujet est âgé de 16 ans au moins et a au moins 5 ans de plus que l'enfant mentionné en 1. Pédophilie, plethysmographe et agression sexuelle d'enfant. Pedophilia.
KARPMAN, B. (1950). A case of paedophilia (legally rape) cured by psychoanalysis. Psychoanalytic Review, 37, 235-276. HOWITT, D. (1995). Pornography and the paedophile : Is it criminogenic ? British Journal of Medical Psychology, 168, 15-27.
MOHR, J.W., TURNER, R.W. & JERRY, M.B. (1964). Pedophilia and exhibitionism. Toronto : University of Toronto Press. HALL, G.C.N., HIRSCHMAN, R. & OLIVER, L.L. (1995). Sexual arousal and arousability to pedophilic stimuli in a community sample of normal men. Behavior Therapy, 26, 681-694.
FREUND, K. (1965). Diagnosing heterosexual pedophilia by means of a test for sexual interest. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 3, 229-234. FEDOROFF, J.P. (1996). The genesis of pedophilia : testing the "abuse to abuser" hypothesis. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 24, 85-101.
FREUND, K. (1967). Erotic preference in pedophilia. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 5, 339-348. BOURGEOIS, J.A. & KLEIN, M. (1996). Risperidone and fluoxetine in the treatment of pedophilia with comorbid dysthymia. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, 16, 257-258.
KOHLENBERG, R.J. (1974). In-vivo desensitization and aversive stimuli in the treatment of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 83, 192-195. PRYOR, D. (1996). Unspeakable acts : Why men sexually abuse children. New York : New York University Press.
LAWS, D.R. & HOLMEN, M.L. (1978). Sexual response faking by pedophiles. Criminal Justice & Behavior, 5, 343-356. EDWARDS, M. (1997). Treatment for paedophiles; Treatment for sex offenders. Paedophile policy and prevention. Australian Institute of Criminology Research & Public Policy Series, 12, 74-75.
CRAWFORD, D. (1981). Treatment approaches with pedophiles. Adult sexual interest in children, 181-217. LOPEZ, G. (1997). Les violences sexuelles sur les enfants. Paris : Presses Universitaires de France.
KELLY, R.J. (1982). Behavioral re-orientation of pedophiliacs : Can it be done? Clinical Psychology Review, 2, 387-408. BARBAREE, H.E. & SETO, M.C. (1997). Pedophilia : Assessment and treatment. In D.R. Laws & W.T. O'Donohue (Eds.), Sexual deviance : Theory, assessment & treatment (pp. 175-193). New York : Guilford.
GROTH, A.N. & GARY, T.S. (1982). Heterosexuality, homosexuality, and pedophilia : Sexual offenses against children and adult sexual orientation. In A.M. Scacco (Ed.), Male rape : A casebook of sexual aggressions (pp. 143-152). New York : AMS Press. MARSHALL, W.L. (1997). Pedophilia : Psychopathology and theory. In D.R. Laws & W. O'Donohue (Eds.), Sexual deviance : Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 152-174). New York : Guilford Press.
FREUND, K., SCHER, H., CHAN, S. & BEN-ARON, M. (1982). Experimental analysis of pedophilia. Behaviour Research & Therapy, 20, 105-112. RIND, B., TROMOVITCH, P. & BAUSERMAN, R. (1998). A meta-analytic examination of assumed properties of child sexual abuse using college samples. Psychological Bulletin, 124 (1), 22-53.
LANGEVIN, R. & LANG, R.A. (1985). Psychological treatment of pedophiles. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 3, 403-419. McCONAGHY, N. (1998). Pedophilia : A review of the evidence. Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 32 (2), 252-265.
ARAJI, S. & FINKELHOR, D. (1985). Explanations of pedophilia: Review of empirical evidence.Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry & the Law, 13, 17-38. [PDF] SETO, M.C. & LALUMIÈRE, M.L. (2001). A brief screening scale to identify pedophilic in terests among child molesters. Sex Abuse 13,15-25.
QUINSEY, V.L. (1986). Men who have sex with children. In D.N. Weisstub (Ed.), Law and mental health: International perspectives (Vol.2, pp. 140-172). New York : Pergamon. BLANCHARD, R., KLASSEN, P., DICKEY, R., KUBAN, M.E. & BLAK, T. (2001). Sensitivity and specificity of the phallometric test for pedophilia in nonadmitting sex offenders. Psychological Assessment, 13, 118-126.
FINKELHOR, D. & ARAJI, S. (1986). Explanations of pedophilia : A four factor model. The Journal of Sex Research, 22 (2), 145-161. DIXSON, A.F. (2002). Abnormal erotosexual preferences in human beings : The nature of pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 482.
FREUND, K. & BLANCHARD, R. (1989). Phallometric diagnosis of pedophilia. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 57 (1), 100-105. FAGAN, P.J., WISE, T.N., SCHMIDT, C.W. & BERLIN, F.S. (2002). Pedophilia. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288, 2458-2465.
BRIERE, J. & RUNTZ, M. (1989). University males' sexual interest in children : Predicting potential indices of pedophilia in a non-forensic sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 65-75. VARELA, D. & BLACK, D.W. (2002). . Pedophilia treated with carbamazepine and clonazepam. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 1245-1246.
JONES, G. (1990). The study of intergenerational intimacy in North America : Beyond politics and pedophilia. Journal of Homosexuality, 20 (1-2), 288. BERLIN, F.S. (2002). Pedophilia : When is a difference a disorder ? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 479-480.
  SPITZER, R.L. & WAKEFIELD, J.C. (2002). Why pedophilia is a disorder of sexual attraction - at least sometimes. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 499-500.
FREUND, K. & BLANCHARD, R. (1987). Feminine gender identity and physical aggressiveness in heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 13, 25-34. GREEN, R. (2002). Is pedophilia a mental disorder ? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 467-471.
JAMES, A. & HOUSTON, D.A. (1990). Legal, social, and biological definitions of pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19 (4), 333-342. HUPRICH, S.K., GACONO, C.B., SCNEIDER, R.B. & BRIDGES, M.R. (2004). Rorschach oral dependency in psychopaths, pedophiles, and sexual homicide perpetrators. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 22, 345-356. [PDF]
FREUND, K., WATSON, R. & DICKEY, R. (1990). Does sexual abuse in childhood cause pedophilia : An exploratory study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 19 (6), 557-568. SETO, M.C. (2004). Precisely defining pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 498-499.
  CANTOR, J.M., BLANCHARD, R., CHRISTENSEN, B.K., DICKEY, R., KLASSEN, P., BECKSTEAD, A L., BLAK, T. & KUBAN, M.E. (2004). Intelligence, memory, and handedness in pedophilia. Neuropsychology, 18, 3-14.
  SETO, M.C. (2004). Pedophilia and sexual offenses involving children. Annual Review of Sex Research, 15, 321-361.
  SMITH, J. & PETITBON, C. (2005). Relapse prevention group therapy for paedophiles : French adaptation. Encephale, 31, 552-558.
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  HUGHES, J.R. (2007). Review of medical reports on pedophilia. Clinical Pediatrics, 46, 667-682. [PDF]
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  HALL, R.C. & HALL R.C. (2007). Profile of pedophilia : Definition, characteristics of offenders, recidivism, treatment outcomes, and forensic issues. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 82 (4), 457-471. [PDF]
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  ANDRÉ, S. et GOSSELIN, G. (2008). Qu'est-ce que la pédophilie ? Editions Luc Pire.
  SETO, M.C. (2009). Pedophilia. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 5, 391-407. [PDF]
GLADUE, B. (1990). Hormones and neuroendocrine factors in atypical human sexual behavior. In J.R. Feierman (Ed.), Pedophilia : Biosocial dimensions (pp. 274-98). New York : Springer-Verlag. BLANCHARD, R. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 304-316. [PDF]
FREUND, K. & WATSON, R. (1992). The proportion of heterosexual and homosexual pedophiles among sex offenders against children : An exploratory study. Journal of Sex & Marital Therapy, 18 (1), 34-43. SETO, M.C. (2012). Is pedophilia a sexual orientation ? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 231-236.
FREUND, K. & KUBAN, M. (1994). The basis of the abused abuser theory of pedophilia : A further elaboration on an earlier study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 23, 553-563. ENBERGEN, G., WITTFOTH, M., FRIELING, H., PONSETI, J., WALTER, M., WALTER, H., BEIER, K.M., SCHIFFER, B. & KRUGER, T.H.C. (2015). The neurobiology and psychology of pedophilia : recent advances and challenges. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9 [344], 1-20. [PDF]
Voir aussi Paraphilie, Agression sexuelle d'enfant et Pornographie infantile
TRUDEL, G. (1988). Les dysfonctions sexuelles. Montréal. Les Presses de l'Université du Québec.
Pédophilie (Mesure et évaluation de la...) : Ensemble des critères de diagnostic, des tests et des outils de collecte de données qui permettent d'évaluer et de mesurer le risque de la pédophilie.
BLANCHARD, R., KLASSEN, P., DICKEY, R., KUBAN, M.E. & BLAK, T. (2001). Sensitivity and specificity of the phallometric test for pedophilia in nonadmitting sex offenders. Psychological Assessment, 13, 118-126.
SETO, M.C., CANTOR, J.M. & BLANCHARD, R. (2006). Pornography offenses are a valid diagnostic indicator of pedophilia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 115 (3), 610-615. [PDF]
BLANCHARD, R. (2010). The DSM diagnostic criteria for pedophilia. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 304-316. [PDF]
Voir aussi Pédophilie
Pédophilie (Prévention de la...) :
EDWARDS, M. (1997). Treatment for paedophiles; Treatment for sex offenders. Paedophile policy and prevention. Australian Institute of Criminology Research & Public Policy Series, 12, 74-75.
Voir aussi Pédophilie
Peine : Châtiment ou punition prévu par la loi.
Voir aussi Pédophilie
Peine de mort : Dans certains pays, notamment aux États-Unis, châtiment prévu par la loi, et qui consiste à tuer le coupable d'un acte que la société considère comme intolérable (meutre d'un policier, meurtre en série, etc). Peine de mort, crime et punition. Capital punishment, death penalty.
KAPLAN, J. (1983). The problem of capital punishment. Law Review, 88, 555-577.
RADELET, M.L. & VANDIVER, M. (1983). The Florida Supreme Court and death penalty appeals. Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, 74, 913-926.
ACKER, J.R. (1993). A different agenda : The Supreme Court, empirical research evidence, and capital punishment decisions, 1986-1989. Law & Society Review, 27, 65-88.
GROSS, S.R. (1993). The romance of revenge : Capital punishment in America. Studies in Law, Politics, & Society, 13, 71-104.
COSTANZO, M.A. & McKENNA, C. (1994). An overview of the death penalty and capital trials : History, current status, legal procedures, and cost. Journal of Social Issues, 50 (2), 1-18.
COSTANZO, M.A. (1997). Just revenge : Costs and consequences of the death penalty. Worth Publishers.
BRISMAN, A. (2009). Docile bodies or rebellious spirits : Issues of time and power in the waiver and withdrawal of death penalty appeals. Valparaiso University Law Review, 43(2), 459-512.
Voir aussi Crime et Punition
Peirce Charles Sanders (1839-1914) : Philosophe pragmatiste, sémiologue et logicien américain. On lui doit la théorie des type/token. Collaborateur de Jastrow.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1867). Upon logical comprehension and extension. Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences, 7, 416-432.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1868). Questions concerning certain faculties claimed for man. Journal of Speculative Philosophy, 2, 103-114.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1869). Comment se fixe la croyance. Revue Philosophique de la France et de L'Étranger, 6, 553-569.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1877). The fixation of belief. Popular Science Monthly, 12, 1-15.
PEIRCE, C.S. (1878). Deduction, induction, and hypothesis. Popular Science Monthly, 13, 470-482.
LEVI, I. (1980). Inductionas self-correcting according to Peirce. In D.H. Mellor (Ed.), Science, belief and behavior (pp. 127-39). Cambridge : Cambridge University Press.
LAUDAN, L. (1981). Peirce and the trivialization of the self-corrective thesis. In L. Laudan (Ed.), Science and Hypothesis : Historical essays on scientific methodology (pp. 226-251). Dordrecht : Reidel.
MURPHY, J.P. (1990). Pragmatism : From Peirce to Davidson. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
SCHNEIDER, S.M. (1997). Back to our philosophical roots : A journal review of Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce. Society. The Behavior Analyst, 20, 17-23.
BRENT, J. (1998). Charles Sanders Peirce : A life. Bloomington, IN : Indiana University Press.
MOXLEY, R.A. (2002). The selectionist meaning of C.S. Peirce and B.F. Skinner. The Analysis of Verbal Behavior, 18, 71-91. [PDF]
Péjoratif : Qualifie des mot mots ou des expressions qui désignent des objets/sujets que le locuteur évalue de manière ouvertement défavorable. EX : Un pogne-cul.
Voir aussi Pédophilie
Péladeau Normand ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste, statisticien et pédagogue québécois. Concepteur et réalisateur de logiciels d'analyse de données quantitatives et qualitatives, notamment Simstat et Wordstat. Il s'intéresse également aux méthodes pédagogiques en milieu scolaire. Étudiant de Forget. Collaborateur de Bissonnette, Gagné et Gauthier.
PÉLADEAU, N. et MERCIER, C. (1993). Approches qualitative et quantitative en évaluation de programmes. Sociologie et Sociétés, 25 (2), 111-124. [PDF]
PÉLADEAU, N. et LEGAULT, A. (2001). Qui a peur de l'enseignement direct ? In N. Giroux, J. Forget & Collaborateurs (Eds.), Pour un (nouveau) départ assuré en lecture, écriture, mathématique et autres apprentissages personnels ou sociaux : guide pédagogique destiné aux enseignants en difficulté (pp. 120-133). Montréal : Precision Teaching Consultants.
PÉLADEAU, N., FORGET, J. & GAGNÉ, F. (2003). Effect of paced and unpaced pratice on skill application and retention : how much is enough ? American Educationnal Research Journal, 40 (3), 769-801.
PÉLADEAU, N., FORGET, J. et GAGNÉ, F. (2005). Le transfert des apprentissages et la réforme de l’éducation au Québec : quelques mises au point. Revue des Sciences de l'Éducation, 31 (1), 187-209. [PDF]
PÉLADEAU, N., DAGENAIS, C. & RIDDE, V. (2017). Evaluation and program planning concept mapping internal validity : A case of misconceived mapping ? Evaluation & Program Planning, 62, 56-63.
Pelaez Martha ( ) : Psychologue béhavioriste américaine, spécialisée dans l'étude du développement, notamment des règles de contingence. = Pelaez-Nogueras. Collaboratrice de Gewirtz et Novak.
PELAEZ-NOGUERAS, M. (1992). Recurrent issues in the study of behavior development : Metamodels. Behavioral Development, 1, 3-5.
PELAEZ, M. & MORENO, R. (1999). Four dimensions of rules and their correspondence to rule-governed behavior : A taxonomy. Behavior Development Bulletin, 8, 21-27. [PDF]
PELAEZ, M., FIELD, T., PICKENS, J.N. & HART, S. (2008). Disengaged and authoritarian parenting behavior of depressed mothers with their toddlers. Infant Behavior & Development, 31, 145-148. [PDF]
PELAEZ, M., VURUÉS-ORTEGA, J. & GEWIRTZ, J.L. (2011). Reinforcement of vocalizations through contingent vocal imitation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 44 (1), 33-40. [PDF]
PELAEZ, M., VURUÉS-ORTEGA, J. & GEWIRTZ, J.L. (2011). Acquisition of social referencing via discrimination training in infants. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 45 (1), 23-36. [PDF]
Pelham William E. ( ) : Psychologue cognitivo-béhavioriste américain spécialisé dans l'étude du déficit d'attention et du trouble du déficit d'attention avec hyperactivité. Avec Fabiano, il a concu une échelle d'évaluation du fonctionnement social des enfants notamment utilisée pour diagnostiquer le trouble déficitaire de l'attention avec hyperactivité.Professeur de Fabiano. Collaborateur de Atkins, Hinshaw, Lahey Milich et Willcutt.
PELHAM, W.E., MURPHY, D.A., VANNATTA, K., MILICH, R., LICHT, B.G., GNAGY, E.M., GREENSLADE, K.E., GREINER, A.R. & VODDE-HAMILTON, M. (1992/93). Methylphenidate and attributions in boys with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 60, 282-292. / Annnual Progress in Child Psychiatry & Child Development, 242-265.
PELHMAN, W., PILLOW, D.R., KIPP, H.L., GREINER, A.R., TRANE, S.T., HOZA, B., GNAGY, E., WASCHBUSCH, D.A., GREENHOUSE, J., WOLFSON, L. & FITZPATRICK, E. (2002). Effects of Methylphenidate and expectancy on children with ADHD : Behavior, academic performance, and attributions in a summer treatment program and regular classroom settings. Journal of Consulting & Clinical Psychology, 70 (2), 320-335. [PDF]
PELHAM, W.E., FABIANO, G.A. & MASSETTI, G.M. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 34 (3), 449-476. [PDF]
PELHAM, W.E., FOSTER, E.M. & ROBB, J.A. (2007). The economic impact of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 32, 711-727. [PDF]
PELHAM, W.E. & FABIANO, G.A. (2008). Evidence-based psychosocial treatment for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder : An update. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 37 (1), 185- 214. [PDF]
Pellegrini Anthony D. (1949-) : Psychologue américain et spécialiste de l'étude des comportements agressifs, du harcèlement scolaire et du jeu, notamment des jeux de bataille chez les enfants. Collaborateur de Smith.
PELLEGRINI, A.D. (1980). The semantic structure of private speech. International Journal of Psycholinguistics, 20, 59-74.
PELLEGRINI, A.D. (1987). Social cognitive aspects of children's play : The effects of age, gender, and activity center. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 6, 129-140.
PELLEGRINI, A.D. (1995). A longitudinal study of boys' rough-and-tumble play and dominance during early adolescence. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16, 77-93.
PELLEGRINI, A.D., BARTINI, M. & BROOKS, F. (1999). School bullies, victims, and aggressive victims : Factors relating to group affiliation and vict